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Applying MS1525:2007 Code of Practice on Energy Efficiency and Use of Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings
Ar Chan Seong Aun. M Arch (Distinction), B Arch (Hons), B Bdg Sc (VUW, NZ), APAM, AIPDM, TAM.
Pertubuhan Arkitek Malaysia
CPD Seminar 14th February 2009
1. FACTORS AFFECTING ENERGY USE IN BUILDINGS 1.1 Overview of Factors Affecting Energy Use in Buildings 1.2 Building Energy Indices 1.3 End Use & Actual Energy Consumption 1.4 Non Design Factors affecting Energy use in Buildings 1.5 Passive Design Factors affecting Energy use in Buildings 2. COMPLYING TO MS 1525 PASSIVE DESIGN ELEMENTS 2.1 Background to MS 1525 : 2007 2.2 Basics of MS 1525 : 2007 2.3 Building envelope, window design and OTTV 2.4 Roof Construction and RTTV 3. REFERENCES
1. FACTORS AFFECTING ENERGY USE IN BUILDINGS
1.1 Overview of Factors Affecting Energy Use in Buildings The factors affecting energy use in buildings can be categorized into two groupings END –USE : Air Conditioning & Space Heating Lighting Power & Process FACTORS : Occupancy & Management Indoor Environmental Quality Climate Building Design & Construction Mechanical & Electrical Equipment 1.2 Building Energy Indices Before going into details of the factors affecting energy use, some method of comparing energy use - the energy use indices – will be explained. The index selected would depend on the intended application of the index and the normalizing factor. Among Architects the normalizing factor for comparing buildings is the gross floor area. The most commonly used index for comparing energy use in buildings is therefore the Building Energy Use Index BEI. This is usually expressed as kWh/m2/year which measure the total energy used in a building for one year in kilowatts hours divided by the gross floor area of the building in square meters. 1.3 End Use & Actual Energy Consumption The amount of energy used in buildings depends firstly on WHAT IT IS USED FOR. Thus the initial and most important step in isolating the factors affecting energy use is to determine its end-use. To architects, the category of use or building type will be the first factor to consider. Therefore to compare the energy index of say an office building which operates from 9 am to 5 pm to say a data processing center which operates computers around the clock would not be a reasonable comparison because the operating hours are different and the computers in the data processing centre would consume more electricity and may require a higher environmental standard. Comparing two schools in the same climatic region and similar operating conditions would however give a comparison of the energy performance of the two buildings. The energy audits carried out by Pusat Tenaga Malaysia, PTM , of Office buildings in Malaysia revealed that the majority of Malaysian Office buildings had BEI in the range of 200 to 250 kWh/m2/yr. Similar results were found in Singapore, with very few buildings
Malaysia .headed by Ir Gurmit Singh in cooperation with Majlis Bandaraya Petaling Jaya and funded by Exxon Mobil found the following. Air conditioning and the refrigerator take up nearly 70% of the average household electricity consumption and air conditioning is the largest consumer of electricity in the home. Technology & Development. With the Page 3 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 .A 2006 study of Household Energy use by CETDEM – Center for Enviroment.
management and organization First. There are four broad aspects to consider.24% Cooking 0.44% 1. the spread of densities.18% Cooling 8.98% Lighting 1.It should be emphasized that people use energy.89% Gas (Kitchen) 5. user attitude and behavior 4. The planning of our future townships and cities.41% Others 0.19% Fuel (to/from work) 24. The building itself does not use much energy. the following were found to have a significant impact on energy consumption in buildings. From the results of my own studies on energy use in New Zealand Schools.4 Non Design Factors affecting Energy Use in Buildings. the location of essential amenities and the layout of the major public transport routes to more efficiently and better serve the communities will become critical issues that will determine the quality of our future communities. An office building rented out for only half a year will obviously use half the energy of an equivalent building occupied throughout the year.increasingly important in the future. not the building. More interesting is the findings by CETDEM that close to 75% of a household’s energy consumption in the survey is in the form of petrol for getting to work and non-work related petrol consumption.49% Heating 2.73% Entertainment 0.83% Fuel (others) 30. 1. activity type 3. Average Household Energy Consumption Refrigerator 4. We cool or heat the people in the building.98% Washing Machine 0. Operating hours will be another normalizing factor energy auditors must keep track of Page 4 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 .66% Fuel (during work) 19. Occupancy and Management . the amount of energy used will generally be directly proportionate to the intensity of building occupancy. intensity of building occupancy 2. as shown in the chart below.
the duration of occupancy and age. some of which may be within the Designers control. The table below lists the major physical factors influencing the climate. 1. This would be useful for those planning large scale developments. The purpose here is only to list some of the variables of concern. Climate – The number of publications and studies of the relationship of climate to architecture. the penalties and benefits to the user of conserving energy. Indoor Environmental Quality – The amount of air conditioning load required and thus air conditioning energy used depends very much on the air temperature maintained in the building. Fanger and Kowakzewski’s work show for example that a person wearing light clothes and doing light desk work seated will feel comfortable at 25 degrees centigrade while he will only feel comfortable at 21 degrees centigrade with a light business suit. Third. It should also be noted that the average outdoor air temperature in Malaysia is only about 4 degrees above the comfort range. the organization and management of the building and its air conditioning equipment I terms of operation and maintenance will reflect on its efficiency and thus the energy used. size and background of the occupant will also affect the cooling / heating requirement. the attitude of the occupants towards energy use has significant consequences. Some office buildings and hotels maintain indoor temperatures as low as 18 to 20 degrees centigrade when the comfortable temperature is about 24 degrees centigrade. Solar radiation 2. They are influenced by the aims and goals of the uses. These factors will affect cooling requirements by influencing the preferred air temperature. Solar Gain MACRO CLIMATE Latitude Altitude MICRO CLIMATE Page 5 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 Temperature Wind Major Major Minor Major Minor . The main climatic variables influencing the amount of energy needed for air conditioning are. the clothing worn. the level of physical activity. There are many office buildings in Malaysia where the indoor temperature is so low that the occupants wear sweaters at the work desk. Wind and rain 4. people and energy use is very extensive. Climate affects the energy consumption in a building primarily by influencing the space cooling and heating requirements. expectations of the user and weather the users are aware of the relationship of their actions to the amount of air conditioning of heating energy used Finally. This 4 degrees difference can mean a 100% difference in the air conditioning energy requirement of a room. Night sky radiation Geiger has an extensive study of the physical variable influencing the microclimate. It is obvious the owners are no aware of the cost implications of their actions.Second. Outside air temperature 3.
Page 6 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 . causing intermediate temperature conditions. a series of small circulations mix with the neighboring warm air. Accordingly. This area often indicated by the difference in vegetation. The effects depend on the size of the water body and are more effective along the lee side. valley walls and bottom surfaces cool off at night. 4. at the valley floors very cool. is normally warmer in winter and cooler in summer and usually cooler in during the day and warmer at night. flowing towards the lowest point. The same phenomenon is enlarged when a large volume of cool air flow is involved.Terrain . such offshore breeze may have a cooling effect of about 5 degree centigrade. The cool air behaves somewhat like water. 3. 5. On the valley slopes. At night the direction is reversed. 2.Slope Ground Cover . In the diurnal temperature variations. as in valleys. the proximity of bodies of water moderates extreme temperature variations and lowers the peak temperatures in our tropical climate.Vegetation City / Country – Shading / Shelter Water Body – Inland / Seaside Site Planning & Microclimate Minor Minor Minor Minor Minor Minor Major Major Minor Minor The following topographic factors have been found by Geiger (3) to influence the microclimate around a building. elevations that impede the flow of air effect the distribution of nocturnal temperatures by dam action and concave terrain formations become cool-air lakes at night. and at night the outgoing radiation causes a cool air layer to form near the ground surface. Air flow occurs towards the valley floor. During the day. than land. NATURAL COVER – The natural cover of the terrain tends to moderate temperatures and stabilize conditions through the reflective qualities of various surfaces. Accordingly. Altitude Terrain Water Body Natural Cover Cities ALTITUDE – Temperature in the atmosphere decreases with increasing altitude by approximately 1 degree centigrade per 180 meters in the tropics and summer in the temperate regions and 1 degree centigrade per 220 meters in winter conditions TERRAIN – Cool air is heavier than warm air. The plateaus. and ultimately its cooling energy requirement. low cool air moves over the land to replace the updraft. WATER BODY – Water having a higher specific heat than land. but the high sides of the slopes will remain warm. 1. the temperature at the plateaus will be cool. is referred to as the warm air slope (thermal belt). Accordingly. This “flow of cool air” causes “cool island” or “cool air puddles” to form in valleys. when the land is warmer than the water.
the shading effects of plants is so good that they don’t just reduce heat from entering buildings but actually resulting in heat loss from the building. For most plants. The measurements taken by Professor Wong Nyuk Hien of the National University of Singapore shows the extent of the effect plantings have on the urban surface temperatures. It is generally found that temperatures over grassy surfaces are 5 to 7 centigrade degrees cooler than those of exposed soil.C air temperatures.Plan and grassy cover reduce temperatures by absorption of insulation. temperatures under a tree at midday can be 3 degrees centigrade lower than in the unshaded environment. Asphalt surfaces can reach 51 deg. and cool by evaporation.C in 37 deg. as the materials used are usually absorptive in character. That is. Other vegetation may further reduce high temperatures. negative heat flux was found not only at night but also during the period when the solar radiation were not very strong during daytime. man-made surfaces tend to elevate temperatures. The results of his case studies are quoted below. This shows that plants play an important role in reducing thermal heat gain due to their sunshading effects during the daytime. Conversely. Page 7 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 .
turf. measured at 300mm height. and shrub respectively.Plants contribute to creating better outdoor thermal environment and mitigating the Urban Heat Island effect.2ºC. The direct thermal effects of plants were further evaluated by measuring the heat flux through different types of roofs as shown in the diagram below. Page 8 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 . tree. The maximum surface temperature was only 26. Foliage of plants affects temperature readings.5 ºC. The ‘cooling effect’ of plants could be found from afternoon to sunrise next day. with less than 3 ºC daily variations. around 1800 h. bare soil (without any plants). The maximum temperature difference was 4. surface temperature remains stable. The ambient air temperatures were also measured at different heights above the hard surface and the vegetation part respectively on the rooftop of the commercial building. Under dense shrubs. The heat flux was for hard surface. This shows that plants on rooftop gardens can reduce ambient temperature by as much as 4 ºC.
absorbing some of the solar radiation and directing much of the rest to other absorbing surfaces. the city has a higher run-off of rain water. the heat tends to be stored in the upper part of plants. Page 9 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 . Because there is less opportunity for evaporation in the city.CITIES – Cities tend to be warmer than the surrounding countryside. The city itself is the cause of these differences. so that at the end of a day the rock like material have stored more heat than an equal volume of soil. but they also retard the outflow of heat resulting in higher peak temperatures. These tend to reflect sunlight. Finally. which is of course a cooling process. Since air is heated almost entirely by contact with warmer surfaces rather than by direct radiation. there is the difference in surface materials. First. This means that the city’s materials can accept more heat in less time. rain water remains on the surface or immediately below it. In forest and open areas on the other hand. In the country. the city is a prodigious generator of heat. Secondly. so that almost the entire surface of a city absorbs and stores heat. Among these are factories. reducing the amount of heat reaching the surfaces.5 times greater than the solar heat gain Fourth. liquid and gas contaminants. it loses less heat. Third. a city is more efficient in using sunlight to heat large volumes of air. A study of Manhattan by Griffiths (4) suggested that the heat produced by combustion alone is 2. That cities differ from the countryside not only in their temperatures but also in many other aspects of climate is widely recognized. the city air has a heavy load of solid. Five basic influences set a city’s climate apart from that of the rural area. cars and people. The water is thus available for evaporation. The predominantly rocklike materials of the city’s buildings and streets can conduct heat about three times as fast as it is conducted by wet sandy soil. the city’s structure have a greater variety of shapes and orientations and function like amaze of reflectors.
C from outdoor minimum 4. Construction detailing.” Building Orientation – Building orientation affects the air conditioning / heating energy requirements in two respects by its regulation of then influence of two distinct climatic factors. Roof System 4. The Building Research Unit however found from field data that compact buildings cost more to erect and had higher energy running costs than sprawling ones. indoor surface temperature can vary by +8 to +30 deg. They concluded that the quality of “compactness” in layout is one which cannot. Orientation 3. The question of whether a building needs less energy per unit volume or floor area is however a more complex one and still not completely resolved. the indoor air temperature amplitude – swing from lowest to highest – can vary from 10% to 150% of outdoor amplitude 2. Depending on the design 1. They conclude that “The architectural fad for angular protrusions of buildings is an energy wasting form”.5 Passive Design Factors affecting Energy use in Buildings The building layout. Based on this theory they say “ The larger a building. the indoor maximum air temperature can vary by -10 to +10 deg. design. Size and Shape 2. indoor minimum air temperature can vary by 0 to +7 deg. How much then does the designer have? The following sets of estimates by Givoni should serve to illustrate a building’s influence on its indoor environment and thus air conditioning or heating requirement. Many theoretical researchers take the view that larger buildings need less energy per unit size because of their smaller surface area per unit size and thus lower heat gain per unit size. Stein reach conclusions similar to the BPRU “ …the maximum volume. Thermo physical properties – thermal resistance & thermal capacity 6. on present evidence.C from outdoor maximum and minimum. Planning and Organization 5. and the nearer to spherical in shape. This the area where the basic decisions of the architect will have the most influence on the building’s energy use. shape. This is widely accepted. minimum perimeter building will not be the most energy conservative and because of the mechanical systems required to provide interior comfort conditions at all times.1. 1. fabric and construction cover a wide number of variables that affect building energy requirements. be shown to be of paramount importance. These empirical findings were contrary to the Unit’s theoretical predictions. Window systems 7. a larger building will require more energy to cool than a smaller building because of the larger of space to be cooled.C from outdoor maximum 3. the less are its energy needs because of the simple reduction in the ration of surface area to volume”. Size and Shape – Generally. may not even be the least expensive. planning. The building related factors influencing energy requirements are numerous and complex. Page 10 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 . They can be classified under the following headings.
082 18% 82% 30 5 0 35 0. The table below compares the approximate daily solar gain for some typical Malaysian housing types.408 1.1.14 26% For an intermediate single storey terraced houses. For flats and apartments.01 306 356 246 908 0.31 29% 363 83 396 842 0. SOLAR HEAT GAINS IN TYPICAL MALAYSIAN HOUSING Single Storey Terrace Gross Floor Area Unit Floor Area Volume Roof Area Wall Area Envelope Area Roof/Envelope Area Wall/Envelope Area North-South Fronting Roof Solar Gains NS-Wall Solar Gains EW-Wall Solar Gains Total Solar Gains-kWh/day Total Solar Gains-kWh/m2 East-West Fronting Roof Solar Gains NS-Wall Solar Gains EW-Wall Solar Gains Total Solar Gains-kWh/day Total Solar Gains-kWh/m2 Increased Solar Gain Percent 880 880 14.496 68% 32% Double Storey Terrace 1. solar influence on energy is the most significant in the tropics and is extensively covered by many others. Solar radiation and its heating effects on walls and rooms facing different directions 2.46 14% 24 0 19 43 0.408 18.050 40.480 10.100 28.14 16% 306 123 711 1.150 30% 70% Eight Storey Apartments 81. roof insulation becomes all important to keep the home cool.01 30 0 10 40 0. Of the two. an east west facing building can have 16% to 40% more solar gain than a north-south facing block. depending on the aspect ratio and height of the building. where the roof makes up nearly 70% of the building envelope exposed to the sun.080 1.680 850 898. being nearly 30% more for an eastwest facing house.012 484 1.210 47.141 0. Ventilation effects associated with the relation between the direction of the prevailing winds and the orientation of the building. Orientation has less of an effect the difference in solar radiation for a north-south and east-west facing being only about 14% An intermediate double storey terrace house however has significantly more wall area and orientation will have a significant effect on the solar gain.04 24 10 0 33 0.500 750 665.02 363 198 165 726 0. Page 11 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 .500 12.304 792 968 1.760 45% 55% Five Storey Flats 60.872 58.
Orientate the largest wall areas in the north-south direction 2.500 30% 70% 363 726 50% 363 842 43% Eight Storey Apartments 81.C Page 12 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 .680 18% 82% 306 908 34% 306 1. Place as many service rooms on the roof top of flats as possible to reduce the solar gain through the roof.What can the Architect do to reduce this solar heat gain? The following are some suggested ideas. Locate service areas such as staircases. If roof ventilation is required.5 deg. 1. 3. SOLAR HEAT GAINS IN TYPICAL MALAYSIAN HOUSING Single Storey Terrace Gross Floor Area Roof/Envelope Area Wall/Envelope Area North-South Fronting Roof Solar Gains-kWh/day Total Solar Gains-kWh/day Roof/Total Solar Gains East-West Fronting Roof Solar Gains-kWh/day Total Solar Gains-kWh/day Roof/Total Solar Gains 880 68% 32% 30 35 86% 30 40 76% Double Storey Terrace 1. the typical roof receives from 50% to 85% of the total solar radiation as shown in the table below. Measurements by “Lafarge Roofing” have found peak temperatures differences between a roof insulated and an not insulated to be as much as 4.408 45% 55% 24 33 71% 24 43 55% Five Storey Flats 60.141 27% Reducing the solar heat gain through the roof should therefore be the first priority for keeping the home cool. This is because the horizontal surface receives the highest solar radiation. Sky lights should not be used. Shade east-west facing walls with large roof overhangs or plant shading trees in front of them. peaking at about 350 Wh/m2 at mid-day in the tropical sun and it continues to receive the highest solar radiation level throughout the day. 5. Roof System The typical Malaysian terraced house receives most of its solar heat gain from the roof. use a jack up roof facing the north. Add to that the higher ratio of roof to building envelope area. 4. store rooms and service ducts in the east-west external walls.
C for not insulated roofs. 4. and consequently the air conditioning or heating energy requirements are. Some areas where the layout will influence are listed below. Buffer zones Thermo Physical Properties – The properties of materials which affect the rate of heat transfer in and out of a building. 1. Absorptivity. Apply a layer of rock wool insulation immediately above the ceiling to prevent the heat from the loft area fro being radiated and conducted into the living area immediately below the ceiling. Planning & Layout – It is not possible to generalize or quantify the complex implications that planning and layout of spaces will have on air conditioning and lighting requirements. Ceiling height and space volume 4. Surface Convective coefficient 3. 1.C for outside air temperature of 35 deg. Interaction of spaces 3. Heat Capacity Page 13 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 . Apply aluminium foil insulation under the roof tile to reduce radiant heat gained by the roofing from being radiated to the ceiling. Thermal Resistance 2. Reflectivity and Emissivity 4. Measurements taken in this loft area have been found to go as high as 45 deg. Use lighter coloured roofing or better still slightly reflective type roofing. 1. Ventilate the loft area above the ceiling and below the roof tiles. Grouping of spaces 2. 2. 3.For sloping roofs the following if implemented correctly can reduce inside temperatures by as much as 4 degrees centigrade.
structures and trees For tropical climates. Horizontal shading devices is generally effective against high sun at both east and west orientations 2. external shading devices or recessed windows have been found to be the most effective method of reducing solar heat gains through windows without losing the significant benefits of day lighting. Obstruction and shading by surrounding buildings. Type and design of shading system employed 2. Vertical shading is generally effective for south orientations 3. Page 14 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 . location. 1. Egg-crate shading devices is the generally effective for all the orientations Construction Detailing – This will influence air conditioning loads in the following areas. shape and orientation of glazed areas in a building will have a critical effect on both the heat gains and solar gains of a building because glazed areas have the highest hat gain per unit area and the major proportion of solar gains are also through windows. Infiltration cold air losses at junctions of different materials especially between roof joist and exterior walls. for example through a metal deck roof on a steel roof truss directly into the top floor of air conditioned spaces. The amount of heat gins will also be influenced by 1. 1. The importance of this factor is indicated by Stein’s finds that the school with the highest energy use per square foot in New York City was a completely sealed building with windowless classrooms. The recommendations by Assoc Prof Dr Ku Azhar Ku Hassan of University Science Malaysia should serve as a useful guide to Architects. Composition and type of glass 3.Window Systems – The size. similar to the effect of leaving the door open in an air conditioned room 2. Conduction bridges – These are paths through which heat gain will be greatest.
When amended. the UBBL will require air conditioned buildings Non-residential buildings larger than 4. 9. Planning and Organization 4. 12% lighting and 24% general equipment. Size and Shape 2. Roof top gardens with shrubs can reduce the heat flux through the roof by more than 10 times compared with bare concrete roofs. 2. 10. 3. North and South oriented walls receive between 100 to 130 wh/m2 of solar radiation compared to 300 Wh/m2 for east and west facing walls. Site surrounded with proper landscaping and water bodies can reduce the microclimate temperate from between 4 to 7 deg.C 7. 1.C 11. Major building related factors influencing energy requirements can be classified under the following headings. External shading devices are more effective than internal blinds. Vertical shading is only effective for south facing windows 16. Diffused daylight gives more lumens per watt of heat produced than fluorescent lights.Summary 1. 8. The amount of energy used in buildings depends on WHAT IT IS USED FOR 2. Climate 4. Horizontal shading devices are generally more effective against the noon sun at eastwest orientations 15. Locate low occupancy rooms on the west side of the home such as store and staircases. Window systems 6. Peak temperatures can be reduced by 5 to 7 deg. The major non design factors influencing energy use in buildings are 1. 5. Thermo physical properties – thermal resistance & thermal capacity 5. Egg-crate and pineapple-skin type shading devices is the most effective type of window shading device and is suitable for all orientations Page 15 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 . 14. a north-south oriented building can receive approximately 15% to 30% less solar gain than an east-west oriented building. The roof is the surface which receives the highest amount of solar radiation through the day. Design Windows to block out direct sunlight. Orientation 3. Environmental Standards. 13. Insulating the roof is therefore vital in reducing air conditioning load. Let in the air and daylight. 3. Aerated lightweight concrete blocks have thermal resistance 3 times better than common sand cement blocks <1 w/m2K compared to >3w/m2K 12.000 square meters in floor area to have OTTV not more than 50 W/m2 6. Depending on the building type and shape. Occupancy & Management. Construction detailing. Data on the actual energy consumption in Malaysian Office Buildings audited by PTM show that typical Malaysia Office Building consumes about 250 kWh/m2/year of energy of which about 64% is for air conditioning.
among others. non-air conditioned factories and warehouses. What is MS1525 and what is OTTV? MS1525:2001 is the “Code of Practice on Energy Efficiency and Use of Renewable Energy for Non-residential Buildings. for example. Architects and Engineers will be required to compute the OTTV using the indices provided in MS1525 and submit these to the relevant approving Local Authorities. What then is the role of the Architect and Engineer in this? As outlined in Section 1.2 Basics of MS 1525 : 2007 What are the basic requirements of MS 1525? • Architects and Engineers are required to comply with MS 1525 requirements for NON-RESIDENTIAL buildings with AIR CONDITIONED AREAS LARGER THAN 4000 SM after the UBBL amendment is made. High Tech Factories Colleges and Universities. Planning and Organization.” MS1525 has recommended that the OTTV or “Overall Thermal Transfer Value” of a building should not exceed 50 W/m2. Under the amended UBBL. RTTV. will not be covered under this standard. 2.2. COMPLYING TO MS1525 : 2007 PASSIVE DESIGN ELEMENTS 2. the lower its thermal efficiency and hotter is the building during the day.1 Background to MS 1525 : 2007 In March 2005.that the Uniform Building By-Law (UBBL) be amended requiring that the building envelope design of NEW air-conditioned NON-RESIDENTIAL buildings to meet requirements of MS1525 with regards to OTTV. its Orientation. would not comply with this standard. This is an index reflecting the thermal efficiency of a building. Commercial Complexes.7. The higher the OTTV. Hotels with more than about 50 rooms. A single storey office block with a metal deck roof without any insulation. • Architects will have to submit OTTV & RTTV calculations to show compliance with Section 5 of MS 1525 • Engineers will have to ensure compliance with sections 6. • New Office Buildings. its Thermo physical properties – thermal resistance & thermal capacity. Hospitals with more than about 50 beds. • Normal shop-offices. this will bring in an era of more energy efficient buildings in Malaysia which will consume not only less electricity for air conditioning but will also be cooler. ensuring that they comply with the 50W/m2 benchmark. When fully implemented. its Window systems and its Construction detailing among others will all affect its OTTV.8 and 9 of MS 1525 Page 16 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 . when they submit their building plans for approval. daylight. Institutional buildings. This new by-law has been scheduled to come into force in 2007. the Size and Shape of the building. Government Buildings. Kementerian Tenaga. Air dan Kommunakasi – KTAK – had proposed to the Ministry of Housing and Local Government – KPKT .
. solar radiation through glass windows The overall OTTV can be computed by the following formula outlined below extracted from the standard. heat conduction through glass windows 3. and d) the RTTV of the roof assembly. b) the U-value of the roof assembly.3 Building Envelope. 5. (2) Where.2. The OTTV requirement is aimed at achieving the design of adequately insulated building envelope so as to cut down external heat gain and hence reduce the cooling load of the air-conditioning system. 5.. and 0TTVi is the OTTV value for orientation i from equation (2). The OTTV concept takes into consideration the three basic elements of heat gain through the external envelope of a building. Aoi is the gross exterior wall area for orientation i. as follows.... if provided with skylights. insulation and air space. + Aon .2. GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 . giving details of the type and thickness of basic construction materials.. x Aon x OTTVn Ao1 + Ao 2 .8 of the standard outlines the submission procedure.. the formula is given as below: OTTVi = 15 α (1 − WWR) Uw + 6 (WWR) Uf + (194 x CF x WWR x SC) ….... WWR is the window-to-gross exterior wall area ratio for the orientation under consideration.… (1) where.. 2.. The following information shall be provided by a professional Engineer or Professional Architect: a) a drawing showing the cross-sections of typical parts of the roof construction.Section 5.2 For a fenestration at a given orientation.1 The OTTV of building envelope is given by the formula below: OTTV = Ao1 x OTTV1 + Ao 2 x OTTV2 .. c) the OTTV calculation. α Page 17 is the solar absorptivity of the opaque wall. 1. heat conduction through opaque walls 2. window design & OTTV Heat conduction through the overall building envelope can be computed by calculating its overall thermal transfer value (OTTV).
as in Table 1.5 % to 5% of the overall OTTV.Uw Uf CF SC is the thermal transmittance of opaque wall (W/m2 K). depending on the glazing area. the shading coefficient is a major contributor to the overall OTTV as it can change this component by between 30% to 80% of OTTV.2 requires that the daylight transmittance be more than 50%. This will have a bigger impact if the window areas are small. The large constant of 194 already hints that this is a major factor in the overall OTTV. and is the shading coefficient of the fenestration system. Page 18 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 .4. What can Architects do to improve the OTTV of their building envelope and to comply with MS 1525? The following will serve as a useful guide. is the thermal transmittance of fenestration system (W/m2 K). depending on the amount of glazing and if they are single or double glazed.22 typically accounts for between 0. as section 5. Heat conduction through windows typically accounts for 10% to 20% of the overall OTTV. the first part of the formula in section 5. Although the mathematical formula may look very intimidating to many architects. such as in shopping complexes 2. we must try to remember that these methods were developed back in the mid 1980’s and meant for calculating using only calculators. 1. 3. With the latest computer spread sheets. Heat conduction through opaque walls. Solar radiation through glass windows is the greatest contributor to the OTTV typically accounting for between 70% to 85% of the overall OTTV. Architects must however keep in mind not to use too much tinted glazing in order to bring up the SC. testing of different options would be a simple matter of extracting data from manufacture’s catalogues and imputing the basic data in the U-values spread sheets and then transferring them to the OTTV spreadsheets. In order to keep the OTTV contribution for exceeding 50 w/m2. is the solar correction factor. 4.
.. 5..6 0.. + Arn ….5.4 Roof Construction & RTTV Roof insulation is one of the most important and lowest cost strategies for energy efficiency as most of the solar radiation on a building is on its roof surface..2 If more than one type of roof is used..5. is the respective thermal transmittance of different roof sections (W/m2 K). + (Arn x U rn ) Ar 1 + Ar 2 . Table 9.. and is the respective area of different roof sections (m²). (4) where.. • • • • The roof plane receives the most Solar Radiation and for the longest period through the day >75% of the Solar Gain by a typical Intermediate Single Storey Terraced House is through its ROOF >50% of the Solar Gain by a typical Intermediate Double Storey Terraced House is through its ROOF >40% of the Solar Gain by a typical 5 Storey Bock of Flats is through its ROOF MS1515 requirements for roof insulation are as outlined below. Maximum U-value for roof (W/m²K) Roof Weight Group Light (Under 50 kg/m²) Heavy (Above 50 kg/m²) 0.. the average thermal transmittance for the gross area of the roof shall be determined from: Ur = (Ar 1 U r 1 ) x (Ar 2 x U r 2 ).4 Maximum U-Value (W/m²K) 5. Page 19 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 ..2...1 The roof of a conditioned space shall not have a thermal transmittance (U-value) greater than that tabulated in Table 9. Ur U r1 A ri is the average thermal transmittance of the gross area (W/m2 K).
the U-value may be increased by 50 %.6..3 If the roof area is shaded from direct solar radiation by ventilated external shading devices such as a double ventilated roof. in addition to the requirement of 5. 5. and is the respective weight of different roof sections (kg/m2). the concept of Roof Thermal Transfer Value (RTTV) is applied if the roof is provided with skylight and the entire enclosure below is fully air-conditioned.The average weight of the roof is calculated as follows: Wr = Ar 1 x Wr 1 + Ar 2 x Wr 2 . (5) where. as from Table 10.5. (6) where.1 Roofs with skylights Concept of roof thermal transfer value (RTTV) In the case of an air-conditioned building. RTTV is the roof thermal transfer value (W/m2). RTTV = (Ar x U r + TDeq ) + (As x U s x ∆T) + ( A s x SC x SF) Ao ….5.2 For roofs with skylight.6. 5. the U-value may be increased by 50 %..6 5. is the thermal transmittance of opaque roof area (W/m2 K).. is the respective area of different roof sections (m²)... + Arn …. Wr Ari Wra is the average weight of roof (kg/m2)..5. Ar Ur is the opaque roof area (m2).. + Arn x Wrn Art + Ar 2 ..7 and the treated surface is free from algae growth. 5. As Page 20 is the skylight area (m2)..4 If external roof surface reflective treatments are used where the solar reflectivity is equal to or greater than 0.6.3 The RTTV of roof is given by the following equation. 5. 5..1 the maximum recommended RTTV is 25 W/m2. GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 . TDeq is the equivalent temperature difference (K).
6 w/m2K. Architects and Engineers are required to comply with MS 1525 requirements for NON-RESIDENTIAL buildings with AIR CONDITIONED AREAS LARGER THAN 4000 SM after the UBBL amendment is made. SC SF Ao is the shading coefficient of skylight. the roof thermal transmittance or the RTTV. where there are skylights. Standard concrete tiled roofs with no insulation would not comply to the standard as the U-value would typically be about 0. see 5.4 w/m2K and for heavy roofs its 0. The large constant of 194 already hints that this is a major factor in the overall OTTV. 2. In order to keep the OTTV contribution for exceeding 50 w/m2.6. For light weight roof its 0.4 w/m2K 2. As with the OTTV. Summary 1. exceeding the requirement of 0. Solar radiation through glass windows is the greatest contributor to the OTTV typically accounting for between 70% to 85% of the overall OTTV. ∆T is the temperature difference between exterior and interior design conditions (5 K). 4. Concrete tiled roofs with 50 mm fiberglass insulation would just barely meet the requirement.Us is the thermal transmittance of skylight area (W/m2). testing of different options would be a simple matter of extracting data from manufacture’s catalogues and imputing the basic data in the U-values spread sheets and then transferring them to the OTTV spreadsheets.6 w/m2K and therefore an insulation of a minimum of 50 mm of polystyrene is required to bring it to about 0. A 100mm thick concrete roof slab with 3 w/m2Kwould not meet the requirement of 0. and 75 mm is therefore recommended. Architects will have to submit OTTV & RTTV calculations to show compliance with Section 5 of MS 1525 3. With the latest computer spread sheets. the shading coefficient is a major contributor to the overall OTTV as it can change this component by between 30% to 80% of OTTV. 3.5. What types of construction will comply and which will not? 1. and is the gross roof area (m2) where Ao = Ar + As. can also be calculated using a simple spreadsheet. Page 21 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 .7 w/m2K. depending on the glazing area.5 w/m2K. is the solar factor (W/m2). A 100 mm is therefore recommended.
Pool. Australia 1974. School of Design & Environment. 17. Brander & Chan. 13. Rudolf. Donn. April 2004 14. 1977 7. JKR. Chan Seong Aun “Low Energy School Design. National University of Singapore and National Parks Board. “Energy Performance of Buildings” CRC Press Inc 1984. “The Climate Near the Ground”. USA. Page 22 GBI_MS1525_Chan SA/18/10/2008 . “MECM LEO SEMINAR Advances on Energy Efficiency and Sustainability in Buildings” Palace of Golden Horses Kuala Lumpur 21-22 January 2003. Applied Science Publishers Ltd. CETDAM “Working with the Community on Energy Eficiency at Household Level in Petaling Jaya” A CETDAM Study on Energy Efficiency 2006 . New Zealand. A Study of Factors Affecting Energy Use in New Zealand Primary Schools” Master of Architecture Thesis. 11. Lee Siew Eng National University of Singapore.O “Thermal Comfort” McGraw-Hill. Chen Yu and others. Geiger. 1972 6. Kuala Lumpur 8th & 9th October 2001 12. B “Man. Garden City. Building Performance Research Unit “ BUILDING PERFORMANCE”. Sydney. DANIDA.(USM) “Tropical Building Design : The effectiveness of Solar Shading Devices” . Ku Azhar Ku Hassan Assoc Prof Dr. November 1983. New York. “Capacity Building in the Energy Commission (ST) on EE / DSM “ Inception Workshop PWTC 7th June 2002 10. Harvard University Press. Givoni. Wong Nyuk Hien . 3. Climate & Architecture”. Pan Pacific Hotel. Poul Kristensen “Design Strategies for New Buildings (Non-Domestic)” KTKM. “Making Malaysian Homes Energy Efficient – Stakeholder Workshop organized by CETDEM” Impiana Hotel Kuala Lumpur 12 June 2004 15. 8. National Seminar on Built Enviroment 5-6 Aug 2002. “MS 1525 : 2007 Code of Practice on Energy Efficiency and Use of Renewable Energy for Non-Residential Buildings” Department of Standards Malaysia. Prof. A short course in Architectural Psychology. 16. London. NY 1972 2. Singapore. Cambridge. Massachusetts 1965 4. REFERENCES 1. Conserving Energy through Rational Design” Anchor Press / Doubleday. University of Sydney. 9.3.J “Thermal Comfort in Buildings”. Elsevier London 1969. Victoria University of Wellington. Tang CK. Paper at National Seminar on Low Energy Offices. Stein R G “Architecture & Energy. Deepa Sammy. Kuala Lumpur. 5. Department of Architecture. Steve Lojutin. “Energy Efficiency in Singapore: Current Status and successes and Future Prospects”. Fanger P. Baird. KowakzewskiJ. “Handbook on Skyrise Greening in Singapore” Centre for Total Building Performance.
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