10th Diesel Emission Reduction Conference

Advanced Diesel Common Rail Injection System for Future Emission Legislation
Roger Busch Common Rail System Engineering for PC Diesel Systems Robert Bosch GmbH

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

1

Outlook
• Drivers and Challenges for PC and LDT - Diesel

• Overall System Requirements for Advanced Common Rail

• BOSCH 4th Gen Common Rail Injection Systems

• Potential Evaluation of 4th Gen Common Rail Systems

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

2

Diesel System Innovations

Diesel Progress - PC

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

3

Diesel System Innovations

1936

2003

spec. Torque [Nm/l]

Consumption [l/100 km]

149 Nm/l

9,5 l/100km 33 kW

51 Nm/l

48,4 kW/l

6,5 l/100km

130 kW eff. Power [kW]

13,0 kW/l spec. Power [kW/l]

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

4

Approval Data for PC - Diesel at least Euro 3

source: KBA Germany
© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

Diesel System Innovations

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

6

DEER 2004 4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System

Outlook
• Drivers and Challenges for PC and Truck - Diesel

• Overall System Requirements for Advanced Common Rail

• BOSCH 4th Gen Common Rail Injection Systems

• Potential Evaluation of 4th Gen Common Rail Systems

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

7

PC Common Rail System 4th Generation

FIE Requirements Evaluation
Pressure at the needle

3 max. injection pressure 2b 4

Sensitivity analysis of important injection parameters for the engine performance

Needle lift

1

2a

5

6a

6b
Time

Feature: 1 Pilot injection (number, time gap, quantity, tolerance) 2 3 4 5 6 Opening pressure, influence of pressure ramp, gradient Max. injection pressure, influence of small nozzle holes Pressure gradient during closing Post injection (near, late, influence of pressure level) Opening and closing speed of the needle
8

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

FIE Requirement Evaluation - Summary

Potential Analysis for PC an LDCombustion Process and FIE
NOX [g/kg] Particles / NOx = 1/10 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
series applications cept cept cept cept cept cept ept cept cept cept cept ept c c n on on on on on on Co on on on on on
C C C C C C C C C C C A B C D E F G H I K L M

n = 2000/min, BMEP = 6,5 bar Euro3 Euro4

Euro4/ 3 1400 kg inertia weight

fast needle opening velocity but: injection rate during ignition delay injection rate after start of combustion

„vario“ nozzle rate shaping

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

9

4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System "Euro 5" - Einspritzsystem

“Optimal” Shape for PC Engines

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

10

DEER 2004 4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System

CRS System Requirements for PC - Summary

full flexible timing of multiple injection events full flexible choise of injection pressure in the engine map
still valid and small precise and stable injection quantities well - known from series Common Rail technology, gaining goals on noise, power, Euro4 - emission and maintaining EGT
11

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

DEER 2004 4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System

CRS System Requirements for PC - Summary
good spray formation low Noise and NOx - formation high spray momentum increase EGR acceptance seperate injection and burning phase

very fast needle opening @ start of injection limited quantity during ignition delay, but max. allowed injection rate to increase local air ratio strong increase of injection rate after start of combustion high maximum of main injection rate strong rate decrease and fast needle @ end of injection

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

12

DEER 2004 4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System

Outlook
• Drivers and Challenges for PC and Truck - Diesel

• Overall System Requirements for Advanced Common Rail

• BOSCH 4th Gen Common Rail Injection Systems

• Potential Evaluation of 4th Gen Common Rail Systems

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

13

PC Common Rail System 4th Generation

Piezo-Injector with Coaxial-Vario-Nozzle CRI4-PV
Injector -Charakteristics Basis: CRI3 Systempressure 1600/1800 bar Space requirement as CRI3 One row for part load Both rows for full load

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

14

4th Generation Common Rail System for PC

Vario Nozzle Strategies
12

NOx [g/kg]*

10 8 6 4 2 0 101 98 95 92 89 86 83 200 400 600
n=2000rpm, BMEP=6,5bar

with PI w/o PI

Avoidance of PI (except for cold engine and idle) Emission reduction Reduction of QHYD Noise reduction Indepentantly switchable 2nd row

Combustion Noise [dB(A)]

w/o PI

with PI

of spray holes
800 1000 1200 1400

hydraulic flow / cyl. displacement [cm³/30s@100bar/dm³]Vario Nozzle Current Configuration Potential
copying and passing on to third parties.

