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Hindu astrology 1

Hindu astrology
Astrology

Background
History of astrology

History of astronomy

Astrology and astronomy

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Islamic  · Western

Hindu  · Chinese

Sidereal vs. Tropical


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horoscopic astrology
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Astrology Portal

Hindu astrology (also known as Indian astrology, more recently Vedic astrology, also Jyotish or Jyotisha, from
Sanskrit jyotiṣa, from jyótis- "light, heavenly body") is the ancient Indian system of astronomy and astrology. It has
three branches:
• Siddhanta: Indian astronomy.
• Samhita: Mundane astrology, predicting important events related to countries such as war, earth quakes, political
events, financial positions, electional astrology; house and construction related matters (Vāstu Shāstra), animals,
portents, omens etc.
Hindu astrology 2

• Hora: Predictive astrology in detail.


The foundation of Hindu astrology is the notion of bandhu of the Vedas, (scriptures), which is the connection
between the microcosm and the macrocosm. Practice relies primarily on the sidereal zodiac, which is different from
the tropical zodiac used in Western (Hellenistic) astrology in that an ayanamsa adjustment is made for the gradual
precession of the vernal equinox. Hindu astrology includes several nuanced sub-systems of interpretation and
prediction with elements not found in Hellenistic astrology, such as its system of lunar mansions (nakshatras).
Astrology remains an important facet in the lives of many Hindus. In Hindu culture, newborns are traditionally
named based on their jyotish charts, and astrological concepts are pervasive in the organization of the calendar and
holidays as well as in many areas of life, such as in making decisions made about marriage, opening a new business,
and moving into a new home. To some extent, astrology even manages to retain a position among the sciences in
modern India.[1] Following a controversial judgement of the Andhra Pradesh High Court in 2001, some Indian
universities even offer advanced degrees in astrology.[2]

English name
Hindu astrology had been in use as the English equivalent of Jyotisha since the early 19th century. Vedic astrology is
a relatively recent term, entering common usage in the 1980s with self-help publications on Ayurveda or Yoga. The
qualifier "Vedic" is however a something of a misnomer,[3] [4] [5] as there is no mention of Jyotisha in the Vedas, and
historical documentation suggests horoscopic astrology in the Indian subcontinent was a Hellenic influence
post-dating the Vedic period.[6]

History
The term jyotiṣa in the sense of one of the Vedanga, the six auxiliary disciplines of Vedic religion, is used in the
Mundaka Upanishad and thus likely dates to Mauryan times. The Vedanga Jyotisha redacted by Lagadha dates to the
Mauryan period, with rules for tracking the motions of the sun and the moon.
The documented history of Hindu astrology begins with the interaction of Indian and Hellenistic cultures in the
Indo-Greek period. The oldest surviving treatises, such as the Yavanajataka or the Brihat-Samhita, date to the early
centuries CE. The Yavanajataka ("Sayings of the Greeks") was translated from Greek to Sanskrit by Yavanesvara
during the 2nd century CE, under the patronage of the Western Satrap Saka king Rudradaman I, and is considered
the first Indian astrological treatise in the Sanskrit language.[7]
The first named authors writing treatises on astronomy are from the 5th century CE, the date when the classical
period of Indian astronomy can be said to begin. Besides the theories of Aryabhata in the Aryabhatiya and the lost
Arya-siddhānta, there is the Pancha-Siddhāntika of Varahamihira.
The main texts upon which classical Indian astrology is based are early medieval compilations, notably the Bṛhat
Parāśara Horāśāstra, and Sārāvalī by Kalyāṇavarman. The Horashastra is a composite work of 71 chapters, of
which the first part (chapters 1-51) dates to the 7th to early 8th centuries and the second part (chapters 52-71) to the
later 8th century. The Sārāvalī likewise dates to around 800 CE.[8] English translations of these texts were published
by N.N. Krishna Rau and V.B. Choudhari in 1963 and 1961, respectively. Historically, the study of astrology in
India was an important factor in the development of astronomy in the Early Middle Ages.Ganaka is a cast in kerala,
India famous for doing traditional hindu or vedic astrology as there traditional career.
Hindu astrology 3

Elements

Vargas
There are sixteen varga (Sanskrit: varga, 'part, division'), or divisional, charts used in Hindu astrology:[9]

Varga Divisor Chart Purpose

Rasi 1 D-1 Natal chart

Hora 2 D-2 Overall wealth

Drekkana 3 D-3 Siblings

Chaturtamsha 4 D-4 Properties

Trimshamsha 5 D-5 Morals, ethics, spiritual values

Saptamsha 7 D-7 Children

Navamsha 9 D-9 Spouse, Etc.

Dashamsha 10 D-10 Earning Career

Dwadashamsha 12 D-12 Parents, Grandparents

Shodhashamsha 16 D-16 Vehicles

Vimshamsha 20 D-20 Upasana-s, Sādhana-s

Chaturvimsha 24 D-24 Education (higher)

Saptavimshamsha 27 D-27 Vitality

Khavedamsha 40 D-40 Quality of life

Akshavedamsha 45 D-45 (From here on out,the birth time must be absolutely precise or the divisional chart is incorrect!!)

Shastiamsha 60 D-60 Used to differentiate between twins, etc., etc.

Chart styles
There are two chart styles used in Jyotiṣa:

North Indian South Indian


Hindu astrology 4

Grahas – the planets


Graha (Devanagari: ग्रह, Sanskrit: graha, 'seizing, laying hold of, holding'.)[10]
Nine grahas, or navagrahas, are used:[11]

Sanskrit Name English Name Abbreviation Gender Guna

Surya (सूर्य) Sun Sy or Su M Sattva

Chandra (चंद्र) Moon Ch or Mo F Sattva

Mangala (मंगल) Mars Ma M Tamas

Budha (बुध) Mercury Bu or Me N Rajas

Brihaspati (बृहस्पति) Jupiter Gu or Ju M Sattva

Shukra (शुक्र) Venus Sk or Ve F Rajas

Shani (शनि) Saturn Sa M Tamas

Rahu (राहु) North Lunar Node Ra M Tamas

Ketu (केतु) South Lunar Node Ke M Tamas

Planets in maximum exaltation, mooltrikona (own sign), and debilitation, are:[12]

Graha Exaltation Mooltrikona Debilitation Sign Rulership

Sun 10° Aries 4°-20° Leo 10° Libra Leo

Moon 3° Taurus 4°-20° Cancer 3° Scorpio Cancer

Mars 28° Capricorn 0°-12° Aries 28° Cancer Aries, Scorpio

Mercury 15° Virgo 16°-20° Virgo 15° Pisces Gemini, Virgo

Jupiter 5° Cancer 0°-10° Sagittarius 5° Capricorn Sagittarius, Pisces

Venus 27° Pisces 0°-15° Libra 27° Virgo Taurus, Libra

Saturn 20° Libra 0°-20° Aquarius 20° Aries Capricorn, Aquarius

Rahu and Ketu are exalted in Taurus/Scorpio and are also exalted in Gemini and Virgo.
The natural planetary relationships are:[13]

Graha Friends Neutral Enemies

Sun Moon, Mars, Jupiter Mercury Venus, Saturn

Moon Sun, Mercury Mars, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn Mercury, Venus, Saturn

Mars Sun, Moon, Jupiter Venus, Saturn Mercury

Mercury Sun, Venus Mars, Jupiter, Saturn Moon

Jupiter Sun, Moon, Mars Saturn Mercury, Venus

Venus Mercury, Saturn Mars, Jupiter Sun, Moon

Saturn Venus, Mercury Jupiter Sun, Moon, Mars

Rahu, Ketu Mercury, Venus, Saturn Mars Sun, Moon, Jupiter


Hindu astrology 5

Rāśi – the zodiac signs


The sidereal zodiac is an imaginary belt of 360 degrees (like the tropical zodiac), divided into 12 equal parts. Each
twelfth part (of 30 degrees) is called a sign or rāśi (Sanskrit: rāśi, 'part'). Jyotiṣa and Western zodiacs differ in the
method of measurement. While synchronically, the two systems are identical, Jyotiṣa uses primarily the sidereal
zodiac (in which stars are considered to be the fixed background against which the motion of the planets is
measured), whereas most Western astrology uses the tropical zodiac (the motion of the planets is measured against
the position of the Sun on the Spring equinox). This difference becomes noticeable over time. After two millennia, as
a result of the precession of the equinoxes, the origin of the ecliptic longitude has shifted by about 22 degrees. As a
result the placement of planets in the Jyotiṣa system is consistent with the actual zodiac, while in western astrology
the planets fall into the following sign, as compared to their placement in the sidereal zodiac, about two thirds of the
time.

Number Sanskrit Name Western/Greek Name Tattva (Element) Quality Ruling Planet

1 Meṣa (मेष) "ram" Aries (Κριός "ram") Tejas (Fire) Cara (Movable) Mars

2 Vṛṣabha (वृषभ) "bull" Taurus (Ταῦρος "bull") Prithivi (Earth) Sthira (Fixed) Venus

3 Mithuna (मिथुन) "twins" Gemini (Δίδυμοι "twins") Vayu (Air) Dvisvabhava (Dual) Mercury

4 Karkaṭa (कर्कट) "crab" Cancer (Καρκίνος "crab") Jala (Water) Cara (Movable) Moon

5 Siṃha (सिंह) "lion" Leo (Λέων "lion") Tejas (Fire) Sthira (Fixed) Sun

6 Kanyā (कन्या) "girl" Virgo (Παρθένος "virgin") Prithivi (Earth) Dvisvabhava (Dual) Mercury

7 Tulā (तुला) "balance" Libra (Ζυγός "balance") Vayu (Air) Cara (Movable) Venus

8 Vṛścika (वृश्चिक) "scorpion" Scorpio (Σκoρπιός "scorpion") Jala (Water) Sthira (Fixed) Mars

9 Dhanus (धनुष) "bow" Sagittarius (Τοξότης "archer") Tejas (Fire) Dvisvabhava (Dual) Jupiter

10 Makara (मकर) "sea-monster" Capricorn (Αἰγόκερως "goat-horned") Prithivi (Earth) Cara (Movable) Saturn

11 Kumbha (कुम्भ) "pitcher" Aquarius (Ὑδροχόος "water-pourer") Vayu (Air) Sthira (Fixed) Saturn

12 Mīna (मीन) "fish" Pisces (Ἰχθεῖς "fish") Jala (Water) Dvisvabhava (Dual) Jupiter

The zodiac signs in Hindu astrology correspond to parts of the body:[14]

Sign Part of Body

Meṣa (Aries) head

Vṛṣabha (Taurus) mouth

Mithuna (Gemini) arms

Karka (Cancer) two sides

Siṃha (Leo) heart

Kanyā (Virgo) digestive system

Tula (Libra) umbilical area

Vṛścika (Scorpio) generative organs

Dhanus (Sagittarius) thighs

Makara (Capricorn) knees

Kumbha (Aquarius) Lower part of legs

Mīna (Pisces) feet


Hindu astrology 6

Bhāvas – the houses


Bhāva (Sanskrit: bhāva, 'division'.) In Hindu astrology, the natal chart is the bhava chakra (Sanskrit: chakra,
'wheel'.) The bhava chakra is the complete 360° circle of life, divided into houses, and represents our way of
enacting the influences in the wheel. Each house has associated karaka (Sanskrit: karaka, 'significator') planets that
can alter the interpretation of a particular house.[15]

House Name Karakas Meanings

1 Lagna Sun outer personality, physique, health/well-being, hair, appearance

2 Dhana Jupiter, Mercury, Venus, Sun, wealth, family relationships, eating habits, speech, eyesight, death
Moon

3 Sahaja Mars natural state, innate temperament, courage, valor, virility, younger siblings

4 Sukha Moon inner life, emotions, home, property, education, mother

5 Putra Jupiter creativity, children, spiritual practices, punya

6 Ari Mars, Saturn acute illness, injury, openly known enemies, litigation, daily work, foreigners, service

7 Yuvati Venus, Jupiter business and personal relationships, marriage, spouse, war, fighting

8 Randhara Saturn length of life, physical death, mokṣa, chronic illness, deep and ancient traditions

9 Dharma Jupiter, Sun luck, fortune, spirituality, dharma, guru, father

10 Karma Mercury, Jupiter, Sun, Saturn dream fulfillment, knees and spine, current karmas, career, sky themes (being 12am/mid
heavens

11 Labha Jupiter gains, profits from work, ability to earn money, social contexts and organizations

12 Vyaya Saturn loss, intuition, imprisonment, feet, foreign travel, moksha

Nakshatras
Nakshatra (Devanagari: नक्षत्र, Sanskrit: nakshatra, 'star', from naksha, 'approach', and tra, 'guard') or lunar
mansion is one of the 27 divisions of the sky, identified by the prominent star(s) in them, used in Hindu
astrology.[16]
The 27 nakshatras cover 13°20’ of the ecliptic each. Each nakshatra is divided into quarters or padas of 3°20’:

# Name Location Ruler Pada 1 Pada 2 Pada 3 Pada 4

1 Ashvinī (अश्विनी) 0 - 13°20' Aries Ketu चु Chu चे Che चो Cho ला La

2 Bharanī (भरणी) 13°20' - 26°40' Aries Venus ली Li लू Lu ले Le पो Lo

3 Krittikā (कृत्तिका) 26°40' Aries - 10°00' Taurus Sun अA ईI उU एE

4 Rohini (रोहिणी) 10°00' - 23°20' Taurus Moon ओO वा Va/Ba वी Vi/Bi वु Vu/Bu

5 Mrigashīrsha (म्रृगशीर्षा) 23°20' Taurus - 6°40' Gemini Mars वे Ve/Be वो Vo/Bo का Ka की Ke

6 Ārdrā (आर्द्रा) 6°40' - 20°00' Gemini Rahu कु Ku घ Gha ङ Ng/Na छ Chha

7 Punarvasu (पुनर्वसु) 20°00' Gemini - 3°20' Cancer Jupiter के Ke को Ko हा Ha ही Hi

8 Pushya (पुष्य) 3°20' - 16°20' Cancer Saturn हु Hu हे He हो Ho ड Da

9 Āshleshā (आश्लेषा) 16°40' Cancer - 0°00' Leo Mercury डी Di डू Du डे De डो Do

10 Maghā (मघा) 0°00' - 13°20' Leo Ketu मा Ma मी Mi मू Mu मे Me

11 Pūrva or Pūrva Phalgunī (पूर्व फाल्गुनी) 13°20' - 26°40' Leo Venus नो Mo टा Ta टी Ti टू Tu

12 Uttara or Uttara Phalgunī (उत्तर फाल्गुनी) 26°40' Leo - 10°00' Virgo Sun टे Te टो To पा Pa पी Pi
Hindu astrology 7

13 Hasta (हस्त) 10°00' - 23°20' Virgo Moon पू Pu ष Sha ण Na ठ Tha

14 Chitrā (चित्रा) 23°20' Virgo - 6°40' Libra Mars पे Pe पो Po रा Ra री Ri

15 Svātī (स्वाति) 6°40' - 20°00 Libra Rahu रू Ru रे Re रो Ro ता Ta

16 Vishākhā (विशाखा) 20°00' Libra - 3°20' Scorpio Jupiter ती Ti तू Tu ते Te तो To

17 Anurādhā (अनुराधा) 3°20' - 16°40' Scorpio Saturn ना Na नी Ni नू Nu ने Ne

18 Jyeshtha (ज्येष्ठा) 16°40' Scorpio - 0°00' Sagittarius Mercury नो No या Ya यी Yi यू Yu

19 Mūla (मूल) 0°00' - 13°20' Sagittarius Ketu ये Ye यो Yo भा Bha भी Bhi

20 Pūrva Ashādhā (पूर्वाषाढ़ा) 13°20' - 26°40' Sagittarius Venus भू Bhu धा Dha फा Bha/Pha ढा Dha

21 Uttara Ashādhā (उत्तराषाढ़ा) 26°40' Sagittarius - 10°00' Capricorn Sun भे Bhe भो Bho जा Ja जी Ji

22 Shravana (श्रवण) 10°00' - 23°20' Capricorn Moon खी Ju/Khi खू Je/Khu खे Jo/Khe खो Gha/Kho

23 Shravishthā (धनष्ठा) or Dhanistā 23°20' Capricorn - 6°40' Aquarius Mars गा Ga गी Gi गु Gu गे Ge

24 Shatabhishā (शतभिषा)or Shatataraka 6°40' - 20°00' Aquarius Rahu गो Go सा Sa सी Si सू Su

25 Pūrva Bhādrapadā (पूर्वभाद्रपदा) 20°00' Aquarius - 3°20' Pisces Jupiter से Se सो So दा Da दी Di

26 Uttara Bhādrapadā (उत्तरभाद्रपदा) 3°20' - 16°40' Pisces Saturn दू Du थ Tha झ Jha ञ Da/Tra

27 Revatī (रेवती) 16°40' - 30°00' Pisces Mercury दे De दो Do च Cha ची Chi

Daśā-s - the planetary periods


Dasha (Devanagari: दशा, Sanskrit,daśā, 'planetary period'.) The dasha system shows which planets will be ruling at
particular times in Hindu astrology. There are several dasha systems; however, the primary system used by
astrologers is the Vimshottari dasha system. The first maha dasha is determined by the position of the natal Moon.
Each maha dasha is divided into subperiods called bhuktis. Vimshottari dasha lengths are:[17]

Maha Dasha Length Bhuktis

Ketu 7 Years Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury

Venus 20 Years Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu

Sun 6 Years Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus

Moon 10 Years Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun

Mars 7 Years Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon

Rahu 18 Years Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars

Jupiter 16 Years Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu

Saturn 19 Years Saturn, Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter

Mercury 17 Years Mercury, Ketu, Venus, Sun, Moon, Mars, Rahu, Jupiter, Saturn

Drishtis - the planetary aspects


Drishti (Sanskrit: drishti, 'sight'.) In Hindu astrology, the aspect is to an entire sign, and grahas only cast forward
aspects:[18]
Hindu astrology 8

Graha Houses

Sun 7th

Moon 7th

Mercury 7th

Venus 7th

Mars 4th, 7th, 8th

Jupiter 5th, 7th, 9th

Saturn 3rd, 7th, 10th

Rahu 5th,7th,9th

Ketu No aspect

Gocharas - the transits


Gochara (Sanskrit: gochara, 'transit'.) In Hindu astrology, a natal chart shows the actual positions of the grahas at
the moment of birth. Since that moment, the grahas have continued to move around the zodiac, interacting with the
natal chart grahas. This period of interaction is called gochara.[19]

Yogas - the planetary combinations


Yoga (Sanskrit: yoga, 'union'.) In Hindu astrology, yogas are planetary combinations placed in specific relationships
to each other.[20]
Kalasarpa Yoga is a dangerous yoga. If all planets (excepting Uranus, Neptune, Pluto) are 1-side of Rahu & Ketu, it
becomes Kala-Sarpa Yoga.

Dig bala - the directional strength


Dig bala (Sanskrit: dig bala, 'directional strength'.) Graha-s gain strength when they are placed in specific cardinal
houses:[21]

House Grahas Direction

1st Jupiter, Mercury East

4th Venus, Moon North

7th Saturn West

10th Sun, Mars South


Hindu astrology 9

Horoscopy

Lagna – the ascendant


Lagna (Sanskrit: lagna, 'ascendant'.) Lagna is the first moment of contact between the soul and its new life on earth
in Hindu astrology.[22]

Atmakaraka - the soul significator


Atmakaraka (Sanskrit: atmakaraka, from atma, 'soul', and karaka, 'significator' .) Atmakaraka is the significator of
the soul's desire in Hindu astrology.[23]

Gandanta - the karmic knot


Gandanta (Sanskrit: gandanta, from gand, 'knot', and anta, 'end'.) Gandanta is a spiritual or karmic knot in Hindu
astrology. Gandanta describes the junction points in the natal chart where the solar and lunar zodiacs meet, and are
directly associated with times of soul growth.[24]

Ayanamsa - the zodiac conversion


Ayanamsa (Sanskrit: ayanāṃsa , from ayana, 'movement', and aṃsa, 'component') is the longitudinal difference
between the Tropical (Sayana) and Sidereal (Nirayana) zodiacs.[25]

Moudhya - the combustion


Moudhya (Sanskrit: moudhya, 'combustion') is a planet that is in conjunction with the Sun. The degrees the planets
are considered combust are:[26]

Graha Degree

Moon 12

Mercury 13

Venus 9

Mars 17

Jupiter 11

Saturn 15

Sade sati - the critical transit


Sadi sati, the transit of Saturn over the natal Moon, is the most important transit in a birth chart and takes
approximately 7.5 years to complete. The transit begins when Saturn enters the house before the Moon, and ends
when Saturn departs the house after the Moon. The most intense phase is when Saturn is 2-3° on either side of the
Moon. The beginning of the transit will give an indication of the issues to be addressed. Sade sati results in a
complete transformation, usually with a change in career or life direction.[27]
Hindu astrology 10

Panchangam
Panchangam (Sanskrit: pañcāṅgam, from panch, 'five' and anga, 'limbs'.) The panchangam is a Hindu astrological
almanac that follows traditional Indian cosmology, and presents important astronomical data in tabulated form.
Panchangam means five limbs, or five lights that influence every day.[28]

In modern India
David Pingree notes that astrology and traditional medicine are the two traditional sciences that have survived best in
modern India, although both have been much transformed by their western counterparts.[29]
Astrology remains an important facet of Hindu folk belief in contemporary India. Many Hindus believe that
heavenly bodies, including the planets, have an influence throughout the life of a human being, and these planetary
influences are the "fruit of karma." [30] The Navagraha, planetary deities, are considered subordinate to Ishvara, i.e.,
the Supreme Being) in Hindu belief assist in the administration of justice.[31] Thus, these planets can influence
earthly life.[32]

Innovations
New approaches developed by Hindu astrologers in the modern epoch include the following:

Controversy
In the early 2000s, under the Bharatiya Janata Party led government, astrology became a topic of political contention
between the religious right and academic establishment, comparable to the "Creation science" debate in US
education.
The University Grants Commission and the Ministry of Human Resource Development of the Government decided
to introduce "Jyotir Vigyan" (i.e. jyotir vijñāna) or "Vedic astrology" as a discipline of study in Indian universities,
backed up by a decision by the Andhra Pradesh High Court, despite widespread protests from the scientific
community in India and Indian scientists working abroad.[33] In September of the same year, the Supreme Court of
India issued a notice to the Ministry of Human Resource Development in reaction to a petition, stating that the
introduction of astrology to university curricula is "a giant leap backwards, undermining whatever scientific
credibility the country has achieved so far".[34]
In 2004, the Supreme Court dismissed a further petition, judging that the teaching of astrology does not qualify as
promotion of religion.[35]

Notes
[1] "In countries such as India, where only a small intellectual elite has been trained in Western physics, astrology manages to retain here and
there its position among the sciences." David Pingree and Robert Gilbert, "Astrology; Astrology In India; Astrology in modern times"
Encyclopedia Britannica 2008
[2] Mohan Rao, Female foeticide: where do we go? Indian Journal of Medical Ethics Oct-Dec2001-9(4) (http:/ / www. issuesinmedicalethics.
org/ 094co123. html); T. Jayaraman, A judicial blow, Frontline Volume 18 - Issue 12, Jun. 09 - 22, 2001 (http:/ / www. hinduonnet. com/
thehindu/ fline/ fl1812/ 18120970. htm)
[3] Kushal Siddhanta, "Some questions concerning the UGC course in astrology", Breakthrough, Vol.9, No.2, November 2001, p.3 (http:/ /
www. ee. iitkgp. ernet. in/ ~soumitro/ bt/ archives/ astrology. pdf)
[4] Narlikar (2001)
[5] P. Norelli-Bahelet (2002)
[6] Pingree(1981), p.67ff, 81ff, 101ff
[7] Mc Evilley "The shape of ancient thought", p385 ("The Yavanajataka is the earliest surviving Sanskrit text in horoscopy, and constitute the
basis of all later Indian developments in horoscopy", himself quoting David Pingree "The Yavanajataka of Sphujidhvaja" p5)
[8] David Pingree, Jyotiḥśāstra (J. Gonda (Ed.) A History of Indian Literature, Vol VI Fasc 4), p.81
[9] Sutton pp.61-64.
[10] Sanskrit-English Dictionary by Monier-Williams, (c) 1899
Hindu astrology 11

[11] Sutton pp.38-51.


[12] Sutton p.21.
[13] Sutton p.21.
[14] Charak, Dr. K.S. (1996). Essentials of Medical Astrology, Uma Publications, pp.5-6.
[15] Sutton pp.93-167.
[16] Sutton p.168.
[17] Sutton p.211.
[18] Sutton pp.26-27.
[19] Sutton p.227.
[20] Sutton p.265.
[21] Sutton pp.25-26.
[22] Sutton p.96.
[23] Sutton p.326.
[24] Sutton pp.61-64.
[25] Sutton p.11.
[26] Sutton p.33.
[27] Sutton p.231-232.
[28] Sutton, Komilla (2007). Personal Panchanga and the Five Sources of Light, The Wessex Astrologer Ltd, England, p.1.
[29] David Pingree, review of G. Prakash, Science and the Imagination of Modern India, Journal of the American Oriental Society (2002), p. 154
f.
[30] Karma, an anthropological inquiry, pg. 134, at http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=49GVZGD8d4oC& pg=PA132& dq=shani+ karma&
lr=& cd=2#v=onepage& q=shani%20karma& f=false
[31] Karma, an anthropological inquiry, pg. 134, at http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=49GVZGD8d4oC& pg=PA132& dq=shani+ karma&
lr=& cd=2#v=onepage& q=shani%20karma& f=false
[32] Karma, an anthropological inquiry, pg. 134, at http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=49GVZGD8d4oC& pg=PA132& dq=shani+ karma&
lr=& cd=2#v=onepage& q=shani%20karma& f=false
[33] T. Jayaraman, A judicial blow, Frontline Volume 18 - Issue 12, Jun. 09 - 22, 2001 (http:/ / www. hinduonnet. com/ thehindu/ fline/ fl1812/
18120970. htm)
[34] Supreme Court questions 'Jyotir Vigyan', Times of India, 3 September 2001 (http:/ / timesofindia. indiatimes. com/ articleshow/
1843762777. cms)
[35] Supreme Court: Teaching of astrology no promotion of religion (http:/ / judis. nic. in/ supremecourt/ qrydisp. asp?tfnm=26188); Introduction
of Vedic astrology courses in universities upheld (http:/ / www. hindu. com/ 2004/ 05/ 06/ stories/ 2004050602931400. htm)

References
• Sutton, Komilla (1999). The Essentials of Vedic Astrology, The Wessex Astrologer Ltd, England

Bibliography
Encyclopedic treatments
• Kim Plofker, "South Asian mathematics; The role of astronomy and astrology", Encyclopedia Britannica (online
edition, 2008)
• David Pingree and Robert Gilbert, "Astrology; Astrology In India; Astrology in modern times", Encyclopedia
Britannica (online edition, 2008)
• "Hindu Chronology", Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1911) (http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/
Hindu_Chronology)
Academic literature
• David Pingree, "Astronomy and Astrology in India and Iran", Isis - Journal of The History of Science Society
(1963), 229-246.
• David Pingree, Jyotiḥśāstra in J. Gonda (ed.) A History of Indian Literature, Vol VI, Fasc 4, Otto Harrassowitz,
Wiesbaden (1981).
• Ebenezer Burgess, "On the Origin of the Lunar Division of the Zodiac represented in the Nakshatra System of the
Hindus", Journal of the American Oriental Society (1866).
Hindu astrology 12

• William D. Whitney, "On the Views of Biot and Weber Respecting the Relations of the Hindu and Chinese
Systems of Asterisms"", Journal of the American Oriental Society (1866).
• Satish Chandra, "Religion and State in India and Search for Rationality", Social Scientist (2002).

External links
• Hindu astrology (http://www.dmoz.org/Society/Religion_and_Spirituality/Divination/Astrology/Vedic/) at
the Open Directory Project
Article Sources and Contributors 13

Article Sources and Contributors


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