This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Shingon Buddhism ( Shingon sh ?) is one of the mainstream major schools of Japanese Buddhism and one of the few surviving Esoteric Buddhist lineages that started in India from the third to fourth century C.E that originally spread to China and Korea. The esoteric teachings would later flourish in Japan under the auspices of a Buddhist monk named K kai, who traveled to Tang Dynasty China to acquire and request transmission of the esoteric teachings. For tha t reason, it is often called "Japanese Esoteric Buddhism", or "Orthodox Esoteric Buddhism". The word Shingon is the Japanese reading of the Kanji for the Chinese word Zh nyán, literally meaning "True Words", which in turn is the Chinese translation of the Sanskrit word Mantra.
Shingon Buddhist doctrine and teachings arose during the Heian period (794 1185) when a Buddhist monk named K kai traveled to China in 804 to study Esoteric Buddhist practices in the city of Xi'an (then called Chang -an) under the Chinese Esoteric Buddhist master Huiguo, a favorite student of the legendary Amoghavajra and returned to Japan as his lineage and Dharma successor. Shingon followers usually address K kai as K b -Daishi( lit. "Great Master of the Propagation of Dharma") or Odaishisama ( "The Great Master"), the posthumous name given to him years after his death by Emperor Daigo. Before he went to China, K kai had been an independent Buddhist monk in Japan for over a decade. He was extremely well versed in classical Chin ese prose, calligraphy and Buddhist sutras. Esoteric Buddhism was not considered to be a different sect or school yet at that time. Huiguo was the first person to gather the still scattered elements of Indian and Chinese Esoteric Buddhism into a cohesive system. A Japanese monk named Gons had brought back to Japan an esoteric mantra of Akasagarbha known as the Kokuz -gumonjiho (lit. Akasagarbha Memory Sadhana) that was translated from Sanskrit into Chinese by Buddhist patriarch Subhakarasimha (Zenmui -Sanzo ). This mantra has the effect of greatly strengthening one's memory and concentration when practiced diligently. When K kai was 22, he learnt this from Gons and would go into the forests of Shikoku regularly to practice this mantra for long periods of ti me. He persevered in this mantra practice for seven years and mastered it, gaining siddhis of superhuman memory retention and learning ability. His respect for the Bodhisattva Akasagarbha was so great that he would regard him as his Honzon or main deity, the single most important divinity to him, for the rest of his life. It was also during this period of intense mantra practice that he dreamt of a man telling him to seek out the Mahavairocana Tantra for the doctrine that he sought.
000 temples. he made his resolve to travel to China to spend the time necessary to full y understand the Mahavairocana Tantra. He knew that this teaching was a door to the truth he sought but he was unable to fully comprehend it and there was no one else in Japan who could help him with it. In the twelfth month o f the same year. Huiguo initiated and taught K kai everything he knew on the doctrines and practices of the Mandalas of the Two Realms as well as mastery of Siddham Sanskrit and (presumably to be able to communicate with Master Huiguo) Chinese language. who favored K kai and Esoteric Buddhism who would coin the term "Shingon-Sh " ("The Mantra School") in his imperial decree which officially declared T -ji Temple in Kyoto as a purely Shingon temple that would perform official rites for the state. K kai collated and systemized all that he had learnt from Huiguo into a cohesive doctrine of pure esoteric Buddhism that would become the basis for the Shingon school. Thus. and was given the lineage name Henj -Kong ( biànzhào j ng ng). . meaning "illuminating adamantine vajra". Wuzong cited that Buddhism was an alien religion and promoted indigenous Taoism zealously. Esoteric Buddhism might not have survived because thirty-five years after Huiguo's death in the year 840. Around 250. In the short space of three months. When K kai reached China and first met Huiguo on the fifth month of 805.The Mahavairocana Tantra was only recently made available in Japan. Huiguo declared K kai to be his final disciple and proclaimed him to be his Dharma successor. More than one thousand of his disciples gathered for his funeral. you have come! I ha ve been waiting for you! Quickly. Huiguo was age sixty and on the verge of death from a long spate of illness. An avid Taoist. he was assassinated by his own inner circle but the damage had been done. It would be the Emperor Junna. "At last. he did not establish his doctrine as a separate school and did not specifically name it "Shingon-Sh " as it is known now. prepare yourself for intiation into the mandalas!" or something to that effect. Shortly. Kukai returned to Japan after Huiguo's death. After returning to Japan.600 Buddhist monasteries and 40. the infamous Emperor Wuzong of Tang assumed the throne.000 Buddhist monks and nuns had to give up their monastic lives. Huiguo exclaimed to K kai in Chinese. Huiguo died and was appropriately buried next to his master Amoghavajra. The honor of writing his funerary inscription on their behalf was given to K kai. the new emperor despised Buddhism and thought of monks as useless tax-evaders. He was able to obtain a copy in Chinese but large portions were in Siddham Sanskrit which he did not know and even the Chinese portions were too cryptic and "esoteric" in the truest sense of the word for him to understand. Originally. Huiguo had foreseen that Esoteric Buddhism would not survive in India and China in the near future and that it was Kukai's destiny to see it continue in Japan. If he had not. In 845 he ordered the destruction of 4.