appropriate power output
15

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as

DEER 2004 4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System

Advanced Common Rail Systems for PC
CRS 4 - Hydraulically Amplified Diesel Injection System • Functions Rail Pressure up to 1350 bar HAD - Injector with hydraulic pressure amplification sophisticated closed loop fuel metering control innovative, delivery controlled high pressure pump platform • Advantages small Qhyd and passive rate shaping to pull down raw emissions and noise @ part load max pressure > 2200 bar @ spray hole to reach high power and reduce raw emissions @ full load (US 06, e.g. LD in EU)
© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

16

PC Common Rail System 4th Generation

Hydraulically Amplified Diesel Injector (HADI)
Injector-Characteristics System pressure up to 1.350bar Pressure amplification ≈1:2 Pressure at the nozzle up to 2.200bar Pressure/lift controlled needle Ramp rate shape Space requirements as CRI2 Conventional nozzle

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

17

CRS - Roadmap Pkw und Light Duty < 6t

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

18

Advanced Control Functions

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

19

Advanced Control Functions

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

20

DEER 2004 4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System

Outlook
• Drivers and Challenges for PC and Truck - Diesel

• Overall System Requirements for Advanced Common Rail

• BOSCH 4th Gen Common Rail Injection Systems

• Potential Evaluation of 4th Gen Common Rail Systems

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

21

Common Rail System 4th Generation

Diesel System Optimization

Vehicle mass

kW/l

EGT


FIE

EGT=exhaust gas treatment

FIE= fuel injection equipment

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

22

Diesel System Innovations

Diesel Challenges - Emission Legislation PC
Europe
• next step in legislation: Euro 5 • NEFZ - cycle *

Scenario 1:
• PM • NOx = 0,01 g/km = 0,2 g/km

Scenario 2:
• PM • NOx = 0,0025 g/km** = 0,08 g/km**

• CO/HC = 1,0/0,05 g/km

• CO/HC = 1,0/0,05 g/km

* no high load test under discussion
copying and passing on to third parties.

** UBA - Requirement 06.2003

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as

23

Euro 5 - Estimation for PC

Euro 5 Estimation, Vehicle Inertia Mass: 1400 kg, out of best single cylinder results with series and prototype FIE
„Euro 5 - engines“ & low ε , TC2, pHCCI ... Scenario 1:
0,14 55 % 0,12 47 % 0,10 36 %
Eng. Goal

„Euro 4 - engines“
0,20 NOx g/km 0,15 25 %

Euro 5
Scenario 2:

0,10 0,08 0,05 35 %

Eng. Goal
CRS 3.2 1800 bar CRS 4 CRS 4

CRS 3.0 1600 bar

with DPF NSC

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

24

Euro 5 - Estimation for PC

Euro 5 Estimation, Vehicle Inertia Mass: 1800 kg, out of best single cylinder results with series and prototype FIE
„Euro 5 - engines“ & low ε, TC2,pHCCI ... Scenario 1:
0,15 66 % 58 %
Eng. Goal

0,22

„Euro 4 - engines“
0,19 71 %

0,20 NOx g/km 0,15 25 %

Euro 5
Scenario 2:
36 %

0,10 0,08 0,05 35 %
Eng. Goal
CRS 3.2 1800 bar CRS 4 CRS 4

CRS 3.0 1600 bar

with DPF NSC

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

25

DEER 2004 Common Rail Potential Evaluation for PC

Summary PC
• Additonal EGT - effort scales with CRS - performance, vehicle weight and desired power output • Facing a weak Euro 5 - scenario (NOx = 0,2 g/km) it‘s most likely to fulfill the limits w/o DeNOx - measures, also with „Euro 4 - engines“ • Facing a severe Euro 5 - scenario (NOx = 0,08 g/km) and „Euro 4 engines“ a DeNOx - measure seems to be mandatory. The DeNOx effort can significantly be reduced using high tech CR - systems • First results out of advanced „Euro 5 - engine“ - technology combined with engine measures (e.g. pHCCI, TC2 ) and CRS4 - FIE shows tremendeous improvement in NOx - reduction
26

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

DEER 2004 4th Gen Diesel Common Rail Injection System

Conclusion
• The biggest challenge for future Diesel technology are the continiously strengthenend emission targets • Key factors like power output, vehicle weight and the engine itself scaling the effort on exhaust gas treatment side • 4th Gen Common Rail Injection Systems combinded with modern Diesel engines provide lowest raw emissions and fuel consumption values.

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

27

10th Diesel Emission Reduction Conference

Thank you for your attention.

BOSCH

© Robert Bosch GmbH reserves all rights even in the event of industrial property rights. We reserve all rights of disposal such as copying and passing on to third parties.

28

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful