AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway

Software reference manual – release 2-0-0

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual

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AT-RG600 series Residential Gateway – Software reference manual
Release 2-0-0 Rev. A6 Copyright © 2004 Allied Telesis All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior written permission from Allied Telesis. Allied Telesis reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this document without prior written notice. The information provided herein is subject to change without notice. In no event shall Allied Telesis be liable for any incidental, special, indirect, or consequential damages whatsoever, including but not limited to lost profits, arising out of or related to this manual or the information contained herein, even if Allied Telesis has been advised of, known, or should have known, the possibility of such damages. All trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Contents
CHAPTER 0 Preface........................................................................................................xvi
Purpose of this Manual .....................................................................................................xvi Intended Audience........................................................................................................... xvii Structure of this Manual.................................................................................................. xviii Standards and Protocols..................................................................................................... 1 Background Reading .......................................................................................................... 2 Publicly Accessible Documents .......................................................................................... 2 Conventions used in command definitions ......................................................................... 3

CHAPTER 1 System Management.................................................................................. 4
Logging into the CLI............................................................................................................ 4 Serial Connection................................................................................................................ 4 TCP/IP connection.............................................................................................................. 4 Command Line Interface and Console ............................................................................... 5 Webserver........................................................................................................................... 5 File System ......................................................................................................................... 6 Boot code............................................................................................................................ 6 System configuration information........................................................................................ 6 Run-time images................................................................................................................. 6 Access permissions to the CLI............................................................................................ 7 System Command Reference............................................................................................. 8 System CLI commands....................................................................................................... 8 system add user.................................................................................................................. 8 system add login................................................................................................................. 9 system config backup ....................................................................................................... 10 system config restore........................................................................................................ 11 system config save ........................................................................................................... 12 system delete login ........................................................................................................... 12 system delete user............................................................................................................ 12 system info........................................................................................................................ 13 system list errors............................................................................................................... 13 system list openfiles.......................................................................................................... 14 system list users ............................................................................................................... 14 system list logins............................................................................................................... 15 system log......................................................................................................................... 15 system log enable|disable................................................................................................. 16 system log list ................................................................................................................... 17 system name..................................................................................................................... 18 system restart ................................................................................................................... 18 system set login access.................................................................................................... 18 system set login mayconfigure.......................................................................................... 19 system set login maydialin ................................................................................................ 19 system set user access..................................................................................................... 20 system set user mayconfigure .......................................................................................... 20 system set user maydialin................................................................................................. 20 User Command Reference ............................................................................................... 22 User CLI commands ......................................................................................................... 22 user logout ........................................................................................................................ 22 user password................................................................................................................... 22 user change ...................................................................................................................... 22 Web Server Command Reference.................................................................................... 24 Web Server CLI commands.............................................................................................. 24 webserver clear stats........................................................................................................ 24 webserver enable|disable ................................................................................................. 24 webserver set interface..................................................................................................... 25 webserver set managementip........................................................................................... 25 webserver set port ............................................................................................................ 26

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webserver set upnpport .................................................................................................... 26 webserver show info ......................................................................................................... 26 webserver show stats ....................................................................................................... 27 Console Access Command Reference ............................................................................. 28 Console access CLI commands ....................................................................................... 28 console enable.................................................................................................................. 28 console process................................................................................................................ 28 Console command - exit ................................................................................................... 29

CHAPTER 2 Switch.......................................................................................................... 30
Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 30 Switch Core Functional Overview ..................................................................................... 30 Address Look-up............................................................................................................... 30 Learning............................................................................................................................ 31 Migration ........................................................................................................................... 31 Aging................................................................................................................................. 31 Forwarding........................................................................................................................ 31 Switching engine............................................................................................................... 32 Rate limiting support ......................................................................................................... 32 Layer 3 routing rate limiting............................................................................................... 32 Class of Service and Differentiated Services.................................................................... 33 802.1p Traffic Priority........................................................................................................ 33 Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP)...................................................................... 34 Switch Command Reference ............................................................................................ 36 switch CLI commands....................................................................................................... 36 switch disable ageingtimer................................................................................................ 36 switch disable learning...................................................................................................... 37 switch disable port ............................................................................................................ 37 switch enable ageingtimer ................................................................................................ 37 switch enable learning ...................................................................................................... 38 switch enable port............................................................................................................. 38 switch reset....................................................................................................................... 38 switch set ageingtimer ...................................................................................................... 39 switch set port................................................................................................................... 39 switch set priority .............................................................................................................. 41 switch set qos ................................................................................................................... 41 switch set ROUTING-LIMIT .............................................................................................. 41 switch show....................................................................................................................... 42 switch show fdb................................................................................................................. 43 switch show port ............................................................................................................... 44 switch show qos................................................................................................................ 48

CHAPTER 3 VLAN .......................................................................................................... 49
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 49 VLAN TAGGING .................................................................................................................. 49 VLAN SUPPORT ON AT-RG600 RESIDENTIAL GATEWAY ....................................................... 52 VLAN definition and port tagging ...................................................................................... 52 VLAN versus IP Interface.................................................................................................. 53 VLAN Command Reference ............................................................................................. 56 vlan CLI commands .......................................................................................................... 56 vlan add port ..................................................................................................................... 56 vlan add vid....................................................................................................................... 57 vlan delete......................................................................................................................... 57 vlan show.......................................................................................................................... 58

CHAPTER 4 IP 60
INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 60 THE INTERNET .................................................................................................................... 60 ADDRESSING ...................................................................................................................... 62

Subnets............................................................................................................................. 64 IP SUPPORT ON AT-RG6XX RESIDENTIAL GATEWAY SERIES ................................................. 65 Adding and attaching IP interfaces ................................................................................... 65 IP stack and incoming packets ......................................................................................... 66 Locally received packets................................................................................................... 66 Forwarding packets........................................................................................................... 66 Unconfigured interfaces.................................................................................................... 66 Unnumbered interfaces..................................................................................................... 67 Unconfigured interfaces v unnumbered interfaces ........................................................... 67 Configuring unnumbered interfaces.................................................................................. 67 Creating a route ................................................................................................................ 68 Virtual Interfaces............................................................................................................... 68 Configuring virtual interfaces ............................................................................................ 68 Similarities between virtual interfaces and real interfaces ................................................ 69 Differences between virtual interfaces and real interfaces ............................................... 69 Secondary IP addresses................................................................................................... 70 Configuring secondary IP addresses................................................................................ 70 Functionality of secondary IP addresses .......................................................................... 71 IP Quality of Service ......................................................................................................... 71 Expedited class................................................................................................................. 71 Example of use of Prioritization ........................................................................................ 71 Quality of Service support................................................................................................. 72 Packet Classification......................................................................................................... 72 Configuring Flow Qualifiers............................................................................................... 72 Link bandwidth prioritization.............................................................................................. 73 CPU prioritization.............................................................................................................. 73 TCP/IP Command Reference ........................................................................................... 75 IP Tracing commands....................................................................................................... 75 IP CLI commands ............................................................................................................. 75 ip add defaultroute gateway.............................................................................................. 77 ip add defaultroute interface ............................................................................................. 77 ip add interface ................................................................................................................. 78 ip add route....................................................................................................................... 79 ip attach ............................................................................................................................ 80 ip attachvirtual................................................................................................................... 81 ip clear arpentries ............................................................................................................. 82 ip clear interfaces.............................................................................................................. 82 ip clear riproutes ............................................................................................................... 82 ip clear routes ................................................................................................................... 82 ip delete interface.............................................................................................................. 83 ip delete route ................................................................................................................... 83 ip detach interface............................................................................................................. 84 ip interface add fq codepoint............................................................................................. 84 ip interface add fq protocol................................................................................................ 85 ip interface add fq srcaddr codepoint................................................................................ 86 ip interface add fq srcaddr protocol................................................................................... 87 ip interface add proxyarpentry .......................................................................................... 88 ip interface add proxyarpexclusion ................................................................................... 89 ip interface add secondaryipaddress ................................................................................ 90 ip interface clear fqs.......................................................................................................... 91 ip interface clear proxyarpentries...................................................................................... 92 ip interface clear secondaryipaddresses........................................................................... 92 ip interface delete fq.......................................................................................................... 93 ip interface delete proxyarpentries.................................................................................... 94 ip interface delete proxyarpexclusion................................................................................ 94 ip interface delete secondaryipaddress ............................................................................ 95 ip interface list fqs ............................................................................................................. 96 ip interface list proxyarpentries ......................................................................................... 96 ip interface list secondaryipaddresses.............................................................................. 97 ip list arpentries................................................................................................................. 98

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ip list connections.............................................................................................................. 98 ip list interfaces ................................................................................................................. 99 ip list riproutes................................................................................................................... 99 ip list routes..................................................................................................................... 100 ip ping ............................................................................................................................. 100 ip set interface dhcp........................................................................................................ 101 ip set interface ipaddress................................................................................................ 101 ip set interface mtu.......................................................................................................... 102 ip set interface netmask.................................................................................................. 103 ip set interface rip accept................................................................................................ 104 ip set interface rip multicast ............................................................................................ 105 ip set interface rip send................................................................................................... 105 ip set interface tcpmssclamp........................................................................................... 106 ip set rip advertisedefault................................................................................................ 107 ip set rip authentication................................................................................................... 108 ip set rip defaultroutecost................................................................................................ 108 ip set rip hostroutes......................................................................................................... 109 ip set rip password.......................................................................................................... 109 ip set rip poison............................................................................................................... 110 ip set route cost............................................................................................................... 110 ip set route destination.................................................................................................... 111 ip set route gateway........................................................................................................ 112 ip set route interface ....................................................................................................... 113 ip show............................................................................................................................ 113 ip show interface............................................................................................................. 114 ip show route................................................................................................................... 115

CHAPTER 5 Transports ................................................................................................ 116
Transports CLI commands.............................................................................................. 117 transports clear ............................................................................................................... 117 transports delete ............................................................................................................. 117 transports list................................................................................................................... 118 transports show............................................................................................................... 118

CHAPTER 6 Ethernet..................................................................................................... 120
Ethernet CLI commands ................................................................................................. 120 ethernet add transport..................................................................................................... 120 ethernet clear transports................................................................................................. 121 ethernet delete transport................................................................................................. 121 ethernet list ports ............................................................................................................ 122 ethernet list transports .................................................................................................... 122 ethernet show transport .................................................................................................. 122

CHAPTER 7 Security & Firewall................................................................................. 124
Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 124 Application Gateway ....................................................................................................... 124 Stateful Inspection .......................................................................................................... 125 Security support on AT-RG6xx Residential Gateway series........................................... 125 Security Interfaces .......................................................................................................... 126 Dynamic Port Opening and Triggers............................................................................... 127 Non-Activity Timeout....................................................................................................... 128 Session Chaining............................................................................................................ 128 Firewall............................................................................................................................ 129 Policy .............................................................................................................................. 130 Portifilter.......................................................................................................................... 130 Validator.......................................................................................................................... 130 Intrusion Detection.......................................................................................................... 131 Security Command Reference........................................................................................ 133 Security CLI commands.................................................................................................. 133

security add interface...................................................................................................... 133 security add trigger tcp|udp............................................................................................. 134 security add trigger netmeeting....................................................................................... 135 security clear interfaces .................................................................................................. 136 security clear triggers...................................................................................................... 136 security delete interface.................................................................................................. 136 security delete trigger...................................................................................................... 136 security............................................................................................................................ 137 security list interfaces...................................................................................................... 138 security list triggers ......................................................................................................... 138 security set trigger UDPsessionchaining ........................................................................ 138 security set trigger addressreplacement......................................................................... 139 security set trigger binaryaddressreplacement ............................................................... 140 security set trigger endport ............................................................................................. 141 security set trigger maxactinterval .................................................................................. 141 security set trigger multihost ........................................................................................... 142 security set trigger sessionchaining................................................................................ 142 security set trigger startport ............................................................................................ 143 security show interface ................................................................................................... 143 security show trigger....................................................................................................... 143 security status................................................................................................................. 144 Firewall Command Reference ........................................................................................ 146 Firewall CLI commands .................................................................................................. 146 firewall add policy............................................................................................................ 147 firewall add portfilter........................................................................................................ 148 firewall add validator ....................................................................................................... 150 firewall clear policies....................................................................................................... 152 firewall clear portfilters .................................................................................................... 152 firewall delete policy........................................................................................................ 153 firewall delete portfilter.................................................................................................... 153 firewall delete validator ................................................................................................... 154 firewall enable|disable..................................................................................................... 154 firewall enable|disable IDS.............................................................................................. 155 firewall enable|disable blockinglog.................................................................................. 156 firewall enable|disable Intrusionlog ................................................................................. 156 firewall enable|disable sessionlog................................................................................... 156 firewall list policies .......................................................................................................... 157 firewall list portfilters........................................................................................................ 157 firewall list validators ....................................................................................................... 158 firewall set IDS DOSattackblock ..................................................................................... 159 firewall set IDS MaxICMP ............................................................................................... 159 firewall set IDS MaxPING ............................................................................................... 160 firewall set IDS MaxTCPopenhandshake ....................................................................... 160 firewall set IDS SCANattackblock................................................................................... 161 firewall set IDS blacklist .................................................................................................. 162 firewall set IDS victimprotection ...................................................................................... 162 firewall set securitylevel .................................................................................................. 163 firewall show IDS ............................................................................................................ 165 firewall show policy ......................................................................................................... 165 Firewall show portfilter .................................................................................................... 166 firewall show validator..................................................................................................... 167 firewall status .................................................................................................................. 168

CHAPTER 8 Network Address Translation - NAT ................................................. 169
Network Address Translation.......................................................................................... 169 Address conservation ..................................................................................................... 169 Security........................................................................................................................... 170 How does NAT work? ..................................................................................................... 170 What about protocols other than UDP and TCP?........................................................... 172 How can you let sessions into servers on the private LAN? ........................................... 172

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. 181 nat clear resvmaps.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 175 NAT and secondary IP addresses ................................................................................................................... 199 IGMP Proxy Command Reference ......................................................................................... 176 nat add globalpool............................... 188 nat show resvmap......................................................................... 191 IGMP.......AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual vii NAT support on AT-RG6xx Residential Gateway series ........................... 174 Application Level Gateways (ALGs) .................................................................................................................... 194 Multicast Hosts Port Discovery .......... 173 Global IP Address Pools.................................................................................................................................. 195 Timeout interval expiring.............. 203 Example:................................................................... 203 DHCP server....................................................... 194 Leaving a Group ..... 191 Multicasting principles................................. 204 DHCP client ................. 182 nat delete resvmap ................ 183 nat enable ............................................................ 198 igmp snooping set queryinterval ................................. 201 CHAPTER 10 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ..................................................................................... 200 igmp proxy show status .............................................................................................................................................................. 200 IGMP proxy CLI commands................................................. 193 IGMP snooping on AT-VP6x3 product family ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 197 igmp snooping enable....................................................................................................... 192 Multicast MAC addresses .................................................................................... 197 igmp snooping set leavetime ....................... 189 nat status ..................................... 184 nat iketranslation................................................................................................................................................................... 176 NAT CLI commands... 180 nat clear globalpools.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 206 Lease requirements and requests ............................. 185 nat list globalpools ...................................................................................................................... 182 nat delete globalpool....................................................................................................................... 202 Introduction ................. 175 NAT Command Reference.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 174 NAT and Dynamic Port Opening............................................................... 198 igmp snooping set timeout.................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 191 Multicasting Overview........................................................... 207 ................ 174 Firewall filters and reserved mappings................................................................................................. 197 igmp snooping disable .................................................... 174 Interactions of NAT and other security features................................................................................................................................. 202 DHCP support on AT-RG6xx Residential Gateway series ........................................................DHCP.......................................... 183 nat disable......................................................................................................................................................................................... 173 Reserved Mappings........................................................................................................................................................... 196 IGMP proxy........................................... 186 nat list resvmaps........................................................................................................................ 194 Multicast Router Port Discovery.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 200 igmp proxy set upstreaminterface.............................................................. 197 IGMP snooping CLI commands............................................ 198 igmp snooping show ......................................................................................................................................................... 178 nat add resvmap interface name .......................................................................... 187 nat show globalpool . 193 IGMP snooping ...................................... 196 IGMP Snooping Command Reference ............................................ 191 Group addresses .................................................................... 176 nat add resvmap globalip................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 200 igmp proxy show upstreaminterface ............ 189 CHAPTER 9 IGMP snooping and IGMP proxy ..................

...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 213 dhcpserver clear fixedhost .............................................................................................................. 229 dhcpserver subnet list options ........................................................................................................................................... 223 dhcpserver set subnet subnet...................................................................................................................... 207 Additional DHCP client modes.......................................... 214 dhcpserver enable|disable ................... 212 dhcpserver add subnet ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 223 dhcpserver set subnet maxleasetime ..................................................... 229 dhcpserver subnet list ipranges .............................. 239 dhcpclient interfaceconfig list sent options...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 215 dhcpserver list fixedhost ..................................................................... 242 dhcpclient set interfaceconfig autoip........................................... 222 dhcpserver set subnet hostisdefaultgateway................................................................................................................................................. 244 viii ............................................................................... 220 dhcpserver set fixedhost macaddress .............................................................................. 221 dhcpserver set subnet defaultleasetime .................................. 211 DHCP server CLI commands......................... 232 DHCP client CLI commands ............................................ 213 dhcpserver clear subnets........... 210 DHCP Server Command Reference .................. 226 dhcpserver subnet add option.............................................................................................................................. 243 dhcpclient set interfaceconfig defaultroute....................................... 209 DHCP Relay................................................................ 239 dhcpclient interfaceconfig list requested options ....................................................................................................................................................... 225 dhcpserver subnet add iprange ............................................................................ 219 dhcpserver set defaultleasetime ................................. 218 dhcpserver set allowunknownclients.......... 218 dhcpserver set bootp ............ 221 dhcpserver set maxleasetime ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 224 dhcpserver show....................................................................................... 222 dhcpserver set subnet hostisdnsserver ...................................... 234 dhcpclient interfaceconfig add required option ....................... 227 dhcpserver subnet clear options................................................ 232 dhcpclient add interfaceconfig ............................................................................... 226 dhcpserver subnet clear ipranges.................................................. 242 dhcpclient set interfaceconfig clientid ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 233 dhcpclient clear interfaceconfigs................................................................................. 208 Propagating DNS server information ..... 233 dhcpclient delete interfaceconfig....................................................................................................................................................... 236 dhcpclient interfaceconfig clear sent options ......... 216 dhcpserver list subnets ........................................................................................... 219 dhcpserver set fixedhost ipaddress .......................... 208 Automatically setting up a DHCP server........................ 235 dhcpclient interfaceconfig add sent option............................................................................................................ 228 dhcpserver subnet delete iprange................Support for AutoIP ................................... 220 dhcpserver set fixedhost maxleasetime.................................................................................................. 240 dhcpclient list interfaceconfigs ........................................... 208 Example.... 238 dhcpclient interfaceconfig delete sent option ........................ 228 dhcpserver subnet delete option................................... 225 dhcpserver show subnet........................................... 237 dhcpclient interfaceconfig delete requested option................................................................................................................................................... 214 dhcpserver delete fixedhost ............................................................... 214 dhcpserver delete subnet.......................................................................................................................................................... 241 dhcpclient set backoff ................ 236 dhcpclient interfaceconfig clear requested options............................ 234 dhcpclient interfaceconfig add requested option..... 211 dhcpserver add fixedhost............................................................................................................................ 230 dhcpserver update ............................................................................................ 215 dhcpserver list options ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 230 DHCP Client Command Reference ................

..................................................................................................AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual ix dhcpclient set interfaceconfig dhcpinform.... 265 CHAPTER 12 SNTP ... 256 CHAPTER 11 Domain Name System -DNS................................................................................................. 249 dhcpclient set interfaceconfig noclientid ........................................ 252 dhcpclient show ......................................... 262 DNS Client Command Reference....................................................... 260 dnsrelay delete server........................ 263 DNS Client CLI commands..................................................................................................................................................................... 254 DHCP relay CLI commands.......... 251 dhcpclient set retry....................... 263 dnsclient add server........................................................... 255 dhcprelay enable|disable ................. 251 dhcpclient set reboot.................................................. 269 sntpclient set clock............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 261 dnsrelay show lanaddress ......................................................... 259 dnsrelay clear landatabase........................................ 270 sntpclient set retries.... 249 dhcpclient set interfaceconfig requestedleasetime ......................................... 258 DNS Relay Command Reference.............................................................................................................................................. 245 dhcpclient set interfaceconfig dhcpserverpoolsize............................ 248 dhcpclient set interfaceconfig interface......... 246 dhcpclient set interfaceconfig givednstoclient........................................................................................................................................... 269 SNTP CLI commands ........................................................................... 258 DNS Client ............................... 260 dnsrelay clear servers................................................................................................................................... 245 dhcpclient set interfaceconfig dhcpserverinterface....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 253 DHCP Relay Command Reference ............................... 269 sntpclient set poll-interval........................................... 250 dhcpclient set interfaceconfig server....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 263 dnsclient add searchdomain ................ 256 dhcprelay show............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 271 ............................... 267 SNTP Features ................................................................................................... 259 dnsrelay add server ................................................ 261 dnsrelay set landatabasefile ................................................................. 263 dnsclient clear searchdomains............................ 271 sntpclient set server.......................................................................................................................................................................................... 262 dnsrelay show landatabasefilename........ 255 dhcprelay list servers ................................................................................... 254 dhcprelay add server ...................................................... 265 dnsclient list searchdomains................................................................................................ 264 dnsclient delete searchdomain ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 265 dnsclient list servers................................................................................................................................. 269 sntpclient set mode....................... 264 dnsclient clear servers ......... 259 dnsrelay clear cache....................................................................................................... 267 Time Zones and Daylight Savings (Summer Time) Conversion................................................................................................................................................................ 254 dhcprelay delete server........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 262 dnsrelay show landomainname .................................................. 257 DNS Relay ............................................................................................... 268 SNTP Command Reference ...... 247 dhcpclient set interfaceconfig givednstorelay ................................ 257 Introduction ............................ 254 dhcprelay clear servers................................................................................................................. 256 dhcprelay update ..................................... 264 dnsclient delete server...... 252 dhcpclient update..................................................................................... 260 dnsrelay list servers ...................................................................................................................... 259 DNS Relay CLI commands...............................................................................................................................................................................................

... 309 Port enable/disable . 301 ISDN Layer 3 ................................... 282 pppoe delete transport............................................ 304 Voice Coder/Decoder.................................................................................................................................................................. 280 pppoe add transport.......................................................sntpclient set timeout ............................... 302 Digit Map.................... 284 pppoe set transport autoconnect FILTER delete ................................................................................... 280 PPPoE CLI commands ...................................................................................................................... 272 sntpclient set timezone .......................... 302 Dial Mask ......................................... 286 pppoe set transport givedns client ................ 307 Telecom Tones Management ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 282 pppoe set transport accessconcentrator.............................. 294 pppoe show transport .................................................................... 289 pppoe set transport lcpmaxterm ............. 301 Common ................................................ 304 Voice Quality Management.......................................................................................................... 300 ISDN Layer 2 ...................................................................................................... 314 voip ep list.................................................................................................................................................. 293 pppoe set transport welogin.................................................. 287 pppoe set transport lcpechoevery.............................................................................................................................. 299 Digital Ports.................... 310 VoIP EP Command Reference ................................................................................................................................................................... 288 pppoe set transport lcpmaxconf..................................................................................................................................................................... 272 sntpclient show association ............................................................................................................................................................................... 307 Voice Activity Detection (VAD) / Comfort Noise Generation (CNG) ... 312 voip ep delete.................................................................................................................................................................. 290 pppoe set transport STATIC_IP/DYNAMIC_IP..................................................................... 301 Port configuration................................................................................................................................................ 276 PPPoE support on the AT-RG6xx Residential Gateway series... 280 pppoe clear transports ..................... 314 voip ep enable....................................................................................... 289 pppoe set transport lcpmaxfail.................................................................................................................... 308 Country-specific Telecom Tones ........ 292 pppoe set transport username.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 275 sntpclient sync ....... 315 x ................................................................. 306 Volume Gain Control........................................................................................................... 298 Analog Ports ............. 291 pppoe set transport servicename... 283 pppoe set transport autoconnect ........ 284 pppoe set transport autoconnect FILTER ADD .......................... 285 pppoe set transport ENABLED/DISABLED ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 282 pppoe list transports............................................................................... 295 CHAPTER 14 VoIP Analogue and Digital access ports ....................... 278 Negotiation of PPPoE connections................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 274 sntp show status ............................................................................................................................................................................ 311 voip ep CLI commands ....................................................................................... 311 voip ep create ........................................... 286 pppoe set transport givedns relay.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Call Control ............................. 307 G.................................................... 278 PPPoE Command Reference .........................................................................................168 Line Echo Cancellation (8 ms – 32 ms tail length)................................................................................... 313 voip ep disable............................................................................................................................. 298 Introduction ............................ 299 ISDN BRI Physical Layer .................................................................................................................................................................... 277 Adding and attaching PPPoE connections ...................................................... 291 pppoe set transport password.........LAPD.................................................................................................... 275 CHAPTER 13 PPPoE .........................................................

.. 353 voip sip proxyserver CLI commands........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 323 voip ep set lec...............................................................................................................................AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual xi voip ep set cfwd ......... 351 voip sip LOCATIONSERVER list ...... 318 voip ep set country............ 346 voip sip protocol set NAT............ 344 voip sip protocol disable....................................................................................................................................................................... 326 voip ep show..... 321 voip ep set idt-partial.......................................................................................................................................................................... 347 voip sip protocol set NETINTERFACE.............................................................................................................................................. 319 voip ep set dialmODE ....................................................................................................................................................... 351 voip sip locationserver SET MASTER ......................................................... 354 voip sip PROXYSERVER SET MASTER ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 332 SIP Messages.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 331 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 317 voip ep set codecs ................................................................................. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Call Processes ................................................... 339 Forwarding Database (FDB)....... 348 VoIP SIP Locationserver Command Reference............................................................................. 325 voip ep set txgain.......................... 320 voip ep set digitmap........... 335 Calls Involving Another Terminal .......................................................... 350 voip sip locationserver CLI commands ............................................................................................................................. 331 Protocol Components .... 329 voip lifeline CLI commands.......................................................................................................... 326 voip ep set vad.............. 322 voip ep set jitterdelay ....................... 344 voip sip protocol enable ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 341 VoIP SIP Command Reference .................................................................................................................................................................................. 321 voip ep set idt-critical ............................................................................... 329 voip LIFELINE ENABLE.......................................................................................................................................... 325 voip ep set rxgain.......................................................................................................................... 327 VoIP Lifeline Command Reference........................................................................................................................................ 345 voip sip protocol set defaultport ........................................................ 337 SIP Servers................................................................... 350 voip sip locationserver delete.......... 330 CHAPTER 15 VoIP SIP .......................................................... 344 VoIP sip protocol CLI commands......................................................... 315 voip ep set cng................................................ 353 voip sip proxyserver create................................... 334 AT-RG613.................. 337 Introduction ......................................................................... 350 voip sip locationserver create ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 323 voip ep set offhook-time......................................................................... 324 voip ep set onhook-time............ 335 Calls Involving a Terminal and a SIP Endpoint..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 336 VoIP SIP Servers............................................................ 348 voip sip protocol set SESSIONEXPIRE........... 352 VoIP SIP Proxyserver Command Reference....................... 338 Users..................................................................................................................................................................................... Users & Forwarding Database.......... 354 voip sip PROXYSERVER list .................. 345 voip sip protocol restart........................................ 329 voip LIFELINE show ............................................................. 318 voip ep set dialmask ........................................................................................ 329 voip LIFELINE DISABLE....... 347 voip sip protocol set roundtriptime ......... 355 ....................................... 345 voip sip protocol set EXTENSION ............................................................................................ 348 voip sip protocol show........................................................................ 353 voip sip PROXYSERVER delete..................................................... 331 SIP Protocol...................................................

.......................................... 367 Multipoint Control Units..... 382 VoIP H323 User Command Reference.......................................... 374 VoIP H323 Command Reference ................................................. 385 xii .......... 376 voip h323 protocol enable......................... 376 VoIP h323 protocol CLI commands ...................... 360 voip sip user show ......................... 373 Users......... 366 H..................................................................... 378 voip H323 protocol set NETINTERFACE.................... 380 voip h323 protocol set REGISTRATION............................. 372 VoIP H323 Users ........225 Call Signaling .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 368 Protocols Specified by H................................................. 369 H.............................................. 364 voip sip fdb show ............................................................................... 367 Gatekeepers ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 383 voip H323 user CLI commands.............................. 367 Terminals ...... 368 H................................................... 358 voip sip user list ........................................................................ 376 voip h323 protocol disable ............................................. 360 VoIP SIP FDB Command Reference ..................................................... 371 AT-RG613................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 370 Gateway and Gatekeeper Characteristics .....................................................................................225 Registration..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 356 voip sip user CLI commands...................................................................323 Components......................................................................... 371 Calls Involving Another Terminal .........................VoIP SIP User Command Reference........................................................ 380 voip h323 protocol set REsponse .............................. 383 voip h323 user add ................................................................. 381 voip H323 protocol set SECONDARYgatekeeper .............................................................................. 368 Video CODEC........................... 383 voip h323 user create ......... 367 Gateways. 378 voip H323 protocol set gatekeeper ................................................... Admission.......... 369 Real-Time Transport Control Protocol ............................... 379 voip H323 protocol set RASPORT................................................... 364 CHAPTER 16 VoIP H323................... 357 voip sip user delete............................................................................................................................................................................................... 377 voip H323 protocol set ALIAS................................................................................................................................................ 371 Calls Involving a Terminal and a H........................................................................................................................................ 373 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 368 Audio CODEC........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 363 voip sip fdb list .................... 384 voip h323 user delete............................................................................. 381 voip h323 protocol show ......................................... 356 voip sip user create.................................. and Status ............................................................................................................................323....... 369 Terminal Characteristics .......................323 Endpoint.......... 366 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................................... 362 voip sip fdb CLI commands............. 370 Gateway Characteristics................................................. 356 voip sip user add..................................................................................... 377 voip h323 protocol set CONNECT...................245 Control Signaling...... 369 Real-Time Transport Protocol................................................................................................................................ 369 H.................................................... 366 H................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 359 voip sip user remove........................................................................................................................................... 362 voip sip fdb delete................................................................................................................ 362 voip sip fdb create..........................323 Protocols .............................................................................................................................................................................. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Call Processes ........ 370 Gatekeeper Characteristics .......................................................................................... 379 voip H323 protocol set Q931PORT ...........................................................................................................................

............................................................................ 406 voip MEDIA SET PORTRANGE ........................................................................................................................................ 386 voip h323 user show.................................................................... 391 Introduction .......................................................................................................................... 397 voip MGCP protocol set NAT......... 404 voip qos SET TOS ......................................................................................................................... 406 voip MEDIA SET RTCP ...................AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual xiii voip h323 user list.............. 397 voip MGCP protocol restart.............................................................................................................................................................. 388 voip h323 fdb delete.......................................................................................... 413 ................................................ 407 voip MEDIA SHOW...................................................................................................................................... 412 Storing Unit Configuration................................................................................ 411 ZTC Client.......... 393 CreateConnection.......................................................... 385 voip h323 user remove .................................................................................................................................. 395 RestartInProgress................................. 410 Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 391 MGCP Protocol Commands......................................................................... 401 CHAPTER 18 VoIP QoS and Media ....................... 410 Functional blocks ......................................................................................................... 400 voip MGCP callagent delete ............... 387 VoIP H323 FDB Command Reference ..................................... 395 MGCP Command reference ............................................................................ 395 AuditConnection................................................... 399 voip MGCP protocol show ............................................................... 405 VoIP Media Command Reference ..................................................... 394 DeleteConnection .................................................................................................................................................... 389 voip H323 fdb list ...... 396 voip MGCP protocol disable ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 413 Pull-at-startup.......................................................................................................................... 397 voip MGCP protocol set defaultport........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 393 Notify........................................................... 402 QoS...... 394 AuditEndpoint...................................... 388 voip H323 fdb create................................................................................................................................. 404 voip qos SHOW ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 399 voip MGCP callagent create ........... 407 CHAPTER 19 ZTC ................................................................................... 403 VoIP QoS Command Reference........................................................................................................................................... 389 voip h323 fdb show.................................................. 398 voip MGCP protocol set PROFILE............................................. 391 Connections & Endpoints............................................................................................................................................ 404 VoIP QoS CLI commands................ 396 voip MGCP protocol enable ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 406 VoIP Media CLI commands ........................................................................ 396 MGCP commands..... 410 ZTC Network Architecture.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 400 voip MGCP callagent list............................................................................................................................................................ 402 Media ........................................................ 393 ModifyConnection ............................................................................................................... 393 NotificationRequest................. 402 Introduction .............................. 388 voip h323 fdb CLI commands ................ 406 voip MEDIA SET SESSIONTIMEOUT................................................................................... 390 CHAPTER 17 VoIP MGCP ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 398 voip MGCP protocol set NETINTERFACE ......... 404 voip qos SET DSCP.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

....................................................................................................................................... 416 ztcclient enable static............. Error! Bookmark not defined... Error! Bookmark not defined.................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined............................ SWUPDATE show .......................... SWUPDATE set PAth..................... Error! Bookmark not defined............ 419 Introduction ...................... 416 ztcclient enable dynamic.............................................................................. Swupdate commands ............. 417 ztcclient show............................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined................... Stop Time Scheduling.... Error! Bookmark not defined.......................... SWUPDATE MAC....................................................... Plug-and-play................................. SWUPDATE sTART TIME..........Scheduled-pull .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 418 CHAPTER 20 Software Update ............................................... Error! Bookmark not defined............................................................................................................................ 417 ztcclient disable..................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined..................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined........................................................ 414 ZTC Command reference ........................................................................................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined......... 425 server access................................................................................................ Enabling manually SwUpdate............ 421 SwUpdate module.................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined...................................................................................................................................... 418 ztcclient update......... 420 TFTP server........................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.................... SWUPDATE set retry period.......................... Error! Bookmark not defined........ Error! Bookmark not defined.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... SWUPDATE sTART ....................... xiv .................... SWUPDATE set PASSWORD... 419 FTP server ..................... Error! Bookmark not defined.................................................................................................... SWUPDATE sTOP . SWUPDATE sTop TIME...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... SWUPDATE set login ...... Error! Bookmark not defined................................. 416 ZtcClient commands ....... Error! Bookmark not defined................ 420 Windows™ Loader...................................................................................................... 422 Start Time Scheduling... 417 ztcclient set ................. SwUpdate Command reference................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined........... Retry Period Scheduling ...................................................................... SWUPDATE set SERVER...................................

....................... ........................... 337 Figure 18........... IP packet or datagram............... 301 Figure 16........ Figure 4................................. 336 Figure 17...... ... Figure 29............... H......................... Pull-at-Startup ZTC phase.......... Security modules on AT-RG6xx Residential Gateway series. Phone --> AT-RG613/RG623 (A) --> H323 IP Phone.................................basic steps ......................................................... 422 Figure 28.... Domain Name System ............................. Address Conservation using NAT ........................................... 300 Figure 15........................... PPP is used by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to allow dial-up users to connect to the Internet.................................................................................... External access to an FTP server ...3ac standard...... ....... 170 Figure 11........... VoIP subsystem configuration .. Security interfaces on AT-RG6xx Residential Gateway series............... The Windows™ Loader........... Phone --> AT-RG613/RG623 (A) --> AT-RG613/RG623 (B) --> Phone................ Phone --> AT-RG613/RG623 (A) --> SIP IP Phone..... 367 Figure 20.................................................. Normal SwUpdate operation mode...................... 55 Figure 5.................................................. Firewall module and related objects.... ISDN Basic Access......................... Subdivision of the 32 bits of an Internet address into network and host fields for class A......... IP Packet overview................................ Tagged frame format according to IEEE 802.......................... ........................................................................................................ ...................................... Scheduled-pull ZTC phase......................................... DHCPCONF like SwUpdate operation mode..........basic steps.......... 131 Figure 10................................................................................... 414 Figure 25...........................................basic steps................................ SwUpdate scheduling example 1........ 35 Figure 2.............. Phone --> AT-RG613/RG623 (A) --> AT-RG613/RG623 (B) --> Phone........................................................................................................................................................... VLAN and IP layer architecture (the greyed area surrounds the entities always available in the system) .................................................. 276 Figure 14........................................... 338 Figure 19..................................................................................... ......................... 126 Figure 8... Error! Bookmark not defined..........................................................................323 Terminals on a Packet Network...... 61 Figure 6................................................................................................. ............................................................................................ 173 Figure 12.......................... B and C networks...............................................basic steps............. ................................ VoIP H323 subsystem configuration ........................................................................................... 423 Figure 30......................... 50 Figure 3.............. 257 Figure 13............ ...................................AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual xv List of figures Figure 1........ ZTC network architecture......... 54 Figure 4.......................... ............................................... VoIP subsystem configuration .......... SwUpdate scheduling example 2............. 374 Figure 23.............................................................................................. 373 Figure 22................................ 372 Figure 21............................ Error! Bookmark not defined...................................... 415 Figure 26.................. ..................................... IP interface over VLAN .................................................................................. Access to the Residential Gateway TFTP server......................................................................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined............................... 63 Figure 7............................................... 127 Figure 9..... 421 Figure 27................ 411 Figure 24.............................................

Internet and Internet Video. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 are Customer Promise Equipment (CPE) designed to provide data and VoIP access for multiple users in Small Office/Home Office (SOHO). fax. The VoIP residential gateway. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway. management and operation of the AT-RG613.) • two analog VoIP ports for connecting two analog telephones or faxes (ATRG613TX(J) models) plus one analogue FXO port for connecting to PBX or to Local Exchange (AT-RG613TXJ model only) • two digital VoIP ports for connecting up to 8 digital telephones or faxes (ATRG623TX model) • Switching function using the same analogue terminal from VoIP to PSTN . acts as an adapter for the conversion and management of all the necessary protocols for using advanced multimedia services: • Low cost telephony using Internet protocol (VoIP) • Fast Internet navigation • Video on demand • Interactive services The main features of the device are listed below: • one 10/100 BaseT Ethernet port for uplink (WAN port) • three 10/100 BaseT Ethernet ports for connecting user equipment (pc. printer. wanting very fast download combining broadband access with Internet telephony services.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual Preface Purpose of this Manual This manual is the complete reference to the configuration. AT-RG613. Using these intelligent equipment the customer can use broadband integrated services for telephony. personal computer). Branch Offices or customer residence. Small to Medium Enterprise (SME). and includes detailed descriptions of all management commands. etc. fitted with a number of ports for interconnection of traditional domestic appliances (telephone.

1q tag based VLAN • QoS packet prioritization support: per port. ingress port. • IGMP v1/v2 snooping for multicast packet filtering • PPPOE • DHCP Server and Relay • DNS Relay • Compliant with SIP protocol and H323 v2 protocol • TFTP . • Basic principles of computer networking. egress port. which has been logged with superuser privilege. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateways.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual xvii • IEEE 802. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with: • The topology of the network in which the Residential Gateway is to be used. network manager or communications technician who will configure and maintain AT-RG613.Network Time Protocol support Configuration and management of the device through: • Serial interface (CLI) • Telnet • SNMP • Zero Touch Configuration Moreover AT-RG613. 802. . AT-RG623 and AT-RG656. or who manages a network of AT-RG613.1p and DiffServ based • Programmable rate limiting.Trivial File Transfer Protocol support • NTP . Most of the commands described in this manual require superuser privilege and can only be entered from a terminal or port. • Administration and operation of a computer network. and interfaces. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 integrate advanced router features like: • Firewall • Dynamic Port Opening • Attack Detection and Blocking • Advanced Network Address Translation (NAT) Intended Audience This manual is intended for the system administrator. protocols and routing. per port basis.

PPPoE . Switch .describes SIP protocol. Chapter 5.describes general operation. Ethernet – describes the commands available to manage the Ethernet module Chapter 7.gives an introduction to the Domain Name System and describes how to configure the DNS client/relay services Chapter 12. . Chapter 10. Chapter 2. Chapter 1.describes the implementation of the Internet Protocol (IP) and all the commands related to IP network configuration management.describes all the supported features concerning the Firewall. the “Dynamic Port Opening”. the “Attack Detection and Blocking”.gives an introduction to the Network Time Protocol and describes how to configure the SNTP services Chapter 13.describes the different type of access ports for VoIP services and how to configure Analogue and Digital ports. Chapter 8. the related call processes and all the commands related to SIP. User and FDB configuration management. Chapter 17. Chapter 4.describes the commands related to the integrated Layer 2 Switch configuration. IP . System Management . Chapter 15.describes all the supported features concerning the IGMP Snooping and IGMP Proxy. Network Address Translation – NAT. Security and Firewall . VLAN . Transports – describes the commands available to manage the Transport module. Chapter 16.an introduction to AT-RG613. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol – DHCP . SNTP . VoIP SIP . VoIP Analogue and Digital Access ports .describes additional security features concerning NAT. Command Line Interface access and user management. VoIP H323 . Chapter 9. Domain Name System – DNS .describes the commands related to the VLAN support provided by Layer 2 Switch and IP system stack.describes ZTC Client support and related commands.describes Sw Update support and related commands. Voip MGCP Chapter 18. AT-RG623. VoIP QoS and Media Chapter 19. IGMP Snooping and IGMP Proxy . SwUpdate . AT-RG656 Residential Gateway. ZTC . the related call processes and all the commands related to H323 and User configuration management.describes H323 protocol.gives an introduction to the Point-To-Point Protocol over Ethernet and describes how to configure PPPoE services Chapter 14. Chapter 6.xviii Structure of this Manual This manual is organized into the following chapters: Preface .gives a brief introduction to the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol and describes how to configure the DHCP server/relay services Chapter 11. Chapter 20. Chapter 3.

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For further information please refer to the “SNMP Reference Manual”

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1

Standards and Protocols
Supported Standards and Protocols Table 1 lists the protocols and standards supported by the AT-RG613, AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway and the references where these protocols and standards are defined. Protocol/standard ARP Assigned Numbers DHCP DNS H.323 ICMP IEEE 802.2 IEEE 802.3 IGMP IP IP addressing ISDN Reference RFCs 826, 925. RFC 1700. RFCs 2131, 2132. RFCs 1034, 1035 ITU H.323, ITU H.225, ITU H.245 RFCs 792, 950. ANSI/IEEE Std 802.2-1985. ANSI/IEEE Std 802.3-1985, 802.3a, b, c, e-1988. RFCs 2236, 1112 RFCs 791, 821, 950, 951, 1009, 1055, 1122, 1144, 1349, 1542, 1812, 1858. RFC 1597. ITU-T I.430 (Basic Rate Access) ETSI ETS 300 402-1 (Layer 2) ETSI ETS 300 403-1 (Layer 3) RFCs 958, 1305, 1510. RFC 2516 RFC 1889, ITU G.711, ITU G.723, ITU G.729 RFC 2327 RFC 2543 RFCs 1155, 1157, 1213, 1239, 1315, 1398, 1493, 1514, 1573, 2233. RFC 793. RFCs 854–858, 932 1091. RFC 1350. RFC 768. IEEE Std 802.1Q

NTP PPP over Ethernet RTP-RTCP SDP SIP SNMP, MIBs TCP Telnet TFTP UDP VLAN

Table 1. Protocols and standards supported by AT-RG613, AT-RG623 and ATRG656 Residential Gateway. Obtaining Copies of Internet Protocols and Standards The Internet Protocols are defined in Requests For Comments (RFCs). RFCs are developed and published under the auspices of the Internet Engineering Steering

2

Preface

Group (IESG) of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). For more information about the IESG and IETF, visit the IETF web site at http://www.ietf.org/. For more information about RFCs and Internet Drafts (the starting point for RFCs), visit the RFC Editor web site at http://www.rfc-editor.org/. This site has information about the RFC standards process, archives of RFCs and current Internet Drafts, links to RFC indexes and search engines, and a list of other RFC repositories. RFCs can be obtained electronically from many RFC repositories, mail servers, World Wide Web (WWW), Gopher or WAIS sites. A good starting point for finding the nearest RFC repository is to point your Web browser at http://www.isi.edu/innotes/rfc-retrieval.txt.