the vast majority of the practices were also available in Tibet.wikipedia. with others claiming it began in Uddiyana. rather than led. Revised Ed. In the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. although it is likely that the university followed. 2. they were generally written down long after the Buddha's other teachings. confined to the guru/disciple relationship. Shingon Buddhism. Mason. History of Vajrayana There are differing views as to where in the Indian sub -continent Vajrayana began. http://en. the early Tantric movement. Many of these temples such as T ji and Daigo-ji in the South of Ky to and Jingo-ji and Ninna-ji in the Northwest became ritual centers establishing their own particular ritual lineages. as well as influencing other communities. (Vajrayana) Buddhism had mostly died out in India by the 13th century. Nalanda University in eastern India became a center for the development of Vajrayana theory. where they were preserved until recently. such as the Tendai School on Mount Hiei (Hiei-zan ). Newar Buddhism . 1. In the second half of the 20th century a sizable number of T ibetan exiles fled the oppressive. By that time. anti-religious rule of the Communist Chinese to establish Tibetan Buddhist communities in northern India. India would continue as the source of leading -edge Vajrayana practices up until the 11th century producing many renowned Mahasiddha. particularly among the Heian nobility. Shingon's emphasis on ritual found support in the Kyoto nobility. Caiger. This favor allotted Shingon several politically powerful temples in the capital.K kai's first established monastery was in K yasan ( "Mount K ya"). now divided between the Republic of India and Bangladesh. which has since become the base and a place of spiritual retreat for Shingon practitioners. and tantric religions of Buddhism and Hinduism were also experiencing pressure from invading Islamic armies. it is claimed that the historical Shakyamuni Buddha taught tantra. particularly around Dharamsala.org/wiki/Shingon_Buddhism.The Thirteen Buddhas of the Shingon School ". A History of Japan. but that since these are 'secret' teachings. or in South India. Also. Some believe it originated in Bengal. where rituals for the Imperial Family and nation were regularly performed. located by some scholars in the modern day Swat Valley in Pakistan. and contributed greatly to the art a nd literature of the time. particularly the Fujiwara clan . "Jusan Butsu . WikipediA. Shingon enjoyed immense popularity during the Heian Period . The earliest texts appeared around the early 4th century. the Pali Canon and the Mahayana sutras. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
google. Peoples of the Buddhist World: A Christian Prayer Diary. In effect. The Bajracharya is the highest ranking of the Newar castes that are born Buddhist. in the tradition of monks since the time of Gautama Buddha. Vajracharya means 'vajra holding priest'. ^ Hattaway. they were monks. Shakya men may not be priests for others. They are also commonly called Guru-ju or Gu-bhaju (a short form for Guru Bhaju) which are Nepali terms related to the Sanskrit term guru. part-time monks. In so far as Shakya and Vajracharya men filled their roles in the monastery.Newar Buddhism is practiced by Newars in Nepal. Sometimes tantric Newar Buddhism is referred to as 'Vajracharya Buddhism'. . Its priests do not follow celibacy and are called Vajracharyas. William Carey Library. The writers of Rebuilding Buddhism: The Theravada Movement in Twentieth century Nepal explore the unusual relationship of the Vajracharyas and their assistant Shakyas with Buddhist monasticism: Unlike Vajracharyas. and translate as 'teacher' or 'priest'. This is the only for m of Vajrayana Buddhism in which the scriptures are written in Sanskrit. at a minimum of seven houses a day in different places. Vajracharya means 'vajra holding priest'. The bajracharya boy goes through a ritualistic process of initiation known as Bajravishekha. but together with Vajracharya men they are the members of the traditional Newar Buddhist monasteries.uk/books?id=OzEOKNPsv2EC&dq=Bajracharya+Buddh ist&client=firefox-a&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0.co. they were married. To become a professional Guruju. including shavi ng off the head as the buddha and asking for alms. A Bajracharya or Vajracharya is a Vajrayana Buddhist priest among the Newar communities of Nepal. Vajracharya A Bajracharya or Vajracharya is a Vajrayana Buddhist priest among the Newar communities of Nepal. Paul (2004). a person of the bajracharya caste must go through a number of rituals. a favorite student of the legendary Amoghavajra and returned to Japan as his lineage and Dharma successor. http://books.  Conclution Shingon Buddhist doctrine and teachings arose during the Heian period (794 1185) when a Buddhist monk named K kai traveled to China in 804 to study Esoteric Buddhist practices in the city of Xi'an (then called Chang-an) under the Chinese Esoteric Buddhist master Huiguo. References 1. known honorifically as vihara and colloquially as baha or bahi.
Harvard University Press.google. http://books.uk/books?id=e9C1iF3MAYgC&.2. 3.bajracharya. ^ "A Brief Introduction of Distinctive Features of Nepalese Buddhism". http://www. ^ Rebuilding Buddhism: The Theravada Movement in Twentieth -century Nepal.co. 2002. .htm.org/nepalibuddhism.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.