Background Reading
For an introduction to the Internet Protocols refer to: DDN Protocol Handbook, Elizabeth J. Feinler, 1991, DDN Network Information Center, SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA. Email: nic@nic.ddn.mil. Internetworking with TCP/IP — Volume I: Principles, protocols and architecture (2nd Edition), Douglas E. Comer, 1991, Prentice-Hall International, Inc., New Jersey. ISBN 0-13-474321-0. Internetworking with TCP/IP — Volume II: Design, implementation, and internals, Douglas E. Comer and David L. Stevens, 1991, Prentice-Hall International, Inc., New Jersey. ISBN 0-13-472242-6. Internetworking with TCP/IP — Volume III: Client-server programming and applications, Douglas E. Comer and David L. Stevens, 1993, Prentice-Hall International, Inc., New Jersey. ISBN 0-13-474222-2. For a description of layered protocols refer to: Computer networks (2nd Edition), Andrew S. Tanenbaum, 1989, Prentice-Hall International, Inc., New Jersey. ISBN 0-13-162959-0. For an introduction to PPP refer to: Using and Managing PPP, Andrew Sun, O’Reilly; ISBN: 1565923219; (March 1999). For an introduction to network management refer to: The simple book — An introduction to management of TCP/IP-based Internets, Marshall T. Rose, 1991, Prentice-Hall International, Inc. ISBN 013812611-9. For an introduction to VOIP refer to: Internet Communications Using SIP, Henry Sinnreich, Alan B. Johnston. SIP: Understanding the Session Initiation Protocol, Alan B. Johnston. IP Telephony with H.323: Architectures for Unified Networks and Integrated Services, Vineet Kumar, Markku Korpi, Senthil Sengodan.

Publicly Accessible Documents
Allied Telesyn maintains an online archive of documents and files that customers can access via the World Wide Web or via anonymous FTP. For WWW access, point your Web browser at http://www.alliedtelesyn.com/.

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Conventions used in command definitions
A number of symbols, typographic and stylist conventions are used throughout this manual to help user in learning and to specify command syntax (see Table 2). This typeface ALL CAPS Is used for Command keywords to be typed as shown. Generally, keywords may be abbreviated to the shortest string that is unambiguous within the current context. Italics are used for denoting a user-specified value. Angle brackets denote compulsory command-line parameters or values. Square brackets denote optional command-line parameters or values.. Curly brackets, in conjunction with vertical bars, denote a set of alternative commandline parameters or values.

italics < > [ ] { | | }

Table 2. Typographic conventions used in this manual. Commands are described under Command Reference within the section to which they apply.

4

Chapter 1 – System Management

Chapter 1

System Management

This chapter provides some basic instructions about how login to the CLI and the different types of user access.

Logging into the CLI
It's possible to use two different connections in order to access the Command Line Interface:

Serial Connection
It's possible to access the CLI interface through a serial connection using a terminal emulator program like, for example, Windows Hyper Terminal with the following default parameters: • bit rate: 38400 bps • • • • data bits: parity: stop bits: flow control: 8 none 1 none

TCP/IP connection
It's possible to access the CLI interface through a TCP/IP connection by opening a Telnet session with the following default parameters: • ip address: 192.168.1.1 (factory default) • telnet port: 23

As soon the connection is established, a login and password are requested. The following default values give superuser access to the CLI commands and must be used only by administrators to configure the system and to create user access with restricted privileges: login: manager

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5

password: friend

Command Line Interface and Console
The CLI is the Command Line Interface used in the AT-RG613, AT-RG623 and ATRG656 Residential Gateway to configure and manage the unit. It provides full access to the following system modules: console dhcp client dhcp relay dhcp server dns client dns relay ethernet firewall igmp ip nat pppoe security sntp client switch system transport user vlan voip webserver ztc client

Webserver
The AT-RG613, AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 are designed to provide the ability to configure the system using a Graphical User Interface (GUI) instead of - or together with - the Command Line Interface (for future release). To keep the system design open to these future improvements, all CLI commands are actually processed by the webserver module that acts like a parsing and pre-processing layer between the user and the software module the command refers to. For this reason, syntax errors due to incorrect CLI commands, typically report the webserver source as reference for the cause of the error.

Webserver commands are accessible from the Command Line Interface for users with superuser access permission. Because the webserver is still under development it is strongly discouraged to make any changes to this module because this could lead to system instability or could block access to the command line.

6

Chapter 1 – System Management

File System
The AT-RG613, AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 application processes require that configuration information be accessible when they start up, and that configuration changes are retained for future operation. To fulfill the above requirements, two processes are provided, namely the ‘In Store File System’ and the ‘FLASH File System’. These two processes are referred to as isfs and flashfs, respectively, in this document. The two file systems provide a standard file interface to application processes. The isfs provides for volatile, run-time file storage; whereas the flashfs provides nonvolatile file storage. The critical period for such a system occurs when the flash memory itself is being updated, as a power failure could result in data corruption and hence an inoperable system. In the AT-RG613, AT-RG623 and AT-RG656, flash memory is divided into three main areas: BOOT code System configuration information Run-time images and their configuration information

Boot code
The Boot ROM program normally resides in flashfs, in a reserved portion of the first flash device. This code is run when the system is first booted and provides self-test code as well as the ability to load the main run-time images. The Boot ROM area is not normally accessible for either reading or writing by flashfs, so is rarely, if ever, rewritten.

System configuration information
System configuration information includes information such as the system MAC address. This information is rarely, if ever, updated once it has been set.

Run-time images
The flashfs file system provides permanent storage of files and is not normally used other than at start of day or when re-writing the flash. In addition to configuration files, flashfs stores the software image, which is loaded by the BOOT ROM after system restart. After system restart and during system initialization, flashfs files are copied into isfs so that they are accessible by application processes. Typically, applications use the isfs files to store their configuration data. Changes made to the configuration can be written back into isfs, and subsequently flashfs, with the config save command.

This Administration Manual doesn't cover console commands. To change user privileges. The flashfs configuration files can be considered the ‘master’ copies.can use CLI commands. It is used only for specific maintenance purposes. and the isfs files the runtime copies. Can access the full console command set. The Command Line Interface doesn't allow access to the flashfs filing system or to the isfs in store file system because this is not required in typical user situations. To create new user accounts.can use CLI commands. To list the current user or login accounts. use the system set user access or system set login access commands. in store file system isfs and special debug functions can be access through a nested command line called the console. The accounts created by these commands default to low privileges. Can also set up user login accounts. all configuration files in isfs are written back to flashfs irrespective of whether they have changed or not. Can access to limited console commands. . save backup configuration and restore factory settings. super user .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 7 During a flashsfs update. Cannot access to console commands. engineer user . use the system list user or system list login commands. Normally the software image is not rewritten. The Flash file system flashfs. use the system add user or system add login commands. The console command line can be used only if you have appropriate access permissions and is typically hidden from the user. If the isfs copies are written back to the flashfs. Access permissions to the CLI There are three access level options for CLI users that provide different levels of allowed operations: default user . the current settings will be will be preserved.can use CLI commands. respectively.

Only a Super user can use this command.8 Chapter 1 – System Management System Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. . System CLI commands The table below lists the system commands provided by the CLI: Command SYSTEM ADD USER SYSTEM ADD LOGIN SYSTEM CONFIG BACKUP SYSTEM CONFIG RESTORE SYSTEM CONFIG SAVE SYSTEM DELETE LOGIN SYSTEM DELETE USER SYSTEM INFO SYSTEM LIST ERRORS SYSTEM LIST USERS SYSTEM LIST LOGINS SYSTEM LOG SYSTEM LOG ENABLE|DISABLE SYSTEM LOG LIST SYSTEM NAME SYSTEM RESTART SYSTEM SET LOGIN ACCESS SYSTEM SET LOGIN MAYCONFIGURE SYSTEM SET LOGIN MAYDIALIN SYSTEM SET USER ACCESS SYSTEM SET USER MAYCONFIGURE SYSTEM SET USER MAYDIALIN SYSTEM ADD USER Syntax SYSTEM ADD USER <name> ["comment"] Description This command adds a user (typically a PPP user) to the system. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to configure and manage the System module.

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 9 Default Setting The default settings in the table below are applied to new accounts that are added using the system add user command.) Option dialin to the system login to the system configuration permissions access permissions Default Setting disabled enabled enabled default user . Default value N/A comment No comment added Example --> system add user ckearns ["Typical user"] See also SYSTEM SET USER ACCESS SYSTEM SET USER MAYDIALIN SYSTEM SET USER MAYCONFIGURE SYSTEM LIST USERS SYSTEM DELETE USER SYSTEM ADD LOGIN Syntax SYSTEM ADD LOGIN <name> ["comment"] Description This command adds a user to the system. An optional comment about the user that is displayed when you type the commands system list users and system list logins. Default setting The default settings in the table below are applied to new accounts that are added using the system add login command. (A different set of defaults are applied to a new account added using the SYSTEM ADD USER command. Only a Superuser can use this command.) Option dialin to the system login to the system configuration permissions access permissions Default Setting enabled disabled disabled default user Options The following table gives the range of values for each option that can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option name Description A unique user name made up of more than one character that identifies an individual user and lets the user access the system. (A different set of defaults are applied to a new account added using the SYSTEM ADD LOGIN command.

To specify the file that you want to save configuration information in. Default Value If a filename is not specified. the backup copy is lost. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the file that you want to save your configuration in. The filename MUST be preceded by either //isfs/ or //flashfs/. type //isfs/ or //flashfs/ (depending on which directory the backup file is stored in) followed by a filename value. Upon turning off the unit or simply rebooting the unit. An optional comment about the user that is displayed when you type the commands SYSTEM LIST USERS and SYSTEM LIST LOGINS.backup file by default. If you do not specify a filename. To make the backup copy permanent.10 Chapter 1 – System Management Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). only a Superuser can use this command. the configuration is saved in the //isfs/im. the configuration is saved in //isfs/im.backup filename . To prevent a user from overwriting the system with their own configuration. the backup copy is created in a volatile filesystem (isfs).conf. By default. Option Description A unique login name made up of more than one character that identifies an individual user and lets the user access the system.conf. it's necessary to specify the target flashfs file system plus the filename. Default value name N/A comment Blank (No comment added) Example --> system add login ckearns "temporary contractor" See also SYSTEM DELETE LOGIN SYSTEM LIST LOGINS SYSTEM CONFIG BACKUP Syntax SYSTEM CONFIG BACKUP [filename] Description This command saves the current system configuration to a file.

Only Super users can use this command. • Super users can restore their backup configuration from a different file by typing //isfs/ or //flashfs/ (depending on which directory the backup file is stored in) followed by a filename value. use the following command: --> system config backup //flashfs/mybackup Saving to backup configuration //flashfs/mybackup See also SYSTEM CONFIG RESTORE SYSTEM CONFIG SAVE SYSTEM CONFIG RESTORE Syntax SYSTEM CONFIG RESTORE {BACKUP|[filename]|FACTORY} Description This command tries to restore all system modules.conf. • Super users can restore the factory defaults from //isfs/im. if you do not have all modules installed. The name of a file containing an alternative backup configuration to that stored in the //isfs/im. the CLI will display a message telling you which modules could not be restored.conf. Engineers and Default users can restore their backup configuration from the //isfs/im.conf.conf. The filename MUST be preceded by either //isfs/ or //flashfs/. use the following command: --> system config backup Saving to backup configuration //isfs/im.conf.factory.backup file. Default Value N/A filename N/A FACTORY N/A Example --> system config restore backup Restoring backup configuration //isfs/im. Option BACKUP Description Restores the backup configuration from the im. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).backup file.backup file. The following options are available: • Superusers.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 11 Example To make a backup copy of the current system configuration with a default flename.conf.factory file.backup .backup To make a backup copy of the current system configuration with a user defined flename. Restores the factory default configuration from the im.conf. Only Super users can use this command.

.. SYSTEM DELETE LOGIN Sy/ntax SYSTEM DELETE LOGIN <name> Description This command deletes a user that has been added to the system using the SYSTEM ADD LOGIN command. Engineer and Super users can use this command.conf file in flashfs. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). This allows all users to create their own backup files.12 Chapter 1 – System Management See also SYSTEM CONFIG BACKUP SYSTEM CONFIG SAVE SYSTEM CONFIG SAVE Syntax SYSTEM CONFIG SAVE Description This command saves the system configuration in the im. -->Saving configuration. Only a Super user can use this command. Default. Option N/A Example --> system delete login ckearns See also SYSTEM ADD LOGIN SYSTEM DELETE USER Syntax SYSTEM DELETE USER <name> Description This command deletes a user that has been added to the system using the SYSTEM ADD USER command or the SYSTEM ADD LOGIN command. Only a Super user can use this command.. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).. Example --> system config save Wait for ‘configurataion saved’ message. See also SYSTEM CONFIG BACKUP SYSTEM CONFIG RESTORE Super users can list all configuration files using the console command fm ls. . Description name Default value The name of an existing user. -->Configuration saved.

URL: http://www. Default Value N/A Example --> system delete user ckearns See also SYSTEM ADD USER SYSTEM ADD LOGIN SYSTEM INFO Syntax SYSTEM INFO Description This command displays the vendor ID.allied-telesis. The error log contains the following information: • the time (in minutes) that an error occured. or invalid port name) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- . calculated from the start of your login session • the module that was affected by the error • a brief description of the error itself Example --> system list errors Error log: When | Who | What ------------|------------|------------------------------------------------104 | webserver | webserver:Failed to create node type 'ImRfc1483' 104 | webserver | webserver:Invalid argument:Failed to open port a4 (may already be in use.jp/ MAC address: 10:20:30:40:50:85 Hardware ver: RG613 A0 Software ver: 1-0-0_35 Build type: RELEASE System Name: SYSTEM LIST ERRORS Syntax SYSTEM LIST ERRORS Description This command displays a system error log. URL.co.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 13 Option name Description The name of an existing user.K. Example --> system info Global System Configuration: Vendor: Allied Telesis K. base MAC address and hardware and software version details of the current Residential Gateway system.

14 Chapter 1 – System Management See also SYSTEM LIST USERS SYSTEM LIST LOGINS SYSTEM LIST OPENFILES Syntax SYSTEM LIST OPENFILES <name> Description This command allows you to display low-level debug information about specific open file handles. | Dialin | Level | Comment -----|------------|----------|----------|------------|--------------------1 | admin | ENABLED | disabled | superuser | Default admin user --------------------------------------------------------------------------- . The same information is displayed by the SYSTEM LIST LOGINS command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option name Example --> system qid console console console Description The name of a file which has open file handles associated with it. engineer or super user) • comment (any comments that were included when the user was added to the system) Example --> system list users Users: May May Access ID | Name | Conf. Default Value N/A list openfiles bun devuse appuse colour 0000004b 00000000 00400000 00000027 00000000 00400000 00000003 00000000 00400000 flags 3 5 5 lasterrno 0 0 0 See also SYSTEM LOG ENABLE|DISABLE SYSTEM LIST USERS Syntax SYSTEM LIST USERS Description This command displays a list of users and logins added to the system using the SYSTEM ADD USER and SYSTEM ADD LOGIN commands. The list contains the following information: • user ID number • user name • configuration permissions (enabled or disabled) • dialin permissions (enabled or disabled) • access level (default.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Setting a level also implicitly displays the level(s) below it. engineer or super user) • comment (any comments that were included when the user was added to the system) Example --> system list logins Users: May May Access ID | Name | Conf. The list contains the following information: • user ID number • user name • configuration permissions (enabled or disabled) • dial in permissions (enabled or disabled) • access level (default. Non-fatal errors are displayed. | Dialin | Level | Comment -----|------------|----------|----------|------------|-------------------1 | admin | ENABLED | disabled | superuser | Default admin user -------------------------------------------------------------------------See also SYSTEM LIST ERRORS SYSTEM LIST USERS SYSTEM LOG Syntax SYSTEM LOG {NOTHING|WARNINGS|INFO|TRACE|ENTRYEXIT|ALL} Description This command sets the level of output that is displayed by the CLI for various modules. Option NOTHING WARNINGS INFO Description No extra output is displayed. The same information is displayed by the SYSTEM LIST USERS command. Also displays the values for the warnings Default Value N/A N/A N/A .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 15 See also SYSTEM LIST ERRORS SYSTEM LIST LOGINS SYSTEM LIST LOGINS Syntax SYSTEM LIST LOGINS Description This command displays a list of logins and users added to the system using the SYSTEM ADD LOGIN and SYSTEM ADD USER commands. Certain program messages are displayed.

All output is displayed. info and warnings options. and on the trace statements in the module which are executed. Each individual module has its own specific module category (see Examples). The command is used for debugging purposes. The output produced when a particular option is enabled depends on that option. For example. The available values for module and category are displayed by the SYSTEM LOG LIST command. The current list of supported modules is RIP and IP. . trace. it does not affect ip udp.16 Chapter 1 – System Management option. Also displays the values for info and warnings options. Brief details of the packet are displayed to identify it. see SYSTEM LOG LIST. The general purpose of this tracing is to: • show how data packets pass through the system • demonstrate how packets are processed and what they contain • display any error conditions that occur • For example ip rawip tracing shows that an IP packet has been received. sent or discarded due to an error. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). TRACE Detailed trace output is displayed. Also displays the values for trace. A message is displayed every time a function call is entered or left. The RIP and IP modules provide separate categories which are enabled and disabled independently. To display a list of modules and categories and their enable/disable status. info and warnings options. N/A ENTRYEXIT N/A ALL N/A Example --> system log all SYSTEM LOG ENABLE|DISABLE Syntax SYSTEM LOG {ENABLE|DISABLE} RIP {ERRORS|RX|TX} SYSTEM LOG {ENABLE|DISABLE} IP {ICMP|RAWIP|UDP|TCP|ARP|SOCKET} Description This command enables/disables the tracing support output that is displayed by the CLI for a specific module and module category. Also displays the values for entryexit. and so on. if you enable ip rawip.

Disables tracing support output for a specified specific module and module category. Option module Description The name of a module that exists in your current image build.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 17 Option ENABLE Description Enables tracing support output for a specified specific module and module category. Default Value N/A Examples system log list --> system log list rip errors (ENABLED) rip rx (disabled) rip tx (disabled) ip icmp (disabled) ip rawip (ENABLED) ip udp (disabled) ip tcp (disabled) ip arp (disabled) ip socket (disabled) system log list <module> --> system log list ip ip icmp (disabled) ip rawip (ENABLED) ip udp (disabled) ip tcp (disabled) . This can be either RIP or IP. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). The SYSTEM LOG LIST MODULE command displays the tracing options for an individual module specified in the command. Default Value disable DISABLE Examples RIP --> system log enable rip rx enabled logging for the receiving of RIP packets See also SYSTEM LOG LIST SYSTEM LOG SYSTEM LOG LIST Syntax SYSTEM LOG LIST [<module>] Description The system log list command displays the tracing options for the modules available in the current image that you are using. Both commands display the current status of the tracing options set using the command SYSTEM LOG ENABLE|DISABLE.

Example --> system restart SYSTEM SET LOGIN ACCESS Syntax SYSTEM SET LOGIN <name> ACCESS {DEFAULT|ENGINEER|SUPERUSER} Description This command sets the access permissions of a user who has been added to the system using the SYSTEM ADD LOGIN command. Default Value none Example --> system name myRG600 SYSTEM RESTART Syntax SYSTEM RESTART Description This command restarts the Residential Gateway. Option name DEFAULT/ ENGINEER/ SUPERUSER Description The name of an existing user. Option sys-name Description The name of the system. Access permissions for a user. To show the current system name use the system info command.18 Chapter 1 – System Management ip ip arp (disabled) socket (disabled) See also SYSTEM LOG SYSTEM LOG ENABLE|DISABLE SYSTEM NAME Syntax SYSTEM NAME {NONE | <sys-name>] Description This command sets the system name. Only a Super user can use this command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Default Value N/A Default Example --> system set login ckearns access engineer . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 19 See also SYSTEM SET LOGIN MAYCONFIGURE SYSTEM SET LOGIN MAYDIALIN For more information on the types of user access permissions. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option name ENABLED/ DISABLED Description The name of an existing user. Only a Super user can use this command. Only a Super user can use this command. Determines whether or not a user can configure the system. see Access permissions to the CLI. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). SYSTEM SET LOGIN MAYCONFIGURE Syntax SYSTEM SET LOGIN <name> MAYCONFIGURE {ENABLED|DISABLED} Description This command sets configuration permissions for a user who has been added to the system using the ADD SYSTEM LOGIN or the ADD SYSTEM USER command. Default Value N/A disabled Example --> system set login ckearns maydialin enabled See also SYSTEM SET LOGIN ACCESS SYSTEM SET LOGIN MAYCONFIGURE . Default Value N/A enabled Example --> system set login ckearns mayconfigure disabled See also SYSTEM SET LOGIN ACCESS SYSTEM SET LOGIN MAYDIALIN SYSTEM SET LOGIN MAYDIALIN Syntax SYSTEM SET LOGIN <name> MAYDIALIN {ENABLED|DISABLED} Description This command sets dialin permissions for a user who has been added to the system using the SYSTEM ADD LOGIN command. Determines whether or not a user can dialin to the system. Option name ENABLED/ DISABLED Description The name of an existing user.

Option name DEFAULT/ ENGINEER/ SUPERUSER Description The name of an existing user. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Only a Super user can use this command. Only a Super user can use this command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Allows you to set the access permissions for a user. Option name ENABLED/ DISABLED Description The name of an existing user.20 Chapter 1 – System Management SYSTEM SET USER ACCESS Syntax SYSTEM SET USER <name> ACCESS {DEFAULT|ENGINEER|SUPERUSER} Description This command sets the access permissions of a user who has been added to the system using the SYSTEM ADD USER command. Default Value N/A disabled Example --> system set user ckearns mayconfigure enabled See also SYSTEM SET USER ACCESS SYSTEM SET USER MAYDIALIN SYSTEM SET USER MAYDIALIN Syntax SYSTEM SET USER <name> MAYDIALIN {ENABLED|DISABLED} . Determines whether or not a user can configure the system. Default Value N/A default Example --> system set user ckearns access default See also SYSTEM SET USER MAYCONFIGURE SYSTEM SET USER MAYDIALIN SYSTEM SET USER MAYCONFIGURE Syntax SYSTEM SET USER <name> MAYCONFIGURE {ENABLED|DISABLED} Description This command sets configuration permissions for a user who has been added to the system using the ADD SYSTEM USER command.

Determines whether or not a user can dialin to the system. Option name ENABLED/ DISABLED Description The name of an existing user. Default Value N/A enabled Example --> system set user ckearns maydialin enabled See also SYSTEM SET USER ACCESS SYSTEM SET USER MAYCONFIGURE .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 21 Description This command sets dial in permissions for a user who has been added to the system using the SYSTEM ADD USER command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Only a Super user can use this command.

AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to configure and manage system Users. Login: USER PASSWORD Syntax USER PASSWORD Description This command allows you to change your user password. User CLI commands The table below lists the user commands provided by the CLI: Command USER LOGOUT USER PASSWORD USER CHANGE USER LOGOUT Syntax USER LOGOUT Description This command logs you out of the system. Example --> user logout Logging out. Example --> user password Enter new password ***** Again to verify ***** USER CHANGE Syntax USER CHANGE <name> Description This command allows you to change your login to that of another named user. you lose your Super user privileges and inherit the access permissions of either the Default or Engineer user. Default. Engineer and Super users can use this command. When you change your login to that of a user with Default or Engineer access permissions. Default. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified . Engineer and Super users can use this command. Super users can use this command.22 Chapter 1 – System Management User Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613.

See also SYSTEM ADD USER . Default Value N/A Example --> user change admin You are now logged in as user `admin' ..AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 23 with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option name Description A unique login name made up of more than one character that identifies an individual user and lets the user access the system..

Web Server CLI commands The table below lists the Web Server commands provided by the CLI: Command WEBSERVER CLEAR STATS WEBSERVER ENABLE|DISABLE WEBSERVER SET INTERFACE WEBSERVER SET MANAGEMENTIP WEBSERVER SET PORT WEBSERVER SET UPNPPORT WEBSERVER SHOW INFO WEBSERVER SHOW STATS WEBSERVER CLEAR STATS Syntax WEBSERVER CLEAR STATS Description This command sets all of the Web Server process counters to 0. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option ENABLE DISABLE Description Enables the Web Server process. Disables the Web Server process.24 Chapter 1 – System Management Web Server Command Reference This chapter describes the Web Server CLI commands. Example --> webserver clear stats See also WEBSERVER SHOW INFO WEBSERVER ENABLE|DISABLE Syntax WEBSERVER {ENABLE|DISABLE} Description This command enables or disables the Web Server process. By default. the Web Server process is enabled. Default Value enable .

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description The only IP address that the Web Server will allow connection requests from. The IP address is displayed in the following format: 192.g.3 .0 Example --> webserver set managementip 192.168.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 25 Example --> webserver disable WebServer is disabled WEBSERVER SET INTERFACE Syntax WEBSERVER SET INTERFACE <interface> Description This command specifies the name of an IP interface that the system will use for UPnP (Universal Plug and Play) communication with other devices on the local area network.0. Option interface Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. You must save your configuration (see SYSTEM CONFIG SAVE) and restart your system (see SYSTEM RESTART) to activate the Web Server settings. To display interface names.0). (e. Universal Plug and Play support is for future releases. use the ip list interfaces command.0.0. from an IP address that is used by a management device) or from any IP address (by setting the IP address to 0.168. Default Value Iplan Example --> webserver set interface ip See also WEBSERVER SET UPNPPORT WEBSERVER SET MANAGEMENTIP Syntax WEBSERVER SET MANAGEMENTIP {ip-address} Description This command causes connections to the Webserver to be allowed from only one IP address.102.3 Default Value ip-address 0.0.102.

Option port Description A valid port number that must be between 0 and 65535. Default Value 80 Example --> webserver set port 100 HTTP port number is 100 See also WEBSERVER SET UPNPPORT WEBSERVER SET UPNPPORT Syntax WEBSERVER SET UPNPPORT <port> Description This command sets the TCP port number that the Web Server process will use for UPnP communication.168. You must save your configuration (see SYSTEM CONFIG SAVE) and restart your system (see SYSTEM RESTART) to activate the Web Server settings.26 Chapter 1 – System Management Management IP address is 192. Universal Plug and Play support is for future releases. Option port Description A valid UPnP port number that must be between 0 and 65535. Default Value N/A Example --> webserver set upnpport 280 See also WEBSERVER SET PORT WEBSERVER SHOW INFO Syntax WEBSERVER SHOW INFO .102.3 WEBSERVER SET PORT Syntax WEBSERVER SET PORT <port> Description This command sets the HTTP port number that the Web Server process will use for accepting connections (from a WEB Browser). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 27 Description This command displays the following information about the Web Server process: • EmWeb (Embedded Web Server) release details • Web Server enabled status (true or false) • Interface set • HTTP port set • UPnP port set • Management IP address Example --> webserver show info Web server configuration: EmWeb release: R6_0_0E_ISOS Enabled: true Interface: lan HTTP port: 80 UPnP port: 280 Management IP address: 1.4 See also WEBSERVER CLEAR STATS WEBSERVER SHOW STATS Syntax WEBSERVER SHOW STATS Description This command tells you how many bytes have been transmitted and received by the Web Server.2.3. Example --> webserver show stats Web Server statistics: Bytes transmitted: 2122 Bytes received: 0 See also WEBSERVER SHOW INFO .

The Console module is used only for engineer troubleshooting and is not supported a as user accessible module. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to access the Console module.28 Chapter 1 – System Management Console Access Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. Console access CLI commands The table below lists the console access commands provided by the CLI: Command CONSOLE ENABLE CONSOLE PROCESS CONSOLE ENABLE Syntax CONSOLE ENABLE Description This command allows you to enter console mode in order to use the console commands. Only Super users can use this command. Option Description A usable console command. Example --> console enable Switching from CLI to console mode . You cannot enter blacklisted console commands using this CLI command.type `exit' to return See also CONSOLE PROCESS CONSOLE PROCESS Syntax CONSOLE PROCESS <console command> Description This command allows you to enter a single usable console command without switching to console mode. You can find a list of usable commands with a link to further information about each usable command at the start of each chapter in this manual. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Default Value console command N/A Example The following console process example enters the usable console command. bridge . Users with Engineer or Super user access can use this command.

This is a special console command to allow Super users to return to the CLI from the console. When you want to exit console mode and return to the CLI.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 29 portfilter: --> console process bridge portfilter portfilter 2 all portfilter 3 all See also CONSOLE ENABLE CONSOLE COMMAND . Syntax EXIT Description This console command allows you to return to the CLI after you have entered console mode using the command CONSOLE ENABLE.EXIT This console command has not been replaced by a CLI command. Only Super users can use this command. you need to type exit in the root of the console. Example --> exit Returning to CLI from console See also CONSOLE ENABLE .

QoS priority.1p and DiffServ based • Integrated look-up engine with dedicated 1 K unicast MAC addresses • Automatic address learning. 802. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 residential gateways include an integrated layer 2 managed switch providing 5 Fast Ethernet transceivers supporting 10Base-T and 100Base-TX modes. • IGMP v1/v2 snooping for multicast packet filtering • QoS packet prioritization support: per port. The layer 2 switch uses one 100Base-TX port as an internal port to communicate to the central processor in order to access layer 3 services such as routing. VoIP signaling and traffic. per port basis • Programmable rate limiting. per port basis. VLAN tagging and MIB counters.1q tag based VLAN (up to 16 VLANs) • VLAN ID tag/untag options. It contains a 1K unicast address table plus switching information. ingress port. egress port.30 Chapter 2 – Switch Chapter 2 Switch Introduction The AT-RG613. . firewall and NAT security modules. address aging and address migration • Full duplex IEEE 802.3x & half-duplex back pressure flow control • Automatic MDI/MDI-X crossover for plug-and-play on all the ports Switch Core Functional Overview Address Look-up The internal look up table stores MAC addreses and their associated information. The following is the complete set of features available in the switch module: • IEEE 802. high performance memory bandwidth (wire speed) and an extensive feature set including tag port based VLAN.

• the received packet is good: the packet has no receive errors and is of legal length. The look up engine inserts the qualified Source Address into the table. the look up engine removes the record from the table. In this case the look up engine updates the existing record in the table with the new source port information. Aging The look up engine updates the timestamp information of a record whenever the corresponding Source Address appears. The 12 bit VID value is converted to a 4 bit FID value (an internal value that represents up to 16 VLANs). Forwarding If 802. The aging period can be set to normal (300 seconds) or fast (800 usecs) or can be disabled. the packet has no receive errors and is of legal length. • If the packet is tagged with a non-null VID.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 31 Learning The internal look up engine updates its table with a new entry in the following conditions: • the received packet's Source Address does not exist in the look up table. the packet will be dropped and no address learning will take place. the switch assign a VID to every ingress packet. The time stamp is used in the aging process. • If the VID is not valid.1q VLAN mode is enabled. The look up engine constantly performs the aging process and is continuously removing expired records. along with the port number and VLAN information (see below). If a record is not updated for a period of time. • the received packet is good. The look up process will start from the VLAN table look up. it updates the table accordingly. If so. Migration The internal look up engine monitors whether a station has moved. • If the packet is untagged or tagged with a null VID. the last entry of the table is deleted for the new entry. To see the current look up entries use the SWITCH SHOW FDB command. Use the SWITCH SET AGINGTIMER command to change aging period or use SWITCH DISABLE AGINGTIMER to disable aging. . Migration happens in the following conditions: • the received packet Source Address is in the table but the associated source port information is different. If the table is full. the VID in the tag will be used. the packet is assigned to the default port VID of the ingress port.

Switching engine The integrated layer 2 switch features a high performance switching engine to move data to and from the MAC's. • If FID+SA lookup fails. Rate limiting support The integrated layer 2 switch supports hardware rate limiting on "receive" and "transmit" independently on a per port basis. packet buffers. This resource is shared between all five ports (4 ports user accessible and one internal reserved for communication to system main processor). The maximum routing rate can be selected between 1. It also supports rate limiting in a priority or non-priority environment. the counter is cleared to zero. the flow control will be triggered. the packet will be broadcasted to all the members (excluding the ingress port) of the VLAN. the forwarding FID is retrieved. and the rate limit mechanism starts to count the number of bytes during this interval. All the ports are allowed to use any free buffer in the buffer pool. the flow control will be triggered. The rate limit starts from 0kbps and goes up to the line rate in steps of 32 kbps. Limitation on the maximum routing rate is necessary to preserve system resources for high priority tasks like VoIP and IGMP proxy. the switch will stop receiving packets on the port until the "one second" interval expires.0Kfps with 0.0Kfps (Kilo frame per second) and 6.5Kfps granularity. This is structured as 512 buffers. The switch uses one second as an interval. The FID+DA look up determines the forwarding ports. . Layer 3 routing rate limiting The integrated layer 2 switch is able to limit traffic that goes to the Residential Gateway network processor where routing tasks need to be performed. To set the maximum routing rate limit use the SWITCH SET ROUTING-LIMIT command. For receive.32 Chapter 2 – Switch • If the VID is valid. It operates in store and forward mode while the efficient switching mechanism reduces overall latency The integrated layer 2 switch has a 64kB internal frame buffer pool. If the rate limit is set to less than 128kpbs and the byte counter is 2Kbytes below the limit. Selecting NONE equals to disable the support for routing rate limiting. the FID+SA will be learned (ie added to the forwarding table). In this case there is no filter to the traffic arriving to the network processor and system stability could be affected if traffic is too high. Both the combinations FID+DA (Destination Address) and FID+SA (Source Address) are looked for in the forwarding table. • If FID+DA lookup fails to find a match. There is an option provided for flow control to prevent packet loss. At the beginning of each interval. If the rate limit is set to 128kbps or greater and the byte counter is 8Kbytes below the limit. if the number of bytes exceeds the programmed limit. with each buffer 128 bytes in size.

even desktop systems. the Default Priority value of that port is assigned to the User Priority field in the outgoing frames. 802. routers.1p implementation defines this prioritization field. which allows packets to be grouped into various traffic classes. high priority and low priority. the frames are sent to the high priority egress queue. The VLAN tag has two parts: The VLAN ID (12-bit) and User Priority (3-bit). respectively. Class of Service and Differentiated Services The integrated layer 2 switch support two Class of Service (CoS) mechanisms: IEEE 802.1P signaling technique is an IEEE endorsed specification for prioritizing network traffic at the data-link/MAC sublayer (OSI Reference Model Layer 2).1p traffic is simply classified and sent to the destination.1p tagging (Layer 2) and Differentiated Services (DS) as an advanced architecture of ToS (Layer 3). otherwise frames are sent to low priority egress queue If the egress port is tagged. The VLAN tag carries VLAN information. • if the received frames are untagged.1Q standard specifies a tag that appends to a MAC frame. The 802. the User Priority field in the TAG header is compared with an internal value in the switch called the Base Priority: • if the received priority value is equal to or greater than the switch Base Priority. traffic is prioritized into two egress queues.1p Traffic Priority The IEEE 802. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 residential gateway. the frames are sent to the high priority egress queue. according the following logic: • if the received frames are tagged. can set these priority bits in the three-bit User Priority field. To show the current switch Base Priority and port Default Priority values. The User Priority field was never defined in the VLAN standard. the Default Priority value of the egress port is compared with the switch Base Priority: • if port Default Priority is equal or greater than switch Base Priority. Switches. . 802. no bandwidth reservations are established. use the SWITCH SHOW and SWITCH SHOW PORT commands.1p is a spin-off of the 802. The 802. On the AT-RG613.1q (VLANs tagging) standard and they work in tandem (see Figure 1). the layer 2 switch discards packets addressed to the network processor in order to force the average traffic rate to be below the target rate. otherwise frames are sent to low priority egress queue.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 33 If the number of frame per seconds that need to be routed to the network processor are higher than the selected maximu rate. 802. servers.

high priority and low priority. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway it is possible to assign frames to two different egress priority queues. To change the current DSCP priority scheme. according to the DSCP value in the IP header of the received frames. On the AT-RG613. use the SWITCH SET QOS command. Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) The DSCP octet in the IP header classifies the packet service level. Currently. only the first six bits are used.34 Chapter 2 – Switch To change the switch Base Priority and port Default Priority use the SWITCH SET PRIORITY and SWITCH SET PORT commands. use the SWITCH SHOW QOS command. The DSCP replaces the ToS Octet in the Ipv4 header (see Figure 1). Two bits of the DSCP are reserved for future definitions. . This allows up to 64 different classifications for service levels. To show the current DSCP priority scheme. respectively.

1500 octects IP Payload Total Length 4 octects FRAM CHECK SEQ E UENCE Identification flags fragm offset ent TTL Protocol Header Checksum Protocol Source IP Address Destination IP Address Figure 1.1Q TagType TAGCO NTRO INFO ATION L RM M CLIENT LENGTH/TYPE AC M Header AC 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 CFI 0 0 0 0 TAG header user priority VLANidentifier VID(12 bit) IP Header IP Header Version precedence D T IHL R M 0 TO S 42 . . IP Packet overview.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 35 7 octects 1 octects 6 octects 6 octects 2 octects 2 octects 2 octects PREAM BLE START FRAM DELIM E ITER DESTINATIO ADDRESS N SO URCE ADDRESS LENGTH/TYPE = 802.

switch CLI commands The table below lists the switch commands provided by the CLI: Command SWITCH DISABLE AGEINGTIMER SWITCH DISABLE LEARNING SWITCH DISABLE PORT SWITCH ENABLE AGEINGTIMER SWITCH ENABLE LEARNING SWITCH ENABLE PORT SWITCH RESET SWITCH SET PORT SWITCH SET PRIORITY SWITCH SET QOS SWITCH SET ROUTING-LIMIT SWITCH SHOW SWITCH SHOW FDB SWITCH SHOW PORT SWITCH SHOW QOS SWITCH DISABLE AGEINGTIMER Syntax SWITCH DISABLE AGEINGTIMER Description This command stops the aging timer used by the look up engine to remove expired fdb entries.36 Chapter 2 – Switch Switch Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the Residential Gateway to configure and manage switch ports and the address look up table. Example --> switch disable ageingtimer See also SWITCH ENABLE AGEINGTIMER SWITCH SHOW . use the SWITCH SHOW command. To show the current switch status. If the ageing timer is disabled. the look up entries in the fdb are kept permanently until the SWITCH ENABLE AGEINGTIMER command entered or the switch is reset.

the jamming signal used for flow control on half duplex ports will be disabled. . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the SWITCH ENABLE LEARNING command. To show the current port status. Available ports are: • wan • lan1 • lan2 • lan3 Default Value port-name N/A Example --> switch disable port lan1 See also SWITCH ENABLE PORT SWITCH SHOW PORT SWITCH ENABLE AGEINGTIMER Syntax SWITCH ENABLE AGEINGTIMER Description This command restarts the aging timer used by the look up engine to update the aging of fdb entries. or disables a flow control mechanism on the port.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 37 SWITCH DISABLE LEARNING Syntax SWITCH DISABLE LEARNING Description This command stops the learning engine used to update the look up table when frame are received from new Source Addresses. To restore the learning process. If jamming is specified. use the SWITCH Example --> switch disable learning See also SWITCH ENABLE LEARNING SWITCH SHOW SHOW command. Option Description One of the switch ports to be disabled. To show the current switch status. SWITCH DISABLE PORT Syntax SWITCH DISABLE PORT <port-name> [FLOW JAMMING] Description This command disables the selected switch port. use the SWITCH SHOW PORT command.

To show the current port status. Available ports are: • wan • lan1 • lan2 • lan3 Default Value port-name N/A Example --> switch enable port lan1 See also SWITCH DISABLE PORT SWITCH SHOW PORT SWITCH RESET Syntax SWITCH RESET [PORT <port-name> [COUNTERS]] . Example --> switch enable ageingtimer See also SWITCH DISABLE AGEINGTIMER SWITCH SHOW SWITCH ENABLE LEARNING Syntax SWITCH ENABLE LEARNING Description This command restarts the learning process used by the look up engine to update the fdb when frames from new addresses are received. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Example --> switch enable learning See also SWITCH DISABLE LEARNING SWITCH SHOW SWITCH ENABLE PORT Syntax SWITCH ENABLE PORT <port-name> [FLOW JAMMING] Description This command enables the selected switch port. use the SWITCH SHOW command. Option Description One of the switch ports to be enabled. To show the current switch status.38 Chapter 2 – Switch To show the current switch status. use the SWITCH SHOW command. use the SWITCH SHOW PORT command. If jamming is specified. flow control on half duplex ports is enabled.

all internal switch counters are reset and fdb entries removed. only the selected port is reset without removing any fdb entries. FAST sets the aging timer to 800 µSec. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). In this case the physical layer is not reset and no link interruption occurs. Option port-name Description One of the switch ports to be configured. Default Value N/A . Available ports are: • wan • lan1 • lan2 • lan3 Default Value port-name N/A Example --> switch reset --> switch reset port wan See also SWITCH SHOW SWITCH SHOW PORT SWITCH SET AGEINGTIMER Syntax SWITCH SET AGEINGTIMER {FAST | NORMAL} Description This command sets the threshold value of the ageing timer. Example . while NORMAL sets the aging timer to 300 Sec.-> switch set ageingtimer fast SWITCH SET PORT Syntax SWITCH SET PORT <portname> { DEFAULTPRIORITY <default-priority> | INFILTERING {OFF | ON} | NOQOS | QOS |RCVLIMIT <limit>| <speed > {100MFULL | 100MHALF | 10MFULL | 10MHALF | AUTONEGOTIATE} } Description This command modifies the values of parameters for switch ports.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 39 Description This command completely resets the switch or resets and individual switch port if a port is specified. If a port is specified. after which an unrefreshed dynamic entry in the Forwarding Database is automatically removed. It's possible to specify the resetting of just the counters associated with a port. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).. Option Description One of the switch ports to be reset. If no port is specified.

NOQOS QOS Disable 802. the reception of frames will be limited to that bandwith. Ingress Filtering is disabled. the port will autonegotiate the line speed and duplex mode with the device attached to the port. If the port is set to receive untagged frames. the frames are sent to the high priority egress queue. Enable 802. otherwise frames are sent to low priority egress queue.1p priority scheme. and no frames are discarded by this part of the Ingress Rules. Each port on the switch belongs to one or more VLANs. If the value none or 0 is specified. If any other value is specified. N/A N/A default-priority 0 INFILTERING N/A limit 0 speed autonegotiate . If INFILTERING is Enabled then tagged packets arriving at the port will only be admitted if the VID in the packet’s tag is equal to the VID of one of the VLANs that the port is a member of.1p priority scheme. The infiltering parameter enables or disables Ingress Filtering of frames admitted on the specified ports. then rate limiting is turned off. The value of this parameter represents kbit per second reception rate above which the incoming data will be discarded. The rcvlimit parameter specifies a rate limiting on reception bandwith for the port. If OFF is specified. Untagged frames are also admittedif the port in an untagged member of some VLAN. Available values are from 0 to 7. then if the port Default Priority is equal or greater than switch Base Priority. If autonegotiate is specified. The speed parameter specifies the configured line speed and duplex mode of the port.40 Chapter 2 – Switch Available ports are: • wan • lan1 • lan2 • lan3 The priority value associated with the port.

Example --> switch set port wan rcvlimit 10000 SWITCH SET PRIORITY Syntax SWITCH SET PRIORITY <802. Option Description dscpcode-list is a comma-separate list of numbers in the range 0-63 which represent the DSCP (Differentiated Service Code Point) value in the most significant 6 bits of the TOS field in IPv4 header. Default Value dscpcode N/A Example To set the high priority for DSCP values 24 and 37. use the command: --> switch set qos 24. the port will be forced to the speed and duplex mode given. The six bit TOS field in the IP header is decoded as 64 entries and for each one it is possible to specify the priority. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Available values are from 0 to 7.1p_base_priority> Description This command sets the switch base priority.1p_base_priority Description The system priority value. Default Value 4 Example --> switch set priority 7 SWITCH SET QOS Syntax SWITCH SET QOS <dscpcode> PRIORITY {HIGH | LOW} Description This command maps the priority levels for Quality of Service. Option 802.37 priority high SWITCH SET ROUTING-LIMIT Syntax SWITCH SET ROUTING-LIMIT <limit> .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 41 If any other option is specified. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

after which a dynamic entry is removed from the Forwarding Database. The value of the ageing timer.5Kfps 5. . Option Description It's the traffic maximum rate (frame per seconds) sent to the network processor. The bottom end of the range of priority values assigned to the high priority egress queue.0Kfps 4.5Kfps 2.0Kfps 1. The maximum number of frame per sencond that the switch forwards to the processor.42 Chapter 2 – Switch Description This command set the maximum number of frame per seconds that the layer2 switch forward to the Residential Gateway network processor for routing purposes. rebooted. Default Value limit none Example --> switch set routing-limit 6. Whether or not the ageing timer is enabled.5Kfps 6.0Kfps 2. or restarted.0Kfps 5.0Kfps none None equals disable the routing limit. Available values are: 1.0kfps SWITCH SHOW Syntax SWITCH SHOW Description This command shows the following switch parameters: Switch address The MAC address of the switch.5Kfps 4. The time in hours:minutes:seconds since the switch was last powered up.5Kfps 3. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).0Kfps 3. it is used as the source address in pause control frames. Learning Ageing timer Ageing time UpTime Base Priority Routing-limit Whether or not the switch’s dynamic learning and updating of the Forwarding Database is enabled.

One of the switch ports. Available ports are: • wan • lan1 • lan2 • lan3 The VLAN parameter specifies the VLAN identifier of the VLAN for which the contents of the Forwarding Database are to be displayed. The PORT parameter specifies that only those entries in the Forwarding Database which were learned from the specified port are to be displayed. Option Description The ADDRESS parameter specifies the MAC address of the device for which the contents of the Forwarding Database are to be displayed.1p Base Priority 4 Routing-limit none -----------------------------------------------------------------------See also SWITCH SHOW PORT SWITCH SHOW FDB Syntax SWITCH SHOW FDB [{ADDRESS <macadd> | PORT <port-name> | VLAN <vlanname>}] Description This command displays the contents of the Forwarding Database relevant to the port or the mac address or the vlan specified. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Default Value macadd N/A port-name N/A vlanname N/A Examples To display all the fdb content: --> switch show fdb Switch Forwarding Database -------------------------------------------------------------------------- . (NORMAL) UpTime 00:41:28 802.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 43 Example --> switch show Switch configuration -----------------------------------------------------------------------Switch address 10-20-30-40-50-6f Learning ON Ageing timer ON Ageing time 300 Sec.

Status The admin status of the “ENABLED” or “DISABLED”.44 Chapter 2 – Switch VLAN MAC address Port Status -------------------------------------------------------------------------1 00-00-cd-08-25-30 wan Dynamic 1 00-05-b7-00-0f-5e wan Dynamic 1 00-30-84-25-77-3e wan Dynamic 10 00-30-84-ee-40-60 lan1 Dynamic 10 00-30-84-ee-40-83 lan1 Dynamic 20 00-90-fb-07-9d-c9 lan2 Dynamic 30 00-a0-d2-18-49-fa lan3 Dynamic 30 00-c0-b7-a3-d0-40 lan3 Dynamic -------------------------------------------------------------------------- To display only the fdb content related to a specific MAC address: --> switch show fdb address 00-05-b7-00-0f-5e Switch Forwarding Database -------------------------------------------------------------------------VLAN MAC address Port Status -------------------------------------------------------------------------1 00-05-b7-00-0f-5e wan Dynamic -------------------------------------------------------------------------To display only the fdb content related to a specific switch port: --> switch show fdb port lan1 Switch Forwarding Database --------------------------------------------------------------------------VLAN MAC address Port Status --------------------------------------------------------------------------10 00-30-84-ee-40-60 lan1 Dynamic 10 00-30-84-ee-40-83 lan1 Dynamic To display only the fdb content related to a specific VLAN: --> switch show fdb vlan 30 Switch Forwarding Database --------------------------------------------------------------------------VLAN MAC address Port Status --------------------------------------------------------------------------30 00-a0-d2-18-49-fa lan3 Dynamic 30 00-c0-b7-a3-d0-40 lan3 Dynamic SWITCH SHOW PORT Syntax SWITCH SHOW PORT <port-name> [COUNTERS] Description This command displays general information about the specified switch port. Port Port reference. port. one of .

one of “Up” or “Down”. then this kind of flow control is applied to the port. The current status for Default Priority: one of “on” or "off" If the counters parameter is specified the following information are reported: • Combined receive/transmit packets by size (octets) counter packets size <= 64 octects Number of 64 octet packets received and transmitted.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 45 Link state Uptime The link state of the port. The port speed and duplex mode configured for this port.127 octet packets received and transmitted. The limit of the rate of reception of unicast frames for this port. in frames per second. in frames per second. The limit of the rate of reception of multicast frames for this port. The maximum acceptable frame size. lock state Enabled flow control(s) Send tagged pkts for VLAN(s) The name and VLAN Identifier (VID) of the tagged VLAN(s). locked by limit” or “locked by command”. The number of MAC addresses currently learned on this port and the state of locking for this port.1p Priority The name and VLAN Identifier (VID) of the port-based VLAN to which the port belongs. One of “Autonegotiate” or a combination of a speed (one of “10 Mbps” or “100 Mbps”) and a duplex mode (one of “half duplex” or “full duplex”). The limit of the rate of reception of broadcast frames for this port. to which the port belongs. If flow control is implemented on the switch. The state of Ingress Filtering: one of “on” or "off" The current value set for Default Priority. The MAC entity type. packets size 65 – 127 Number of 65 . in kbit per second. . Flow control parameters set for the port. one or two of “Jamming” and “Pause”. Port media type Configured speed/duplex Acceptable frame type Broadcast rate limit Multicast rate limit Receive rate limit Current learned. Port based VLAN Ingress filtering 802. zero. if any.1p Default Priority 802. The count in hours:minutes:seconds of the elapsed time since the port was last reset or initialised. The lock state is one of “not locked”.

The number of PAUSE MAC Control frames.46 Chapter 2 – Switch packets size 128 – 255 packets size 256 – 511 packets size 512 – 1023 packets size 1024 – 1522 Number of 128 . • Receive Octets Pkts FCSerrors MulticastPkts BroadcastPkts PauseMACctlFrms OversizePkts Fragments Jabbers MACControlFrms UnsupportCode AlignmentErrors SymErDurCarrier UndersizePkts • Transmit Octets Pkts MulticastPkts BroadcastPkts PauseMACctlFrms FrameWDeferrdTx SingleCollsnFrm The number of octets. not Pause). The number of frames which experienced exactlyone collision.1522 octet packets received and transmitted. Number of 512 . The number of broadcast packets. The number of frames with alignment errors. The number of broadcast packets. . The number of frames containing a Frame Check Sequence error. The number of jabbers frames. The number of valid PAUSE MAC Control frames. The number of multicast packets. The number of frames with invalid data symbols. The number of packets. The number of octets. The number of undersized packets. Number of 1024 . The number of MAC Control frames (Pause and Unsupported).511 octet packets received and transmitted. Number of 256 . The number of MAC Control frames with unsupported opcode (i. The number of fragments. The number of packets. The number of multicast packets. The number of frames deferred once before successful transmission.255 octet packets received and transmitted. The number of oversize packets.e.1023 octet packets received and transmitted.

1522 6 General Counters: Receive: Octets Pkts FCSerrors MulticastPkts 377801 3627 0 7 Transmit: Octets Pkts MulticastPkts BroadcastPkts 1108 17 0 0 .511 31 65 . before The number of packets discarded at ingress port.1023 26 128 . lock state 10. The number transmission.1p Priority Disabled ---------------------------------------------------------------------------> switch show port wan counters Switch Counter -------------------------------------------------------------------------Port: wan Received packets by size (octets) counters: 64 1668 256 .127 1119 512 .255 777 1024 . not locked Enabled flow control(s) Pause Send tagged pkts for VLAN(s) Port based VLAN default (1) Ingress filtering ON 802. The number of frames aborted transmission after 16 collisions. Total number of collisions. of packets aborted during Examples --> switch show port wan Switch Port information -------------------------------------------------------------------------Port: wan Status Enabled Link state Up UpTime 00:29:38 Port media type ISO8802-3 CSMACD Configured speed/duplex Autonegotiate Actual speed/duplex Acceptable frame type packet sizes up to 1536 bytes (inclusive) Broadcast rate limit Multicast rate limit Receive rate limit Current learned. The number of frames which experienced late collisions.1p Default Priority 0 802.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 47 MultCollsnFrm LateCollsns ExcessivCollsns CollisionFrms • Miscellaneous Counters DropEvents totalPktTxAbort The number of frames which experienced 2 to 15 collisions (including late collisions).

.48 Chapter 2 – Switch BroadcastPkts PauseMACctlFrms OversizePkts Fragments Jabbers MACControlFrms UnsupportCode AlignmentErrors SymErDurCarrier UndersizePkts 1377 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PauseMACctlFrms FrameWDeferrdTx SingleCollsnFrm MultiCollsnFrm LateCollsns ExcessivCollsns CollisionFrames 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Miscellaneous Counters: DropEvents 0 totalPktTxAbort 0 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- SWITCH SHOW QOS Syntax SWITCH SHOW QOS Description This command displays the current mapping of user priority level to QOS egress queue for the switch.

Each computer can be assigned a VLAN identification number (ID). Many Ethernet switches support virtual LAN (VLAN) technologies. The main advantage of using VLAN technologies is that users can be grouped together according to their need for network communication. This isolation will help to reduce unnecessary traffic so better network performance. regardless of their actual physical locations. They can be switched at the datalink layer (layer 2 of the Open Systems Interconnection reference model) or the network layer (layer 3). VLAN TAGGING VLAN technology introduces the following three basic types of frame: • Untagged frames • Priority-tagged frames • VLAN-tagged frames . the network logical topology is independent of the physical topology of the wiring. So. The disadvantage is that additional configuration is required to set up and establish the VLANs when implementing these switches. The assignment of VLAN IDs is done by the switches and can be managed remotely using network management software. depending on the type of switching technology used. With VLAN. the traffic on a VLAN is isolated and thus all communications remain within the VLAN. the network administrator can create a virtual network within existing network.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 49 Chapter 3 VLAN INTRODUCTION VLAN is a networking technology that allows networks to be segmented logically without having to be physically rewired. VLAN switches can function in different ways. By replacing hubs with VLAN switches. and computers with the same VLAN ID can act and function as though they are all on the same physical network.

• Recomputation of the Frame Check Sequence (FCS).e.50 Chapter 3 – VLAN An untagged frame or a priority-tagged frame does not carry any identification of the VLAN to which it belongs. Tagged frame format according to IEEE 802. the Port VLAN Identifier. The presence of a tag header carrying a non-null VID means that some other device. with each of the switch ports. The PVID for a given port provides the VID for untagged and priority-tagged frames received through that port. Such a frame is classified as belonging to a particular VLAN based on the value of the VID that is included in the tag header. When relaying a tagged frame between 802.1500 octects Figure 2. • To allow VLANs to be supported across different MAC types. A VLAN-tagged frame carries an explicit identification of the VLAN to which it belongs. • To allow a frame to carry a VID. .1QTagType TAG CONTROL INFORMATION MAC CLIENT LENGTH/TYPE MAC CLIENT DATA PAD 4 octects FRAME CHECK SEQUENCE 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CFI 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 TAG header user priority VLAN identifier VID (12 bit) 42 . a switch may adjust the PAD field such that the minimum size of a transmitted tagged frame is 68 octets. or PVID. Such frames are classified as belonging to a particular VLAN based on parameters associated with the receiving port. 7 octects 1 octects 6 octects 6 octects 2 octects 2 octects 2 octects PREAMBLE START FRAME DELIMITER DESTINATION ADDRESS SOURCE ADDRESS LENGTH/TYPE = 802. has mapped this frame into a VLAN and has inserted the appropriate VID. and shall not contain the value of the null VLAN ID (see Table 3). either the originator of the frame or a VLAN-aware switch. i. Tagging a frame requires: • The addition of a tag header to the frame. This classification mechanism requires the association of a specific VLAN ID.3ac standard. • To allow the frame to indicate the format of MAC Address information carried in MAC user data..3/Ethernet MACs. Tagging of frames is performed for the following purposes: • To allow user priority information to be added to frames carried on IEEE 802 LAN MAC types that have no inherent ability to signal priority information at the MAC protocol level. The PVID for each port shall contain a valid VID value. it carries a non-null VID. This header is inserted immediately following the destination MAC Address and source MAC Address fields of the frame to be transmitted.

or used in any Management operation. The Canonical Format Indicator (CFI) is a single bit flag value. The user priority field is three bits in length. the remaining values of VID are available for general use as VLAN identifiers. The PVID value can be changed by management on a per-port basis. CFI has the following meanings: When set.. The value of 802. • Canonical Format Indicator (CFI). • VLAN Identifier (VID). In an Ethernet-encoded tag header. illustrates the structure of the TCI field: • User priority. This field allows the tagged frame to carry user priority information across Bridged LANs in which individual LAN segments may be unable to signal priority. transmitted using 802. Figure . A priority-tagged frame is a tagged frame whose tag header contains a VID value equal to the null VLAN ID.1QTagType). 0 through 7. and contains user priority. The VID is encoded as an unsigned binary number. identifies values of the VID field that have specific meanings or uses. Table 3. Reserved VID values. When reset. and that the NCFI bit in the RIF determines whether MAC Address information that may be present in the MAC data carried by the frame is in Canonical (C) or Non-canonical (N) format. no VLAN identifier is present in the frame. VID value (hexadecimal) 0 • • Meaning/Use The null VLAN ID. The default PVID value used for classifying frames on ingress through a switch port. The TCI field is two octets in length. which identifies the frame as a tagged frame. interpreted as a binary number. configured in any Filtering Database entry. and that all MAC Address information that may be present in the MAC data carried by the frame is in Canonical format (C). indicates that the E-RIF field is present in the tag header.3/Ethernet MAC methods. The twelve-bit VLAN Identifier field uniquely identifies the VLAN to which the frame belongs. Indicates that the tag header contains only user priority information. The meaning of the CFI when set depends upon the variant of the tag header in which it appears.1QTagType is 81-00 • Tag Control Information (TCI).. 1 .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 51 The tag header carries the following information (see Figure 2): • The Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID) carrying an Ethernet Type value (802. indicates that the E-RIF field is not present in the tag header. CFI reset indicates that all MAC Address information that may be present in the MAC data carried by the frame is in Canonical format. The user priority is therefore capable of representing eight priority levels. CFI and VID (VLAN Identifier) fields. This VID value shall not be configured as a PVID.

• If a port is member of two or more VLANs it can accept untagged frames for one VLAN only and tagged frames for the remaining VLANs. This VID value shall not be configured as a PVID. If the VID is valid. or transmitted in a tag header. Use the VLAN SHOW command to display the current VLAN status on the residential gateway. configured in any Filtering Database entry. LAN1. All the system ports are members of the default VLAN. FID + SA is used for learning purposes. If a non tagged or null-VID tagged packet is received. Note that a physical port can be a member of one or more VLANs. If the VID is not valid the packet will be dropped and its address will not be learned. FID is retrieved for further look up. • If a port is member of one VLAN only it can accept tagged or untagged frames. Creating and configuring a new VLAN is a two step process: • • A VLAN is created with the VLAN ADD VID command. LAN2 and LAN3 ports are added (if required) to the VLAN using the VLAN ADD PORT command. When a port is added it's necessary to specify the frame format in which packets associated with that VLAN will be transmitted from that port: untagged or tagged. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway supports up to 16 VLAN (irrespective of whether they are carrying tagged or untagged frames) The Residential Gateway provides a 16 entry VLAN table that converts VID (12bits) to an internal value called FID (4 bits) for address look up. WAN. VLAN SUPPORT ON AT-RG600 RESIDENTIAL GATEWAY AT-RG613. Table 3. the ingress port VID is used for look up.52 Chapter 3 – VLAN FFF Reserved for implementation use. or can accept tagged frames for all the VLANs. A port can accept tagged or untagged frames on the same VLAN in a mutually exclusive way (when ingress filtering is enabled): . specifying a name for the VLAN and its VID value. VLAN definition and port tagging By default the Residential Gateway starts with only one VLAN defined with name default and VID=1. FID + DA is used to determine the destination port. used in any Management operation. The look up process starts with a VLAN table look up to determine whether the VID is valid. Reserved VID values.

To change the tagged/untagged frame format of a port for a specific VLAN it's necessary remove the port from the VLAN with the VLAN DELETE command and then re-add the port to the VLAN with the VLAN ADD PORT command. To remove a VLAN it is necessary to remove all ports that are members of the VLAN with the command VLAN DELETE PORT and then remove the VLAN with the command VLAN DELETE VID. the port is automatically added to the default VLAN with the untagged attribute. In this way. the VLAN becomes a transport device supporting ethernet traffic (see Figure 3). Each primary IP interface uses the VLAN data transport services (frame tagging and untagging and related layer 2 forwarding) as though it were an Ethernet port. Based on this approach. only tagged frames will be permitted. The Default VLAN (VID=1) cannot be removed. and route rules apply as they would for a multiport router. The Residential Gateway solves this limitation by offering a packet routing service between different VLANs. For the system point of view. for example. the Layer 3 routing process is able to treat VLAN IP interfaces as though they were distinct Ethernet ports.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 53 • If a port is assigned to a VLAN as untagged. VLAN versus IP Interface One of the major constraints when using VLANs is that packets exchanged between hosts that are members of the same VLAN cannot be received by hosts that are members of a different VLAN. . When a port is removed from a VLAN and the same port is not a member of any other VLAN. when a VLAN is used to support an IP interface. only untagged frames will be permitted • if the port is assigned to a VLAN as tagged. specifying the required frame format. The routing of packets between VLANs is based on the classical layer 3 routing method as. a typical router performs between IP interfaces. there is the requirement that each VLAN that you wish to be involved in the routing of packets must have an associated IP interface.

. The default VLAN and the IP interface attached to it cannot be removed. the following steps must be performed (see Figure 4): • • • Create a VLAN using the VLAN ADD VID command Add ports to the VLAN using the VLAN ADD PORT command Add the VLAN to the ethernet transports list using the ETHERNET ADD TRANSPORT command. VLAN and IP layer architecture (the greyed area surrounds the entities always available in the system) The maximum number of primary IP interfaces that can be defined is 16 and is equal to the maximum number of VLANs that it is possible to create on the residential gateway. Bind the IP interface to the VLAN using the IP ATTACH TRANSPORT command.54 Chapter 3 – VLAN IP routing IP layer IP Interface ip0 IP Interface <name> IP Interface <name> Transport (VLAN) VLAN default VLAN <vlanname> VLAN <vlanname> Virtual port Ethernet 0 Ethernet 1 Ethernet 1 Layer 2 switch Physical port lan1 lan2 lan3 wan Figure 3. Create an IP interface with the IP ADD INTERFACE command. When more than one IP interfaces is defined. • • At this point the IP interface is available for any process requiring access to the IP network. the Residential Gateway starts with one IP interface attached to the default VLAN in order to provide remote access to the system via telnet. This command instructs the system that a new (virtual) transport device has been added to the system. This command constructs a new IP interface with the specified IP address and netmask but doesn't bind the IP interface to any port. routing between these interfaces is immediately enabled without requiring any route to be explicitly defined. It's possible to remove all the ports from the default VLAN if one or more other VLANs exist. To create a primary IP interface and connect it to a VLAN. By default.

basic steps . IP interface over VLAN . VLAN Ethernet Transport Adding IP and VLAN Attach IP Interface on VLAN Figure 4.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 55 Default Configuration VLAN Creation IP Interface Creation VLAN Port Adding IP Interface Config.

A name that identifies an Ethernet port. vlan CLI commands The table below lists the vlan commands provided by the CLI: Command VLAN ADD PORT VLAN ADD VID VLAN DELETE VLAN SHOW VLAN ADD PORT Syntax VLAN ADD <vlanname> PORT <portname> FRAME {TAGGED | UNTAGGED} Description This command adds an Ethernet port to an existing named VLAN that has been created with the command VLAN ADD VID. configure and manage VLANs. Valid port names (case insensitive) are: wan. the frame is transmitted without a VLAN tag. Default Value N/A portname N/A FRAME N/A Example --> vlan add voip port lan1 frame untagged . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). The port is then called an untagged port for this VLAN. use the VLAN SHOW command. The port is then called a tagged port for this VLAN.56 Chapter 3 – VLAN VLAN Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. The FRAME parameter specifies whether a VLAN tag header is included in each frame transmitted on the specified ports. lan3. lan1. a VLAN tag is added to frames prior to transmission. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 residential Gateway to create. lan2. Option vlanname Description A name that identifies an existing VLAN. To display the existing VLANs. • If untagged is specified. • If tagged is specified.

The name must not be already in use for another VLAN.1p_priority 7 See also VLAN SHOW VLAN DELETE Syntax VLAN DELETE <vlanname> [PORT <portname>] Description This command deletes an existing VLAN created with the VLAN ADD VID command. The VLAN name can be a maximum of 16 chars long. Available values are from 0 to 7. it cannot start with a digit and cannot contain dots '. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). This command specifies also the priority value of the tagged packets that from the network processor are sent to the layer2 switch and then to the network.1p_priority <priority>] Description This command defines a new VLAN which has the specified VID value. Default Value vlanname N/A vlanID N/A priority 0 Example --> vlan add voip vid 10 802. Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the VLAN. The default port based VLAN has a VID of 1. • If tagged ports are added to this VLAN. The VLANID parameter specifies a unique VLAN Identifier (VID) for the VLAN. . It's the priority value as defined in 802. the specified VID is used in the VID field of the tag in outgoing frames.1p of the tagged packets that from the Residential Gateway network processor are sent to the switch and then outside to the network. the specified VID only acts as an identifier for the VLAN in the Forwarding Database.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 57 See also VLAN SHOW VLAN ADD VID Syntax VLAN ADD <vlanname> VID <vlanID> [802. • If untagged ports are added to this VLAN. The VLAN name can be 16 characters length.' or the slash symbols '/'.

The value of the 802. • Untagged port(s) • Tagged port(s) • 802. Option vlanname Description A name that identifies an existing VLAN. To display the existing VLANs. wan Tagged port(s) cpu Name: voip Identifier 10 Status static .1.1p Priority 7 Untagged port(s) lan3.p priority assigned to packets sent from the Residential Gateway processor. lan2. A list of tagged ports that belong to the VLAN. A name that identifies a port members of the VLAN. Valid port names (case insensitive) are: Wan. lan1. use the VLAN SHOW command. The numerical VLAN identifier of the VLAN (VID). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). lan3.1p priority Example --> vlan show VLAN information --------------------------------------------Name: default Identifier 1 Status static 802.58 Chapter 3 – VLAN To completely remove a VLAN it is necessary to first remove all port members of the vlan. Default Value N/A portname N/A Example --> vlan delete voip port lan2 --> vlan delete voip See also VLAN ADD PORT VLAN ADD VID VLAN SHOW VLAN SHOW Syntax VLAN SHOW Description This command display the following information about all the VLANs defined in the system: • Name • Identifier • Status The name of the VLAN. The status of the VLAN (only static VLAN are supported) A list of untagged ports that belong to the VLAN.

1p Priority Untagged port(s) Tagged port(s) 7 lan2 lan1 --------------------------------------------See also VLAN ADD PORT VLAN ADD VID .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 59 802.

An IP network functions by moving packets between routers and/or hosts. that of a generalized network which uses IP as the transport protocol. using the information in the header. IP protocols are widely used and available on nearly all hosts and PC systems. the destination address is placed in the header and the packet is transmitted on a best effort basis. file transfer and Email. Packets are sent using a connectionless transport mechanism. Successive packets may take different routes through the network to the destination. and use it to exchange traffic such as Email.e. In recent times the term Internet (with a lowercase “i”) has also come to refer to any network (usually a wide area network). rather. A packet consists of a header followed by the data (see Figure 5 and Table 4). worldwide network of networks based on the original concepts of the ARPAnet. THE INTERNET The Internet (with a capital “I”) is the name given to the large. A large number of government. which utilizes the Internet Protocol. They provide a range of services including remote login. It is up to the intermediate systems (routers and gateways) to deliver the packet to the correct address. The basic unit of data sent through an Internet is a packet or datagram. The header contains the information necessary to move the packet across the Internet. academic and commercial organizations are connected to the Internet. The remainder of this chapter will concentrate on the latter definition. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 IP interface. It must be able to cope with missing and duplicated packets as well as possible fragmentation (and reassembly) of the original packet. The Internet uses the TCP/IP protocols for all routing. A connection is not maintained between the source and destination addresses. i.60 Chapter 4 – IP Chapter 4 IP INTRODUCTION This chapter describes the main features of the Internet Protocol (IP) and how to configure and operate the AT-RG613. There is a strong analogy with the postal delivery system in that letters are placed in individually addressed envelopes and put into the system in the ‘hope’ that they .

in which both parties verify that they are talking to the correct person before exchanging highly sequenced data (if both talk at once then nothing intelligible results!). Its not hard to imagine the chaos if the telephone system delivered words in the wrong order. the postal system is very reliable. The length of the datagram (both header and user data). X. higher layers (such as TCP and Telnet) are responsible for ensuring that packets are delivered in a reliable and sequenced way. A 16-bit value assigned by the originator of the datagram. a connection-oriented transport mechanism requires a connection to be maintained between the source and destination for as long as necessary to complete the exchange of packets between source and destination. for fragmented datagrams The time in seconds the datagram is allowed to remain in the Internet system The high level protocol used to create the message (analogous to the type field in an Ethernet packet) A checksum of the header . Like an Internet. throughput. Field Ver IHL Type of service Total length Identification Flags Fragment offset Time to live Protocol Header checksum Function The version of the IP protocol that created the datagram. and if so. The quality of service (precedence. whether other later fragments exist The offset in the original datagram of the data being carried in this datagram. and the connection is maintained until both parties have finished talking. delay.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 61 will arrive. IP packet or datagram. and reliability) desired for the datagram. The length of the IP header in 32-bit words (the minimum value is 5). in octets.25 is an example of a connection-oriented protocol.25 would be a telephone call. A good analogy to X. In an Internet. used during reassembly Control bits indicating whether the datagram may be fragmented. In contrast to a connectionless transport mechanism. 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3 0 1 Version IHL Identification TTL TOS flags Protocol Source IP Address Destination IP Address Total Length fragment offset Header Checksum User Data Figure 5.

Addresses are 32-bit quantities which are logically divided into fields.62 Chapter 4 – IP Source IP address Destination IP address Options Padding User data 32-bit IP address of the sender 32-bit IP address of the recipient An optional field primarily used for network testing or Debugging. Functions of the fields in an IP datagram. Class A B C D E Maximum number of possible networks 127 16. Each packet must contain an Internet address to determine where to send the packet.216 65.097.777. Addresses are organised into five classes (see Table 5). They must not be confused with physical addresses (such as an Ethernet address).152 Reserved Class Reserved Class Maximum number of hosts per network 16. The actual data being sent. Table 4. All bits set to zero—used to pad the datagram header to a length that is a multiple of 32 bits. Internet Protocol address classes and limits on numbers of networks and hosts. Most packets also require a source address so that the sender of the packet is known. they serve only to address Internet Protocol packets.384 2. Each class differs in the number of bits assigned to the host and network portions of the address (Figure 6). ADDRESSING Internet addresses are fundamental to the operation of the TCP/IP Internet.536 255 Table 5. .

The term host refers to any attached device on a subnet.16. Class C sets the three MSBs to ‘110’ and allocates the next 21 bits to designate the network while the remaining 8 are left to the user to assign as host or subnet numbers. Some older versions of UNIX use a broadcast value of all zeros. Routers are connected to more than one network and can have multiple IP addresses. Most hosts are connected to only one network.0 refers to any host (not every host) on any subnet within the class B address 172.4. while a value of all ones in any host portion (i.190 172.16. In other words they have a single IP address. The address 172.16.e.0. each separated by a dot. In general a router is only interested in the network portion of an address.9.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 63 1 CLASS A 0 7 NETWORK 24 HOST 1 1 CLASS B 1 0 14 NETWORK 16 HOST 1 1 1 CLASS C 1 1 0 21 NETWORK 8 HOST Figure 6.2 10 .8. . therefore both the value ‘0’ and the value ‘255’ are reserved within any user assigned host portion. Class A sets the Most Significant Bit (MSB) to 0 and allocates the next 7 bits to define the network and the remaining 24 bits to define the host. 255) is reserved as the broadcast address. The IP address is expressed in dotted decimal notation by taking the 32 binary bits and forming 4 groups of 8 bits. mainframes and routers. The addressing scheme is designed to allow routers to efficiently extract the host and network portions of an address.8 .16 .9 .0 is used to define the default address. For example: 10. including PCs. B and C networks.190 is a class A address is the DDN assigned network number are (possibly) user assigned subnet numbers is the user assigned host number is a class B address is the DDN assigned network number is the user assigned subnet number is the user assigned host number The value 0.0. Subdivision of the 32 bits of an Internet address into network and host fields for class A.0.4.2 172. Class B sets the two MSBs to 10 and allocates the next 14 bits to designate the network while the remaining 16 refer to the host.

16.11111111. Thus there are 254 subnets (0 and 255 are reserved) each with 254 hosts.0 refers to any host on subnet 9. although it is unique.255. Subnets Related to the two issues discussed above. A related problem can occur when an organisation which has a class C address finds that they need to upgrade to class B.56. Proxy ARP and subnetting. This is overcome by minimising the number of network addresses by sharing the same IP prefix (the assigned network number) with multiple physical networks.64 Chapter 4 – IP Similarly 172. defines a host by its connection to a particular network. To do otherwise can make the allocation of numbers rather difficult and prone to errors.11111111. Proxy ARP will be discussed later in this section. Some example masks are: 11111111.255 is a broadcast to subnet 56 of network 172. hence most broadcasts are ‘directed’. For example 172.255 is a packet addressed to every host on subnet 9.9. This mask is needed by the routers to ascertain which subnets are available at each site. This allows a simple bit-wise logical AND to determine if the address should be forwarded or not. These subnets need not be physically on the same media. The system manager would then assign the lower two octets in some way which makes sense for this particular network.0.16. A particular address.9. the rapid growth of the Internet has meant a proliferation in the number of addresses which must be handled by the core routers. Thus the addressing system is not scalable. although this is not a requirement. This involves a total change of every address for all hosts and routers. In this case it is normal (but not required) that the subnets be assigned contiguously for this site. whereas 172.00000000 = 255.16. There are two main ways of achieving this. The router uses this terminology to indicate where packets are to be sent. A major problem with the IP type of addressing is that it defines connections not hosts.16. To reduce loading. Generally they would be allocated geographically with subnet 2 being one site. For example the DDN may assign a class B address as 172.0. A subnet is formed by taking the host portion of the assigned address and dividing it into two parts. This could be to increase the number of hosts or simply to make administration easier. Some sites may have a requirement for multiple subnets on the same LAN. The situation is analogous to the postal system.0 <----network----> <subnet> <-host-> .16. Bits in the mask are set to ‘1’ if the router is to treat the corresponding bit in the IP address as belonging to the network portion or set to ‘0’ if it belongs to the host portion. Therefore if the host is moved to another network the address must also change. IP consciously tries to limit broadcasts to the smallest possible set of hosts. Although the standard does not require that the subnet mask must select contiguous bits. A common method for class B is to simply use the higher octet to refer to the subnet. As mentioned above a value of all ‘1’ (255) is a broadcast. An address with ‘0’ in the host portion refers to ‘this particular host’ while an address with ‘0’ in the network portion refers to ‘this particular network’. This makes the allocation of a subnet mask easier. The first part is the ‘set of subnets’ while the second refers to the hosts on each subnet. subnet 3 another and so on. it is normal practice to do so. More addresses means more loading and tends to slow the system down.255. Generally these would all be within the same organisation.

11110000 = 255.11111111. one or more interfaces must be added to the IP stack and attached to a transport. 14 subnets on a class C network each with 14 hosts. the same ethernet port can be shared between different VLANs. In situations where there is no local subnet associated with an interface. the range of addresses on each interface must not overlap with any other interface. Packets trasmitted through a pppoe connection or ethernet connection will have different frame format even if the convey the same type of information to the IP layer. IP interfaces use typically the services provided by ethernet transports. each with 254 hosts. is pppoe. unnumbered interfaces may be used.101. IP SUPPORT ON AT-RG6XX RESIDENTIAL GATEWAY SERIES In order to use the IP stack.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 65 This would give 254 subnets on a class B network. Instead ethernet transports are mapped to VLANs that from a logical point of view they act like an ethernet segment as an ethernet port would do in a simple system without VLANs To attach an ethernet transport to the Residential Gateway the following steps must be performed: Create an ethernet transport using the command: ethernet add transport eth1 myvlan Create an interface to the IP stack: using.255. the command: ip add interface ip1 192. Another type of transport is. Therefore it's not possible map an ethernet transport directly to a physical ethernet port.--subnet-><host> This would give 4094 subnets on a class B network.11111111. Adding and attaching IP interfaces IP interfaces are added and attached using the commands provided in the ip and ethernet module respectively. these define the range of addresses which can be reached via the interface without passing through any other routers. Each interface must be configured with an IP address and a subnet mask. 11111111.0 Attach the transport to the interface using the command: ip attach ip1 eth1 . Ethernet transport is an abstraction layer used to classify the format of the IP packets that will be transferred through the network.255.168. Because the system support VLANs.2 255. for example. Each interface (real and virtual) must have a unique subnet. Together.255.240 <------network--> <.255. for example. each with 14 hosts or.

the checksum of forwarded IP packets is not checked. For a local application to successfully send a packet back to another host. the IP stack must be able to find a suitable route to that host.0 is unconfigured. an ICMP “Destination Unreachable” error will be returned to the sender. The packet will be forwarded if: • the destination of the packet can be reached directly via any of the IP stack’s interfaces. it will try to forward the packet. Unconfigured interfaces An interface with an IP address of 0. either manually or by a routing protocol. An interface is added as unconfigured when it is to be configured at a later time. specifying a suitable gateway via which that destination may be reached.Hosts (section 3. see RFC1122: Requirements for Internet . For more information about these tests.2). • a route has been added. because calculating the checksum on all packets adds significantly to the forwarding time and reduces throughput. By default. or passed up to an application via the appropriate protocol processing (for example. for example to prevent broadcast packets from being forwarded.0. • the packet should be forwarded to another interface Locally received packets A packet will be received locally if: • the destination address of the packet matches any of the IP stack interface addresses (real or virtual interface.0. Forwarding packets If the IP stack determines that a packet is not destined to be received locally. • the packet has the Router Alert option set. Several address tests are applied before forwarding a packet. If the packet cannot be forwarded. the IP stack determines whether: • the packet should be received locally. TCP or UDP data). by IPCP or DHCP. for example.66 Chapter 4 – IP IP stack and incoming packets When a packet arrives on an IP interface. ICMP or IGMP control messages). • the packet is a broadcast. • the packet is a multicast to a group that the IP stack belongs to. primary or secondary addresses). The packet is either processed internally within the IP stack (for example. Locally terminated packets always have their checksum checked. This default setting is common in most IP routers. This is for reasons of efficiency. .

or use the same router id value. However.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 67 No traffic will be forwarded from an unconfigured interface.255 For example: ip add interface myinterface 192.168.it is used for normal traffic but does not have its own IP address or a local subnet associated with it. This includes PPP. It cannot be used for normal traffic. Unnumbered interfaces can only be used on point-to-point links. Configuring unnumbered interfaces Unnumbered interfaces are created using the following CLI command: ip add interface <name> <ipaddress> 255. It would usually be necessary to allocate a whole subnet just for the link between the routers. An unnumbered interface is different . The main use of the router id is as the source address for packets sent on an unnumbered interface from local applications or . by IPCP or DHCP.255. Whatever their value.0). An unnumbered link does not have an IP address. or by specifying an IP address of 0. An unconfigured interface is created by adding an interface without specifying an IP address (ip add interface myinterface). An unnumbered interface does not have a subnet associated with it and simply serves as one end of a point-to-point link. such as responses to DHCP requests.255.0 (ip add interface myinterface 0. You cannot use unnumbered interfaces with Ethernet Unconfigured interfaces v unnumbered interfaces An unnumbered interface is not the same as an unconfigured interface. an unconfigured interface may still receive certain types of traffic. but a router id which is the IP address of one of the router’s other interfaces.0.255.255 In this command: • myinterface is the unnumbered interface name.101.168. • 192.255.3 255.0. Unnumbered interfaces In a routed network. You can have multiple unnumbered interfaces as long as you have at least one normal (numbered) IP interface in your router so that you can use its IP address as the router id. for example.0. in addition to the other two subnets. the router id(s) must match the address of a normal interface. consider two routers that are joining two different subnets via a point-to-point link. The router id must be set to the IP address of one of the router’s normal interfaces. An unconfigured interface should not be confused with an unnumbered interface.101.0. You would add an unconfigured interface if the interface address were to be set automatically later. The unnumbered interfaces can either use different router id values.3 is the router id.

without specifying a gateway address.0. for ethernet interface.255 is a special subnet mask that identifies an unnumbered interface and distinguishes it from any other type of interface. you can add a route through the interface. the two interfaces share the transport that is only attached to one of the interfaces. for example. on the same Ethernet port. no packets can be routed to an unnumbered interface until a route is added. • 255.0.101. In this way. But. The gateway must be reachable directly.168. . Virtual interfaces allow you to attach more than one IP interface to the same transport.0.10 as their next hop.101. each transport only has one router interface associated with it. Configuring virtual interfaces To configure a virtual interface you need to create an IP interface. Virtual interfaces allow you to create multiple router interfaces on the same transport.and each router interface has only one IP address and local subnet associated with. Secondary IP addresses allow you to associate more than one IP address with the same IP interface.0. This type of route can be used for all interfaces with point-topoint links. for point-to-point links. not just unnumbered interfaces.0.168.0 interface myinterface All packets for the specified destination will be sent via the unnumbered interface called myinterface.10 This means that all packets for the 10.101.0 255.255. Usually.168.0 gateway 192. these features allow many configurations which would not otherwise be possible. Together.0. but instead of attaching it to a transport.0.0. for example: ip add route myroute 10. so 192.255.0 255. you need to attach it to a second IP interface that already has a transport attached to it.0.68 Chapter 4 – IP routing protocols. Let us just consider how this is done. For example: ip add route myroute 10.10 must be on a subnet served by one of the local interfaces. Virtual Interfaces Usually. Creating a route Because an unnumbered interface does not have a local subnet associated with it. This allows the IP stack to communicate with and route between multiple subnets existing on the same LAN. Router IDs are described in RFC1812 “Requirements for IP v4 Routers”. routes are added with a gateway to be used for a particular destination. You must also add a route before your unnumbered interface can send packets.0.0 subnet will be sent to the address 192.

50.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 69 The original interface attached directly to a transport is called the real interface.255.10 255. virtual interfaces must have a unique subnet which does not overlap with other interfaces.0 ethernet add transport eth1 myvlan ip attach real_ip eth1 (ii) Create the virtual interface: ip add interface virtual_ip 192. secondary addresses must be used instead of virtual interfaces. Differences interfaces between virtual interfaces and real When the IP stack receives a packet from a transport that has associated virtual interfaces. Similarities interfaces between virtual interfaces and real A virtual interface is similar to a real interface: • virtual interfaces may be manipulated in the same way as real interfaces using the CLI. the IP stack assumes that the packet arrived on the real interface. the IP stack must decide which interface the packet arrived on.255. Like real interfaces.168. Virtual interfaces are created by attaching them to a real interface instead of directly to a transport. .255. and the interface that is attached to the real interface is called the virtual interface. If there is no match. The interface that the packet arrived on is important in two scenarios: • When the Firewall is in use .255.different rules (such as policies. • the IP stack will route between virtual interfaces and real interfaces in the same way that it routes between real interfaces. so you need to know which interfaces the packet passes between.168.2 255. portfilters and validators) are configured between different interfaces.101. If the real interface is deleted. In order to have the router respond to more than one IP address on the same subnet. To configure a virtual interface using the CLI: (i) Create the real interface. then all associated virtual interfaces are detached automatically.0 (iii) Attach the virtual interface to the real interface: ip attachvirtual virtual_ip real_ip You can add more than one virtual interface to the same real interface. then create an Ethernet transport and attach the IP interface to the transport: ip add interface real_ip 192. The source address of the incoming packet is compared with the subnet of each virtual interface on that transport.

for example DHCP or BOOTP requests. Support for adding secondary IP addresses including subnet mask specification will be withdrawn in a future software release. Because the traffic for all virtual interfaces is received in the same way as the real interface. This means that: • A virtual interface only receives packets with a source address matching its interface subnet. For example. therefore security-related decisions should not be based on the ability to distinguish between virtual interfaces on the same transport. even if the next hop would be reached through the virtual interface when sending to that destination. The following CLI commands allow you to create and configure secondary IP addresses: ip ip ip ip interface interface interface interface add secondaryipaddress clear secondaryipaddresses delete secondaryipaddress list secondaryipaddresses The ability to specify a subnet mask with a secondary address is superseded by the functionality of virtual interfaces. • Any packets from an unconfigured host. You should use virtual interfaces instead. • Packets that arrive with a source address that does not match a local subnet are deemed to have been received on the real interface. providing packets arrive via the real interface that the virtual interface is attached to. The secondary addresses share the same subnet with the interface. the only reasonable way of selecting an interface is based on source address as described above. After setting the main interface address. Remember that the source address of the packet can be spoofed by the sender. DHCP server. . are deemed to be received on the real interface.70 Chapter 4 – IP • Some applications are written to only respond to traffic received on a specific interface. one or more additional addresses on the same subnet can be added to the interface. Secondary addresses therefore allow the IP stack to have more than one address on the same subnet. Configuring secondary IP addresses You can create and configure secondary IP addresses using the CLI. Secondary IP addresses Secondary IP addresses differ from virtual interfaces because there is no concept of a separate local subnet associated with a secondary address.

One or more devices on the LAN wish to send voice over IP (VoIP) traffic over the WAN connection. in overload conditions (where there is more traffic than the IP stack can route) packets from the default traffic class will be dropped in preference to packets from the expedited traffic class. On Point-to-Point links. certain classes of traffic can be given priority over other types of traffic. and compared to other classes or forwarded traffic For example. network traffic tends to arrive in bursts. Example of use of Prioritization • When forwarding traffic between interfaces where one or more interface has a limited bandwidth. secondary IP addresses must be on the same subnet as the interface. as well as real interfaces. Secondary addresses may be added to virtual interfaces. The IP stack is routing traffic between a fast Ethernet LAN and a limitedbandwidth WAN connection. The IP stack can ensure that the VoIP traffic is given preference to other types of traffic. Currently. two traffic classes are offered: • the Expedited traffic class • the Default (or Best-effort) traffic class Expedited class The Expedited class differs in two ways from the default level of service: • Lower packet loss. These features are applicable to both forwarded and locally terminated traffic.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 71 Functionality of secondary IP addresses On Ethernet interfaces. • Lower latency. This is not a common configuration. secondary addresses may be added on a different subnet to the main interface address. the IP stack ensures that the latency of expedited traffic is reduced to a minimum by never queuing packets in the expedited traffic class behind packets in the default traffic class. but with no associated local subnet. • The architecture of the IP stack can enable specially written local applications to receive an enhanced level of service compared to other applications. This is similar to configuring a virtual interface as an unnumbered interface. It is important that the VoIP traffic has low packet loss and latency. This will provide an additional address which the IP stack will respond to for traffic arriving on that interface. the Residential . IP Quality of Service The IP stack includes features which enable different levels of service to be provided to different classes of routed traffic. even when other devices are also sending traffic to the WAN connection at the same time.

The following fields can be examined: • the TOS (Type of Service) / DS (Differentiated Services) field in the IP header. Each rule states that values must be present in fields in order for the packet to be classified as Expedited. when used in conjunction with checking the TOS/DS field. other hosts would be ignored even if they set the correct values in the TOS/DS field. Firewall. This is usually used in conjunction with the fields described above. Configuring Flow Qualifiers To create and configure qualifier rules using the CLI. . or the IP Protocol and TCP/UDP source and/or destination port numbers. • The IP Protocol. or traffic to other applications (like DHCP server. The classifier’s job is to examine certain fields in each IP packet and assign a specific Quality of Service Class to the packet. Packets are assumed to be in the Default class unless they match a specific rule added to the classifier. In cases where the packets cannot be identified by their TOS/DS field. use the commands described in this section. The IP stack can ensure that the VoIP application can send and receive packets with low packet loss and low latency even in the presence of other routed traffic. or by a previous router which has already classified the packets and marked them using this field. The classifier is also known as the Flow Qualifier. rules may be added to identify certain traffic sent to or from certain applications by the TCP or UDP source and/or destination port numbers. For example. it is passed to the classifier. not packets forwarded to that interface. The classifier configuration on an interface only affects packets arriving on that interface. etc). Rules are added to the classifier separately for each IP Interface. this would ensure that only certain hosts could receive expedited service. there are currently two Quality of Service Classes: Expedited and Default.72 Chapter 4 – IP Gateway provides routing to a LAN as well as terminating VoIP traffic. As mentioned before. Quality of Service support There are three components to the Quality of Service support: • packet classification • link bandwidth prioritization • CPU prioritization Only packet classification can be configured by CLI. Packet Classification When the IP stack first receives a packet. or just by IP protocols. • The source IP address. This field may be set by the IP stack originating the packet if the application has requested it.

it marks the packet with a priority that is to be used during packet transmission. and the DS (Differentiated Services) codepoint field of each IP packet header. the router may forward more traffic from the Ethernet interface to the DSL interface than can be transmitted. such as Ethernet. which would make them unavailable for use by expedited traffic. expedited traffic must be queued ahead of default traffic. When a packet is received. to an interface on a low speed link. the number of packets of default traffic on the queue must be limited. you can configure them using the following CLI commands: ip interface clear fqs ip interface delete fq ip interface list fqs Link bandwidth prioritization If you are routing from an interface on a high speed link. When the IP stack sends a packet to a device driver. the classifier assigns a QoS class to it (Expedited or Default).AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 73 To classify packets based on a specified protocol. use the following command. such as DSL. The device driver will handle expedited traffic differently from default traffic in two ways: • When traffic is queued for transmission. using: ip interface add fq srcaddr protocol To classify packets based on both the source address of incoming packets. • When traffic is queued for transmission. you can also base the flow qualifier on the source and destination port of incoming packets: ip interface add fq protocol You can also classify packets based on the protocol and the source address of incoming packets. use the command: ip interface add fq srcaddr codepoint To classify packets based on the DS (Differentiated Services) field only. This ensures that when default traffic is sent to the interface faster than it can be transmitted. use the command: ip interface add fq codepoint Once you have created flow qualifier rules. This is necessary in order to prevent the system from running out of buffers. The QoS class determines what priority the packet is given. for example: . the default packets are discarded. CPU prioritization The CPU resources of the system may be constrained in certain circumstances. The device driver itself is responsible for prioritizing the transmission of packets. This ensures that expedited traffic is not delayed by best-effort traffic while awaiting transmission. If the protocol you specify is TCP or UDP.

certain parts of the IP stack. the speed of the interfaces may be so fast that packets are sent to the IP stack faster than it can route them. ICMP and ARP protocol processing). but you do not want individual packets to be delayed while another process is running. because this added latency would be apparent when making VoIP calls. To ensure that CPU resources are available to preferentially handle expedited traffic. these are used to ensure that tasks handling expedited traffic run at a higher priority than the rest of the system. but also reduces the adverse effect on latency of best-effort traffic bursts that arrive immediately before an expedited packet. the throughput of the IP stack may be constrained by the amount of available processing power.74 Chapter 4 – IP • constrained throughput. and local VoIP applications run at a higher priority compared to the rest of the system. after classification. other applications that run on the same processor as the router may consume a significant amount of CPU (for example. there may be enough CPU to route all packets. This not only ensures that expedited packets are still handled even under CPU overload conditions. • application resource requirements. This ensures lower latency for expedited traffic. the system incorporates the following features: • Process priorities. Under heavy traffic. • Post-classification priority processing. packets are processed in priority order within the forwarding path. For example. with a division between: • the part of the stack that quickly makes the routing decision and forwards traffic between interfaces • and the part of the stack which performs more lengthy but less time-critical tasks (such as TCP. . if a user is retrieving pages from the embedded webserver). device drivers and encapsulation protocols. Here. • Division of tasks. The IP stack is split into separate tasks.

IP CLI commands The table below lists the IP commands provided by the CLI: Command IP ADD DEFAULTROUTE GATEWAY IP ADD DEFAULTROUTE INTERFACE IP ADD INTERFACE IP ADD ROUTE IP ATTACH IP ATTACH VIRTUAL IP CLEAR ARPENTRIES IP CLEAR INTERFACES IP CLEAR RIPROUTES IP CLEAR ROUTES IP DELETE INTERFACE IP DELETE ROUTE IP DETACH INTERFACE IP INTERFACE ADD FQ CODEPOINT IP INTERFACE ADD FQ PROTOCOL IP INTERFACE ADD FQ SRCADDR CODEPOINT IP INTERFACE ADD FQ SRCADDR PROTOCOL IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPENTRY IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPEXCLUSION IP INTERFACE ADD SECONDARYIPADDRESS IP INTERFACE CLEAR FQS IP INTERFACE CLEAR PROXYARPENTRIES .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 75 TCP/IP Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the Residential Gateway to manage the TCP/IP module. IP Tracing commands You can carry out tracing in the IP stack using the following system commands: • SYSTEM LOG ENABLE|DISABLE. enables/disables the tracing support output for a specific module and category. • SYSTEM LOG LIST. displays the tracing options for the modules available in the current image.

76 Chapter 4 – IP IP INTERFACE CLEAR SECONDARYIPADDRESS IP INTERFACE DELETE FQ IP INTERFACE DELETE PROXYARPENTRIES IP INTERFACE DELETE PROXYARPEXCLUSION IP INTERFACE DELETE SECONDARYIPADDRESS IP INTERFACE LIST FQS IP INTERFACE LIST PROXYARPENTRIES IP INTERFACE LIST SECONDARYIPADDRESSES IP LIST ARPENTRIES IP LIST CONNECTIONS IP LIST INTERFACES IP LIST RIPROUTES IP LIST ROUTES IP PING IP SET INTERFACE DHCP IP SET INTERFACE IPADDRESS IP SET INTERFACE MTU IP SET INTERFACE NETMASK IP SET INTERFACE RIP ACCEPT IP SET INTERFACE RIP MULTICAST IP SET INTERFACE RIP SEND IP SET INTERFACE TCPMSSCLAMP IP SET INTERFACE RIP SEND IP SET RIP ADVERTISEDEFAULT IP SET RIP AUTHENTICATION IP SET RIP DEFAULTROUTECOST IP SET RIP HOSTROUTES IP SET RIP PASSWORD IP SET RIP POISON IP SET ROUTE COST IP SET ROUTE DESTINATION IP SET ROUTE GATEWAY IP SET ROUTE INTERFACE IP SHOW .

0.0 0. A default route will not be created if a default route has already been created using the IP ADD ROUTE command or the IP ADD DEFAULTROUTE INTERFACE command.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 77 IP SHOW DEBUGINFO IP SHOW INTERFACE IP SHOW ROUTE IP ADD DEFAULTROUTE GATEWAY Syntax IP ADD DEFAULTROUTE GATEWAY <gateway_ip> Description This command creates a default route.168.0.0. displayed in the IPv4 format (e. It acts as a shortcut command that can be used instead of typing the following: ip add route default 0.0 gateway 192.102.0 interface ip3 A default route will not be created if a default route has already been created using the IP ADD ROUTE command or the IP ADD DEFAULTROUTE INTERFACE command.0.103.0. see THE IP SET RIP ADVERTISEDEFAULT and IP SET RIP DEFAULTROUTECOST commands.168. .3 See also IP ADDROUTE IP ADD DEFAULT ROUTE INTERFACE IP ADD DEFAULTROUTE INTERFACE Syntax IP ADD DEFAULTROUTE INTERFACE <interface> Description This command creates a default route.0.g.168.0. 192. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable) Option gateway_ip Description The IP address of the gateway that this route will use by default. To have RIP advertise a default route with a default cost metric.0 0.3 It's possible to create only one default route.0.3) Default Value N/A Example --> ip add defaultroute gateway 192. It acts as a shortcut command that can be used instead of typing the following: ip add route default 0.103.

0 .0.1 subnet mask 255. but if it is not specified in this command.168.102. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. • the interface can obtain its IP configuration via PPP IPCP (Internet Protocol Control Protocol) negotiation. This value is used when the Default Value name N/A ipaddress 0.0. This interface is not displayed by the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable) Option interface Description The name of the existing interface that this route will use.0. To display interface names. Default Value N/A Example --> ip add defaultroute interface ip3 See also IP ADDROUTE IP ADD DEFAULT ROUTE GATEWAY IP ADD INTERFACE Syntax IP ADD INTERFACE <name> [<ipaddress> <netmask>] Description This command adds a named interface and optionally sets its IP address. The IP address of the interface displayed in the IPv4 format (e.3) If the IP address is set to the special value 0.255.78 Chapter 4 – IP To have RIP advertise a default route with a default cost metric. 192. There are three ways that the IP address can be set later: • using the ip set interface ipaddress command • it is possible to set the interface to obtain its configuration via Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) using the IP SET INTERFACE DHCP ENABLED command.g. The IP address is not mandatory at this stage. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).0. DHCP is disabled.0. By default.255. the interface will be unconfigured.0. see the IP SET RIP ADVERTISEDEFAULT and IP SET RIP DEFAULTROUTECOST commands. See PPPoE CLI commands The IP stack automatically creates a loopback interface for address 127. the interface is marked as unconfigured.0. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits. but it cannot start with a digit. Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the IP interface.0.

255.0) The special value 255. For unnumbered interface. If there is a choice of routes for a destination.255.255 is used to indicate an unnumbered interface. Route metric can only be set using the IP SET ROUTE COST command. However. IP ADD ROUTE Syntax IP ADD ROUTE <name> <dest_ip> <netmask> {GATEWAY <gateway_ip> | INTERFACE <interface>} Description This command creates a static route to a destination network address via a gateway device or an existing interface.255. the route with the most specific mask is chosen. The netmask address of the interface displayed in the IPv4 format (e. together with a mask to indicate what range of addresses the network covers. An unnumbered interface is configured by setting the IP address to the interface's router-id value. see DHCP Client CLI commands. A route specifies a destination network (or single host).g. 255. and setting netmask to 255.255.103.3 255. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified . and a next-hop gateway address or interface.255.255.255. so they are not relevant only to routers. It also allows the creation of a default route. Routes are used when sending datagrams as well as forwarding them. the IP address parameter is used to specify the router-id of the interface.168. A default route will not be created if a default route has already been created using the IP ADD ROUTE command or the IP ADD DEFAULTROUTE INTERFACE command. a system with a single interface is likely to have a single route as a default route to the router on the network that it most often needs to use.255.255.0 See also IP ATTACH IP SHOW INTERFACE IP SET INTERFACE IPADDRESS IP SET INTERFACE DHCP For information on setting DHCP client configuration options. The router-id should be the same as the IP address of one of the router's numbered interfaces.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 79 interface address is obtained automatically. netmask N/A Example --> ip add interface ip1 192.

Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the route.4 255. The IP address of the destination network displayed in the IPv4 format (e. This command implicitly enables the transport being attached.168.80 Chapter 4 – IP with this command and a default value (if applicable).255.168. Default Value name N/A dest_ip N/A netmask N/A gateway_ip N/A interface N/A Examples There are two examples in this section.3) The name of the existing interface that this route will use.3 Example 2 --> ip add route route2 192.0 gateway 192.g.103. a VLAN) so that data can be transported via the selected transport.168. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. type default as the route name. Example 1 --> ip add route route1 192. Example 2 routes through an existing interface. It's possible create one route called default. 192.3 255. 255.102.168.255.g. IP frames passing through the VLAN used as transport could reach the system main processor. but it cannot start with a digit.255.0 interface ip1 See also LIST INTERFACES IP ATTACH Syntax IP ATTACH {<name>|<number>} <transport> Description This command attaches an existing IP interface to an existing transport (i. .3) The destination netmask displayed in the IPv4 format (e. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits.g.103.e. To create a default static route to a destination address.255. displayed in the IPv4 format (e. Example 1 routes through a gateway.0) The IP address of the gateway that this route will use. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To display interface names.168. 192.102.e. i.255.102.255.

voip is the name of an ethernet transport created using the ETHERNET ADD TRANSPORT command: --> ip attach ip1 voip See also IP ADD INTERFACE IP LIST INTERFACES IP ATTACHVIRTUAL Syntax IP ATTACHVIRTUAL {<name>|<number>} <real_interface> Description This command creates a virtual interface. To display the interface names. The IP interface should not have a transport attached to it. Default Value N/A number N/A transport N/A Example In the example below. To display interface numbers. To show the existing transports. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. use the TRANSPORT LIST command. A number that identifies an existing IP interface that will be the virtual interface. The IP interface should not have a transport attached to it. Option Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface that will be the virtual interface. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. VLAN). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. and a default value (if applicable). The virtual interface is associated with a ‘real’ IP interface that has already been attached to a transport using the IP ATTACH command.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 81 Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. which can be specified with this command.e. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Default Value name N/A number N/A . You can attach multiple virtual interfaces to one ‘real’ IP interface. A number that identifies an existing IP interface. To display interface numbers. To display interface names. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. A name that identifies an existing transport (i. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command.

Example --> ip clear arpentries IP CLEAR INTERFACES Syntax IP CLEAR INTERFACES Description This command clears all IP interfaces that were created using the IP ADD INTERFACE command. To display the interface names. It does not delete the static routes. see the IP CLEAR ROUTES command. Example --> ip clear interfaces See also IP DELETE INTERFACE IP CLEAR RIPROUTES Syntax IP CLEAR RIPROUTES Description This command deletes all the existing dynamic routes that have been obtained from RIP. N/A Example --> ip attachvirtual ip_virtual ip_real See also IP LIST INTERFACES IP CLEAR ARPENTRIES Syntax IP CLEAR ARPENTRIES Description This command clears all ARP entries listed in the IP ARP table. Example --> ip clear riproutes See also IP CLEAR ROUTES IP SET RIP HOSTROUTES IP SET INTERFACE RIP ACCEPT IP SET INTERFACE RIP SEND IP CLEAR ROUTES Syntax IP CLEAR ROUTES . use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. This is the ‘Real’ interface that the virtual interface will be associated with.82 Chapter 4 – IP Real_interface A name that identifies an existing IP interface. This interface must already be attached to a transport.

use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. A number that identifies an existing route. Default Value N/A number N/A Example --> ip delete interface ip1 See also IP CLEAR INTERFACES IP LIST INTERFACES IP DELETE ROUTE Syntax IP DELETE ROUTE {<name>|<number>} Description This command deletes a single route that was created using the IP ADD ROUTE command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. use the IP LIST ROUTES command. Option name number Description A name that identifies an existing route. Example --> ip clear routes See also IP DELETE ROUTE IP DELETE INTERFACE Syntax IP DELETE INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} Description This command deletes a single IP interface that was created using the IP ADD INTERFACE command. To display route names. To display interface names. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). A number that identifies an existing IP interface. Default Value N/A N/A . use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. To display interface numbers.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 83 Description This command clears all static routes that were created using the IP ADD ROUTE command.

use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP Default Value N/A . a VLAN) where it was previously attached using the IP ATTACH INTERFACE command. and a default value (if applicable). The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. use the IP LIST ROUTES command. A number that identifies an existing IP interface. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID.e. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. Example --> ip delete route route1 See also IP LIST ROUTES IP DETACH INTERFACE Syntax IP DETACH {<name>|<number>} Description This command detaches an IP interface from a transport (i. To display interface numbers.84 Chapter 4 – IP To display route numbers. which allows them to be handled at a higher priority than other packets that do not match this rule. To display interface names. which can be specified with this command. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Incoming packets that match this rule are given a higher quality of service (qos) value. Default Value N/A number N/A Example --> ip detach ip1 See also IP LIST INTERFACES IP INTERFACE ADD FQ CODEPOINT Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} ADD FQ <fqname> CODEPOINT <ds_codepoint> Description This command adds a flow qualifier rule that classifies IP packets based on the DS (Differentiated Services) codepoint field of the IP packet header.

which allows them to be handled at a higher priority than other packets that do not match this rule. If the protocol specified is TCP or UDP. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Option name number Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. The PHB supported here is Expedited Forwarding. and a default value (if applicable). DS RFCs defines recommended DS codepoint values for various PHBs (Per Hop Behaviors). use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. number N/A fqname N/A ds_codepoint N/A Example --> ip interface ip1 add fq myfq codepoint 101110 See also IP LIST INTERFACES IP INTERFACE LIST FQS IP INTERFACE ADD FQ PROTOCOL Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} ADD FQ <fqname> PROTOCOL {<proto> | TCP [<srcport>] [<dstport>] | UDP [<srcport>] [<dstport>]} Description This command adds a flow qualifier rule that classifies IP packets based on the specified protocol. A flow qualifier is a rule that allows you to select a quality of service value to assign to an incoming packet. but it cannot start with a digit. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. To display interface names. A number that identifies an existing IP interface.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 85 interface. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. An arbitrary name that identifies the flow qualifier (fq). To display interface names. which recommends a codepoint of 101110. you can also specify the protocol source and destination port. A codepoint is a 6 digit binary number set in the DS (Differentiated Services) field of the IP packet header. which can be specified with this command. Incoming packets that match this rule are given a higher quality of service (qos) value. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. A number that identifies an existing IP Default Value N/A N/A . To display interface numbers.

The protocol type that you want to classify. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. but it cannot start with a digit. UDP. If you set this to 0. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. The protocol can be TCP. see RFC1700 The source port of incoming packets. and the DS (Differentiated Services) codepoint field of each IP packet header. fqname N/A proto N/A srcport N/A dstport N/A Example To prioritise TCP packets with source port 50000 and dest port 80 --> ip interface ip1 add fq myfq1 protocol tcp 50000 80 --> ip interface ip3 add fq myfq1 protocol udp 0 5001 See also IP LIST INTERFACES IP INTERFACE LIST FQS IP INTERFACE ADD FQ SRCADDR CODEPOINT Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} ADD FQ <fqname> SRCADDR <srcaddr> CODEPOINT <ds_codepoint> Description This command adds a flow qualifier rule that classifies IP packets based on both the source IP address of incoming packets. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits.86 Chapter 4 – IP interface. A flow qualifier is a rule that allows you to select a quality of service value to assign to an incoming packet. To display interface numbers. packets arriving from any port are classified. This is only used if you have set TCP or UDP as the fq protocol. ICMP. which allows them to be handled at a higher priority than other packets that do not match this rule. packets destined for any port are classified. Incoming packets that match this rule are given a higher quality of service (qos) value. If you set this to 0. This is only used if you have set TCP or UDP as the fq protocol. . GRE or any numeric value. For a list of protocol numbers. An arbitrary name that identifies the flow qualifier (fq). The destination port of incoming packets.

you can also specify the protocol source and destination port. To display interface numbers.3 A codepoint is a 6 digit binary number set in the DS (Differentiated Services) field of the IP packet header. DS RFCs define recommended DS codepoint values for various PHBs (Per Hop Behaviors). which can be specified with this command. The PHB supported here is Expedited Forwarding. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. which allows them to be handled at a higher priority than other packets that do not match this rule. To display interface names.2 codepoint 101110 See also IP LIST INTERFACES IP INTERFACE LIST FQS IP INTERFACE ADD FQ SRCADDR PROTOCOL Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} ADD FQ <fqname> SRCADDR <srcaddr> PROTOCOL {<proto> | TCP <srcport> <dstport> | UDP <srcport> <dstport>} Description This command adds a flow qualifier rule that classifies IP packets based on the source address and protocol of the packet. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits. A flow qualifier is a rule that allows you to select a quality of service value to assign to an incoming packet. Incoming packets that match this rule are given a higher quality of service (qos) value. but it cannot start with a digit.168.168. which recommends a codepoint of 101110. A number that identifies an existing IP interface. An arbitrary name that identifies the flow qualifier (fq).102. and a default value (if applicable). Default Value N/A number N/A fqname N/A srcaddr N/A ds_codepoint N/A Example --> ip interface ip1 add fq myfq1 srcaddr 192.101. If the protocol specified is TCP or UDP. The IP address that will be compared against the source IP address of incoming packets. displayed in the following format: 192. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 87 Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command.

An arbitrary name that identifies the flow qualifier (fq). ICMP. If you set this to 0.101.2. and a default value (if applicable).3 The protocol type that you want to classify. UDP. displayed in the following format: 192. This is only used if you have set TCP or UDP as the fq protocol. This is only used if you have set TCP or UDP as the fq protocol. The IP address that will be compared against the source IP address of incoming packets.168. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. RFC1700. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. The protocol can be TCP. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. The source port of incoming packets. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits.88 Chapter 4 – IP Options The following table gives the range of values for each option.168. but it cannot start with a digit. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. A flow qualifier is a rule that allows you to select a quality of service value to assign to an incoming packet. To display interface names. If you set this to 0. To display interface numbers. GRE or any numeric value. packets destined for any port are classified. with source port 50000 and destport 80 --> ip interface ip1 add fq fq1 srcaddr 192. Default Value N/A number N/A fqname N/A srcaddr N/A proto N/A srcport 0 dstport 0 Example To prioritise TCP packets from 192. A number that identifies an existing IP interface.101. The destination port of incoming packets. packets arriving from any port are classified.168. which can be specified with this command.102.2 protocol tcp 50000 80 See also IP LIST INTERFACES IP INTERFACE LIST FQS IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPENTRY Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} ADD PROXYARPENTRY <ipaddress> [<netmask>] . For a list of protocol numbers.

Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option.255. you can set one or more addresses in the range to NOT respond to proxy ARP using the IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPEXCLUSION command. 192.0) Default Value N/A number N/A ipaddress N/A netmask N/A Example The following command adds proxy ARP support to the entire subnet 192.0: --> ip interface ip1 add proxyarpentry 192.0 255.255.255.168.3) The netmask of the subnet for which you wish to make proxy ARP replies.100. displayed in the IPv4 format: (e.g.168. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. You can configure proxy ARP functionality on a single address or a range of addresses.100. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. which can be specified with this command. A number that identifies an existing IP interface. 255. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. which can be specified with this command. This means that an interface responds to ARP requests for both its own address and for any address that has been configured as a proxy ARP address. and a default value (if applicable).AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 89 Description This command configures proxy ARP functionality on an existing IP interface. To display interface numbers. The IP address (or range of addresses) of the address for which you wish to make proxy ARP replies. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. and a default value (if applicable).g.102. displayed in the IPv4 format (e. Option Description Default Value .168.255. you can set one or more addresses in the range to NOT respond with proxy ARP. Once you have configured a range of proxy ARP interfaces. This means that once you have configured an interface with a range of proxy ARP addresses. To display interface names.0 See also IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPEXCLUSION IP INTERFACE LIST PROXYARPENTRIES IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPEXCLUSION Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} ADD PROXYARPEXCLUSION <ipaddress> [<netmask>] Description This command configures proxy ARP exclusion functionality on an existing IP interface.

11. A secondary address may be used to create an extra IP address on an interface for management purposes.0) N/A number N/A ipaddress N/A netmask N/A Example The first command below adds proxy ARP support to the subnet 192.0 --> ip interface ip1 add proxyarpexclusion 192.168.255.100. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. See also IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPENTRY IP INTERFACE LIST PROXYARPENTRIES IP INTERFACE ADD SECONDARYIPADDRESS Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} ADD SECONDARYIPADDRESS <ipaddress> [<netmask>] Description This command adds a secondary IP address to an existing IP interface. A number that identifies an existing IP interface.255. You should use virtual interfaces instead. displayed in the IPv4 format (e. or to allow the IP stack to route between two subnets on the same interface. This applies to all interface types.0 255. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID.255.100.168. .255.255.168.10 255.100.255.0.255. 192. EXCEPT for addresses 192.168. 255.255. The ability to specify a subnet mask with a secondary address is superseded by the functionality of virtual interfaces.254: --> ip interface ip1 add proxyarpentry 192.g. To display interface names.102.100.255.168. The IP address (or range of addresses) that you want to set as a proxy ARP exclusion entry.10 and 192. To display interface numbers.100. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command.0 .168.100. displayed in the IPv4 format (e.3) The netmask of the subnet you wish to exclude from proxy ARP.100. you do not need to specify a subnet mask for that secondary address. The functionality of secondary IP addresses depends on several parameters including the type of IP interface and the netmask: • if a secondary address is on the same subnet as the primary interface address.g.10 / 255.254 This means that the Residential Gateway will make proxy ARP responses for the entire subnet 192. The second command excludes proxy ARP support from 192.90 Chapter 4 – IP name A name that identifies an existing IP interface.168.168.0 / 255.255. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

255. You can add any number of secondary IP addresses. A number that identifies an existing IP interface.255. To display interface names.255. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 91 Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface.3) To display the secondary IP addresses. and a default value (if applicable). A number that identifies an existing IP interface.g. To display interface numbers.3 255. 192. use the IP INTERFACE LIST SECONDARYIPADDRESSES command.255.0 See also IP LIST INTERFACES IP INTERFACE LIST SECONDARYIPADDRESSES IP INTERFACE CLEAR FQS Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} CLEAR FQS Description This command deletes all flow qualifiers that have been added to an existing IP interface using the IP INTERFACE ADD FQ commands.0) To display the secondary IP addresses. The netmask of the secondary IP address displayed in the Iov4 format (e. use the IP INTERFACE LIST SECONDARYIPADDRESSES command. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command.168. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID.255. A secondary IP address that you want to add to the main IP interface. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command.g. which can be specified with this command. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. To display interface names.102. The IP address is displayed in the IPv4 format (e. Default Value N/A number N/A netmask N/A ipaddress N/A Example --> ip interface ip1 add secondaryipaddress 192. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. To display interface numbers. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command.168. The Default Value N/A number N/A .102.

To display interface numbers. Option Description Default Value . and a default value (if applicable).92 Chapter 4 – IP number appears in the first column under the heading ID. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. Example --> ip interface ip1 clear fqs See also IP LIST INTERFACES IP INTERFACE DELETE FQ IP INTERFACE CLEAR PROXYARPENTRIES Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} CLEAR PROXYARPENTRIES Description This command clears all proxy arp entries and exclusions that were created using the IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPENTRY and IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPEXCLUSION commands. which can be specified with this command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. Default Value N/A number N/A Example --> ip interface ip1 clear proxyarpentries See also IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPENTRY IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPEXCLUSION IP INTERFACE CLEAR SECONDARYIPADDRESSES Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} CLEAR SECONDARYIPADDRESSES Description This command deletes all additional IP addresses that have been added to an existing IP interface using the IP INTERFACE ADD SECONDARYIPADDRESS command. To display interface names. A number that identifies an existing IP interface. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command.

To display interface names. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. N/A number N/A Example --> ip interface ip1 clear secondaryipaddresses See also IP LIST INTERFACES IP INTERFACE ADD SECONDARYIPADDRESS IP INTERFACE DELETE SECONDARYIPADDRESS IP INTERFACE LIST SECONDARYIPADDRESSES IP INTERFACE DELETE FQ Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} DELETE FQ <fqname> Description This command deletes a single flow qualifier that has been added to an existing IP interface using the IP INTERFACE ADD FQ commands. To display flow qualifier names. A number that identifies an existing IP interface. To display interface numbers. use the IP INTERFACE LIST FQS command. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. To display interface names. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. A number that identifies an existing IP interface. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. To display interface numbers. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 93 name A name that identifies an existing IP interface. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Default Value N/A number N/A fqname N/A Example --> ip interface ip1 delete fq myfq See also IP LIST INTERFACES IP INTERFACE LIST FQS . A name that identifies the flow qualifier (fq). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

use the IP INTERFACE LIST PROXYARPENTRIES command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. and a default value (if applicable). use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. which can be specified with this command.94 Chapter 4 – IP IP INTERFACE DELETE PROXYARPENTRIES Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} DELETE PROXYARPENTRIES <entrynumber> Description This command deletes a single proxy arp entry that was created using the IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPENTRY command. To display entry numbers. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. and a default value (if applicable). use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. To display interface numbers. A number that identifies an existing IP interface. To display interface names. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. A number that identifies an existing ProxyArp entry on this IP interface. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. To display interface names. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. which can be specified with this command. Default Value N/A . The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. Default Value N/A number N/A entrynumber N/A Example --> ip interface ip1 delete proxyarpentry 1 See also IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPENTRY IP INTERFACE LIST PROXYARPENTRIES IP INTERFACE DELETE PROXYARPEXCLUSION Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} DELETE PROXYARPEXCLUSION <entrynumber> Description This command deletes a single proxy arp exclusion entry that was created using the IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPEXCLUSION command.

The number that identifies a secondary IP address that you want to delete from the main IP interface. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. To display secondary IP address numbers. A number that identifies an existing IP interface. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. use the IP INTERFACE LIST PROXYARPENTRIES command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. To display interface numbers. To display interface numbers. A number that identifies an existing ProxyArpExclusion entry on this IP interface. To display interface names.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 95 number A number that identifies an existing IP interface. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. use the IP INTERFACE LIST SECONDARYIPADDRESSES command. N/A entrynumber N/A Example --> ip interface ip1 delete proxyarpexclusion 2 See also IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPEXCLUSION IP INTERFACE LIST PROXYARPENTRIES IP INTERFACE DELETE SECONDARYIPADDRESS Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} DELETE SECONDARYIPADDRESS <secondaryipaddress number> Description This command deletes a single secondary IP address that has previously been added to an existing IP interface using the IP INTERFACE ADD SECONDARYIPADDRESS command. To display entry numbers. Default Value N/A number N/A secondary ipaddress number N/A Example --> ip interface ip1 delete secondaryipaddress 1 . The number appears in the first column under the heading ID.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. To display interface numbers.2 | tcp | 50000 | 80 |101110 ----------------------------------------------------------------- IP INTERFACE LIST PROXYARPENTRIES Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} LIST PROXYARPENTRIES Description This command displays information about proxy arp entries and exclusions that were created using the IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPENTRY and IP INTERFACE ADD PROXYARPEXCLUSION commands. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. and a default value (if applicable).96 Chapter 4 – IP See also IP LIST INTERFACES IP INTERFACE LIST SECONDARYIPADDRESSES IP INTERFACE LIST FQS Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} LIST FQS Description This command lists all flow qualifiers that have been added to an existing IP interface using the IP INTERFACE ADD FQS command. Default Value N/A number N/A Example --> ip interface ip1 list fqs Flow Qualifiers for interface: ip1 ID | Name | Src IP Address | Proto | Src Port | Dst Port | ds ---|------|----------------|-------|----------|----------|------1 | fq1 | 192. The following information are displayed: • interface ID numbers • IP address and netmask of proxy ARP entries and exclusions • Exclusion status. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. which can be specified with this command. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. which can be specified with this command.168. and a default value (if applicable). . use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. To display interface names.101. true for exclusions. A number that identifies an existing IP interface. false for inclusions Options The following table gives the range of values for each option.

8 | 255. To display interface numbers.100. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Default Value N/A number N/A Example In the example output below.0.255. To display interface names.255. secondary IP addresses without netmasks associated with them appear as 0.168.255. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command.255.103.0 2 | 192.255. Default Value N/A number N/A Example --> ip interface ip1 list proxyarpentries ID | IP Address | Netmask | Exclude ---|---------------|----------------|---------1 | 192.255.2 | 255.0 by default.0. A number that identifies an existing IP interface.0 | false 2 | 192. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. --> ip interface ip1 list secondaryipaddresses ID | IP Address | Netmask -----|----------------------------------1 | 192. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID.6 | 255.0 3 | 192.255. A number that identifies an existing IP interface.103.168.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 97 Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface.254| true ----------------------------------------------- IP INTERFACE LIST SECONDARYIPADDRESSES Syntax IP INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} LIST SECONDARYIPADDRESSES Description This command lists the secondary IP addresses that have been added to an existing IP interface using the IP INTERFACE ADD SECONDARYIPADDRESS command.100.4 | 255. To display interface names.0 ----------------------------------------- . use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command.168.104.168. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID.255.255.0 | 255.255. To display interface numbers.168.

Example The example below shows an active telnet connection.98 Chapter 4 – IP See also IP LIST INTERFACES IP LIST INTERFACE SECONDARYIPADDRESS IP LIST ARPENTRIES Syntax IP LIST ARPENTRIES Description This command displays the ARP table.30.91. Example --> ip list arpentries IP ARP table entries: IP address | MAC address | Interface | Static -----------------|-------------------|--------------|-------10.30.30 | 00:20:2b:03:09:c4 | 1 | no ------------------------------------------------------------- IP LIST CONNECTIONS Syntax IP LIST CONNECTIONS Description This command lists the active TCP/UDP connections in use by applications running on the device.10. which lists the following information: • IP addresses and corresponding MAC addresses obtained by ARP.20. TFTP server and SNMP: --> ip list connections Local TCP/UDP connections: Proto | Local address | Remote address | State -------|------------------------|------------------------|-----------tcp | 192. and the listen sockets of the WebServer.10. It displays the following information: • Protocol type (TCP or UDP) • Local connection address and port number • Remote connection address and port number • Connection state for TCP connections This command does not show raw socket connections or UDP connections opened internally within the IP stack.168.19:23 | 192.18:1080 | ESTABLISHED tcp | *:80 | *:* | LISTEN udp | *:69 | *:* | udp | *:161 | *:* | .`no' for dynamically generated ARP entries.10 | 00:20:2b:e0:03:87 | 3 | no -----------------|-------------------|--------------|-------20. • IP interface on which the host is connected • Static status . `yes' for static entries added by the user.168.20.91.20 | 00:20:2b:03:0a:72 | 2 | no -----------------|-------------------|--------------|-------30.

1.2 | disabled | pppoe1 2 | ip0 | 192. The name of the attached virtual interface is displayed in the Transport column in square brackets.102.168.1 | disabled | default -----------------------------------------------------------------See also IP SHOW INTERFACE IP SET INTERFACE DHCP IP LIST RIPROUTES Syntax IP LIST RIPROUTES Description This command lists information about the routes that have been obtained from RIP. • source interface . • timeout .The number of hops counted as the cost of the route.the number of seconds that this RIP route will remain in the routing table unless updated by RIP. It displays the following information: • destination IP addresses • destination netmask • gateway address • cost .168. and if so. for example [ip2] Example --> ip list interfaces IP Interfaces: ID | Name | IP Address | DHCP | Transport -----|--------------|------------------|----------|--------------1 | ppp_device | 192.the name of the existing interface that this route uses Example --> ip list riproutes . the name of the transport • Whether a virtual interface is attached to a real interface. The following information is displayed: • interface ID numbers • interface names • IP addresses (if previously specified) • DHCP status • Whether a transport is attached to the interface.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 99 ---------------------------------------------------------------------- IP LIST INTERFACES Syntax IP LIST INTERFACES Description This command lists information about IP interfaces that were added using the ip add interface command.

255.100 Chapter 4 – IP IP RIP routes: Destination | Mask | Gateway | Cost | Time | Source ---------------|---------------|-----------------|------|------|------192.50 | 255.168.10.255.102.50.255.0 | 10.0 | 192.68 ----------------------------------------------------------------------See also IP SHOW ROUTE IP PING Syntax IP PING <dest-ip> Description This command pings a specified destination IP address. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).10 | 1 | 3000 | ip2 ----------------------------------------------------------------------See also IP SET RIP HOSTROUTES IP SET INTERFACE RIP ACCEPT IP SET INTERFACE RIP SEND IP LIST ROUTES Syntax IP LIST ROUTES Description This command lists information about existing routes.255. It displays the following information: • route ID numbers • route names • destination IP addresses (if previously specified) • destination netmask address (if previously specified) • Either the gateway address or the name of the destination interface (whichever is set) Example --> ip list routes IP routes: ID | Name | Destination | Netmask | Gateway/Interface -----|----------|------------------|------------------|----------------2 | route2 | 192.168. Option dest-ip Description The IP address of the destination machine that you want to ping.168.1 | 255. displayed in the IPv4 Default Value N/A .68.10.168.3 | 255.255.255.101.0 | ip1 1 | route1 | 192.

Default Value N/A number N/A enabled disabled disabled Example --> ip set interface ip2 dhcp enabled See also IP SET INTERFACE IPADDRESS IP SET INTERFACE MTU IP LIST INTERFACES For information on setting DHCP client configuration options. The interface obtains its configuration information from DHCP client.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 101 format (192. and a default value (if applicable). the following output is displayed: ip: ping .3) Example --> ip ping 192.102. which can be specified with this command.168. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. A number that identifies an existing IP interface. IP SET INTERFACE IPADDRESS Syntax IP SET INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} IPADDRESS <ipaddress> [<netmask>] Description This command sets the IP address for an existing IP interface.168.reply received from 192.3 If ping was unsuccessful.168. The interface does not use DHCP client configuration information.102. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command.no reply received. see DHCP Client CLI commands. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option.102. To display interface names. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. IP SET INTERFACE DHCP Syntax IP SET INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} DHCP {ENABLED|DISABLED} Description This command specifies whether a named interface should obtain its configuration via DHCP. .3 ip: ping . To display interface numbers.

255 is used to indicate an unnumbered interface. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. The IP address of the interface displayed in the following IPv4 format (e. and a default value (if applicable). the interface is marked as unconfigured. For unnumbered interfaces. 192.255.0) The special value 255.102. .0. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option.255. To display interface numbers. The router-id should be the same as the IP address of one of the router's numbered interfaces.0. the natural mask of the IP address is used.102 Chapter 4 – IP Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).255.3) If the IP address is set to the special value 0.3 255.255.g. which can be specified with this command. A number that identifies an existing IP interface.g. An unnumbered interface is configured by setting the IP address to the interface's router-id value.255.168.0. and setting netmask to 255. To display interface names.168.255. This value is used when the interface address is obtained automatically. Default Value N/A number N/A ip address 0.255. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID.0.0 See also IP SET INTERFACE MTU IP SET INTERFACE DHCP IP LIST INTERFACES IP SET INTERFACE MTU Syntax IP SET INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} MTU <mtu> Description This command sets the MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) for an existing IP interface. Example --> ip set interface ip4 ipaddress 192. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. the IP address parameter is used to specify the router-id of the interface. The netmask of the interface displayed in the IPv4 format (e.255.102.0.0 netmask If no netmask is supplied.255. 255.

The MTU should be set to a value appropriate for the transport attached to the interface (typically from 576 to 1500 bytes). A number that identifies an existing IP interface. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. To display interface numbers. Default Value N/A number N/A . use the IP LIST INTERFACES command A number that identifies an existing IP interface. To display interface names. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To display interface numbers.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 103 Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Maximum Transmission Unit: maximum packet size (in bytes) that an interface can handle. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. To display interface names. Ethernet and most other transports support an MTU of 1500 bytes. Default Value N/A number N/A mtu 1500 Example --> ip set interface ip2 mtu 800 See also IP SET INTERFACE IPADDRESS IP SET INTERFACE DHCP IP LIST INTERFACES IP SET INTERFACE NETMASK Syntax IP SET INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} netmask Description This command sets the netmask for an existing IP interface. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. For example. whereas PPPoE supports an MTU of 1492 bytes. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command.

255 is used to indicate an unnumbered interface.255. A number that identifies an existing IP interface.255.255.255. To display interface numbers. 255. When receiving RIP v1 messages.255. the IP stack tries to use the information it has available to determine the appropriate subnet mask for the addresses received.g.255. N/A Example --> ip set interface ip6 netmask 255.255. The interface only accepts RIP version 2 messages (RFC1723). The number appears in the first column under the heading ID.0) The special value 255. none Default Value N/A number N/A NONE V1 V2 ALL Example --> ip set interface ip3 rip accept none See also IP SET INTERFACE RIP SEND IP SET INTERFACE RIP MULTICAST . An unnumbered interface is configured by setting the IP address to the interface’s router-id value. use the IP LIST INTERFACE command. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command.255. The interface does not accept RIP messages. and setting netmask to 255.255.0 See also IP SET INTERFACE IPADDRESS IP LIST INTERFACES IP SET INTERFACE RIP ACCEPT Syntax IP SET INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} RIP ACCEPT {NONE|V1|V2|ALL} Description This command specifies whether or not an existing interface accepts RIP messages. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. The interface only accepts RIP version 1 messages (RFC1058).104 Chapter 4 – IP netmask The netmask of the interface displayed in the IPv4 format (e. To display interface names. You can specify what version of RIP messages are accepted by the interface. The interface accepts RIP version 1 (RFC1058) and RIP version 2 (RFC1723) messages.

use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. RIP version 2 messages are sent via broadcast and are received by all the hosts on the network. If this command is disabled. RIP version 2 messages sent via multicast are only received by the hosts on the network that are configured to listen to the RIP v2 multicast address. Allows RIP version 2 messages to be sent via multicast. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Disables RIP version 2 messages being sent via multicast. disabled Default Value N/A number N/A ENABLED DISABLED Example --> ip set interface ip1 rip multicast enabled See also IP LIST INTERFACES IP SET INTERFACE RIP SEND IP SET INTERFACE RIP SEND Syntax IP SET INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} RIP SEND {NONE|V1|V2|ALL} .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 105 IP SET RIP HOSTROUTES IP SET RIP POISON IP SHOW IP LIST INTERFACES IP SET INTERFACE RIP MULTICAST Syntax IP SET INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} RIP MULTICAST {ENABLED | DISABLED} Description This command allows you to enable/disable whether RIP version 2 messages are sent via multicast. A number that identifies an existing IP interface. Messages are sent via broadcast instead. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. You need to set RIP to send v2 messages using the IP SET INTERFACE RIP SEND command in order for the IP SET INTERFACE RIP MULTICAST ENABLED command to send version 2 messages via multicast. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To display interface numbers. To display interface names.

Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. The interface sends RIP version 1 (RFC1058) and RIP version 2 (RFC1723) messages. all TCP traffic routed through that interface will be examined. The interface only sends RIP version 1 messages (RFC1058) The interface only sends RIP version 2 messages (RFC1723). which can be specified with this command.106 Chapter 4 – IP Description This command specifies whether or not an existing interface can send RIP messages. If a TCP SYN (synchronize/start) segment is sent with a maximum segment size larger than . When TCP MSS Clamp is enabled on an interface. You can specify which version of RIP messages will broadcast routing information on the interface. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. A number that identifies an existing IP interface. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. The interface does not accept RIP messages. RIP version 2 is used on all non-loopback interfaces. and treating it as a route to the whole network may be the best way to make use of the information. a RIP version 1 route that appears to be to an individual host might in fact be to a subnet. To display interface numbers. To display interface names. If set. and a default value (if applicable). use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Routing information is broadcast every 30 seconds or when the RIP routing table is changed. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. RIP version 1 does not allow specification of subnet masks. Default Value N/A number N/A NONE RIP SEND V1 none RIP SEND V2 RIP SEND ALL Example --> ip set interface ip1 rip send v1 See also IP SET INTERFACE RIP ACCEPT IP SET RIP HOSTROUTES IP SET RIP POISON IP SHOW IP LIST INTERFACES IP SET INTERFACE TCPMSSCLAMP Syntax IP SET INTERFACE <name> TCPMSSCLAMP {ENABLED|DISABLED} Description This command enables/disables TCP MSS (Maximum Segment Size) Clamp functionality on an existing IP interface.

use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Option ENABLED Description Enables RIP to advertise a default route with the cost metric set using the IP SET RIP DEFAULTROUTECOST command. Default Value N/A ENABLED disabled DISABLED Example --> ip set interface ip2 tcpmssclamp enabled See also IP SET INTERFACE MTU IP SHOW IP SET RIP ADVERTISEDEFAULT Syntax IP SET RIP ADVERTISEDEFAULT {ENABLED | DISABLED} Description This command enables/disables the advertising of a default route via RIP. The cost associated with the route is the value set using the IP SET RIP DEFAULTROUTECOST command. the MSS option will be rewritten in order to allow TCP traffic to pass through the interface without requiring fragmentation. if necessary. Disables advertisement of a default route.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 107 the interface MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). If you set this to enabled. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). You must enable default advertising before you create the default route. TCP SYN segments routed through this interface will be examined and. The IP stack will not examine or modify TCP traffic routed through this interface. then create a default route using the IP ADD DEFAULTROUTE commands. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. To display interface names. Default Value disabled DISABLED Example --> ip set rip advertisedefault enabled See also IP ADD DEFAULTROUTE GATEWAY . the route will also be added to those advertised by the RIP protocol. modified.

If enabled. Default Value 1 . Rejects RIP v2 packets containing an authentication entry. To set an authentication password. Packets with no authentication or the wrong password will be rejected. Packets with no authentication or the wrong password are rejected. and a default value (if applicable). a plain text authentication string is placed in RIP v2 packets. Option cost Description The number of hops counted as the cost of the default route. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). which can be specified with this command. use the IP SET RIP PASSWORD command. Default Value ENABLED disabled DISABLED Example --> ip set rip authentication enabled See also IP SET RIP PASSWORD IP SHOW IP SET RIP DEFAULTROUTECOST Syntax IP SET RIP DEFAULTROUTECOST <cost> Description This command sets the number of hops counted as the cost of a default route advertised via RIP. Option Description Accepts RIP v2 packets that contain an authentication entry with the correct password string.108 Chapter 4 – IP IP ADD DEFAULTROUTE INTERFACE IP SET RIP DEFAULTROUTECOST IP SET RIP AUTHENTICATION Syntax IP SET RIP AUTHENTICATION {ENABLED | DISABLED} Description This command enables/disables RIP v2 plain text authentication. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. RIP v2 packets will only be accepted if they contain an authentication entry with the correct password string. The cost value can be any positive integer between 1 and 15.

Option ENABLED Description Sets the hostroutes flag to on. a RIP version 1 route that appears to be to an individual host might in fact be to a subnet. Sets the hostroutes flag to off. and a default value (if applicable). . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the IP SHOW command. RIP version 2 routes to individual hosts are ignored. RIP version 1 routes to individual hosts are treated as routes to the network containing the host. RIP version 1 does not allow specification of subnet masks. and treating it as a route to the whole network may be the best way to make use of the information. To display the current state of rip hostroutes. disabled Default Value DISABLED Example --> ip set rip hostroutes enabled See also IP SET INTERFACE RIP ACCEPT IP SET INTERFACE RIP SEND IP SHOW IP SET RIP PASSWORD Syntax IP SET RIP PASSWORD <password> Description This command sets an authentication string that is placed in RIP v2 packets if ip set rip authentication is enabled. which can be specified with this command. The interface accepts RIP routes to specific hosts.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 109 Example --> ip set rip defaultroutecost 10 See also IP ADD DEFAULTROUTE GATEWAY IP ADD DEFAULTROUTE INTERFACE IP SET RIP ADVERTISEDEFAULT IP SET RIP HOSTROUTES Syntax IP SET RIP HOSTROUTES {ENABLED | DISABLED} Description Specifies whether IP interfaces will accept RIP routes to specific routes.

Default Value ENABLED disabled DISABLED Example --> ip set rip poison enabled See also IP SET INTERFACE RIP ACCEPT IP SET INTERFACE RIP SEND IP SET RIP HOSTROUTES IP SHOW IP SET ROUTE COST Syntax IP SET ROUTE {<name>|<number>} COST <cost> . In short. Option Description Sets the poisoned reverse flag to on. The ATRG613. and let other hosts eventually age them out. To display the current state of the poisoned reverse flag.110 Chapter 4 – IP Option Description An authentication password used by RIP v2 packets if ip set rip authentication is enabled. Sets the poisoned reverse flag to off. though. the AT-RG613. the effect of Poison Reverse is to specifically advertise routes. If this flag is on. see that RFC for discussion of the details. This process results in a quicker updating of other hosts routing tables. if those routes are no longer accessible for some reason. The alternative is to simply not advertise the inaccessible routes. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 TCP/IP performs poisoned reverse as defined in RFC 1058. use the IP SHOW command. The password is a string of 0 to 16 characters. Default Value password N/A Example --> ip set rip password vancouver See also IP SET RIP AUTHENTICATION IP SHOW IP SET RIP POISON Syntax IP SET RIP POISON {ENABLED | DISABLED} Description Enables or disables the poisoned reverse flag. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). with metric set to 16. Hosts receiving these advertisements will then mark these routes as unusable. ATRG623 and AT-RG656 performs poisoned reverse as defined in RFC 1058.

To display route names. A number that identifies an existing route. Default Value N/A number N/A cost 1 Example --> ip set route route1 cost 3 See also IP ADD ROUTE IP SET ROUTE DESTINATION IP SET ROUTE GATEWAY IP LIST ROUTES IP SET ROUTE DESTINATION Syntax IP SET ROUTE {<name>|<number>} DESTINATION <dest-network> <netmask> Description This command sets the destination network address of a route previously created using the IP ADD ROUTE command. This may affect the choice of route when the route is competing with routes acquired from RIP.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 111 Description This command sets the number of hops counted as the cost of the route for a route previously created using the IP ADD ROUTE command. and a default value (if applicable). use the IP LIST ROUTES command. To display route numbers. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. use the IP LIST ROUTES command. use the IP LIST ROUTES command. which can be specified with this command. (Using a mixture of RIP and static routing is not advised). The IP address of the destination network Default Value N/A number N/A dest-network N/A . Option name Description A name that identifies an existing route. use the IP LIST ROUTES command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). The cost value can be any positive integer. A number that identifies an existing route. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. To display route numbers. The number of hops counted as the cost of the route. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing route. To display route names. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option.

168. 255.102. A number that identifies an existing route.0 See also IP SET ROUTE GATEWAY IP SET ROUTE COST IP LIST ROUTES IP SET ROUTE GATEWAY Syntax IP SET ROUTE {<name>|<number>} GATEWAY <gateway> Description This command sets the gateway address of a route previously created using the IP ADD ROUTE command. The IP address of the gateway.255.168. The numbers appear in the first column under the heading ID.3) If you added a route directly to an interface.168.0 as the gateway.112 Chapter 4 – IP displayed in the IPv4 format (e.255.0 so that no gateway is specified. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing route.255.0) N/A Example --> ip set route route1 destination 192. 192.168. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).0.102.255.0.0.102. 192.g. displayed in the IPv4 format (e.3 255. the gateway address is set by default to 0.103.g.3 See also IP ADD ROUTE IP SET ROUTE DESTINATION . use the IP LIST ROUTES command.g. Default Value N/A number N/A gateway N/A Example --> ip set route route1 gateway 192. If you want the route to go directly to its destination and not via a gateway.3) netmask The destination netmask displayed in the IPv4 format (e. use the IP LIST ROUTES command.0. To display route numbers. specify 0. To display route names. which is the next device along the path to the destination network.

No interface is set. use none so that no interface is set. To display route names. use the IP LIST ROUTES command.3) To display interface names. The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. A number that identifies an existing route. This is used for routes that route via a gateway device instead of an interface. use the IP LIST ROUTES command. Default Value N/A number N/A interface N/A NONE N/A Example --> ip set route r1 interface eth1 See also IP LIST INTERFACES IP LIST ROUTES IP SHOW Syntax IP SHOW Description Shows current RIP configuration and any other information global to the router.g. To display route numbers. displayed in the IPv4 format (e.102. If you want the existing route to route to an address via a gateway device. The name of the existing interface that the ip routes through. 192.168. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing route. Example --> ip show Global IP configuration: Host routes: true Poison reverse: false .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 113 IP SET ROUTE COST IP LIST ROUTES IP SET ROUTE INTERFACE Syntax IP SET ROUTE {<name>|<number>} INTERFACE {<interface>|NONE} Description This command sets the interface used by a route previously created by the IP ADD ROUTE command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

To display interface names.168.virtual [ip2] IP address: Netmask: MTU: DHCP: 192.168.114 Chapter 4 – IP See also IP SET RIP HOSTROUTES IP SET RIP POISON IP SHOW INTERFACE Syntax IP SHOW INTERFACE {<name>|<number>} Description This command displays the following information about a named interface: • IP address and netmask (if set) • MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) • Status of DHCP and NAT • Status of TCP MSS Clamp • Status of RIP send and RIP accept • Status of RIP multicast Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).255.255.255.50.0 1500 disabled . Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command.3 255. A number that identifies an existing IP interface.10 255. Default Value N/A number N/A Example --> ip show interface ip2 IP Interface: ip2 IP address: Netmask: MTU: DHCP: 192. To display interface numbers.255.102. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command.0 1500 disabled TCP MSS Clamp: disabled Accept Send Accept Send Multicast RIP RIP RIP RIP RIP V1: V1: V2: V2: V2: true false true false disabled --> ip show interface ip3 IP Interface: ip3 . The number appears in the first column under the heading ID.

The number appears in the first column under the heading ID. To display route names. A number that identifies an existing route.168. use the IP LIST ROUTES command.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 115 TCP MSS Clamp: Accept RIP V1: Send RIP V1: Accept RIP V2: Send RIP V2: Multicast RIP V2: disabled true false true false disabled See also IP SHOW IP SHOW ROUTE IP LIST INTERFACES IP SHOW ROUTE Syntax IP SHOW ROUTE {<name>|<number>} Description This command displays the following information about a named route: • Destination IP address • Netmask • Gateway IP address (if applicable) • Cost: the number of hops counted as the cost of the route • Interface name (if applicable) Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. and a default value (if applicable).0 Gateway: 192.168.255. To display route numbers. Default Value N/A number N/A Example --> ip show route route3 IP route: route3 Destination: 192.255.108.3 Netmask: 255.102. which can be specified with this command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existingroute.3 Cost: 1 Interface: See also IP SHOW IP LIST ROUTES . use the IP LIST ROUTES command.

see PPPoE CLI commands • For Ethernet commands. the syntax <transport_module> is used to generically represent a transport module like PPPOE or Ethernet. list and display information about existing transports that were created using the <transport_module> add transport commands. see the corresponding transport module chapter: • For PPPoE commands. To carry out more detailed configuration of transports. Throughout this section. see Ethernet CLI commands .116 Chapter 5 – Transports Chapter 5 Transports This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 residential Gateway to manage the Transport module. delete. This module allows you to clear.

use the TRANSPORTS LIST command. To display transport names. Example --> transports clear See also TRANSPORTS DELETE TRANSPORTS DELETE Syntax TRANSPORTS DELETE {<name>|<number>} Description This command deletes a single transport that was created using the <transport_module> ADD TRANSPORT command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing transport.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 117 Transports CLI commands The table below lists the Transports commands provided by the CLI: Command TRANSPORTS CLEAR TRANSPORTS DELETE TRANSPORTS LIST TRANSPORTS SHOW TRANSPORTS CLEAR Syntax TRANSPORTS CLEAR Description This command deletes all transports that were created using the <transport_module> ADD TRANSPORT command. Default Value N/A number N/A Example --> transports delete eth1 See also TRANSPORTS CLEAR TRANSPORTS LIST . A number that identifies an existing transport. To display transport numbers. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value for each option (if applicable). use the TRANSPORTS LIST command.

Option name Description A name that identifies an existing transport. To display transport numbers.118 Chapter 5 – Transports TRANSPORTS LIST Syntax TRANSPORTS LIST Description This command lists all currently existing transports. It displays the following information about the transports: • transport identification number • transport name • transport type (PPP or Ethernet) • Number of transmitted/received packets for each transport Example --> transports list Services: ID | Name | Type -----|--------------|----------------------------------------------------1 | default | Ethernet | TxPkts: 142/0 RxPkts: 10625/0 2 | voip | Ethernet | TxPkts: 0/0 RxPkts: 0/0 -------------------------------------------------------------------------See also TRANSPORTS SHOW TRANSPORTS SHOW Syntax TRANSPORTS SHOW {<name>|<number>} Description This command displays detailed information about an existing transport. A number that identifies an existing transport. use the TRANSPORTS LIST command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the TRANSPORTS LIST command. Default Value N/A number N/A Example --> transports show default Ethernet Status Service Creator Description Ethernet Vlan : CLI : default : default . To display transport names.

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 119 If In Octets : 953676 If Out Octets : 8962 If In Errors : 0 If Out Errors : 0 Packets Sent : 142 Good Packets Received : 10726 Enabled : true Termination : Ip Interface: ip0 Ether Channel Port See also TRANSPORTS LIST : ethernet0 .

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Command ETHERNET ADD TRANSPORT ETHERNET CLEAR TRANSPORTS ETHERNET DELETE TRANSPORT ETHERNET LIST PORTS ETHERNET LIST TRANSPORTS ETHERNET SHOW TRANSPORT ETHERNET ADD TRANSPORT Syntax ETHERNET ADD TRANSPORT <vlanname> Description This command adds a named ethernet transport that will manage traffic related only to the specified VLAN. See VLAN SHOW command to see the VLANs currently defined in the system. Option vlanname Description A name that identifies an existing VLAN. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 residential Gateway to manage the Ethernet module Ethernet CLI commands The table below lists the Ethernet commands provided by the CLI.120 Chapter 6 – Ethernet Chapter 6 Ethernet This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. Default Value N/A .

Option Description A name that identifies an existing Ethernet transport. Example --> ethernet clear transports See also ETHERNET DELETE TRANSPORT ETHERNET DELETE TRANSPORT Syntax ETHERNET DELETE TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} Removing the transport named "default" results in system failure. To display transport numbers. Removing all the transports result in detaching all the IP interfaces from the VLANs and therefore the unit can not longer be reached by any IP interface (i.e. Be very careful when using this command due to side effects. use the ETHERNET LIST TRANSPORTS command. To display transport names. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Default Value name N/A number N/A Example --> ethernet delete transport eth1 . via a telnet connection). All the other IP interfaces will not be able to communicate externally. use the ETHERNET LIST TRANSPORTS command. Description This command deletes a single ethernet transport. A number that identifies an existing Ethernet transport.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 121 Example --> ethernet add transport voip See also ETHERNET LIST TRANSPORTS ETHERNET LIST PORTS VLAN SHOW ETHERNET CLEAR TRANSPORTS Syntax ETHERNET CLEAR TRANSPORTS Description This command deletes all ethernet transports that were created using the ETHERNET ADD TRANSPORT command.

Option Description A name that identifies an existing Ethernet transport. To display transport numbers. use the ETHERNET LIST TRANSPORTS command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).122 Chapter 6 – Ethernet See also ETHERNET LIST TRANSPORTS ETHERNET LIST PORTS Syntax ETHERNET LIST PORTS Description This command lists the valid ports that can be used to transport ethernet data. To display transport names. use the ETHERNET LIST Default Value name N/A number N/A . and the name of the port that it uses to transport ethernet data. Example --> ethernet list transports Ethernet transports: ID | Name | Port -----|-----------|-----------1 | default | ethernet0 2 | voip | ethernet1 -----------------------------See also ETHERNET LIST PORTS ETHERNET SHOW TRANSPORT Syntax ETHERNET SHOW TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} Description This command displays the name and port used by an existing Ethernet transport. It displays the transport identification number and name. A number that identifies an existing Ethernet transport. Example --> ethernet list ports Valid port names: ethernet 0 ethernet 1 ETHERNET LIST TRANSPORTS Syntax ETHERNET LIST TRANSPORTS Description This command lists all ethernet transports that have been created using the ETHERNET ADD TRANSPORT command.

Example --> ethernet show transport default Ethernet transport: default Description: Default Port: ethernet0 See also ETHERNET LIST TRANSPORTS .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 123 TRANSPORTS command.

Typically. The security system is designed to allow safe access to the Internet by enforcing a set of access rules between the various interfaces of the product. A session from the private network is terminated by the proxy. all other traffic is rejected. the Internet is not controlled and certain individuals use it destructively. a proxy is designed with a detailed knowledge of how the protocol works and what is allowed or not. To configure these rules at least two interfaces have to be defined — one interface is attached to the public network (e. Application Gateway This is the traditional approach used to build a firewall. two main security technologies are recognized that are briefly explained in the following. However.124 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall Chapter 7 Security & Firewall Introduction This section describes the AT-RG613.. and how to configure and monitor them. In practice most third-party proxies . Currently.g. Only protocols that have specific proxies configured are allowed through the security system. which then creates another separate session to the end destination. The security prevents unrestricted access to the private network and protects the computer systems from attack. This approach is very CPU intensive and very restrictive. the Internet). AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 built-in security facilities. The Internet is a network that allows access to vast amounts of information and potential customers. These individuals attack other users’ computer systems for entertainment and/or profit. where every connection between two networks is made via an application program (called a proxy) specific for that protocol. and the other interface is attached to an internal private network (intranet) that requires protection. it is also uniquely positioned to provide a single point where all traffic entering and leaving the private network can be logged and monitored. This information is useful for providing a security audit trail. The security system provides a single link between the private network and the public network.

private interfaces) is allowed unless specifically denied. In this technology. which pass all traffic between the two sessions without regard to the data. using the base rule that all access from the outside (i. The Security module makes it possible to: • enable/disable all modules in the Security System (including the child modules. Firewall and NAT. whether a packet from the public Internet is returning traffic for a flow originated from the private intranet. less demanding on hardware. an inspection module understands data in packets from the network layer (IP headers) up to the application layer.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 125 are transparent proxies. allowing inappropriate traffic to be discarded. Security support on AT-RG6xx Residential Gateway series The Security module is the main module in the AT-RG613. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 security system implementation has the following features: • Dynamic packet filtering (stateful inspection) technology. • The firewall will open only the required ports for the duration of a user session... and more adaptive to new Internet applications.e. The TCP state of TCP flows is also monitored. • Application of dynamic filtering to traffic flows. . public interfaces) is denied unless specifically permitted and all access from the inside (i. The term stateful refers to the security system’s ability to remember the status of a flow.e. • The firewall can be configured to limit internal access to the public network based on a policy setting. For example. destination and service requested. forming the Security System (see Figure 7). Stateful inspection is also referred to as dynamic packet filtering or context-based access control (CBAC). The benefit of this approach is that stateful inspection security systems are generally faster. • configure TCP/UDP ports that can be opened dynamically to allow sessions required by certain applications. NAT and Firewall) • add IP interfaces to the Security System to create security interfaces that are used to configure the NAT and Firewall child modules. Stateful Inspection A more recent approach to security design uses a method called “stateful inspection”. • enable/disable binary address replacement for sessions using dynamically opened ports The AT-RG613. The inspection module checks every packet passing through the security system and makes access decisions based on the source. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway that acts as server to the other two security modules.

for example the Internet. • A DMZ (demilitarized zone) is an IP interface serving a small network that acts as a neutral zone between the inside network and the outside network. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 it is possible to define three type of security interfaces interfaces : Internal.126 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall Security module Firewall module NAT module Figure 7. Security modules on AT-RG6xx Residential Gateway series. For example. but much less than the restriction of access to the internal To define an existing IP interface as a security interface use the SECURITY ADD INTERFACE command. Only one external security interface and one DMZ security interface can be defined. containing hosts that may pose a security threat to hosts on the internal interfaces. . External and DMZ (see Figure 8) • An Internal interface is an IP interface that is attached to a network that needs to be protected from the network attached to the External interface. an interface attached to a private LAN is an internal interface. use the SECURITY LIST INTERFACES command. Security Interfaces On the AT-RG613. • The External interface is an IP interface that is attached to a network. To show the security interfaces currently defined. A DMZ is a portion of the local network that is almost completely open to the external network. There may be some restriction at external access to the DMZ.

Every time the router detects that an outgoing session has been established to one of these primary port numbers. allowing the secondary sessions only when appropriate. triggers handle the situation dynamically. the “Dynamic Port Opening” service makes it possible to designate certain secondary ports that will only be opened when there is an active session on their associated primary port. For example. So. The trigger mechanism works without having to understand the application protocol or reading the payload of the packet. it creates an entry in a table of currently open primary . Security interfaces on AT-RG6xx Residential Gateway series. an FTP control session operates on port 21. AT-RG613. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 use triggers to tell to the security mechanism to expect these secondary sessions and how to handle them. The Primary port number refers to the TCP/UDP port number to which the primary (starting) session of the application is established. (although the payload does need to be read when using NAT if address replacement has to be performed).AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 127 External Network external interface Internal Network DMZ Network DMZ interface internal interface internal interface Internal Network internal interface Internal Network Figure 8. The Dynamic port opening feature solves a typical security problem related to Internet applications that require secondary ports to be open in order for a session to operate. Dynamic Port Opening makes use of triggers in the following way. The user configures the Residential Gateway with a list of primary port numbers for the applications that they want to handle using the SECURITY ADD TRIGGER command and uses the startport and endport fields to specify the range of primary port number(s). The more ports that are open. but FTP uses port 20 as a secondary port for the data transfer process. the greater the security risk. Dynamic Port Opening and Triggers Dynamic Port Opening is a companion feature to the filtering rules. Rather than allowing a range of port numbers.

This process is known as session chaining. the dynamic port opening for FTP is enabled in the software by default. FIN/ACK packets) and stop passing packets for that session. If a local host is not found. if an incoming session-establishment packet arrives at the router. and can reject malicious attempts to establish incoming sessions. If there has been no activity (no exchange of packets) on the secondary session for the specified period of time. In the port-probing process. the packet is just a small UDP packet. Subsequently. If the port probing process does find a local host that was expecting the incoming session. The table entry contains the IP addresses of the devices at each end of the session. then the session is established. themselves. and does not have to be configured by the user. This mechanism enables the router to allow in only those incoming secondary sessions that should be allowed in. the host at one end of the session might be simply turned off). it sends a packet to the private IP address in the table entry. then the user needs to configure this definition to have session chaining on. TCP sessions might be terminated without a proper close-down (for example. the probe packet is a TCP SYN packet. Depending on the response that the router gets back from the probe packet. the router runs through the list of matching sessions. The destination port number in this packet is the destination port number in the incoming packet. Although FTP is given as an example of a protocol that requires dynamic port opening. Session Chaining There are some applications (Netmeeting is the most well-known of these) in which the secondary sessions may. spawn their own secondary sessions. If there are one or more matches. the source and destination addresses of the packet are compared against the entries in the table of currently open primary sessions. If there are no matches. In the case of UDP. For each session. . However. If a dynamic port opening definition is being configured for such an application. as described above.128 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall sessions. there needs to be a criterion for deciding when to remove a session in these cases. because FTP is such a very common application. the packet is discarded. Non-Activity Timeout The dynamic port opening process opens secondary ports. UDP sessions do not have a specific close-down process. Also. it will detect when a session using a secondary port is being closed (ie an exchange of FIN. it can work out whether the local host was expecting to receive an incoming session to that port number. The method that the router uses is for the user to configure an inactivity time. Typically. So. the session is closed (ie the router will no longer forward any packets for that session). In the case of TCP. then the packet is discarded. then the router carries out a port-probing process.

It's not possible define a UDP session chaining without previously enabling TCP session chaining. port numbers. sequencing information and individual connection flags for an existing session to an internal host. when secondary sessions are successfully established. This makes it very difficult for hackers to break through the stateful Firewall. TCP session chaining must be always enabled if UDP session chaining is to be used. the following information is logged by the Firewall: • port number • sequencing information • additional flags for each connection associated with that particular internal host All inbound packets are compared against this logged information and only allowed through the Firewall if it can be determined that they are part of an existing connection. because they would need to know addresses. use the SECURITY SET TRIGGER SESSIONCHAINING command. Each time outbound packets are sent from an internal host to an external host. The firewall module offers the ablitiy to: • control what kind of Firewall activity is logged • protect the internal network using stateful firewall functionality • create policies • add validators to policies • add portfilters to to policies • enable/disable and configure Intrusion Detection Settings (IDS) In order to access firewall features. Figure 9 shows the entities involved in the firewall module and their relationships. . the firewall module must be enabled using the firewall enable command. the source/destination addresses of the session will also be added to the table of currently open primary sessions. Firewall The AT-RG613. Disabling TCP session chaining also automatically disables UDP session chaining. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 security system implements a stateful Firewall providing high security by blocking certain incoming traffic based on stateful information. Firewall behaviour is managed by the firewall module. To set a trigger for a session chaining that will enable chaining of UDP sessions. use the SECURITY SET TRIGGER UDPSESSIONCHAINING command. To set a trigger for a session chaining that will enable chaining of TCP sessions.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 129 In this case.

More than one portfilter object can be added to the same policy. The rules define: • what protocol type is allowed (specified using the protocol number or the protocol name) • the range of source and destination port numbers allowed • the direction that packets are allowed to travel in (inbound. . Validator A validator is a rule that determines how the Firewall handles packets based on the source or destination IP address. outbound. The policy that the validator belongs to determines whether packets to/from the specified IP address are allowed or blocked To add a validator to an existing policy use the FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR command. There are three different security interface combinations that Firewall policies can be created between: • the external interface and the internal interface • the external interface and the DMZ interface • the DMZ interface and the internal interface To add a policy between one of the three above interface combinations use the FIREWALL ADD POLICY command.130 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall Policy A policy is a relationship between two security interfaces where it is possible to assign portfilter and validator rules between them. neither or both) To add a portfilter to an existing policy use the FIREWALL ADD PORTFILTER command. Portifilter A portfilter is a rule that determines how the Firewall should handle packets being transported between two security interfaces that are defined in an existing policy.

IP address and traffic direction validator # Figure 9. however a legitimate host sees this as the 'real' WWW. .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 131 Firewall IDS policies li t policy #1 policy #2 refers to an interface combination (e. Intrusion Detection Intrusion Detection is a feature that looks for traffic patterns that correspond to certain known types of attack from suspicious hosts that attempt to damage the network or to prevent legitimate users from using it.an attacker scans a system in an attempt to identify any open ports. Firewall module and related objects. The attacker uses the shadow WWW to monitor the host's activities and send false data to and from the host's machine. • Web Spoofing . external-internal) policy # portfilters li t portfilter #1 portfilter #2 could refer to ports and traffic direction Source/Destination could refer to transport protocol and traffic direction portfilter # validators li t validator #1 validator #2 could refer to application and traffic direction protocol refers to Source/Destination .a DOS attack is an attempt by an attacker to prevent legitimate hosts from accessing a service.g. • Port Scanning . The Intrusion Detection protects the system from the following kinds of attacks: • DOS (Denial of Service) attacks .an attacker creates a 'shadow' of the World Wide Web on their own machine.

132 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall Intrusion Detection works differently for each type of attack: • For DOS (Denial of Service) attacks. • For Web Spoofing attacks. • For Port Scan attacks. . an intrusion attempt is detected and the attacker is blocked by the Firewall for the time limit specified by the FIREWALL SET IDS DOSATTACKBLOCK command (default is 30 minutes). it's possible to set three maximum parameter levels: • the maximum number of ICMP packets allowed before a flood is detected (using FIREWALL SET IDS MAXICMP command) • • the maximum number of pings allowed before an Echo Storm is detected (using FIREWALL SET IDS MAXPING command) the maximum number of unfinished TCP handshakes allowed before a flood is detected (using FIREWALL SET IDS MAXTCPOPENHANDSHAKE command) Once a maximum level is reached. packets destined for the victim of a spoofing attack are blocked by the Firewall for the time limit specified in the FIREWALL SET IDS VICTIMPROTECTION command. they are blocked by the Firewall for the time limit specified in the FIREWALL SET IDS SCANATTACKBLOCK command. once an attacker scanning your system's ports has been identified.

configure and manage the Security module.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 133 Security Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. Command SECURITY ADD INTERFACE SECURITY ADD TRIGGER TCP|UDP SECURITY ADD TRIGGER NETMEETING SECURITY CLEAR INTERFACES SECURITY CLEAR TRIGGERS SECURITY DELETE INTERFACE SECURITY DELETE TRIGGER SECURITY SECURITY LIST INTERFACES SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS SECURITY SET TRIGGER UDPSESSIONCHAINING SECURITY SET TRIGGER ADDRESSREPLACEMENT SECURITY SET TRIGGER BINARYADDRESSREPLACEMENT SECURITY SET TRIGGER ENDPORT SECURITY SET TRIGGER MAXACTINTERVAL SECURITY SET TRIGGER MULTIHOST SECURITY SET TRIGGER SESSIONCHAINING SECURITY SET TRIGGER STARTPORT SECURITY SHOW INTERFACE SECURITY SHOW TRIGGER SECURITY STATUS SECURITY ADD INTERFACE Syntax SECURITY ADD INTERFACE <name> {EXTERNAL|INTERNAL|DMZ} Description This command adds an existing IP interface to the Security package to create a . AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to enable. Security CLI commands The table below lists the security commands provided by the CLI.

use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. see the command FIREWALL SET IDS SCANATTACKBLOCK) until the portfilters were deleted. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). need to open secondary ports . and specifies what type of interface it is depending on how it connects to the network. If you did this. such as FTP. Adding a trigger means that you do not have to define static portfilters to open ports for each secondary session.134 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall security interface. the ports would remain open for potential use (or misuse. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. An interface that connects to the internal network An interface that connects to the demilitarized zone (DMZ) Default Value N/A EXTERNAL N/A N/A N/A INTERNAL DMZ Example --> security add interface ip1 internal See also IP LIST INTERFACES FIREWALL CLI COMMANDS NAT CLI COMMANDS SECURITY ADD TRIGGER TCP|UDP Syntax SECURITY ADD TRIGGER <name> {TCP|UDP} <startport> <endport> <maxactinterval> Description This command adds a trigger to the Security module. A trigger opens a secondary port dynamically. Some applications. A trigger allows an application to open a secondary port in order to transport packets. To display interface names.they have a control session port (21 for FTP) but also need to use a second port in order to transport data. and allows you to specify the length of time that it can remain inactive before it is closed. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Once security interfaces have been added. Option name Description An arbitrary name that identifies the Default Value N/A . An interface that connects to the external network. they can be used in the NAT and/or Firewall configurations.

Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the trigger.the CLI automatically sets this for you. Sets the end of the trigger port range for the control session.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 135 trigger. Adds a trigger for a UDP application to the security package. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits. N/A N/A N/A N/A UDP startport endport maxactinterval 3000 Example The following example creates an FTP (File Transfer Protocol) trigger: --> security add trigger t1 tcp 21 21 3000 See also SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS SECURITY ADD TRIGGER NETMEETING Syntax SECURITY ADD TRIGGER <name> NETMEETING Description This command allows you to add a trigger to allow Netmeeting to transport data through the security package. but it cannot start with a digit. If a secondary port opened by a trigger has not been used for the specified time. You do not have to set the port range or maxactinterval for a Netmeeting trigger . which can be specified with this command. TCP Adds a trigger for a TCP application to the security package. This application opens a secondary port session. Sets the maximum interval time (in milliseconds) between the use of secondary port sessions. Sets the start of the trigger port range for the control session. but it cannot start with a digit. it is closed. and a default value (if applicable). It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits. Default Value name N/A Example --> security add trigger t2 netmeeting See also SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS SECURITY ADD TRIGGER TCP|UDP .

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To display interface names. use the SECURITY LIST INTERFACES command. Example --> security clear triggers See also SECURITY DELETE TRIGGER SECURITY DELETE INTERFACE Syntax SECURITY DELETE INTERFACE <name> Description This command removes a single security interface that was added to the Security package using the SECURITY ADD INTERFACE command. Example --> security clear interfaces See also SECURITY DELETE INTERFACE SECURITY CLEAR TRIGGERS Syntax SECURITY CLEAR TRIGGERS Description This command deletes all triggers that were added to the Security module using the SECURITY ADD TRIGGER commands. Option Description A name that identifies an existing security interface. Default Value name N/A Example --> security delete interface f1 See also SECURITY CLEAR INTERFACES SECURITY LIST INTERFACES SECURITY DELETE TRIGGER Syntax SECURITY DELETE TRIGGER <name> Description This command deletes a single trigger that was added to the Security module using .136 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall SECURITY CLEAR INTERFACES Syntax SECURITY CLEAR INTERFACES Description This command removes all security interfaces that were added to the Security package using the SECURITY ADD INTERFACE command.

use the system config save command. To display trigger names. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing trigger. NAT and Firewall modules).AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 137 the SECURITY ADD TRIGGER commands. Disables all modules in the Security package (Security. so that you can re-enable them later in the session. Default Value N/A Example --> security delete trigger t2 See also SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS SECURITY CLEAR TRIGGERS SECURITY Syntax SECURITY {ENABLE | DISABLE} Description This command explicitly enables/disables all modules in the Security package (including the child modules. If you disable the Security package during a session. Option ENABLED Description Enables all modules in the Security package (Security. NAT and Firewall modules). NAT and Firewall). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). NAT or Firewall modules when the package was enabled remain in the system. any configuration changes made to the Security. If you need to reboot the Residential Gateway but want to save the security configuration between sessions. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the SECURITY LIST TRIGGER command. You must enable the Security package if you want to use the NAT and/or Firewall modules to configure security for your system. disabled Default Value DISABLED Example --> security enable See also FIREWALL SET SECURITYLEVEL SYSTEM CONFIG SAVE .

1720 | 3000 --------------------------------------------See also SECURITY SHOW TRIGGER SECURITY SET TRIGGER UDPSESSIONCHAINING Syntax SECURITY SET TRIGGER <name> UDPSESSIONCHAINING {ENABLE | DISABLE} .21 | 3000 2 | tr2 | tcp | 1720 . It displays the following information about triggers: • Trigger ID number • Trigger name • Trigger transport type (TCP or UDP) • Port range • Interval Example --> security list triggers Security Triggers: ID | Name | Type | Port Range | Interval --------------------------------------------1 | tr1 | tcp | 21 .138 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall SECURITY LIST INTERFACES Syntax SECURITY LIST INTERFACES Description This command lists the following information about security interfaces that were added to the Security package using the SECURITY ADD INTERFACE command: • Interface ID number • Interface name • Interface type (external. internal or DMZ) Example --> security list interfaces Security Interfaces: ID | Name | Type -----|----------|---------1 | i1 | internal 2 | i2 | external 3 | i3 | dmz --------------------------See also SECURITY SHOW INTERFACE SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS Syntax SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS Description This command lists triggers that were added to the Security module using the SECURITY ADD TRIGGER command.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 139 Description This command determines whether or not a UDP dynamic session can become also a triggering session. This CLI command is case-sensitive. Any IP addresses that are found are then compared with the public and private addresses being used by NAT. UDP session chaining can be enabled only if a TCP session chaining is already enabled on the same trigger using the security set trigger sessionchaining command. The command must be typed exactly as they appear in the syntax section on this page otherwise a syntax error message is returned. Enables UDP sessionchaining on an existing trigger. This command allows you to specify what type of address replacement is set on an trigger. which allows multi-level session triggering. To display trigger names. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing trigger. Default Value N/A ENABLED disabled DISABLED Example --> security set trigger t3 UDPsessionchaining enable See also SECURITY SET TRIGGER SESSIONCHAINING SECURITY SET TRIGGER ADDRESSREPLACEMENT Syntax SECURITY SET TRIGGER <name> ADDRESSREPLACEMENT {NONE|TCP|UDP|BOTH} Description The settings in this command are only effective if you enable address translation using the command SECURITY SET TRIGGER BINARYADDRESSREPLACEMENT. TCP and UDP session chaining is allowed if the SECURITY SET TRIGGER SESSIONCHAINING command is enabled. If the addresses that have been found would have been translated by NAT (had they been . Disables UDP session chaining on an existing trigger. use the SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS command. TCP session chaining is allowed if the SECURITY SET TRIGGER SESSIONCHAINING command is enabled. both UDP and TCP dynamic sessions also become triggering sessions. If UDP session chaining is enabled. Incoming and outgoing packets are searched in order to find any IP addresses embedded in the payload.

then they are translated and the original addresses in the payload are replaced by the translated addresses.140 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall in the packet header). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Default Value N/A ENABLED disabled DISABLED . To display trigger names. Sets address replacement on TCP packets for an existing trigger. You can then set the type of address replacement (TCP. use the SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS command. Disables address replacement. To display trigger names. Sets address replacement on TCP and UDP packets for an existing trigger. both or none) using the command SECURITY SET TRIGGER ADDRESSREPLACEMENT. Disables the use of binary address replacement on an existing trigger. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing trigger. use the SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS command. none Default Value N/A UDP BOTH Example --> security set trigger t2 addressreplacement tcp See also SECURITY SET TRIGGER BINARYADDRESSREPLACEMENT SECURITY SET TRIGGER BINARYADDRESSREPLACEMENT Syntax SECURITY SET TRIGGER <name> BINARYADDRESSREPLACEMENT {ENABLE | DISABLE} Description This command enables/disables binary address replacement on an existing trigger. on UDP packets or on both TCP and UDP packets. Sets address replacement on UDP packets for an existing trigger. Option name NONE TCP Description A name that identifies an trigger. You can specify whether you want to carry out address replacement on TCP packets. UDP. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Enables the use of binary address replacement on an existing trigger.

Default Value N/A interval N/A Example --> security set trigger t2 maxactinterval 5000 See also SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS . Sets the maximum interval time (in milliseconds) between the use of secondary port sessions. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Sets the end of the trigger port range.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 141 Example --> security set trigger t5 binaryaddressreplacement enable See also SECURITY SET TRIGGER ADDRESSREPLACEMENT SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS SECURITY SET TRIGGER ENDPORT Syntax SECURITY SET TRIGGER <name> ENDPORT <portnumber> Description This command sets the end of the port number range for an existing trigger. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS command. To display trigger names. Default Value N/A N/A Example --> security set trigger t3 endport 21 See also SECURITY SET TRIGGER STARTPORT SECURITY SET TRIGGER MAXACTINTERVAL Syntax SECURITY SET TRIGGER <name> MAXACTINTERVAL <interval> Description This command sets the maximum activity interval limit on existing session entries for an existing trigger. Option name portnumber Description A name that identifies an existing trigger. If a secondary port opened by a trigger has not been used for the specified time. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing trigger. use the SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS command. To display trigger names. it is closed.

which allows multi-level session triggering. Enables TCP sessionchaining on an existing trigger. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing trigger. A secondary session can be initiated to/from different remote hosts. use the SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS command. To display trigger names. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). TCP dynamic sessions also become triggering sessions. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Default Value N/A ENABLED disabled DISABLED Example --> security set trigger t1 multihost enable See also SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS SECURITY SET TRIGGER SESSIONCHAINING Syntax SECURITY SET TRIGGER <name> SESSIONCHAINING {ENABLE | DISABLE} Description This command determines whether or not triggering sessions can be chained. To display trigger names. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing trigger. Disables all session chaining (TCP and UDP) on an existing trigger. If session chaining is enabled.142 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall SECURITY SET TRIGGER MULTIHOST Syntax SECURITY SET TRIGGER <name> MULTIHOST {ENABLE | DISABLE} Description This command sets whether or not a secondary session can be initiated to/from different remote hosts or the same remote host on an existing trigger. Default Value N/A ENABLED disabled DISABLED Example --> security set trigger t4 sessionchaining enable See also SECURITY SET TRIGGER UDPSESSIONCHAINING . use the SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS command. A secondary session can only be initiated to/from the same remote host.

use the SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing trigger. The following interface information is displayed: • Interface name • Interface type (external. Option name portnumber Description A name that identifies an existing trigger. internal or DMZ) Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To display trigger names. Sets the start of the trigger port range. use the SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS command. To display trigger names.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 143 SECURITY SET TRIGGER STARTPORT Syntax SECURITY POLICY <name> SET TRIGGER STARTPORT <portnumber> Description This command sets the start of the port number range for an existing trigger. Default Value N/A N/A Example --> security set trigger t3 startport 21 See also SECURITY SET TRIGGER ENDPORT SECURITY SHOW INTERFACE Syntax SECURITY SHOW INTERFACE <name> Description This command displays information about a single interface that was added to the Security package using the SECURITY ADD INTERFACE command. Default Value N/A Example --> security show interface f2 Interface name: f2 Interface type: internal See also SECURITY LIST INTERFACES SECURITY SHOW TRIGGER Syntax SECURITY SHOW TRIGGER <name> .

Default Value N/A Example --> security show trigger t2 Security Trigger: t2 Transport Type: Starting port number: Ending port number: Allow multiple hosts: Max activity interval: Session chaining: Session chaining on UDP: Binary address replacement: Address translation type: See also SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS tcp 1000 1000 false 30000 false false false none SECURITY STATUS Syntax SECURITY STATUS Description This command displays the following information about the Security package: • Security status (enabled or disabled) • Firewall status (enabled or disabled) • Firewall security level setting (none.144 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall Description This command displays information about a single trigger that was added to the Security module using the SECURITY ADD TRIGGER command. The following trigger information is displayed: • Trigger name • Transport type (TCP or UDP) • Start of the port range • End of the port range • Multiple host permission (true/false) • Maximum activity interval (in milliseconds) • Session chaining permission (true/false) • Session chaining on UDP permission (true/false) • Binary address replacement permission (true/false) • Address translation type (UDP. TCP. high. or medium) . To display trigger names. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing trigger. use the SECURITY LIST TRIGGERS command. none or both) Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). low.

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 145 • Firewall session logging (enabled or disabled) • Firewall blocking logging (enabled or disabled) • Firewall intrusion logging (enabled or disabled) • NAT status (enabled or disabled) Example --> security status Security enabled. Firewall security level: none. Firewall disabled. Firewall session logging enabled. Firewall intrusion logging disabled. Firewall blocking logging enabled. NAT enabled See also SECURITY FIREWALL SET SECURITYLEVEL .

configure and manage the Firewall module.146 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall Firewall Command Reference This section describes the commands available on AT-RG613. Firewall CLI commands The table below lists the firewall commands provided by the CLI: Command FIREWALL ADD POLICY FIREWALL ADD PORTFILTER FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR FIREWALL CLEAR POLICIES FIREWALL CLEAR PORTFILTERS FIREWALL DELETE POLICY FIREWALL DELETE PORTFILTER FIREWALL DELETE VALIDATOR FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE IDS FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE BLOCKINGLOG FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE INTRUSIONLOG FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE SESSIONLOG FIREWALL LIST POLICIES FIREWALL LIST PORTFILTERS FIREWALL LIST PROTOCOLS FIREWALL LIST VALIDATORS FIREWALL SET IDS DOSATTACKBLOCK FIREWALL SET IDS MAXICMP FIREWALL SET IDS MAXPING FIREWALL SET IDS MAXTCPOPENHANDSHAKE FIREWALL SET IDS SCANATTACKBLOCK FIREWALL SET IDS BLACKLIST FIREWALL SET IDS VICTIMPROTECTION FIREWALL SET SECURITYLEVEL FIREWALL SHOW IDS . AT-RG623 and ATRG656 Residential Gateway to enable.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). There are three types of policy that you can add to the firewall: • a policy between the external interface and the internal interface • a policy between the external interface and the DMZ interface • a policy between the DMZ interface and the internal interface A policy is the collective term for the rules that apply to incoming and outgoing traffic between two interface types. It's possible to set a Firewall security level that contains default policies using the FIREWALL SET SECURITYLEVEL command.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 147 FIREWALL SHOW POLICY FIREWALL SHOW PORTFILTER FIREWALL SHOW VALIDATOR FIREWALL STATUS FIREWALL ADD POLICY Syntax FIREWALL ADD POLICY <name> {EXTERNAL-INTERNAL|EXTERNAL-DMZ|DMZINTERNAL} [ALLOWONLY-VAL]|[BLOCKONLY-VAL] Description This command creates a policy between two interface types. All other traffic is blocked by the Firewall. The FIREWALL ADD POLICY command controls whether traffic is blocked/allowed for all of the validators that belong to a policy. • block only traffic to and/or from the IP address(es) set in the FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR command. the blockonly-val option is considered as the default option value. Option name Description An arbitrary name that identifies the policy. but it Default Value N/A . There are two options: • allow only traffic to and/or from the IP address(es) set in the FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR command. Then. All other traffic is allowed through the Firewall. it's possible to create rules for the policy using the FIREWALL ADD PORTFILTER command. Once a policy is created using the FIREWALL ADD POLICY command. If the allowonly-val or blockonly-val option is not specified. it's possible to customize the Firewall by adding specific portfilters and validators. The FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR command allows you to block/allow traffic based on the source and/or destination IP addresses and masks. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits.

txt) • specify TCP or UDP protocol. see http://www. N/A DMZINTERNAL ALLOWONLYVAL blockonly-val BLOCKONLYVAL Example --> firewall add policy ext-dmz external-dmz blockonly-val See also FIREWALL SET SECURITYLEVEL FIREWALL ADD PORTFILTER FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR FIREWALL ADD PORTFILTER Syntax FIREWALL ADD PORTFILTER <name> <policyname> {PROTOCOL <number>} {INBOUND|OUTBOUND|BOTH} FIREWALL ADD PORTFILTER <name> <policyname> {TCP|UDP} <startport> <endport> {INBOUND|OUTBOUND|BOTH} FIREWALL ADD PORTFILTER <name> <policyname> {FTP|HTTP|ICMP|SMTP|TELNET} {INBOUND|OUTBOUND|BOTH} Description This command adds a portfilter to an existing firewall policy.148 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall cannot start with a digit. A connection between the external network interface and the de-militarized zone (DMZ). A connection between the de-militarized zone (DMZ) and the internal network interface. Allows only traffic to and/or from the IP address(es) set in the FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR command. There are three ways that a portfilter can be defined. depending on the type of protocol that must be managed by the portfilter: • specify the number of a non-TCP or non-UDP protocol (for more information.ietf. All other traffic is blocked.org/rfc/rfc1700. Portfilters are individual rules that determine what kind of traffic (based on type of protocol or type of transport or type of application) can pass between the two interfaces specified in the FIREWALL ADD POLICY command. EXTERNALINTERNAL EXTERNALDMZ A connection between the external network interface and the internal network interface. together with an application's start/end port numbers . Blocks only traffic to and/or from the IP address(es) set in the FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR command. All other traffic is allowed.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). This is because this is a Stateful firewall. It is VERY IMPORTANT to understand that when portfilters are created for TCP or UDP. application or service between inside and outside interfaces. Once a session has been established. Allows inbound and outbound transport of packets of the specified protocol.specifying a protocol <number> . Inbound transport of the packets is not allowed. and allows then through. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits. Default Value name N/A policyname N/A number N/A startport endport N/A N/A INBOUND N/A OUTBOUND N/A BOTH N/A Examples . Allows transport of packets of the specified protocol. The end of the port range for a TCP or UDP protocol. then the effect of the filter is to allow/disallow packets that are starting a UDP or TCP session. application or service from an outside interface to an inside interface. Allows transport of packets of the specified protocol. applications or services. Protocol numbers can be found at http://www. the firewall recognizes subsequent packets in the session as belonging to an established session. To display policy names. You do not need to specify the portnumber .org/rfc/rfc1700.ietf.txt. The start of the port range for a TCP or UDP protocol. These are provided by the Firewall as popular examples that you can use. and so is aware of the states of UDP/TCP sessions. The number of a non-TCP or non-UDP protocol. but it cannot start with a digit. application or service from an inside interface to an outside interface. A name that identifies an existing firewall policy. use the FIREWALL LIST POLICIES command. Outbound transport of the packets is not allowed.the Firewall does this for you. Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the portfilter.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 149 • specify one of the listed protocols.

FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR Syntax FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR <name> <policyname> {INBOUND|OUTBOUND|BOTH} <ipaddress> <hostipmask> Description This command adds a validator to an existing Firewall policy.ietf.specifying a TCP/UDP protocol The following example allows DNS (Domain Name Service) sessions to be established in an outbound direction from the internal interface to the external interface. First. application or service The following example allows SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) sessions to be created in both the inbound and outbound directions between the internal interface and the DMZ interface.txt).ietf.the Firewall does this for you.org/rfc/rfc1700. A validator allows/blocks traffic based on the source/destination IP address and netmask. we need to create a policy: --> firewall add policy ext-dmz external-dmz Then we can add the portfilter to it: --> firewall add portfilter pf1 ext-dmz protocol 2 inbound . First. we need to create a policy: --> firewall add policy ext-int external-internal Then we can add the portfilter to it: --> firewall add portfilter pf2 ext-int udp 53 53 outbound . IGMP is protocol number 2 (see http://www.150 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall The following example allows IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) packets inbound from the external interface to the DMZ interface.org/rfc/rfc1700.txt). DNS uses UDP port 53 (see http://www. we need to create a policy: --> firewall add policy dmz-int dmz-internal Then we can add the portfilter to it: --> firewall add portfilter pf3 dmz-int smtp both See also FIREWALL LIST POLICIES See the Well Known Port Numbers section of RFC 1700 for a list of port numbers and protocols for particular services (see http://www. The command allows you to specify: • the IP address(es) and netmask(s) of the IP frames that are allowed to pass the firewall or that must be blocked by the firewall .org/rfc/rfc1700. This is a popular protocol that is provided by the Firewall. You do not need to specify the portnumber .using a provided protocol.txt). First.ietf.

To display policy names. using the allowonly-val or blockonly-val options in the FIREWALL ADD POLICY command: allowonly-val: only traffic based on the direction setting and the IP address(es) specified in the FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR command is allowed. but it cannot start with a digit. which defines how traffic is allowed/blocked. In order to add validators to a Firewall policy. Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the portfilter. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits. All other traffic is blocked. blockonly-val: only traffic based on the direction and the IP address(es) specified in the FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR command is blocked. Validator acts on traffic originated from and/or directed to the IP addresses defined by the ipaddress and hostipmask fields in the following directions (depending on the interfaces involved by the policy): from External to Internal from External to DMZ from DMZ to Internal Validator acts on traffic originated from and/or directed to the IP addresses defined by the ipaddress and hostipmask fields in the following directions (depending on the interfaces involved by the policy): from Internal to External from DMZ to External from Internal to DMZ Validator acts on traffic originated from and/or directed to the IP addresses defined by the ipaddress and hostipmask fields in the Default Value name N/A policyname N/A INBOUND N/A OUTBOUND N/A BOTH N/A . All other traffic is allowed. use the FIREWALL LIST POLICIES command. the policy must have been previously created. specifying the IP address and direction values. the same validator can be reused adding the validator to other policies. A name that identifies an existing firewall policy.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 151 • the direction of traffic that must be allowed/blocked Once a validator is added to a policy.

3 255. For example.168. The netmask defining the range of IP addresses managed by the validator in the IPv4 format (e. Example --> firewall clear policies See also FIREWALL ADD POLICY FIREWALL DELETE POLICY FIREWALL CLEAR PORTFILTERS Syntax FIREWALL CLEAR PORTFILTERS <policyname> Description This command deletes all portfilters that were added to an existing firewall policy using the FIREWALL ADD PORTFILTER command.255.255. 192. If the validator is to apply to just a single IP address. --> firewall add policy ext-int external-internal blockonly-val --> firewall add validator v1 ext-int both 192.152 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall following directions (depending on the interfaces involved by the policy): from External to Internal and viceversa from External to DMZ and viceversa from DMZ to Internal and viceversa The IP address (or base address of the range of IP addresses) to which validator will apply.3).255 ipaddress N/A hostipmask N/A Example In the following example. if the validator is to apply to a whole class-c range then use the hostipmask 255. All other traffic is allowed.255.0. a policy is created. then a validator added to block inbound and outbound traffic from/to the IP address stated. 255.255 FIREWALL CLEAR POLICIES Syntax FIREWALL CLEAR POLICIES Description This command deletes all existing policies from the firewall configuration. . The address is in the IPv4 format (e. use the specific IP mask 255.168. The ipaddress value can represent either Source or Destination IP address.255.g.0).255.255.102.g. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).255.102.255. Any portfilters associated with the policies are also deleted by this command.

use the FIREWALL LIST POLICIES command. To display policy names. use the FIREWALL LIST POLICIES command. To display policy names. To display policy names. Default Value N/A Example --> firewall delete policy ext-dmz See also FIREWALL CLEAR POLICIES FIREWALL LIST POLICIES FIREWALL DELETE PORTFILTER Syntax FIREWALL DELETE PORTFILTER <name> <policyname> Description This command deletes a single portfilter that was added to a firewall policy using the FIREWALL ADD PORTFILTER command. use the FIREWALL LIST PORTFILTER command. Default Value N/A Example --> firewall clear portfilters ext-int See also FIREWALL DELETE PORTFILTER FIREWALL LIST POLICIES FIREWALL DELETE POLICY Syntax FIREWALL DELETE POLICY <name> Description This command deletes a single existing policy from the firewall configuration. A name that identifies an existing firewall policy. use the Default Value N/A policyname N/A . All portfilters associated with the policy are also deleted by this command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing firewall policy. To display portfilter names. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option name Description A name that identifies an existing portfilter. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 153 Option policyname Description A name that identifies an existing firewall policy.

so that it's possible re-enable them later in the session. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing validator. If the Firewall module is disabled during a session. any configuration changes made when the Firewall was enabled remain in the Firewall. see the FIREWALL SET SECURITYLEVEL command. Example --> firewall delete portfilter pf3 ext-int See also FIREWALL LIST POLICIES FIREWALL LIST PORTFILTERS FIREWALL CLEAR PORTFILTERS FIREWALL DELETE VALIDATOR Syntax FIREWALL DELETE VALIDATOR <name> <policyname> Description This command deletes a single validator from a named policy.154 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall FIREWALL LIST POLICIES command. To display validator names. To display policy names. Default Value N/A policyname N/A Example --> firewall delete validator v1 ext-int FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE Syntax FIREWALL {ENABLE | DISABLE} Description This command enables/disables the entire Firewall module except for the IDS portion of the module (see the command FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE IDS). Security module must be also enabled (using the command SECURITY ENABLE) in order to use the features of the Firewall module. When the Firewall is enabled. If the system must be rebooted and the Firewall configuration must be saved between sessions. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). A name that identifies an existing firewall policy. use the SYSTEM CONFIG SAVE command. For details on setting default policy security levels on security interfaces. use the FIREWALL LIST POLICIES command. all IP traffic on existing security interfaces that are NOT included in a Firewall policy is blocked. . use the FIREWALL LIST VALIDATORS command.

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 155 Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option ENABLE Description Enables the IDS portion of the Firewall module. This module depends on the Security module. Option ENABLE DISABLE Description Enables the Firewall module Disables the Firewall module. If the IDS is disabled during a session. and can be re-enabled later in the session. Disables the IDS portion of the Firewall module. any configuration changes made when IDS was enabled remain. which must be enabled before the enabling of the IDS can take effect. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Default Value disable DISABLE Example --> firewall enable IDS See also FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE . It's not necessary to enable the Firewall module in order for the IDS to be active. This module must be enabled in order to activate the settings specified in the FIREWALL IDS commands. Default Value N/A N/A Example --> firewall enable See also FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE IDS FIREWALL SET SECURITYLEVEL SYSTEM CONFIG SAVE FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE IDS Syntax FIREWALL {ENABLE | DISABLE} IDS Description This command enables or disables the IDS (Intrusion Detection Service) portion of the Firewall.

the SYSTEM LOG feature must be enabled. To display logging information. the SYSTEM LOG feature must be enabled. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). The intrusion log is not displayed. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Default Value disable Example --> firewall enable intrusionlog See also FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE BLOCKINGLOG FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE SESSIONLOG FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE SESSIONLOG Syntax FIREWALL {ENABLE | DISABLE} SESSIONLOG .156 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE BLOCKINGLOG Syntax FIREWALL {ENABLE | DISABLE} BLOCKINGLOG Description This command enables/disables whether Firewall blocking activity is logged. Option ENABLE DISABLE Description The blocking log is displayed The blocking log is not displayed Default Value enable enable Example --> firewall enable blocking log See also FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE INTRUSIONLOG Syntax FIREWALL {ENABLE | DISABLE} INTRUSIONLOG Description This command enables/disables whether details of attempted Firewall intrusion activity are logged. Option ENABLE DISABLE Description The intrusion log is displayed. To display logging information.

DMZ) • Validator Allow Only status .internal.---------------------See also FIREWALL SHOW POLICY FIREWALL LIST PORTFILTERS Syntax FIREWALL LIST PORTFILTERS <policyname> Description This command lists portfilters that were added to a firewall policy using the FIREWALL ADD PORTFILTER command.the two interface types between which a policy exists (external . or no validator status was set (blockonly-val is the default setting if no status is specified). To display logging information. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). It displays the following information: • Portfilter ID number .true means that allowonly-val was set when the policy was created. the SYSTEM LOG feature must be enabled. external .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 157 Description This command enables/disables whether Firewall session events are logged. False means that either blockonly-val was set. Default Value enable Example --> firewall enable sessionlog See also FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE BLOCKINGLOG FIREWALL LIST POLICIES Syntax FIREWALL LIST POLICIES Description This command lists the following information about policies that were added to the firewall using the FIREWALL ADD POLICY command: • Policy ID number • Policy name • Interface Type 1 and Interface Type 2 . Example --> firewall list policies Firewall Policies: ID | Name | Type 1 | Type 2 | validator allow only -------------------------------------------------------1 | ext-dmz | external | dmz | true --------------------------------.DMZ or internal . Option ENABLE DISABLE Description The log of session events is displayed The log of session events is not displayed.

use the FIREWALL LIST POLICIES command. FIREWALL LIST VALIDATORS Syntax FIREWALL LIST VALIDATORS <policyname> Description This command lists the following information about validators added to a policy using the FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR command: • Validator ID number • Validator name • Direction (inbound.158 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall • Portfilter name • Type . outbound or both) • Host IP address .displays the outbound permission setting (true or false) • Raw .25 |true |true |false |true |false 2 | pf2 | 17 | 53 . see http://www. Default Value N/A Example --> firewall list portfilters ext-int Firewall Port Filters: ID | Name | Type | Port Range | In | Out | Raw | TCP | UDP ---------------------------------------------------------------------1 | pf3 | 6 | 25 .displays the inbound permission setting (true or false) • Out . 25 for SMTP). To display policy names.g.ietf.displays whether or not the portfilter uses a TCP protocol (true or false) • UDP . Option policyname Description A name that identifies an existing firewall policy.org/rfc/rfc1700.port number range or specified port number • Port range used by the specified TCP or UDP protocol (e. For non-TCP/UDP protocols. • In . the port range is set to 0-0.53 |false |true |false |false |true 3 | pf1 | 2 | 0 ..displays whether or not the portfilter uses a non-TCP/UDP protocol (true or false) • TCP .txt. 53 for DNS.0 |true |false |true |false |false ----------------------------------------------------------------------See also FIREWALL LIST POLICIES FIREWALL SHOW PORTFILTER For a list of the port numbers and/or numbers assigned to protocols.displays whether or not the portfilter uses a UDP protocol (true or false) Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

0 1 | v2 | inbound | 192.168. This command allows you to specify the duration of the block. in the Intrusion Detection Setting (IDS). Option Description The length of time (in seconds) for which the firewall blocks suspicious hosts once a DOS attack attempt has been detected by the firewall. An ICMP Flood is a DOS .0 See also FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR FIREWALL SHOW VALIDATOR FIREWALL SET IDS DOSATTACKBLOCK Syntax FIREWALL SET IDS DOSATTACKBLOCK <duration> Description This command sets.255. To display policy names.255. Default Value duration 1800 (30 minutes) FIREWALL SET IDS MAXICMP Syntax FIREWALL SET IDS MAXICMP <max> Description This command sets the maximum number of ICMP packets per second that are allowed by the Firewall before an ICMP Flood is detected.103. Option policyname Description A name that identifies an existing firewall policy.255.2 | 255. A DOS attack is an attempt by an attacker to prevent legitimate users from using a service. the duration of the block that is put in place when a DOS (Denial of Service) is detected.255. Default Value N/A Example --> firewall list validators ext-int Firewall Host Validators: ID | Name | Direction | Host IP | Mask ------------------------------------------------------------2 | v1 | both | 192. If a DOS attack is detected.103.168. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the FIREWALL LIST POLICIES command.1 | 255. all hosts that seem to be causing the attack are blocked by the firewall for a set time limit.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 159 • Host mask address Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

Once the maximum number of pings per second is reached. freeze or reboot. SYN Flood is a DOS (Denial of Service) attack. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). The firewall blocks the suspected attacker for the time limit specified in the FIREWALL SET IDS DOSATTACKBLOCK command. Default Value N/A Example --> firewall set IDS MaxICMP 200 FIREWALL SET IDS MAXPING Syntax FIREWALL SET IDS MAXPING <max> Description This command sets the maximum number of pings per second that are allowed by firewall before an Echo Storm is detected. An attacker sends oversized ICMP datagrams to the system using the `ping' command. three packets are exchanged: . an attempted ICMP Flood is detected. The firewall blocks the suspected attacker for the time limit specified in the FIREWALL SET IDS DOSATTACKBLOCK command. When establishing normal TCP connections. This can cause the system to crash. Once the maximum number of ICMP packets per second is reached. Option max Description The number of ICMP packets per second which is deemed to be the threshold for a ICMP flood attack. Option max Description The maximum number (per second) of pings that are allowed before an Echo Storm attempt is detected. resulting in denial of service to legitimate users. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).160 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall (Denial of Service) attack. Default Value 15 Example --> firewall set IDS MaxPING 25 FIREWALL SET IDS MAXTCPOPENHANDSHAKE Syntax FIREWALL SET IDS MAXTCPOPENHANDSHAKE <max> Description This command sets the maximum number of unfinished TCP handshaking sessions per second that are allowed by firewall before a SYN Flood is detected. an attempted DOS attack is detected. Echo Storm is a DOS (Denial of Service) attack. An attacker tries to flood the network with ICMP packets in order to prevent transportation of legitimate network traffic.

If scan activity is detected. the duration of the blaock that is put in place when a scan attack is detected. Option Description The maximum number (per second) of unfinished TCP handshaking sessions that are allowed before a SYN Flood attempt is detected. You must type the command attributes exactly as they appear in the command description on this page. This command allows you to specify the duration of the block. If you do not use the same case-sensitive syntax. an attempted DOS attack is detected. Once the maximum number of unfinished TCP handshaking sessions is reached. The firewall detects when the system is being scanned by a suspicious host attempting to identify any open ports. This CLI command is case-sensitive. The firewall blocks the suspected attacker for the time limit specified in the FIREWALL SET IDS DOSATTACKBLOCK command. the system will ignore all incoming SYN requests and no legitimate TCP connections can be established. the server sends the SYN/ACK packets to the unreachable addresses and keeps resending them. This creates a backlog queue of unacknowledged SYN/ACK packets. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). all hosts that are seen to be making attacks are blocked by the firewall for a set time limit. after it has detected scan activity on the Firewall.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 161 • A SYN (synchronize) packet is sent from the host to the network server • A SYN/ACK packet is sent from the network server to the host • An ACK (acknowledge) packet is sent from the host to the network server If the host sends unreachable source addresses in the SYN packet. in the Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Once the queue is full. Default Value max 100 Example --> firewall set IDS MaxTCPopenhandshake 150 FIREWALL SET IDS SCANATTACKBLOCK Syntax FIREWALL SET IDS SCANATTACKBLOCK <duration> Description This command allows you to set. Option duration Description The length of time (in seconds) that the firewall blocks all suspicious hosts for. Default Value 86400 (one day) . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). the command fails and the CLI displays a syntax error message.

Access to the network is denied for ten minutes. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Clears blacklisting of an external host. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Web spoofing allows an attacker to create a `shadow' copy of the World Wide Web. If victim protection is enabled.162 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall Example --> firewall set IDS SCANattackblock 43200 FIREWALL SET IDS BLACKLIST Syntax FIREWALL SET IDS BLACKLIST {ENABLE | DISABLE | CLEAR} Description This command sets the blacklist IDS (Intrusion Detection Setting). disable Default Value DISABLE CLEAR Example --> firewall set IDS blacklist enable FIREWALL SET IDS VICTIMPROTECTION Syntax FIREWALL SET IDS VICTIMPROTECTION {ENABLE <duration> | DISABLE} Description This command enables/disables the victim protection Intrusion Detection Setting (IDS). The command allows you to specify the duration of the block. Enabling this command protects the victim from an attempted spoofing attack. Option ENABLE DISABLE Description Enables victim protection and blocks packets destined for the victim host. All access to the shadow Web goes through the attacker's machine. Disables blacklisting of an external host if IDS has detected an intrusion from that host. packets destined for the victim host of a spoofing style attack are blocked. Default Value disable . Blacklisting denies an external host access to the system if IDS has detected certain types of intrusion from that host. Option ENABLE Description Enables blacklisting of an external host if IDS has detected an intrusion from that host. so the attacker can monitor all of the victim's activities and send false data to or from the victim's machine. Disables victim protection.

Options The following tables describes the default policies enabled in the firewall for each of the high.323 T.120 SSH External < > Internal In Out ✓ x ✓ x x x ✓ x ✓ x x x x x ✓ x x x x x x x External < > DMZ In Out ✓ ✓ ✓ x x x ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ x x x x ✓ x x x x x x x DMZ < > Internal In Out ✓ ✓ ✓ x x x ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ x x x x ✓ x x x x x x x Port 80 53 23 25 110 119 7070 N/A 1720 1503 22 . You can add your own security policies using the FIREWALL ADD POLICY command. 600 (10 minutes) Example --> firewall set IDS victimprotection enable 800 FIREWALL SET SECURITYLEVEL Syntax FIREWALL SET SECURITYLEVEL {NONE | HIGH | MEDIUM | LOW | USERDEFINED <slevel>} Description This command allows you to set which security level is used by the Firewall. The userdefined option allows you to select a security configuration that you have previously created. all IP traffic except the default policies specified will be blocked by the Firewall. and replaces them with the newly selected level.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 163 duration The length of time (in seconds) that the firewall blocks packets destined for the victim of a spoofing style attack. medium and low security levels. The tables tell you whether a certain service can be accepted in or allowed out by a specific policy: HIGH SECURITY LEVEL Service http dns telnet smtp pop3 nntp real audio/video icmp H. medium and low) that contain different security configuration information for each interface connection. There are three default security levels (high. and any policies or portfilters set. The security level none blocks all IP traffic for every security interface. Once you have selected a security level. There are three types of interface connections: • Between the external interface and internal interface • Between the external interface and the de-militarized zone (DMZ) • Between the DMZ and the internal interface Selecting a security level deletes the previous security level.

120 SSH Port 80 53 23 25 110 119 7070 N/A 1720 1503 22 External < > Internal In Out ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x External < > Internal In Out ✓ x ✓ ✓ ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ External < > DMZ In Out ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ x ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x External < > DMZ In Out ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ DMZ < > Internal In Out ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ x ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x ✓ x DMZ < > Internal In Out ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ Port 80 53 23 25 110 119 7070 N/A 1720 1503 22 Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable): Option NONE Description Your system blocks all IP traffic between interfaces. Your system uses the medium firewall security level. providing a medium level of firewall security between interfaces. Your system uses a security configuration that you have previously created. providing a high level of firewall security between interfaces. none Default Value HIGH MEDIUM LOW USERDEFINED .164 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall MEDIUM SECURITY LEVEL Service http dns telnet smtp pop3 nntp real audio/video icmp H.323 T. Your system uses the high firewall security level. providing a low level of firewall security between interfaces.323 T.120 SSH LOW SECURITY LEVEL Service http dns telnet smtp pop3 nntp real audio/video icmp H. Your system uses the low firewall security level.

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 165 slevel The name of the security configuration level that you have previously created. This command displays what these interface types are. true means that allowonly-val was set when the policy . and the allow only validator status.ietf. A policy exists between two interface types that were set using the FIREWALL ADD POLICY command.txt FIREWALL SHOW IDS Syntax FIREWALL SHOW IDS Description This command displays the following information about the Firewall IDS settings: • IDS enabled status (true or false) • Blacklist status (true or false) • Use Victim Protection status (true or false) • DOS attack block duration (in seconds) • Scan attack block duration (in seconds) • Victim protection block duration (in seconds) • Maximum TCP open handshaking count allowed (per second) • Maximum ping count allowed (per second) • Maximum ICMP count allowed (per second) Example --> firewall show IDS Firewall IDS: IDS Enabled: Use Blacklist: Use Victim Protection: Dos Attack Block Duration: Scan Attack Block Duration: Victim Protection Block Duration: Max TCP Open Handshaking Count: Max PING Count: Max ICMP Count: true true true 1800 10 600 100 20 100 FIREWALL SHOW POLICY Syntax FIREWALL SHOW POLICY <name> Description This command displays information about a single policy that was added to the firewall using the FIREWALL ADD POLICY command. see http://www. N/A Example --> firewall set securitylevel medium See also FIREWALL ADD POLICY For more information on ports assigned to protocols.org/rfc/rfc1700.

use the FIREWALL LIST POLICIES command. false means that either blockonly-val was set. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).g. Default Value N/A . use the FIREWALL LIST PORTFILTERS command. Default Value N/A Example --> firewall show policy p2 Firewall Policy: ext-dmz Interface Type 1: external Interface Type 2: dmz See also FIREWALL LIST POLICIES FIREWALL SHOW PORTFILTER Syntax FIREWALL SHOW PORTFILTER <name> <policyname> Description This command displays information about a single portfilter that was added to a firewall policy using the FIREWALL POLICY ADD PORTFILTER command.. 6 for SMTP) • Start of the port range • End of the port range • Inbound permission (true or false) • Outbound permission (true or false) • Raw IP .166 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall was created. or no validator status was set (blockonly-val is the default setting if no status is specified). To display policy names. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing portfilter. To display portfilter names. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing firewall policy.whether the portfilter uses a TCP protocol (true or false) • UDP permission . The following portfilter information is displayed: • Portfilter name • Transport type used by the protocol (e.whether the portfilter uses a non-TCP/UDP protocol (true or false) • TCP permission .whether the portfilter uses a UDP protocol (true or false) Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

0 . outbound or both) • Base IP address of the range to which the validator applies • Netmask defining the range of addresses to which the validator applies Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the FIREWALL LIST POLICIES command. To display validator names. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing validator.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 167 policyname A name that identifies an existing firewall policy.168. To display policy names. A name that identifies an existing firewall policy. use the FIREWALL LIST POLICIES command.2 Host Mask: 255. Default Value N/A policyname N/A Example --> firewall show validator v1 Firewall Host Validator: v1 Direction: both Host IP: 192. The following validator information is displayed: • Validator name • Direction (inbound. To display policy names. N/A Example --> firewall show portfilter pf3 ext-int Firewall Port Filter: pf3 Transport type: Port number start: Port number end: Inbound permission: Outbound permission: Raw IP: TCP permission: UDP permission: See also FIREWALL LIST POLICIES FIREWALL LIST PORTFILTERS 6 25 25 true true false true false FIREWALL SHOW VALIDATOR Syntax FIREWALL SHOW VALIDATOR <name> <policyname> Description This command displays information about a single validator that was added to firewall policy using the FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR command.255.103. use the FIREWALL LIST VALIDATORS command.255.

Firewall blocking logging enabled. Firewall intrusion logging disabled. Firewall session logging enabled. low or medium) • Firewall logging status: • session logging (enabled or disabled) • • blocking logging (enabled or disabled) intrusion logging (enabled or disabled) Example --> firewall status Firewall enabled.168 Chapter 7 – Security & Firewall See also FIREWALL ADD VALIDATOR FIREWALL LIST VALIDATORS FIREWALL STATUS Syntax FIREWALL STATUS Description This command displays the following information about the Firewall: • Firewall status (enabled or disabled) • Security level setting (none. See also FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE FIREWALL SET SECURITYLEVEL FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLEBLOCKINGLOG FIREWALL ENABLE|DISABLE SESSIONLOG . Firewall security level: medium. high.

a prime purpose of NAT is to enable a whole network to access the Internet using just a single public IP address (see figure 10). and another address to hosts on the other side of the NATing router.NAT Network Address Translation NAT stands for Network Address Translation. there are some useful applications for this. At first glance. So.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 169 Chapter 8 Network Address Translation . it might seem a very strange thing to want to change the addresses inside IP packets. As the number of people connecting to the Internet has exploded. it has reached the stage where there are just not enough IP addresses available to give an individual address to every Internet-connected device. it is a mechanism by which the IP addresses of packets are changed as they go through a routing device. The reason for doing such a translation is to enable a device to appear to have one address to hosts on one side of the NATing router. Address conservation The most common application of NAT is to make better use of the increasingly scant resource that is the public IP address. However. In short. . briefly explained in the following.

NAT 10. Pings of Death. So. when reply packets come back from the Internet. In addition. This enables it to make . then that NAT process does not know who to forward it to.0.3 10.0.0.4 Internet (Router with NAT) 10. So. when the packet that is trying to initiate the session arrives at the NAT device. they can be passed back to the hosts on the Private network as the NAT process keeps an internal table that enables it to know which replies are actually destined to which private hosts.249.0.2 AT-RG6xx 24. and has to drop it. This freedom to change the source port number is the central key to NAT. How does NAT work? The trick to NAT is to make use of the Port fields in TCP and UDP. Address Conservation using NAT Security The security provided by NAT is really a by-product of the address conservation purpose. if a packet comes from the Internet that is not a reply to a packet sent from the inside. in order to pass them to the right internal host.170 Chapter 8 – Network Address Translation . because the NAT process has to process all the packets passing through it.2.0.0. there are 4 fields that identify a particular session: The particular value of the source port number in a session is not important.1 10. so the NAT device is free to change the source port numbers in packets. IP Spoofing etc are quite easy to recognize as packets are being examined on the way through the NAT device.0. this makes it very difficult for devices on the Internet to initiate incoming sessions to hosts on the private network.0. The fact is that NAT aims to translate the source addresses of packets originating from within the local private network.4 Figure 10. In TCP and UDP packets. it gets dropped. it is quite easy to build in an ability to look for attacks – SYN floods.

which receives it • the destination port number is looked for in the table • if it is found. and the packet is then sent onto the private LAN. So. it is very important that the NAT device is also able to change the source port number. • the packet goes off to the destination host. Therefore the NAT device can intercept TCP and UDP sessions coming from Private hosts. and source and destination port number are swapped • the reply packet arrives back at the NAT device. which sends a reply. Consider the problem that would occur if the NAT device was not free to change the source port number. and store away the original IP address and port number in a table. there would be nothing to differentiate the packets. only the source address: If two hosts on the private LAN happened to create sessions using the same source port number. and so it is dropped. and the source IP and source Port number in the table entry are put into the destination IP address and destination port number fields of the packet. in which source and destination IP address are swapped. the packet is recognized as being a reply for an existing session. and the newly generated substitution port number. which would cause chaos. However. so that the problem described above will never happen. So. then the only thing that would be different between the packets in one session and those in the other session would be the source IP addresses. and creates a new table entry containing the original source IP address of the packet. • Sends the packet on out the public interface. along with the newly substituted port number (so that the original values can be restored in the reply packet when it comes). the process that occurs is: • the NAT device receives the packet • changes the source IP address in the packets to the global IP address • looks up in its table for an entry containing the source port number and original source address of the packet • if it finds an entry. it takes the substitution port number in the table entry. • If it is not found. it generates a new substitution port number. and same destination address and same destination port number. The host at the other end of the connection would think that all the packets were from the same session. change the source addresses AND source port numbers in the packets. its original source port number. then it is not clear where the packet should be sent.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 171 sure that every TCP or UDP session that it sends out to the Internet has a UNIQUE source port number. and changes the source port number of the packet to this substitution number • if it does not find an entry. . Changes the source port number of the packet to this substitution number. once the NAT device had changed the source IP addresses to the global IP address.

172 Chapter 8 – Network Address Translation . For other ICMP information messages (port unreachable. and is associating source port numbers with internal IP addresses. servers on the private LAN can be made available for connections from external hosts. a mapping can be configured such that any TCP session coming into port 80 on the public interface is forwarded to a particular host on the private LAN. like ICMP. So. a mapping like ‘all GRE packets arriving at the public interface. host unreachable. you may wish to actually make it possible for incoming sessions to access certain hosts on the private LAN. How can you let sessions into servers on the private LAN? Up until now. In this way. For other IP protocols. there usually is not a field in the packet that can uniquely identify a communication session (and therefore. However. and translate these addresses as necessary. there is an identifier field in the packet. For most other IP protocols. However. we see a case of allowing external access to an FTP server and a WWW server. one FTP server. This would be achieved by have two static mappings on the NAT device: Incoming sessions to TCP port 21 are mapped to internal IP address 192. only one mapping is possible – so it is only possible to make one Web Server. a static mapping (probably user configured) has to be used – e. This has to be done by configuring specific static port mappings. be initiated by an incoming packet arriving at the public interface.there is extra work required for the NAT device to look inside the ICMP packet.168. we have been looking at the situation where a host on the private LAN initiates a session to some external host. there is no information about which internal host to forward it to. will be sent to a particular address on the private LAN’. OSPF. So.2 . For Ping packets. which host on the LAN to send the replies to). It has been stated above that in general. etc other methods have to be used.0.NAT What about protocols other than UDP and TCP? The description above involves a lot of use of port numbers. and any TCP session coming into port 25 on the public interface is forwarded to another (or maybe the same) host on the private LAN. GRE.g. that uniquely identifies each ping – NAT can make use of this field in a similar way to the UDP/TCP port number. Unfortunately. In the diagram below. the port-number fields are only present in TCP and UDP packets. etc available. things are a little more complicated. usually. Of course. For example. the NAT device intercepts the packets on the way out. In the case of ICMP. though. etc) there are often IP addresses of the hosts inside the data section of the packet . of course.168.3 Incoming sessions to TCP port 80 are mapped to internal IP address 192. there typically just is not the flexibility with the other protocols that there is with TCP and UDP.0. and so on. one Mail Server. IPSEC. such a packet will have to be dropped – if it is not a reply to an outgoing packet. So. with a particular destination address. what about the case where an external host wants to connect a host on the Private LAN? This session will. for any given port number.

x.2 Figure 11.45 Internet AT-RG6xx http://24. For inbound .x. See Security section for details regarding security interfaces. By default. Before enabling NAT.0.168. the Security module must be already enabled using SECURITY ENABLE command.10.x.168. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 NAT module is designed to provide the following features: • global IP address pools • reserved mappings • application level gateways (ALGs) NAT services are available between External security interface and Internal Security interfaces.0.2. the NAT module must be enabled between a a pair of interfaces by using the NAT ENABLE command and assigning an arbitrary name to this relationship. In order to access NAT services. External access to an FTP server NAT support on AT-RG6xx Residential Gateway series AT-RG613.x (port 21) FTP Server IP: 192. each external interface creates a Global Address Pool with a single address – the address assigned to that interface.x (port 80) Web Server IP: 192.3 WAN IP 24.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 173 ftp://24. an address is picked from a pool by hashing the source IP address for a pool index and then hashing again for an address index.x. Global IP Address Pools A Global Address Pool is a pool of addresses seen from the external network. For outbound sessions.

both internal hosts can share the same global address. there are 3 applications for which a specific ALG is provided: FTP. Host A is an FTP server and Host B is a web server. the NAT reserved mappings have been considered independently of the firewall. Firewall filters and reserved mappings. it is sufficient to create a trigger with address replacement enabled. For most applications. So far. If the firewall is not enabled. NAT traversal is a mechanism that makes a service (listening port) on an internal computer accessible to external computers. Reserved mappings can also be used so that different internal hosts can share a global address by mapping different ports to different hosts. use NAT ADD RESVMAP INTERFACE command. See below for more information on reserved mappings. . then all that is required to enable NAT to allow in TCP sessions to a certain port number is to create a reserved mapping for that particular TCP port number. it is necessary to create a reserved mapping. However. Application Level Gateways (ALGs) Some applications embed address and/or port information in the payload of the packet. and mapping the FTP port on this address to the FTP port on Host A and the HTTP port on the global address to the HTTP port on Host B. NAT traversal operates by having the NAT listen for incoming messages on a selected port on its external interface. For example. Reserved Mappings Reserved mapping is used to support NAT traversal. Interactions of NAT and other security features. it uses its internal interface to forward the packet to the same port number on a selected internal computer (And any responses from the internal computer are forwarded to the requesting external computer). By choosing a particular IP address in the global address pool. NetBIOS and DNS. Setting the protocol number to 255(0xFF) means that the mapping will apply to all protocols. The most notorious of these is FTP. if the firewall is enabled. Setting the port number to 65535(0xFFFF) for TCP or UDP protocols means that the mapping will apply to all port numbers for that protocol. With this command it is possible set a mapping rule based on port number or protocol number.NAT sessions to make use of the global pool. However. To add a reserved mapping rule to an existing NAT relation. there is a matter of precedence to consider if reserved mapping has been created for a particular TCP port but the firewall is not configured to allow in TCP data for that port.174 Chapter 8 – Network Address Translation . When the NAT receives a message.

incoming sessions are not allowed through by NAT either. care must be taken to ensure that when NAT reserved mapping are created. the addresses are not visible to the external network. If the secondary IP addresses are on the same subnet as the external IP address. Then a global pool must be added and a reserved mapping configured. when the firewall has been enabled. even if the firewall is not enabled. It should be noted that. then if you wish to be able to access services that involve incoming secondary sessions. it will be necessary to create a dynamic port opening definition. NAT and Dynamic Port Opening The description of Dynamic Port Opening (see Security section) discussed that feature in the context of the firewall – ie the Dynamic Port Opening feature was presented as being required to allow secondary sessions in through the firewall. the firewall is also configured to allow in the traffic for which the reserve mapping is defined.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 175 In this case the blocking by the firewall will take precedence So. If using PPPoE encapsulation. NAT and secondary IP addresses NAT services work also with secondary IP addresses. then you will need to create Dynamic Port Opening definitions for those services. secondary IP addresses in the global pool must be on a separate subnet. and wish for users on the LAN to be able to successfully access external RealServers. So. . In this case it's necessary create a secondary IP address using IP INTERFACE ADD SECONDARYIPADDRESS command and then create a security interface based on this secondary IP interface. So. for example. by default. if NAT is enabled. if you have NAT enabled on the router.

For example. if your ISP provides multiple IP addresses. configure and manage NAT module. and map another external address to your internal mail server. .176 Chapter 8 – Network Address Translation .NAT NAT Command Reference This section describes the commands available on AT-RG613. NAT translates packets between the external addresses and the internal addresses that each address is mapped to. This command creates a pool of external network addresses. A network address pool is a range of IP addresses that is visible outside your network. NAT CLI commands The table below lists the nat commands provided by the CLI: Command NAT ADD GLOBALPOOL NAT ADD RESVMAP GLOBALIP NAT ADD RESVMAP INTERFACENAME NAT CLEAR GLOBALPOOLS NAT CLEAR RESVMAPS NAT DELETE GLOBALPOOL NAT DELETE RESVMAP NAT DISABLE NAT ENABLE NAT IKETRANSLATION NAT LIST GLOBALPOOLS NAT LIST RESVMAPS NAT SHOW GLOBALPOOL NAT SHOW RESVMAP NAT STATUS NAT ADD GLOBALPOOL Syntax NAT ADD GLOBALPOOL <name> <interfacename> {INTERNAL|DMZ} <ipaddress> {SUBNETMASK <mask>|ENDADDRESS <address>} Description The nat enable command creates an IP address for the external security interface. you might want to map one external address to your internal web server. However. you may want to use more than one external IP address. AT-RG623 and ATRG656 residential Gateway to enable.

Default Value name N/A interfacename N/A INTERNAL N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A DMZ ipaddress mask endaddress Example 1 This example creates a network address pool that allows NAT to translate packets between the external interface and the DMZ interface type. The name of an existing security interface (external or DMZ) created and connected to an internal interface (DMZ or internal) using the NAT ENABLE command. by defining IP address and netmask: . To display security interfaces. you can use the command NAT ADD RESVMAP. Maps the global IP addresses to hosts on the network attached to the internal interface. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Before adding a global address pool. NAT is enabled between the external interface and the DMZ interface type: --> nat enable n1 extinterface dmz Then the global address pool is created. but it cannot start with a digit. First. The subnet mask that defines the range of addresses in the pool.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 177 There are two ways to specify a range of IP addresses: • specify the interfacename IP address and a subnet mask • specify the interfacename IP address that represents the first address in the range. Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies a global network address or pool of addresses. the NAT module must be enabled using the command NAT ENABLE. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits. use the SECURITY LIST INTERFACES command. The last IP address in the range of addresses that make up the global address pool. Maps the global addresses to hosts on the network attached to the DMZ interface. The IP address of the interfacename that is visible outside the network. then specify the last address in the range If you want to map IP addresses to individual hosts on an internal interface.

255. NAT ADD RESVMAP GLOBALIP Syntax NAT ADD RESVMAP <name> GLOBALIP <interfacename> <globalip> <internalip> {TCP <portno>|UDP <portno> | ICMP | IGMP | IP| EGP| RSVP| OSPF| IPIP| ALL } Description This command maps an IP address from a global pool (created using the NAT ADD GLOBALPOOL command) to an individual IP address inside the network. packets received on a specific IP address can be mapped to individual hosts inside the network.50 See also NAT ENABLE NAT STATUS SECURITY LIST INTERFACES Once you have created an address pool.178 Chapter 8 – Network Address Translation .103.0 Example 2 This example creates a network address pool that allows NAT to translate packets between the external interface and the internal interface type. NAT translates packets between the external IP address and the individual host based on the transport information given in this command.168. First NAT is enabled between the external interface and the internal interface type: --> nat enable n2 extinterface internal Then the global pool is created.2 endaddress 192. The name of an existing security interface (external or DMZ) created and connected to an inside interface (DMZ or internal) using the NAT ENABLE command. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits. To display security interfaces.168. Default Value name N/A interfacename N/A . Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies a reserved mapping configuration.3 subnetmask 255.NAT --> nat add globalpool gp1 extinterface dmz 192.103.102. but it cannot start with a digit. use the SECURITY LIST INTERFACES command. you must create a NAT relationship using the command NAT ENABLE. and a default value (if applicable). which can be specified with this command. See NAT ADD RESVMAP. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. Note: Before you can add a reserved mapping. by defining the start and end addresses of the pool: --> nat add globalpool gp2 extinterface internal 192.168.255.

org/rfc/rfc791.org/rfc/rfc919.org/rfc/rfc0792.68. See http://www. See http://www.org/rfc/rfc2896. The UDP port number that you want to use in your reserved mapping configuration.txt. The IP address of an individual host inside the network (attached to the internal or DMZ interface). This protocol encapsulates an IP datagram within a datagram.ietf.txt.ietf. This is a protocol for exchanging routing information between autonomous systems. See http://www.ietf. IP-within-IP Encapsulation packets are to be translated. All traffic is translated between the global IP address and the specified inside address that it is mapped to. ICMP messages are used for out-of-band messages related to network operation or mis-operation. See http://www. Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP packets are to be translated.ietf.org/rfc/rfc904. http://www.txt. Provides all of the Internet's data transport services.txt.txt.org/rfc/rfc1112. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) packets are to be translated.10.68 10. The TCP port number that you want to use in your reserved mapping configuration.ietf. See http://www. Supports the reservation of resources across an IP network. Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) packets are to be translated.168. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) packets are to be translated. See http://www. N/A internalip N/A (TCP) portno (UDP) portno N/A N/A ICMP N/A IGMP N/A IP N/A EGP N/A RSVP N/A OSPF N/A IPIP N/A ALL N/A Example --> nat add resvmap rm1 globalip extinterface 192.org/rfc/rfc2205. A link-state routing protocol. Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is set as the transport type. Allows Internet hosts to participate in multicasting.10 tcp 25 .ietf.10.txt.org/rfc/rfc1583.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 179 globalip An external IP address that is a member of a global address pool created using the ADD GLOBALPOOL command.ietf.txt and http://www.ietf. Internetwork Protocol (IP).

Default Value name N/A interfacename N/A internalip N/A (TCP) portno (UDP) portno N/A N/A ICMP N/A . NAT translates packets between the external IP address and the individual host based on the transport information given in this command. but it cannot start with a digit. The name of an existing security interface (external or DMZ) created and connected to an inside interface (DMZ or internal) using the NAT ENABLE command. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits. The TCP port number that you want to use in your reserved mapping configuration. ICMP messages are used for out-of-band messages related to network operation or mis-operation. Note: Before you can add a reserved mapping. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the SECURITY LIST INTERFACES command. Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies a reserved mapping configuration.org/rfc/rfc0792. The UDP port number that you want to use in your reserved mapping configuration. you create a NAT relationship using the command NAT ENABLE.180 Chapter 8 – Network Address Translation . The IP address of an individual host inside the network (connected to the internal or DMZ interfaces).ietf.txt. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) packets are to be translated. To display security interfaces.NAT See also NAT ENABLE NAT LIST GLOBALPOOLS NAT STATUS SECURITY LIST INTERFACES NAT ADD RESVMAP INTERFACE NAME Syntax NAT ADD RESVMAP <name> INTERFACENAME <interfacename> <internalip> {TCP <portno>|UDP <portno>|ICMP|IGMP|IP|EGP|RSVP|OSPF|IPIP|ALL} Description This command maps an external IP security interface (included in a NAT relationship created using the NAT ENABLE command) to an individual IP address inside the network. See http://www.

Allows Internet hosts to participate in multicasting.ietf.ietf.org/rfc/rfc791. IP-within-IP Encapsulation packets are to be translated.ietf.ietf. See http://www.10 tcp 25 See also NAT ENABLE SECURITY LIST INTERFACES NAT CLEAR GLOBALPOOLS Syntax NAT CLEAR GLOBALPOOLS <interfacename> Description This command deletes all address pools that were added to a specific outside interface using the NAT ADD GLOBALPOOL command. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF packets are to be translated.ietf. See http://www. Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) packets are to be translated. This protocol encapsulates an IP datagram within a datagram.10. Internetwork Protocol (IP).org/rfc/rfc904. A link-state routing protocol.org/rfc/rfc2896.txt. Provides all of the Internet's data transport services.txt and http://www. Option interfacename Description The name of an existing security interface (external or DMZ) created and connected to Default Value N/A .org/rfc/rfc2205. N/A IP N/A EGP N/A RSVP N/A OSPF N/A IPIP N/A ALL N/A Example --> nat add resvmap rm1 interfacename extinterface 10.10.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1112. Protocol for exchanging routing information between autonomous systems. See http://www. All traffic is translated between the global IP address and the specified inside address that it is mapped to. http://www.org/rfc/rfc919.org/rfc/rfc1583.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 181 IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) packets are to be translated. See http://www.txt. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).txt. See http://www. Supports the reservation of resources across an IP network.ietf.txt.txt. Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP packets are to be translated.

use the NAT LIST GLOBALPOOLS command. Default Value N/A . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).182 Chapter 8 – Network Address Translation . To display security interfaces.NAT an inside interface (DMZ or internal) using the NAT ENABLE command. Default Value interfacename N/A Example --> nat clear resvmaps extinterface See also NAT DELETE RESVMAP SECURITY LIST INTERFACES NAT DELETE GLOBALPOOL Syntax NAT DELETE GLOBALPOOL <name> <interfacename> Description This command deletes a single address pool that was added to a specific external interface using the NAT ADD GLOBALPOOL command. use the SECURITY LIST INTERFACES command. Option Description The name of an existing security interface (external or DMZ) created and connected to an inside interface (DMZ or internal) using the NAT ENABLE command. use the SECURITY LIST INTERFACES command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing global IP address. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To display global IP addresses. To display security interfaces. Example --> nat clear globalpools extinterface See also NAT ADD GLOBALPOOL SECURITY LIST INTERFACES NAT CLEAR RESVMAPS Syntax NAT CLEAR RESVMAPS <interfacename> Description This command deletes all NAT reserved mappings that were added to an outside security interface using the NAT ADD RESVMAP command.

N/A Example --> nat delete globalpool gp1 extinterface See also NAT ADD GLOBALPOOL NAT LIST GLOBALPOOLS SECURITY LIST INTERFACES NAT DELETE RESVMAP Syntax NAT DELETE RESVMAP <name> <interfacename> Description This command deletes a single NAT reserved mapping that was added to an external security interface using the NAT ADD RESVMAP command. Default Value N/A interfacename N/A Example --> nat delete resvmap rm1 extinterface See also NAT ENABLE NAT LIST RESVMAPS SECURITY LIST INTERFACES NAT DISABLE Syntax NAT DISABLE <name> Description This command disables a NAT relationship that was previously enabled between a a security interface and another generic interface type. To display security interfaces. NAT is disabled between the security interface and all the interfaces that belong to the chosen interface type.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 183 interfacename The name of an existing security interface (external or DMZ) created and connected to an inside interface (DMZ or internal) using the NAT ENABLE command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing global IP address. use the SECURITY LIST INTERFACES command. To display global IP addresses. using the NAT ENABLE command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). . The name of an existing security interface (external or DMZ) created and connected to an inside interface (DMZ or internal) using the NAT ENABLE command. use the NAT LIST RESVMAPS command. use the SECURITY LIST INTERFACES command. To display security interfaces.

the network attached to an internal interface (inside) needs to be protected from the network attached to a DMZ (outside). For example. Option Description Default Value . To display enabled NAT objects.NAT Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). NAT translates packets between the outside interface and the inside interface type. you can enable NAT between the interfacename and the internal or the DMZ interface type. Also. if interfacename is an external interface type. Note . The following interface combinations are the only ones that you can use: • external (outside) and internal (inside) • external (outside) and DMZ (inside) • DMZ (outside) and internal (inside) The existing security interface must be an outside interface. For example. you can only enable NAT between two different interface types. NAT is enabled between the security interface and all the interfaces that belong to the chosen network interface type. but not the external interface type. In this way. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Default Value name N/A Example --> nat disable nat1 See also NAT ENABLE NAT STATUS NAT ENABLE Syntax NAT ENABLE <name> <interfacename> {INTERNAL|DMZ} Description This command enables NAT between an existing security interface and a network interface type. The network attached to an inside interface needs to be protected from the network attached to an outside interface. An interface is either an inside or outside interface. the IP address of a host on a network attached to an inside interface is hidden from a host on a network attached to an outside interface.184 Chapter 8 – Network Address Translation . use the NAT STATUS command. Option Description The name of an existing NAT relationship created between a security interface and an interface type using the NAT ENABLE command.You must enable the Security package using the command SECURITY ENABLE if you want to use the NAT module.

use the SECURITY LIST INTERFACES command.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 185 name An arbitrary name that identifies a NAT object enabled between a security interface and an interface type. but it cannot start with a digit. The name of an existing security interface (external or DMZ) that was added to the Security package using the SECURITY ADD INTERFACE command. Allows NAT to be enabled/disabled between the interface interfacename and all interfaces of the DMZ interface type. Default Value ports PORTS ports Example --> nat iketranslation cookies . To display security interfaces. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits. Option COOKIES Description Source port will not be translated for IKE packets. Source port will be translated for IKE packets. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). IKE establishes a shared security policy and authenticates keys for services that require keys. It allows you to specify how Internet Key Exchange (IKE) packets are translated. IKE cookies are used to identify IKE sessions. The interfacename must be an external interface type. Allows NAT to be enabled/disabled between the interface interfacename and all interfaces of the internal interface type. such as IPSec. N/A interfacename N/A INTERNAL N/A DMZ N/A Example --> nat enable nat1 extinterface internal See also NAT DISABLE NAT STATUS SECURITY LIST INTERFACES SECURITY ADD INTERFACE NAT IKETRANSLATION Syntax NAT IKETRANSLATION {COOKIES | PORTS} Description This command supports NAT IPSec traversal.

NAT NAT LIST GLOBALPOOLS Syntax NAT LIST GLOBALPOOLS <interfacename> Description This command lists the following NAT address pool information for a specific outside interface: • Address pool identification number • Address pool name • Type of inside interface (internal or DMZ) • Subnet configuration status (true if the network pool was set using a subnet mask.the outside subnet mask of the outside network IP address or the last address in the range of network pool addresses Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).the outside network IP address or the first address in the range of network pool addresses • Mask/End Address . .186 Chapter 8 – Network Address Translation . false if it was set using a range of IP addresses) • IP address .

the IP address inside the network that the global IP address is mapped to • Transport type (IGMP. Option Description Default Value . the port is set to 0. If a non-TCP/UDP protocol is used.102. IPIP etc. Default Value interfacename N/A Example --> nat list globalpools extinterface NAT global address pool: ID | Name | Type | Subnet | IP address | Mask/End Address ---------------------------------------------------------------------1 | gp1 | dmz | true | 192.103.TCP or UDP port used by the transport type.168.the IP address of the outside security interface that is mapped to the inside IP address • Internal address .3 | 255.) • Port .2 | 192.168.50 ---------------------------------------------------------------------See also SECURITY LIST INTERFACES NAT SHOW GLOBALPOOL NAT LIST RESVMAPS Syntax NAT LIST RESVMAPS <interfacename> Description This command lists the following reserved mapping information for a specific outside security interface: • Reserved mapping identification number • Reserved mapping name • Global address .103. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).168.255. use the SECURITY LIST INTERFACES command.255.0 2 | g2 | internal | false | 192.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 187 Option Description The name of an existing security interface (external or DMZ) created and connected to an inside interface (DMZ or internal) using the NAT ENABLE command. To display security interfaces.

103. The name of an existing security interface (external or DMZ) created and connected to an inside interface (DMZ or internal) using the NAT ENABLE command. To display global IP addresses.103.10.2 | 10.168.10.168. To display security interfaces.10 | tcp | 25 2 | rm1 | 192.20. false if it was set using a range of IP addresses) • IP address .188 Chapter 8 – Network Address Translation . use the NAT LIST GLOBALPOOLS command.NAT interfacename The name of an existing security interface (external or DMZ) created and connected to an inside interface (DMZ or internal) using the NAT ENABLE command. To display security interfaces.the outside network IP address or the first address in the range of addresses • Subnet Mask or End Address . N/A Example --> nat list resvmaps extinterface NAT reserved mappings: ID | Name | Global Address | Internal Address | Type | Port ----------------------------------------------------------------------1 | rm2 | 192.the subnet mask used to define the global address range or the last address in the range of addresses Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).15 | 20. Default Value N/A interfacename N/A Example --> nat show globalpool gpl extinterface NAT global address pool: gp1 . use the SECURITY LIST INTERFACES command. use the SECURITY LIST INTERFACES command.20 | udp | 21 ----------------------------------------------------------------------See also SECURITY LIST INTERFACES NAT SHOW GLOBALPOOL Syntax NAT SHOW GLOBALPOOL <name> <interfacename> Description This command displays information about a single network address pool that has been added to an outside interface: • Type of inside interface (internal or DMZ) • Subnet configuration status (true if the network pool was set using a subnet mask. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing global IP address.20.

The name of an existing security interface (external or DMZ) created and connected to an inside interface (DMZ or internal) using the NAT ENABLE command. use the SECURITY LIST INTERFACES command.3 255.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 189 Interface type: Subnet configuration: IP address: Subnet mask or End Address: See also NAT LIST GLOBALPOOLS SECURITY LIST INTERFACES dmz true 192.0 NAT SHOW RESVMAP Syntax NAT SHOW RESVMAP <name> <interfacename> Description This command displays the following information about a single reserved mapping configuration that has been added to an outside security interface: • Global IP address • Internal IP address • Transport type • Port number Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).20. use the NAT LIST RESVMAPS command.102. To display global pool names.20 tcp 25 NAT STATUS Syntax NAT STATUS .255.255. Default Value N/A interfacename N/A Example --> nat show resvmap rm1 extinterface NAT reserved mapping: rm1 Global IP address: Internal IP address: Transport type: Port number: See also NAT LIST RESVMAPS SECURITY LIST INTERFACES 192.15 20.20. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing global pool. To display security interfaces.168.103.168.

190 Chapter 8 – Network Address Translation .NAT Description This command lists the outside security interfaces and inside interface types that NAT is currently enabled between. It displays the following information: • NAT object identification number • NAT object name • Outside security interface name • Inside interface type Example --> nat status NAT enabled on: ID | Name | Interface | Type -----------------------------------------1 | n2 | ip2 | internal 2 | n1 | if1 | internal -----------------------------------------See also NAT ENABLE .

Every multicast requires a multicast group. and whether they get received. one packet is sent from a source and is replicated as needed in the network to reach as many end-users as necessary. without any unnecessary packet duplication. video. A group is defined by a Class D address. thereby not transmitting unnecessary packets. It would be quite impossible for the server to have to wait for ACKs from all the recipients. or data) from one location to many other locations on the Internet simultaneously. In multicasting. Multicasting principles Group addresses A multicast stream is a stream of data whose destination address is a multicast address – ie an IP address with the first byte having a value of 224 to 240. The concept of a group is crucial to multicasting. multicasting has to be a connectionless process.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 191 Chapter 9 IGMP snooping and IGMP proxy Multicasting Overview Multicasting is a technique developed to send packets from one location in the Internet to many other locations. or how many there are. the sender (or source) transmits to the group address. . Multicasting is the most economical technique for sending a packet stream (which could be audio. These Group Addresses. and only members of the group can receive the multicast data. Multicasting is useful because it conserves bandwidth by replicating packets as needed within the network. like all IP addresses. are a limited resource. with no idea who will be receiving them. Apart from anything else the server does not know who the recipients are. and remember to retransmit to those recipients from whom it does not receive ACKs. and there are all sorts of rules about who may use addresses from which address ranges. The destination address used by a stream is referred to as its Group address. The server simply sends out its multicast UDP packets. Of course.

and where the recipients are. that would be an inefficient use of bandwidth. this is called ‘joining a group’) it sends to its local router an IGMP packet containing the address of the group it wants to join – this is called an IGMP Membership report (sometimes called a Join packet). So. So. the stream is simply being sent out. asking to no longer receive that stream – ie to be ‘pruned’ from the tree through which that stream is flowing. the . it sends a new IGMP Membership report (Join message) for that group (of course some hosts may be members of more than one group – so they will send join messages for all the groups that they are members of). So. The purpose of this query is to ask “are there any hosts on the LAN that wish to remain members of Multicast Groups?” Hosts on the LAN receive the query. This is where IGMP comes in. a server sends out its stream to a group multicast address but the way it is routed to the hosts that actually want to receive it is a very different process to routing unicast packets. MOSPF The IGMP packet exchange proceeds as follows: At a certain period (default is 125 seconds). The destination address of the query message is a special “all multicast groups” address. However. having received the IGMP join packet. the local router is generally going to be a long way from the server that is generating the stream. with no particular knowledge of who wants to receive it. the router sends an IGMP query message onto the local LAN. Given that the main reason for having multicasting is to make efficient use of bandwidth. In IGMP version 2. the destination address of the packet uniquely identifies the host who should receive the packet and all the routers along the path just need to look in their routing tables to work out which is the correct route to send the packet down. If there are any items in that list for which it has not received query responses. if the router is not already receiving the multicast stream from the server (probably many hops away) what does the router do next in order to ensure that the multicast stream gets to it? This is achieved by elaborate process involving multicast routing protocols like PIM. as a lot of the time the routers would sending the streams out along paths that do not contain any hosts that want to receive them. IGMP IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) is the protocol whereby hosts indicate that they are interested in receiving a particular multicast stream. However. the router then knows that it has to forward the multicast stream onto its LAN (if it is not doing so already). One approach would be for every router that receives a multicast stream on one interface to just retransmit that stream out ALL its other interfaces. The router looks at the responses it receives to its query. In that way it would be guaranteed to eventually reach every host that might be interesting in receiving it. and compares these to the list of Multicast streams that it has currently registered to receive. So. a host can now explicitly inform its router that it wants to leave a particular multicast group. in the case of multicast. this would not be a good approach. if any given host wishes to remain in a Multicast group. DVMRP. With unicast packets. it will send a message upstream. the IGMP leave message was added. a more efficient approach is needed.192 Chapter 9 – IGMP snooping and IGMP proxy Anyway. However. When a host wants to receive a stream (in multicast jargon. Now.

10 corresponds to MAC 01-00-5e-0a-0a-0a 226.0.255. when a switch receives a multicast packet.20. it can ask to be pruned from that tree straight away. followed by the last 23 bits of the GDA translated in hex. it is possible.255 are multicast IP addresses.10. the destination MAC address of the packet must be the MAC address that corresponds to the packet’s GDA. So. the layer-2 switch needs to ‘snoop’ them as they go past. and the router will join into the appropriate multicast trees. For each GDA there is an associated MAC address. rather than having to wait until the next query interval. If individual hosts on the LAN (ie hosts connected to ports on the switches) wish to receive multicast streams. They are also referred to as Group Destination Addresses (GDA).0 to 239. Therefore: 230. and removes hosts from the table when it receives leave messages. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 residential gateways perform at layer 2 to reduce the amount of multicast traffic on a LAN. This MAC address is formed by 01-00-5e. So. but a one-to-many mapping: 224.10. That is. to know the set of values that its GDA must fall within. as well. So. from the destination MAC address of a multicast packet. and the multicast flows will then reach the router.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 193 router keeps a table of how many hosts have joined particular groups.10. It is designed to solve the problem when a multicast traffic is received from a layer 2 switch due to join requests performed by hosts connected to some of the switch ports. Multicast MAC addresses Multicast IP addresses are Class D IP addresses.10 corresponds to MAC 01-00-5e-0a-0a-0a.20. although the IGMP packets are destined for the router. and the purpose of multicasting is to make efficient use of bandwidth. what will happen is that all the hosts on the LAN will start receiving the multicast packets. then it can know straight away when there are no hosts on its LAN that are still members of a given group.10. as all the switches will forward the multicast packets to all their ports.20 corresponds to MAC 01-00-5e-14-14-14 224. By default.10. which will get up to the multicast router. and it will forward them into the LAN.10 corresponds to MAC 01-00-5e-0a-0a-0a Consequently. IGMP snooping IGMP snooping is a filtering process that AT-RG613. The solution to this problem is to make the layer-2 switch aware of the IGMP packets that are being passed around. this is not a one-to-one mapping. . This is rather a waste of bandwidth. So. It is required that when an IP multicast packet is sent onto an Ethernet.10.255. then they will send out IGMP joins. considering the example where only host number 1 actually requests to join a particular multicast group. all IP addresses from 224.0. it must forward it out all its ports (except the port upon which it was received).

194 Chapter 9 – IGMP snooping and IGMP proxy Then the layer-2 switch can be aware which hosts have asked to join which multicast groups. When IGMP snooping is enabled. All multicast traffic as well as multicast signaling generated within a VLAN is kept within VLAN boundaries. The Residential Gateway intercepts the IGMP membership report sent Host A and creates a multicast entry for the group that host A was requesting and links this entry to the port on which it has received the report. IGMP snooping on AT-VP6x3 product family IGMP snooping is activated using the IGMP SNOOPING ENABLE command. IGMP snooping on Residential Gateway is designed in order to allow AT-RG613. Note that multiple VLANs can be present in the system and therefore more than one multicast router can be present. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 models to work in a network environment where both multicast router(s) and multicast host(s) are present. Multicast Router Port Discovery The system listens for IGMP Membership General Query packets sent to the address 01-00-5e-00-00-01 and records the port(s) where any such message has been received. let us consider two possible scenarios: • First Scenario: Host A is the first host in its Ethernet segment to join a group. and so will only forward the multicast data to the places where it really needs to go. The command IGMP SNOOPING SHOW reports the multicast router IP address discovered for each VLAN and the physical port where it has been detected. Basically the Residential Gateway tries to construct an internal view of the multicast network based on the IGMP messages received both from multicast router(s) and multicast host(s). The following is a description of the IGMP snooping behavior that the Residential Gateway implements at layer 2. This timer is used to refresh the local multicast membership table periodically (see later in the description). It also resets a local Timeout timer to the Timeout Interval value (default 270secs). In this way the Residential Gateway knows where multicast routers are located in order to forward report and leave messages only to the correct port(s). To understand this. . The action that the RG6x3 performs after having received an IGMP report depends on the circumstances in which the packet is received. Host A sends an unsolicited IGMP Membership report. Multicast Hosts Port Discovery The system listens for unsolicited IGMP Report messages that hosts send to join a multicast group and records the port where each message has been received. it works separately for each VLAN.

and thus. Leaving a Group When a host wants to leave group it sends an IGMP Leave message specific for the group it wants to leave. All hosts that are members of the group will answer that query. the multicast router sends IGMP queries periodically. then the leave messages is forwarded to the multicast router. Host B sends an unsolicited IGMP Membership report.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 195 The Residential Gateway forwards the IGMP report on to the multicast router detected on the VLAN where host is attached. The Residential Gateway intercepts the IGMP membership report sent by Host B. host B. . The Residential Gateway captures the IGMP Leave message and immediately sends an IGMP Group Specific Query on the port where it received the Leave message. sends an IGMP report to join the same multicast group as host A. the IGMP Group Specific Query is also sent to all those ports. The command IGMP SNOOPING SHOW will report only the last host joined the group and the new value of the Timeout timer. Immediately multicast traffic for the requested group address is forwarded only to the port where the report from Host A has been received. But. • Second Scenario: another host. the hosts do not see each other’s reports. and if no other ports have hosts joined to the same multicast group. respectively. the same procedures described in the first and second scenarios are performed. The IGMP protocol was designed in such a way that only one member of any group on any VLAN would have to respond to any given query. This query is intercepted by the Residential Gateway and forwarded to all ports on the switch. The Residential Gateway then forwards on to the router only one report per group from among all received responses. The Leave Time value is used in the query message to request a fast response from other hosts which may be present on the same Ethernet segment. because the Residential Gateway intercepts the reports. As a multicast entry for this group already exists. In this way the multicast traffic the router is asked to stop sending any multicast data for that particular group. A new Group entry will be added whenever a new group has been joined. If other ports have hosts joined to the same multicast group. Note: In order to maintain group membership. If another host joins another multicast group or the same multicast group. all hosts send a report (instead of one per group). In this way the router will also receive the IGMP report and will update its multicast routing table accordingly. If no answer is received to the Query. on the same Ethernet segment as host A. the Residential Gateway simply adds the port to the already existing entry for that multicast group and resets the Timeout timer to the Timeout Interval.

with the only constraint that multicast traffic must be received only on one IP interface called the upstream interface. As noted in the previous section.196 Chapter 9 – IGMP snooping and IGMP proxy Only if no answers are received on all the ports within the Leave Time period. IGMP proxy is a layer-3 feature that allows multicast traffic to be routed between multiple IP interfaces. If a host joins a multicast group but multicast traffic is received on another VLAN to which the host is not connected. Note: If the Leave Time period is set to 0 secs (see IGMP SNOOPING SET LEAVETIME command) and only one port has hosts joined the multicast group. multicast traffic is limited to the VLAN where it is received. the multicast traffic will never reach the host. the Residential Gateway immediately forwards the leave message to the multicast router and removes the multicast membership record without sending any IGMP Specific Query message. To change the Leave Time value. Timeout interval expiring When the Timeout Interval expires. the Residential Gateway sends an IGMP Specific Group Query to discover if there is any host on the port that is member of a particular multicast group. the IP interface attached to the transport (VLAN) where the host is located. when a host joins a multicast group. To show the multicast groups currently registeredwith the IGMP proxy on the Residential Gateway use the IGMP PROXY SHOW STATUS command. becomes a downstream interface. IGMP proxy overrides this limitation. To define the upstream IP interface use the IGMP PROXY SET UPSTREAMINTERFACE command. the Residential Gateway sends a leave message specific for the multicast group to the multicast router. If more than one port has hosts joined the multicast group and Leave Time period is set to 0 secs the Residential Gateway removes the port from the multicast membership record without sending any IGMP Specific Query message and without forwarding the leave message to the multicast router. . In this case. If no answer is received. by default. It will receive all the multicast traffic related to the group that the host has joined. the AT-RG613. the leave message is forwarded to the multicast router. use the IGMP SNOOPING SET LEAVETIME command. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 residential gateways also support IGMP proxy. IGMP proxy Independently of IGMP snooping.

configure and manage the IGMP snooping feature. Example --> igmp snooping disable See also IGMP SNOOPING ENABLE IGMP SNOOPING ENABLE Syntax IGMP SNOOPING ENABLE Description This command enables the layer-2 IGMP snooping feature. See also IGMP SNOOPING DISABLE IGMP SNOOPING SET .2 IGMP snooping feature previously enabled with the IGMP SNOOPING ENABLE command. IGMP snooping CLI commands The table below lists the igmp snooping commands provided by the CLI: Command IGMP SNOOPING DISABLE IGMP SNOOPING ENABLE IGMP SNOOPING SET LEAVETIME IGMP SNOOPING SET QUERYINTERVAL IGMP SNOOPING SET TIMEOUT IGMP SNOOPING SHOW IGMP SNOOPING DISABLE Syntax IGMP SNOOPING DISABLE Description This command disables the layer.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 197 IGMP Snooping Command Reference This section describes the commands available on AT-RG613. AT-RG623 and ATRG656 Residential Gateway to enable. Default timeout values are used: leavetime queryinterval timeout 10secs 125secs 270secs Example --> igmp snooping enable.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). for which a group will remain . by default this value is set to 125 secs. Valid values are from 0 to 65535. Option leavetime Description The leavetime value expressed in seconds. in seconds. When IGMP snooping is enabled. The timer controls the maximum allowed time before hosts must send a response to Query message issued by the Residential Gateway. Default Value 125 Example --> igmp snooping set queryinterval 110 See also IGMP SNOOPING ENABLE IGMP SNOOPING SET TIMEOUT Syntax IGMP SNOOPING SET TIMEOUT <timeout> Description This command sets the longest interval. Valid values are from 1 to 65535. Option queryinterval Description The Query Interval value expressed in seconds. When IGMP snooping is enabled.198 Chapter 9 – IGMP snooping and IGMP proxy IGMP SNOOPING SET LEAVETIME Syntax IGMP SNOOPING SET LEAVETIME <leavetime> Description This command sets the duration of the Leave Period timer for the IGMP snooping process. by default this value is set to 10 secs. Default Value 10 Example --> igmp snooping set leavetime 50 See also IGMP SNOOPING ENABLE IGMP SNOOPING SET QUERYINTERVAL Syntax IGMP SNOOPING SET QUERYINTERVAL <queryinterval> Description This command sets the time interval. in seconds. at which IGMP Host Membership Queries are sent. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

Timeout Interval Interface Name Multicast Router Group List Group Interval after which entries will be removed from the group database. Default Value 270 Example --> igmp snooping set timeout 125 See also IGMP SNOOPING ENABLE IGMP SNOOPING SHOW Syntax IGMP SNOOPING SHOW Description This command show IGMP snooping status. by default this value is set to 270 secs. The time interval (in seconds) until the membership group will be deleted. VLAN reference. Option timeout Description The timeout interval value expressed in seconds. The last host to advertise the membership report or query. “Multicast Filter” highlights members useful to stop Port Last Adv Refresh time Port where the member is attached. The group multicast address. When IGMP snooping is enabled.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 199 in the local multicast group database without the Residential Gateway receiving a Host Membership Report for this multicast group. The following information are reported: Query Interval Interval at which Host Membership Queries are sent. Recognized Multicast route. Valid values are from 1 to 65535. See also IGMP SNOOPING ENABLE . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Membership list for this VLAN.

AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to enable. Option ip_interface NONE Description The name of an existing interface that you want to set as the upstreaminterface. and sets one of the existing IP interfaces as the upstream interface. Example --> igmp proxy show upstreaminterface IGMP Proxy configuration . If an upstream interface has been set using the IGMP PROXY SET UPSTREAMINTERFACE command. this command displays the current setting. The IGMP Proxy may be disabled by setting upstream interface to none. IGMP proxy CLI commands The table below lists the IGMP PROXY commands provided by the CLI: Command IGMP PROXY SET IGMP PROXY SHOW IGMP PROXY SET UPSTREAMINTERFACE Syntax IGMP PROXY SET UPSTREAMINTERFACE {<ip_interface> | NONE} Description This command enables the residential gateway's IGMP Proxy. all other interfaces are designated downstream interfaces. and the downstream interfaces implement the Router portion of the IGMP protocol.200 Chapter 9 – IGMP snooping and IGMP proxy IGMP Proxy Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. The upstream interface implements the Host portion of the IGMP protocol. configure and manage the IGMP proxy feature. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Disables IGMP proxy Default Value N/A N/A Example --> igmp proxy set upstreaminterface ip0 See also IGMP PROXY SHOW STATUS IGMP PROXY SHOW UPSTREAMINTERFACE Syntax IGMP PROXY SHOW UPSTREAMINTERFACE Description This command displays the status of the upstream interface.

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 201 Upstream If : ip0 See also IGMP PROXY SET UPSTREAMINTERFACE IGMP PROXY SHOW STATUS Syntax IGMP PROXY SHOW STATUS Description This command displays the following information about the status of IGMP proxy: • IGMP Proxy group membership per interface details • Interface name and querier status • Group address Example --> igmp proxy show status Multicast group membership: Interface (querier) | Group address ---------------------|----------------eth0 (yes) | 239.255.250 --------------------------------------See also IGMP PROXY SHOW UPSTREAMINTERFACE .255.

DHCP supports three mechanisms for IP address allocation • In the automatic allocation mechanism. the network administrator assigns a host’s IP address. They can supply addresses of DNS server.DHCP Chapter 10 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . • In the manual allocation mechanism. Dynamic allocation is particularly useful for assigning an address to a host that will be connected to the network only temporarily. and the client is the host that requests these parameters from the server. and DHCP is used simply to convey the assigned address to the host. they can supply the gateway address for the LAN. • In the dynamic allocation mechanism. Dynamic allocation is the only one of the three mechanisms that allows automatic reuse of an address that is no longer needed by the host to which it was assigned.202 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . where the server is the host that allocates network addresses and initialization parameters. DHCP is based on a client–server model. DHCP is based on the Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) defined in RFC 1542. There are a number of parameters that a DHCP server can supply to clients in addition to assigning IP addresses. WINS Server. or for sharing a limited pool of IP addresses among a group of hosts that do not need permanent IP addresses.DHCP Introduction The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is defined in RFC 1541 and provides a mechanism for passing configuration information to hosts on a TCP/IP network. or until the host explicitly relinquishes the address. A particular network will use one or more of these mechanisms. depending on the policies of the network administrator. DHCP assigns a permanent IP address to a host. but adds automatic allocation of reusable network addresses and additional configuration options. DHCP assigns an IP address to a host for a limited period of time. . Cookie server etc… Also.

the server periodically creates a new dhcp.conf file. In order to prevent the file from becoming arbitrarily large. 12 hours).leases file (stored in ISFS) Before a lease is granted to a host. If the system crashes in the middle of this process. the network administrator allocates address pools for each available subnet and enters them into the dhcpd. When a client requests an address using the DHCP protocol. the clients to which leases are assigned are expected to renew them in order to continue to use the addresses. DHCP support on AT-RG6xx Residential Gateway series The AT-RG613. Some time before the leases expire. the server keeps a list of leases it has assigned in the dhcpd. In this case the Residential Gateway picks up DHCP requests sent by hosts connected to the internal interfaces. the DHCP server software reads the dhcpd. BOOTP support is also provided by this server. Once a lease has expired. Upon startup. In order to keep track of leases across system reboots and server restarts. after reading the dhcpd. is used on the external interface to get IP addresses from the ISP. Each client is assigned a lease. which expires after an amount of time chosen by the administrator (by default. only the lease file present in flash memory can be restored. the client to which that lease was assigned is no longer permitted to use the leased IP address and must resort back to the DHCPDISCOVER mechanism ( see RFC 2131) to request a new lease. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 also support DHCP relay functionality. and forwards their requests to an external DHCP server and then routes back to the hosts the replies that are received from the server.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 203 Dynamic allocation may also be a good choice for assigning an IP address to a new host being permanently connected to a network where IP addresses are sufficiently scarce that it is important to reclaim them when old hosts are retired. the DHCP server reads the dhcpd.leases file to gain information about which leases had been assigned before reboot. DHCP server features are activated on the internal network to assign IP address to hosts connected to the internal interfaces. DHCP server The DHCP protocol allows a host which is unknown to the network administrator to be automatically assigned a new IP address out of a pool of IP addresses for its network.conf file and stores a list of available addresses on each subnet.leases file from its lease database in memory. instead. The AT-RG613. Unlike DHCP. The DHCP client function. the server allocates an address for it. In order for this to work.conf file. New leases are appended to the end of the lease file. This gives a window of vulnerability whereby leases may be lost. On startup. Typically. it records the lease in this file. the BOOTP protocol does not provide a protocol for recovering dynamically-assigned addresses once . AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 are able to act both as DHCP server and as DHCP client.

168. This is especially useful in a deployment that utilizes the DNS relay on the residential gateway.168.7.221. Note that for DHCP clients using DHCPINFORM. • • • default gateway address of 192.5. Let's assuming that in the system there has been defined an internal interface (where the DHCP Server module will run) with the following IP address and netmask: 192.219. in addition to the usual IP address and subnet mask: • DNS server address of 192.204 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . although the network administrator may set an earlier cut-off date or a shorter lease length for BOOTP leases if that makes sense.168.168. and supplying that address to DHCP clients as the DNS server and default gateway.5. respectively.219.0 subnet: dhcpserver add subnet mysubnet 192. • Four DHCP options are configured.219.221.168.220.255. Example: This paragraph provides a guide to configuring the DHCP server using commands available on the CLI.40. the following commands could have been used which provide automatic values for these options: dhcpserver set subnet mysubnet hostisdnsserver enabled dhcpserver set subnet mysubnet hostisdefaultgateway enabled This will result in the DHCP server taking the IP address of the IP interface it is running on.7. since ideally the DHCP server . which will allow use of address autoconfiguration by clients on the network.219.10 defaultleasetime 1800 maxleasetime 86000 option domain-name-servers 192.255.168.20.1 255.168.220.40 option irc-server 10.0 192.168. Instead of specifying the "domain-name-servers" and "routers" options manually.219.219. By default.DHCP they are no longer needed. IRC server address of 10. It is still possible to dynamically assign addresses to BOOTP clients. and the “auto-configure” option.255.168. but some administrative process for reclaiming addresses is required. respectively. the above declarations mean that the server would supply the given configuration options to any client that is on the 192. The following DHCP server configuration will create a range of 10 available IP addresses in the 192. leases are granted to BOOTP clients in perpetuity. This even includes clients that are not included in the available address ranges – this is sensible.30.0 255.x subnet.255.168.30 option routers 192.20 dhcpserver set subnet mysubnet dhcpserver set subnet mysubnet dhcpserver subnet mysubnet add dhcpserver subnet mysubnet add dhcpserver subnet mysubnet add dhcpserver subnet mysubnet add 192.20 option auto-configure 1 • Default lease time and maximum lease time are set to 1800 seconds and 86000 seconds.

To do this. and vice-versa (you will receive an error message if you try to do this).255.0 with netmask 255. issue the following command: dhcpserver enable The final step is to tell the system to update the DHCP server software with the new IP interface and configuration that has been defined.219.168. Note that fixed IP mappings cannot overlap with dynamic IP ranges on a subnet.5 to a host whose ethernet MAC address is 00:20:2b:01:02:03. Note that you will still need to have a suitable subnet declaration – for example.255. a fixed lease duration would normally be used to allow DHCP clients to see changes in offered options quickly. a subnet 192.168.0.219. . the command: dhcpserver add fixedhost myhost 192. For example. The IP address itself is always guaranteed to be available for assignment to the specific host (unless there are other DHCP servers on the same network that are deliberately configured to conflict). It is also possible to assign a maximum lease duration to fixed DHCP clients as follows: dhcpserver set fixedhost myhost maxleasetime 7200 In this context.5 00:20:2b:01:02:03 Will add a fixed mapping of the IP address 192. The CLI can also be used to define fixed host/IP address mappings. If you see this. as shown earlier. You might see the following message if you have ever turned off the DHCP server: Note the DHCP server is not currently enabled.219. Any configuration options you define in this subnet will also be offered to every fixed host you have added which is also on the given subnet.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 205 should not have addresses available to give out that may already belong to hosts on the same subnet.169. issue the following command: dhcpserver update NOTE: NO configuration changes that you have made on the DHCP server will take effect until you enter the DHCPSERVER UPDATE command.

0. the DHCP client must relearn its configuration by repeating the process described above. The residential Gateway DHCP client accepts and makes use of the following information: • IP address • Subnet mask • Default route (one only) • Domain name servers (up to two can be usefully supported by DNS relay) • Host name or dhcp-client-identifier. This section describes how these settings are discovered. Addresses allocated by DHCP expire after the specified lease time runs out.0. it has to configure the IP stack appropriately.DHCP DHCP client A DHCP client uses the facilities of the IP stack to transmit and receive DHCP packets. This option can be used to specify a client identifier in a host declaration. The DHCP client learns its required configuration details via a DHCPDISCOVER request. A DHCP client is created on a given interface by using the IP SET INTERFACE command with the parameter dhcp enabled. The DHCP client on the AT-RG613. then “send dhcpclient-identifier” is mandatory. Retry characteristics can be defined using DHCPCLIENT SET RETRY command. This will reset the IP address and subnet mask of each nominated interface to 0. and must be specifically set to . A subset of the DHCP options described in RFC2132 is supported. the IP settings are discovered for the interface (It's possible define one or more interfaceconfig rules to customize the option that must be requested). Once the DHCP client has accepted a suitable configuration for the interface. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 DHCP conforms to most of the specification given in RFC2131. Firstly. This avoids the problem of an active interface being unexpectedly disabled and dropping normal IP traffic. This involves allocating the new IP address to the interface and configuring the subnet for the interface. the interface is disabled for all non-DHCP traffic. If configuration details are not successfully obtained using DHCP. The client will attempt to initiate renewal of a held lease well before it is due to expire (approximately half way through the total duration of the lease). This information is processed by the client and passed back to the IP stack to complete interface configuration for the lease duration.0. This option can be useful when attempting to operate the DHCP client with a Microsoft DHCP server. After this.206 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . the DHCP client will retry indefinitely in order to learn them. Note: When attempting to use a DHCP client with a Microsoft DHCP server. as described in RFC2131 (unless the interface is disabled). so that a DHCP server can find the host record by matching against the client identifier. If this happens.

. and not send it other information that it is not prepared to accept. If the client finds it can now obtain a legitimate lease from a DHCP server. Additionally.not option parameters. Having auto-configured an IP address.e.254 subnet. which is two hours. Lease requirements and requests The DHCP protocol allows the client to request that the server send it specific information. Only the option names should be specified in the request statement . this lease will supercede any auto-configured IP address. This includes support for RFC2563.0) for that IP address. Offers that do not contain all the listed options will be ignored. The other obvious use for this statement is to send information to the server that will allow it to differentiate between this client and other clients or kinds of clients. the DHCP client will periodically check that it still cannot contact a DHCP server. A pseudo-random algorithm invents an IP address on the 169. Support for AutoIP The DHCP client supports also IP address auto-configuration.0. otherwise DHCP will not work at all. or if the information provided is not satisfactory.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 207 the MAC address of the device upon which the client is running. except that the client can specify a requested-lease-time option other than the default requested lease time. AutoIP will be engaged after a DHCP client fails to contact a DHCP server and cannot obtain a lease. To turn on the AutoIP feature use DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG AUTOIP ENABLED command To prevent the DHCP client from using AutoIP. The protocol also allows the client to reject offers from servers if they do not contain information the client needs. the host issuing the ARP has source address 0. In summary. Using the DHCPCLIENT INTERFACE CONFIG ADD REQUESTED OPTION command causes the client to request that any server responding to the client send the client its values for the specified options. Collisions are avoided by issuing ARP requests for the suggested IP address. Options that are always sent in the DHCP protocol should not be specified here. Using the DHCPCLIENT INTERFACE CONFIG ADD SENT OPTION command causes the client to send the specified options to the server with the specified values. to b e referred to as “AutoIP” in this manual .0. abandoning the address if it is already active on the network. which allows network administrators to configure DHCP servers to deny this auto-configuration capability to clients. Using the DHCPCLIENT INTERFACE CONFIG ADD REQUIRED OPTION command configures a lists of options that must be sent in order for an offer to be accepted. USE DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG AUTOIP DISABLED command. the suggested address will be abandoned if any other host on the network issues an ARP probe (i.

DHCP Additional DHCP client modes There are two additional DHCP client modes for more fine control of how configuration parameters are accepted and propagated. the effect of these settings is to cause the DHCP process to pass to the DNS relay and client processes the DNS server address(es) it has learnt. The pertinent attributes are giveDnsToRelay and giveDnsToClient. with address 192. the following command sequence can be used: dhcpclient dhcpclient dhcpclient dhcpclient add interfaceconfig client1 eth0 interfaceconfig 1 add requested option domain-name-servers set interfaceconfig client dhcpserverpoolsize 30 set interfaceconfig client1 dhcpserverinterface uplink . If you do not supply any interface information. you must tell DHCP client how large an IP address lease pool you would like the new server to have.168.3. if the DHCP client is configured to set up the DHCP server on an IP interface named "uplink". That is. At present. If you choose this mode. and which IP interface you want the new DHCP server to bind to. the address range will commence from address 192.208 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . For example. As is evident from the parameter names.168. the new DHCP server will give out any DNS server addresses received by the DHCP client. the second mode allows you to use parameters received on a DHCP client interface to automatically set up a DHCP server on another interface in the system.219. It will then advertise its own host IP address as being the default gateway. to set this up via the CLI. which they are then able to use for DNS queries. By default. The first mode allows you to choose how DNS servers are to be used. the DHCP client will try to place the DHCP server on the first LAN interface it finds (the DHCP client will regard an IP interface as being a LAN interface) The new DHCP server’s address pool will start one IP address after the IP address of the interface upon which the DHCP server has been set up.219. To set this up via the CLI.2. if present. the following command sequence can be used: dhcpclient dhcpclient dhcpclient dhcpclient add interfaceconfig client1 eth0 interfaceconfig 1 add requested option domain-name-servers set interfaceconfig client1 givednstorelay enabled set interfaceconfig client1 givednstoclient enabled Automatically setting up a DHCP server It is possible to tell the DHCP client to use parameters it has obtained to automatically set up a DHCP server. Propagating DNS server information You can tell the DHCP client what to do with received DNS server addresses. DNS server addresses are only given to the DNS relay.

the entire string including the double quotes must be inside single quotes (') to ensure that the CLI treats the double quotes literally. To do this. dhcpclient dhcpclient dhcpclient dhcpclient dhcpclient dhcpclient dhcpclient dhcpclient add interfaceconfig mycfg set interfaceconfig mycfg set interfaceconfig mycfg set interfaceconfig mycfg set interfaceconfig mycfg interfaceconfig mycfg add interfaceconfig mycfg add interfaceconfig mycfg add eth0 requestedleasetime 3600 clientid 00:20:2b:01:02:03 autoip enabled givednstorelay enabled requested option domain-name-servers required option routers sent option host-name ’"galapagos"’ Note: For options with string-type values associated with them. issue the following command: . line by line. You do not need to perform these steps unless you have special requirements. • For this to occur. specific requirements for which options are to be negotiated from a DHCP server. • The DHCP client will insist that a default gateway parameter is present in any lease offer (maps onto the "require" directive). Also. • Any DNS server addresses received from a server will be passed to the DNS relay. The final step is to tell the Residential Gateway to update the DHCP client software with the new IP interface and configuration that has been defined. what the above configuration does: • A lease time of one hour is requested. such as specifying whether the use of AutoIP is allowed. the option value must be in double-quotes ("). Let us consider.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 209 Example This paragraph provides a guide to setting up a DHCP client using commands available in the CLI. (There is also an analogous option to pass the addresses to the DNS client). Let's assume that the system has been configured wirh an interface named eth0. These commands create a new DHCP client interface configuration related to the IP interface you defined earlier. the DHCP client will send out "galapagos" as the value of the host name option – this can be used by some ISPs as part of a simple authentication process (maps onto the "send" directive). or specific requirements about what to do with option values when they are received. The first step is to enable the dhcp flag on this interface: ip set interface eth0 dhcp enabled DHCP client configuration is optional. • A client identifier of 00:20:2b:01:02:03 is specified. the DHCP client must request DNS server addresses from a server (maps onto the "request" directive). • In the event of a DHCP server being unavailable. • Finally. the DHCP client will automatically assign an address using AutoIP.

The relay works by forwarding all broadcasted client requests to one or more known DHCP servers.210 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . This is useful where a network administrator only wishes to have one DHCP server across several physical and logical sub-networks. the relay acts as a de-facto DHCP server. Server replies are then either broadcast or unicast back to the client via the DHCP relay. Note DHCP Server and DHCP relay cannot coexist simultaneously . From a DHCP client’s point of view. and this operation is transparent. DHCP Relay A DHCP relay uses the facilities of the IP stack to transmit and receive DHCP packets.DHCP dhcpclient update NOTE: NO configuration changes that you have made on the DHCP client will take effect until you enter the DHCPCLIENT UPDATE command.

AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to enable. DHCP server CLI commands The table below lists the DHCP server commands provided by the CLI: Command DHCPSERVER ADD FIXEDHOST DHCPSERVER ADD SUBNET DHCPSERVER CLEAR FIXEDHOST DHCPSERVER CLEAR SUBNETS DHCPSERVER DELETE FIXEDHOST DHCPSERVER DELETE SUBNET DHCPSERVER ENABLE|DISABLE DHCPSERVER LIST FIXEDHOST DHCPSERVER LIST OPTIONS DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS DHCPSERVER SET ALLOWUNKNOWNCLIENTS DHCPSERVER SET BOOTP DHCPSERVER SET DEFAULTLEASETIME DHCPSERVER SET FIXEDHOST IPADDRESS DHCPSERVER SET FIXEDHOST MACADDRESS DHCPSERVER SET FIXEDHOST MAXLEASETIME DHCPSERVER SET MAXLEASETIME DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET DEFAULTLEASETIME DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET HOSTISDEFAULTGATEWAY DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET HOSTISDNSSERVER DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET MAXLEASETIME DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET SUBNET DHCPSERVER SHOW DHCPSERVER SHOW SUBNET DHCPSERVER SUBNET ADD IPRANGE DHCPSERVER SUBNET ADD OPTION DHCPSERVER SUBNET CLEAR IPRANGES .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 211 DHCP Server Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. configure and manage DHCP Server module.

102.DHCP DHCPSERVER SUBNET CLEAR OPTIONS DHCPSERVER SUBNET DELETE IPRANGE DHCPSERVER SUBNET DELETE OPTION DHCPSERVER SUBNET LIST IPRANGES DHCPSERVER SUBNET LIST OPTIONS DHCPSERVER UPDATE DHCPSERVER ADD FIXEDHOST Syntax DHCPSERVER ADD FIXEDHOST <name> <ipaddress> <macaddress> Description This command creates a new fixed host mapping in the DHCP server. displayed in the IPv4 format (e.168.g. The IP address that is assigned to a DHCP client based on the client’s MAC address.1 00:20:2b:01:02:03 . it will have the specified fixed IP address assigned to it. The commands informs the DHCP server to assign a specific IP address to a specific DHCP client based on the client’s MAC address. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits.212 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol .3) A MAC address displayed in the following format: ##:##:##:##:##:## Default Value name N/A ipaddress N/A macaddress N/A Example The example below creates a fixed host mapping: --> dhcpserver add fixedhost myhost 192. Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the fixed host mapping.168. Note: It's not possible to create a fixed host mapping with an IP address that is already present inside a configured. It's necessary to also create a suitable DHCP subnet definition in order for fixed host mapping to work. dynamic IP range on a subnet. it's not possible add addresses into a dynamic IP range that are already configured as fixed host addresses.219. If a DHCPDISCOVER or DHCPREQUEST is received from the DHCP client with that MAC address. The reverse is also forbidden. but it cannot start with a digit. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). 192.

displayed in the IPv4 format (e.219.107 See also DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS DHCPSERVER CLEAR FIXEDHOST Syntax DHCPSERVER CLEAR FIXEDHOSTS Description This command deletes all DHCPserver fixedhosts that were created using the . for example: 255.252.102.168. The IP address is displayed in the IPv4 format (e.168.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 213 The example below creates a suitable subnet for the above fixed host mapping.219. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits.10 – 192.197.219.168.219.20 See also DHCPSERVER DELETE FIXEDHOST DHCPSERVER LIST FIXEDHOST DHCPSERVER ADD SUBNET Syntax DHCPSERVER ADD SUBNET <name> <ipaddress> <netmask> [<startaddr> <endaddr>] Description This command defines a subnet that requests will be received from.168. but is not within the range of IP addresses that constitute the server’s dynamic pool (192.168.252.0 255.20): --> dhcpserver add subnet mysubnet 192.102.10 239.168. The IP address is displayed the IPv4 format (e.0 192.g. and a pool of addresses within that subnet.255.0 239. 192.102.168.252.0 The first IP address in the pool of addresses.255.219. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).255.3) The last IP address in the pool of addresses.255.0) The netmask of the subnet.255.197.g. The DHCP server can allocate IP addresses from this pool to clients on request.3) Default Value name N/A ipaddress netmask N/A N/A startaddr N/A endaddr N/A Example -->dhcpserver add subnet sub1 239. Note that the IP address used above is within the subnet.10 192. but it cannot start with a digit. Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies subnet. 192.168.255. The base IP address of the subnet.0 255.197.g. 192.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). N/A Example --> dhcpserver delete fixedhost myhost See also DHCPSERVER ADD FIXEDHOST DHCPSERVER LIST FIXEDHOST DHCPSERVER CLEAR FIXEDHOST DHCPSERVER DELETE SUBNET Syntax DHCPSERVER DELETE SUBNET {<name>|<number>} Description This command deletes a single DHCP server subnet. Option Description A name that identifies an existing fixed host. Example --> dhcpserver clear subnets See also DHCPSERVER DELETE SUBNET DHCPSERVER DELETE FIXEDHOST Syntax DHCPSERVER DELETE FIXEDHOST <name> Description This command deletes a single fixed host mapping in the DHCP server that was created using the DHCPSERVER ADD FIXEDHOST command. The pool of IP addresses in the subnet are also deleted. use the Default Value name DHCPSERVER LIST FIXEDHOSTS command.DHCP DHCPSERVER ADD FIXEDHOST commands.214 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . To display fixed host names. . Example --> dhcpserver clear fixedhosts See also DHCPSERVER DELETE FIXEDHOST DHCPSERVER ADD FIXEDHOST DHCPSERVER CLEAR SUBNETS Syntax DHCPSERVER CLEAR SUBNETS Description This command deletes all DHCP server subnets that were created using the DHCPSERVER ADD SUBNET commands.

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 215 Option name Description A name that identifies an existing subnet. Note: DHCP server must be enabled in order to carry out any DHCP server configuration. To display subnet numbers. use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. Default Value N/A number N/A Example --> dhcpserver delete subnet sub1 See also DHCPSERVER CLEAR SUBNETS DHCPSERVER ENABLE|DISABLE Syntax DHCPSERVER {enable|disable} Description This command enables/disables the DHCP server. DHCP server and DHCP relay cannot be enabled at the same time. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option ENABLE DISABLE Description Enables configuration of the DHCP server Disables configuration of the DHCP server. Default Value enable Example --> dhcpserver enable See also DHCPRELAY ENABLE|DISABLE DHCPSERVER LIST FIXEDHOST Syntax DHCPSERVER LIST FIXEDHOST Description This command lists the following information about existing DHCP fixed host mappings: • fixed host ID number • fixed host name • IP address • MAC address . To display subnet names. A number that identifies an existing subnet.

DHCP • Max lease time Example --> dhcpserver list fixedhosts DHCP server fixed host mappings: ID | Name | IP address | MAC address | Max Lease Time -----|---------|-----------------|--------------------|--------------1 | myhost | 192.0 | 00:20:2b:01:02:03 | 86400 ---------------------------------------------------------------------See also DHCPSERVER ADD FIXEDHOST DHCPSERVER SET FIXEDHOST IPADDRESS DHCP SET FIXEDHOST MACADDRESS DHCPSERVER FIXEDHOST MAXLEASETIME DHCPSERVER LIST OPTIONS Syntax DHCPSERVER LIST OPTIONS Description This command lists the option data types available for DHCP server. These options are detailed in RFC2132.168. It's possible to configure the DHCP server to use any of the options listed.216 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . Example --> dhcpserver list options subnet-mask time-offset routers time-servers ien116-name-servers domain-name-servers log-servers cookie-servers lpr-servers impress-servers resource-location-servers host-name boot-size merit-dump domain-name swap-server root-path extensions-path ip-forwarding non-local-source-routing policy-filter max-dgram-reassembly default-ip-ttl path-mtu-aging-timeout path-mtu-plateau-table interface-mtu all-subnets-local broadcast-address perform-mask-discovery mask-supplier .219.

.(more options down to) option-115 ..AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 217 router-discovery router-solicitation-address static-routes trailer-encapsulation arp-cache-timeout ieee802-3-encapsulation default-tcp-ttl tcp-keepalive-interval tcp-keepalive-garbage nis-domain nis-servers ntp-servers vendor-encapsulated-options netbios-name-servers netbios-dd-server netbios-node-type netbios-scope font-servers x-display-manager dhcp-requested-address dhcp-lease-time dhcp-option-overload dhcp-message-type dhcp-server-identifier dhcp-parameter-request-list dhcp-message dhcp-max-message-size dhcp-renewal-time dhcp-rebinding-time dhcp-class-identifier dhcp-client-identifier option-62 option-63 nisplus-domain nisplus-servers tftp-server-name bootfile-name mobile-ip-home-agent smtp-server pop-server nntp-server www-server finger-server irc-server streettalk-server streettalk-directory-assistance-server user-class option-78 option-79 option-80 option-81 option-82 option-83 option-84 nds-servers nds-tree-name nds-context option-88 option-89 .

218 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol .102.255.168. Default Value enable . Option ENABLE Description Allows IP addresses to be dynamically assigned to unknown clients..255.ietf.DHCP auto-configure option-117 . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).0 | 43200 | 86400 | false ----------------------------------------------------------------------See also DHCPSERVER SHOW SUBNET DHCPSERVER SET ALLOWUNKNOWNCLIENTS Syntax DHCPSERVER SET ALLOWUNKOWNCLIENTS {ENABLE|DISABLE} Description This command enables/disables the dynamic assignment of addresses to unknown clients. see http://www..txt DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS Syntax DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS Description This command lists the following information about existing DHCP server subnets: • subnet number • subnet name • subnet IP address • subnet netmask • default lease time (in seconds) • maximum lease time (in seconds) • whether the host is a DNS server (true or false) Example --> dhcpserver list subnets DHCP Server subnets: Default Max Host is ID | IP Address | Netmask | Lease time | Lease time | DNS svr ---|----------------|---------------|------------|------------|-------1 | 192.org/rfc/rfc2132.0 | 255.(more options down to) option-254 option-end See also DHCPSERVER SUBNET ADD OPTION For information on RFC 2132.

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DISABLE

Does not allow IP addresses to be dynamically assigned to unknown clients.

Example --> dhcpserver set allowunknownclients disable See also DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG CLIENTID

DHCPSERVER SET BOOTP
Syntax DHCPSERVER SET BOOTP {ENABLE|DISABLE} Description This command determines whether or not DHCP server can respond to BOOTP requests. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option ENABLE DISABLE Description DHCP server responds to BOOTP queries. DHCP server does not respond to BOOTP queries. enable Default Value

Example --> dhcpserver set bootp disable

DHCPSERVER SET DEFAULTLEASETIME
Syntax DHCPSERVER SET DEFAULTLEASETIME <defaultleasetime> Description This command sets the global default lease time for DHCP server. To retrieve the current DEFAULTLEASETIME value, use the DHCPSERVER SHOW command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description The default time (in seconds) that is assigned to a lease if the client requesting the lease does not ask for a specific expiry time. Default Value

defaultleasetime

43200

Example --> dhcpserver set defaultleasetime 50000 See also DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET MAXLEASETIME

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DHCPSERVER SET FIXEDHOST IPADDRESS
Syntax DHCPSERVER SET FIXEDHOST <host name> IPADDRESS <ipaddress> Description This command sets the IP address that will be allocated to a DHCP client by the fixed host mapping. To retrieve the current FIXEDHOST IPADDRESS values, use the DHCPSERVER LIST FIXEDHOST command. Note: It's not valid to create a fixed host mapping with an IP address that is already within a configured, dynamic IP range on a subnet. The reverse is also forbidden; it's not possible to add addresses into a dynamic IP range that are already configured as fixed host addresses.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description
A name that identifies an existing fixedhost. To display fixedhost names, use the

Default Value

hostname

DHCPSERVER LIST FIXEDHOSTS
command. The IP address that is assigned to a DHCP client based on the client’s MAC address, displayed in the IPv4 format (e.g. 192.168.102.3)

N/A

ipaddress

N/A

Example --> dhcpserver set fixedhost myhost ipaddress 192.168.219.2 See also DHCPSERVER LIST FIXEDHOST DHCPSERVER SET FIXEDHOST MACADDRESS

DHCPSERVER SET FIXEDHOST MACADDRESS
Syntax DHCPSERVER SET FIXEDHOST <host name> MACADDRESS <macaddress> Description This command sets the MAC address for an existing fixed host mapping. To retrieve the current FIXEDHOST MACADDRESS values, use the DHCPSERVER LIST FIXEDHOST command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description
A name that identifies an existing fixedhost. To display fixedhost names, use the

Default Value

hostname

DHCPSERVER LIST FIXEDHOSTS
command.

N/A

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mac address

A MAC address displayed in the following format: ##:##:##:##:##:##

N/A

Example --> dhcpserver set fixedhost myhost macaddress 00:20:2b:01:02:03 See also DHCPSERVER LIST FIXEDHOST DHCPSERVER SET FIXEDHOST IPADDRESS

DHCPSERVER SET FIXEDHOST MAXLEASETIME
Syntax DHCPSERVER SET FIXEDHOST <host name> MAXLEASETIME <maxleasetime> Description This command sets the maximum lease time for an existing fixed host mapping. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description The maximum time (in seconds) that is assigned to a lease if the client requesting the lease does not ask for a specific expiry time. Default Value

maxleasetime

86400

Example --> dhcpserver set fixedhost myhost maxleasetime 90000 See also DHCPSERVER LIST FIXEDHOST

DHCPSERVER SET MAXLEASETIME
Syntax DHCPSERVER SET MAXLEASETIME <maxleasetime> Description This command sets the global maximum lease time for DHCP server. To retrieve the current MAXLEASETIME value, use the DHCPSERVER SHOW command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description The maximum time (in seconds) that is assigned to a lease if the client requesting the lease does not ask for a specific expiry time. Default Value

maxleasetime

86400

Example --> dhcpserver set maxleasetime 90000 See also DHCPSERVER SET DEFAULTLEASETIME

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DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET DEFAULTLEASETIME
Syntax DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET {<name>|<number>} DEFAULTLEASETIME <defaultleasetime> Description This command sets the default lease time for an existing subnet. This command setting overrides the global default lease time setting for this particular subnet. To retrieve the current SUBNET DEFAULTLEASETIME value, use the DHCPSERVER SHOW command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option name Description A name that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet names, use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. A number that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet numbers, use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. The default time (in seconds) that a subnet assigns to a lease if the client requesting the lease does not ask for a specific expiry time. Default Value N/A

number

N/A

defaultleasetime

43200

Example --> dhcpserver set subnet sub1 defaultleasetime 30000 See also DHCPSERVER SHOW SUBNET

DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET HOSTISDEFAULTGATEWAY
Syntax DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET {<name>|<number>} HOSTISDEFAULTGATEWAY {ENABLED | DISABLED} Description This command tells the DHCP server to give out its own interface IP address (ie the IP address on the interface via which the DHCP lease is allocated to the client) as the default gateway address. To retrieve the current settings, use the DHCPSERVER SHOW command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option name Description A name that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet names, use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. Default Value N/A

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number

A number that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet numbers, use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. Allows DHCP server to give out its own interface IP address as the default gateway address.

N/A

ENABLED

disabled

DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET HOSTISDNSSERVER
Syntax DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET {<name>|<number>} HOSTISDNSSERVER {ENABLED | DISABLED} Description This command tells the DHCP server to give out its own interface IP address (ie the IP address on the interface via which the DHCP lease is allocated to the client) as the DNS server address. This is useful when combined with DNS Relay. To retrieve the current settings, use the DHCPSERVER SHOW command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Name Description A name that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet names, use the dhcpserver list subnets command. A number that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet numbers, use the dhcpserver list subnets command. Allows DHCP server to give out its own interface IP address as the DNS server address. Disallows DHCP server from giving out its own interface IP address as the DNS server address. Default Value N/A

Number

N/A

ENABLED

disabled

DISABLED

Example - -> dhcpserver set subnet sub1 hostisdnsserver enabled See also DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS

DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET MAXLEASETIME
Syntax DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET {<name>|<number>} MAXLEASETIME <maxleasetime> Description This command sets the maximum lease time for an existing subnet. This command setting overrides the global maximum lease time setting for this particular subnet. To retrieve the current settings, use the DHCPSERVER SHOW command.

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Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Name Description A name that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet names, use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. A number that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet numbers, use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. The maximum time (in seconds) that a subnet assigns to a lease if the client requesting the lease does not ask for a specific expiry time. Default Value N/A

Number

N/A

maxleasetime

86400

Example --> dhcpserver set subnet sub1 maxleasetime 70000 See also DHCPSERVER SHOW SUBNET

DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET SUBNET
Syntax DHCPSERVER SET SUBNET {<name>|<number>} SUBNET <ip address> <netmask> Description This command allows you to change the IP address and netmask that define the IP subnet used by an existing DHCP server subnet. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option name Description A name that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet names, use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. A number that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet numbers, use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. The new IP address for the subnet, displayed in the IPv4 format (e.g. 192.168.102.3) The new netmask for the subnet, for example: 255.255.255.0 Default Value N/A

number

N/A

ip address

N/A

netmask

N/A

Example --> dhcpserver set subnet sub1 subnet 239.252.197.0 255.255.255.0 See also DHCPSERVER SUBNET ADD IPRANGES

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DHCPSERVER SHOW
Syntax DHCPSERVER SHOW Description This command displays the following global configuration information about the DHCP server: • status of the server (enabled/disabled) • global default lease time • global maximum lease time • allow bootp requests setting (enable/disable) • allow unknown clients setting (enable/disable) Example --> dhcpserver show Global DHCP Server Configuration: Status: ENABLED Default lease time: 43200 seconds Max. lease time: 86400 seconds Allow BOOTP requests: true Allow unknown clients: true See also DHCPSERVER SHOW SUBNET

DHCPSERVER SHOW SUBNET
Syntax DHCPSERVER SHOW SUBNET {<name>|<number>} Description This command displays the following information about an existing subnet: • subnet name • subnet IP address • subnet netmask • subnet maximum lease time • subnet default lease time Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option name Description A name that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet names, use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. Default Value N/A

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number

A number that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet numbers, use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command.

N/A

Example --> dhcpserver show subnet sub1 DHCP Server Subnet: sub1 Subnet: Netmask: Max. lease time: Default lease time: See also DHCPSERVER SHOW 192.168.103.0 255.255.255.0 70000 seconds 30000 seconds

DHCPSERVER SUBNET ADD IPRANGE
Syntax DHCPSERVER SUBNET {<name>|<number>} ADD IPRANGE <startaddr> <endaddr> Description This command adds a pool of IP addresses to an existing subnet. The DHCP server can allocate IP addresses from this pool to clients on request. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option name Description A name that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet names, use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. A number that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet numbers, use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. The first IP address in the pool of addresses. The IP address is displayed in the IPv4 format (e.g. 192.168.102.3) The last IP address in the pool of addresses. The IP address is displayed in the IPv4 format (e.g. 192.168.102.3) Default Value N/A

number

N/A

startaddr

N/A

endaddr

N/A

Example --> dhcpserver subnet sub1 add iprange 239.252.197.0 239.252.197.107 See also DHCPSERVER ADD SUBNET DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS DHCPSERVER SUBNET LIST IPRANGES

DHCPSERVER SUBNET ADD OPTION
Syntax DHCPSERVER SUBNET {<name>|<number>} ADD OPTION <identifier> <value>

A number that identifies an existing subnet.txt DHCPSERVER SUBNET CLEAR IPRANGES Syntax DHCPSERVER SUBNET {<name>|<number>} CLEAR IPRANGES Description This command deletes all of the IP ranges set for an existing subnet. use the command DHCPSERVER LIST OPTIONS. see http://www. use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing subnet.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 227 Description This command allows you to configure the DHCP server to send options detailed in RFC2132. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing subnet. Default Value N/A number N/A identifier value N/A N/A Example --> dhcpserver subnet sub1 add option auto-configure 1 See also DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG AUTOIP ENABLED|DISABLED For information on RFC 2132. use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. To display subnet numbers. A text string that identifies a DHCP server configuration option. A number that identifies an existing subnet.org/rfc/rfc2132. given as an example of the nature of the options: Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). The value associated with the option identifier. To display a list of available options. The following is an extract from the option list. use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command.ietf. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). The heading of each option in the list contains the option identifier and the required value (in italics) for that specific option. To display subnet names. To display subnet numbers. use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. To display subnet names. Default Value N/A number N/A Example --> dhcpserver subnet sub1 clear ipranges .

To display subnet numbers. A number that identifies an existing subnet. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing subnet. use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. A number that identifies an IP range. To display subnet numbers. To display subnet names. Default Value N/A number N/A Example --> dhcpserver subnet sub1 clear options See also DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS DHCPSERVER SUBNET DELETE OPTION DHCPSERVER SUBNET DELETE IPRANGE Syntax DHCPSERVER SUBNET {<name>|<number>} DELETE IPRANGE <range-id> Description This command deletes a single IP range from an existing subnet. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing subnet. A number that identifies an existing subnet. To list the existing range-ids for a subnet. use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. use the DHCPSERVER SUBNET LIST IPRANGES command. Default Value N/A number N/A range-id N/A Example --> dhcpserver subnet sub1 delete iprange 1 .228 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . To display subnet names.DHCP See also DHCPSERVER SUBNET LIST IPRANGES DHCPSERVER SUBNET DELETE IPRANGE DHCPSERVER SUBNET CLEAR OPTIONS Syntax DHCPSERVER SUBNET {<name>|<number>} CLEAR OPTIONS Description This command deletes the options set for an existing subnet. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

use the DHCPSERVER SUBNET LIST OPTIONS command. A number that identifies an existing option. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To list all existing options. Once deleted. Default Value N/A number N/A option number N/A Example --> dhcpserver subnet sub1 delete option 2 See also DHCPSERVER CLEAR SUBNETS DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS DHCPSERVER SUBNET LIST OPTIONS DHCPSERVER SUBNET LIST IPRANGES Syntax DHCPSERVER SUBNET {<name>|<number>} LIST IPRANGES Description This command lists the IP range(s) for an existing subnet that have been added using the DHCPSERVER ADD SUBNET command. use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. To display subnet names. To display subnet numbers. use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description Default Value . the option will no longer be given out by the DHCP server.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 229 See also DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS DHCPSERVER SUBNET LIST IPRANGES DHCPSERVER SUBNET DELETE OPTION Syntax DHCPSERVER SUBNET {<name>|<number>} DELETE OPTION <option number> Description This command deletes a single option that was added using the DHCPSERVER SUBNET ADD OPTION command. A number that identifies an existing subnet. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing subnet.

168. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing subnet. use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command.DHCP name A name that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet names. Default Value N/A number N/A Example --> dhcpserver subnet sub1 list options Options for subnet: sub1 ID | Identifier | Value -----|------------------|-----------------1 | ip-forwarding | false 2 | subnet-mask | 255. use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command. To display subnet names. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).168.168. To display subnet numbers.102. A number that identifies an existing subnet. To display subnet numbers.0 | 192.230 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command.200 | 192. use the DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS command.0 ------------------------------------------See also DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS DHCPSERVER UPDATE Syntax DHCPSERVER UPDATE .300 ------------------------------------------See also DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS DHCPSERVER SUBNET LIST OPTIONS Syntax DHCPSERVER SUBNET {<name>|<number>} LIST OPTIONS Description This command lists the options for an existing subnet that has been added using the DHCPSERVER ADD SUBNET command.255.102.255. A number that identifies an existing subnet. N/A number N/A Example --> dhcpserver subnet sub1 list ipranges IP Ranges for subnet: sub1 ID | Start Address | End Address -----|------------------|-----------------1 | 192.168.102.100 2 | 192.102.

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 231 Description This command updates the DHCP server configuration. Example --> dhcpserver update dhcpserver: Reset request acknowledged. Changes made to the server configuration will not take effect until this command has been entered. Reset imminent. .

DHCP DHCP Client Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. configure and manage the DHCP Client module. DHCP client CLI commands The table below lists the dhcpclient commands provided by the CLI: Command DHCPCLIENT ADD INTERFACECONFIG DHCPCLIENT CLEAR INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPCLIENT DELETE INTERFACECONFIG DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUESTED OPTION DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUIRED OPTION DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD SENT OPTION DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG CLEAR REQUESTED OPTIONS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG CLEAR SENT OPTIONS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG DELETE REQUESTED OPTIONS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG DELETE SENT OPTIONS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG LIST REQUESTED OPTIONS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG LIST SENT OPTIONS DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPCLIENT SET BACKOFF DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG AUTOIP DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG CLIENTID DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG DEFAULTROUTE DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG DHCPINFORM DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG DHCPSERVERPOOLSIZE DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG DHCPSERVERINTERFACE DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG GIVEDNSTOCLIENT DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG GIVEDNSTORELAY DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG INTERFACE DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG NOCLIENTID DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG REQUESTEDLEASETIME DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG SERVER DHCPCLIENT SET REBOOT . AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to enable.232 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol .

It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits. Example --> dhcpclient clear interfaceconfigs See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS . use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the name via which the DHCP config on the corresponding IP interface will be identified. but it cannot start with a digit. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 233 DHCPCLIENT SET RETRY DHCPCLIENT SHOW DHCPCLIENT UPDATE DHCPCLIENT ADD INTERFACECONFIG Syntax DHCPCLIENT ADD INTERFACECONFIG <name> <ipinterface> Description This command configures DHCP client parameters for negotiation over an existing IP interface. An IP address or a name that identifies an existing IP interface. To display interface names. This command can only be applied to IP interfaces have DHCP enabled (see IP SET INTERFACE DHCP command). Default Value name N/A ipinterface N/A Example --> dhcpclient add interfaceconfig config1 ip1 See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS IP LIST INTERFACES IP SET INTERFACE DHCP DHCPCLIENT CLEAR INTERFACECONFIGS Syntax DHCPCLIENT CLEAR INTERFACECONFIGS Description This command deletes all existing DHCP client interface configurations. The interface must have DHCP enabled.

Default Value name N/A number N/A Example --> dhcpclient delete interfaceconfig config1 See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUESTED OPTION Syntax DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} ADD REQUESTED OPTION <option> Description This command tells the DHCP client on a specific interface to request a specified option from a DHCP server. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface.if the option is not included in a lease offered by DHCP server. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). The requested option is not compulsory .234 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . Options are detailed in RFC 2132. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. To display client interface names. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). the DHCP client will still accept the offer.DHCP DHCPCLIENT DELETE INTERFACECONFIG Syntax DHCPCLIENT DELETE INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} Description This command deletes a single DHCP client interface configuration. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. To display client interface names. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. Default Value name N/A . To display client interface numbers. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface.

org/rfc/rfc2132. see http://www. A text string that identifies a DHCP server configuration option.ietf. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command.org/rfc/rfc2132.txt DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUIRED OPTION Syntax DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} ADD REQUIRED OPTION <option> Description This command tells the DHCP client on a particular interface that it requires a specified option from DHCP server. To display client interface numbers. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. N/A option N/A Example --> dhcpclient interfaceconfig client1 add requested option irc-server See also DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUIRED OPTION For information on RFC 2132. Options are detailed in RFC 2132.if the option is not included in a lease offered by DHCP server. A text string that identifies a DHCP server configuration option. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). see http://www. The required option is compulsory .txt . the DHCP client will ignore the offer. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. Default Value name N/A number N/A option N/A Example --> dhcpclient interfaceconfig client1 add required option domain-name See also DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUESTED OPTIONS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG LIST REQUESTED OPTIONS For information on RFC 2132. To display client interface numbers.ietf. To display client interface names.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 235 number A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface.

Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface.DHCP DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD SENT OPTION Syntax DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} ADD SENT OPTION <option> <value> Description This command tells the DHCP client on a particular interface to send a value for the given DHCP configuration option to a DHCP server. see http://www.org/rfc/rfc2132. A text string that identifies a DHCP server configuration option. Also. To display client interface names. See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG LIST SENT OPTIONS for information on RFC 2132. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command.txt DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG CLEAR REQUESTED OPTIONS Syntax DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>}CLEAR REQUESTED . The value associated with the option identifier. the option value must be in double-quotes ("). To display client interface numbers.ietf. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST Default Value name N/A INTERFACECONFIGS command A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. The DHCP server’s response depends on the type of option being sent out Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). the entire string including the double quotes must be inside single quotes (') to ensure that the CLI treats the double quotes literally.236 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . number N/A option value N/A N/A Example To tell the DHCP client to send the DHCP host-name option to the DHCP server with the value “vancouver” use the following command: --> dhcpclient interfaceconfig client1 add sent option host-name '"vancouver"' Note: For options with string-type values associated with them.

To display client interface numbers. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 237 OPTIONS Description This command deletes all options that were previously added to an interfaceconfig using the DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUESTED/REQUIRED OPTION commands Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. Default Value name N/A . To display client interface names. A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. Default Value name N/A number N/A Example --> dhcpclient interfaceconfig client1 clear requested options See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUESTED OPTION DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUIRED OPTION DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG DELETE REQUESTED OPTION DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG DELETE REQUIRED OPTION DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG CLEAR SENT OPTIONS Syntax DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>}CLEAR SENT OPTIONS Description This command deletes all options that were previously added to an interfaceconfig using the DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD SENT OPTION commands Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To display client interface names. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface.

A number that identifies an option that is requested/required from the DHCP server by the DHCP client. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. N/A Example --> dhcpclient interfaceconfig client1 clear sent options See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG LIST SENT OPTIONS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD SENT OPTIONS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG DELETE SENT OPTIONS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG DELETE REQUESTED OPTION Syntax DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>}DELETE REQUESTED OPTION <option number> Description This command deletes a single option that was previously added to an interfaceconfig using the DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD OPTION REQUESTED/REQUIRED commands.DHCP number A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. To display client interface names. A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. use the DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG LIST OPTIONS command. To display client interface numbers. To display option numbers. Default Value name N/A number N/A option number N/A Example --> dhcpclient interfaceconfig client1 delete requested option 1 See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUESTED OPTION DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUIRED OPTION . Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).238 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . To display client interface numbers.

To display client interface names. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. A number that identifies an option that is requested/required from the DHCP server by the DHCP client. The following information are displayed: • Option identification number . These options were set using the DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUESTED/REQUIRED OPTION commands. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To display option numbers. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. Default Value name N/A number N/A option number N/A Example --> dhcpclient interfaceconfig client1 delete sent option 1 See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG LIST SENT OPTIONS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD SENT OPTIONS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG LIST REQUESTED OPTIONS Syntax DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} LIST REQUESTED OPTIONS Description This command lists the options that the DHCP client requests and/or requires from the DHCP server. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. To display client interface numbers.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 239 DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG DELETE SENT OPTION Syntax DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>}DELETE SENT OPTION <option number> Description This command deletes a single option that was previously added to an interfaceconfig using the DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD SENT OPTION command. use the DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG LIST SENT OPTIONS command.

To display client interface names. To display client interface numbers. Options and their values are detailed in RFC2132. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command.true for options that were added using the DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUIRED OPTION command. These options were set using the DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD SENT OPTION command. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command.DHCP • Option identifier (name) • Requirement status . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). The following information are displayed: • Option identification number . false for options added using the DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUESTED OPTION command.240 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. Default Value name N/A number N/A Example --> dhcpclient interfaceconfig client1 list requested options DHCP client requested options: client1 ID | Identifier | Is option required? -----|--------------------|--------------------1 | host-name | false 2 | domain-name | true -----------------------------------------------See also DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUESTED OPTION DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD REQUIRED OPTION DHCPSERVER SUBNET ADD OPTION DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG LIST SENT OPTIONS Syntax DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} LIST SENT OPTIONS Description This command displays a list of the options that the DHCP client sends to the DHCP server.

To display client interface numbers. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 241 • Option identifier (name) • Suggested value Options and their values are detailed in RFC2132. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. To display client interface names. Default Value name N/A number N/A Example --> dhcpclient interfaceconfig client1 list sent options DHCP client requested options: client1 ID | Identifier | Suggested value -----|--------------------|--------------------1 | host-name | vancouver 2 | domain-name | alliedtelesyn -----------------------------------------------See also DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG ADD SENT OPTIONS DHCPCLIENT INTERFACECONFIG CLEAR SENT OPTIONS DHCPSERVER SUBNET ADD OPTION DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS Syntax DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS Description This command lists the following information about existing DHCP client interfaces: • interface identification number • interface name • IP interface configured by the client interface • requested lease time (in seconds) • client identifier (if set) • Status of IP address auto-configuration (true or false) Example --> dhcpclient list interfaceconfigs DHCP Client Declarations: . A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

Default Value 120 Example --> dhcpclient set backoff 200 See also DHCPCLIENT SHOW DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG AUTOIP Syntax DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} AUTOIP {ENABLED | DISABLED} Description This command enables/disables IP address auto-configuration (Auto-IP).242 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . use the DHCPCLIENT SHOW command. and ARP requests are issued for the suggested IP address. the DHCP client continues to check whether or not it can contact a DHCP server. Once an IP address has been automatically configured. The address is abandoned if it already exists on the network or if any other host on the network issues an ARP probe for that IP address. Option backofftime Description The maximum number of seconds that the DHCP client can pause for between unsuccessful DHCP negotiations.DHCP Requested ID | Name | Interface | Lease Time | Client ID | AutoIP -----|------------|------------|------------|-------------------|-------1 | client1 | ip1 | 9000 | 00:11:22:33:44:5a | true See also DHCPCLIENT SHOW DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG REQUESTEDLEASETIME DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG CLIENTID DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG AUTOIP DHCPCLIENT SET BACKOFF Syntax DHCPCLIENT SET BACKOFF <backofftime> Description This command sets the global maximum time (in seconds) that a DHCP client interface will `back off' between issuing individual DHCP requests. the legitimate lease will supersede the autoconfigured IP address. An IP address in the 169. . If the client can contact a DHCP server and obtain a legitimate lease.0. This prevents many clients trying to configure themselves at the same time. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Auto-IP automatically configures an IP address when a DHCP client fails to contact a DHCP server and cannot obtain a lease. and sending too many requests at once.254. To retrieve the current settings.0 subnet is automatically created.

use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface.ietf.txt. DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG CLIENTID Syntax DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} CLIENTID <clientid> Description This command sets a unique client identifier that the DHCP server uses to identify the client. See the DHCPSERVER SUBNET ADD OPTION command. use the DHCPCLIENT SHOW INTERFACECONFIG command. Enables Auto-IP on a specified dhcp client. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the DHCPCLIENT SHOW command. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. Default Value Name N/A . To display client interface names. To display client interface numbers.org/rfc/rfc2563. IP address autoconfiguration will not be carried out if a DHCP server on the same network does not allow it. To display client interface names. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 243 To retrieve the current settings. A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. Default Value name N/A number N/A ENABLED DISABLED enabled Example --> dhcpclient set interfaceconfig mycfg autoip enabled See also DHCPSERVER SUBNET ADD OPTION (see the specific example given for this command) For further information on the RFC standard for DHCP IP address autoconfiguration. To retrieve the current settings. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. see http://www. Disables Auto-IP on a specified dhcp client. Note: Even if Auto-IP has been enabled using this command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

33. A unique identifier that DHCP server can use to identify the client.44. If no DHCP interfaceconfigs have been added to the system.5a See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG DEFAULTROUTE Syntax DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} DEFAULTROUTE {ENABLED|DISABLED} Description This command enables/disables whether the DHCP client makes use of default gateway information received from a DHCP server. N/A Client id N/A Example --> dhcpclient set interfaceconfig client1 clientid 00:11.22.DHCP number A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. Default Value name N/A number N/A ENABLED enabled DISABLED Example --> dhcpclient set interfaceconfig client1 defaultroute disabled . For other DHCP servers. A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. DHCP client uses default gateway information it receives from DHCP server.244 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . the client ID can be a MAC address or a text string such as the hostname. To display client interface names. To display client interface numbers. the client ID should be the MAC address of the system that DHCP is running on. For Microsoft DHCP servers. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. To display client interface numbers. DHCP client does not use default gateway information it receives from DHCP server. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. by default the DHCP client will use default gateway information received from a DHCP server.

use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command Enables the dhcpinform message type. IP address and subnet mask will not be negotiated if this mode is selected.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 245 See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG DHCPINFORM Syntax DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} DHCPINFORM {ENABLED|DISABLED} Description This command enables/disables whether a DHCP client uses the dhcpinform message type. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. This DHCP message type is used whenever a client has obtained an IP address or subnet mask (for example. use the DHCPCLIENT SHOW INTERFACECONFIG command. Disables the dhcpinform message type Default Value name N/A number N/A ENABLED disabled DISABLED Example --> dhcpclient set interfaceconfig client1 dhcpinform disabled See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG SERVER DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG DHCPSERVERPOOLSIZE Syntax DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} DHCPSERVERPOOLSIZE <pool size> Description This command tells a DHCP client to configure a DHCP server on the LAN if the . To retrieve the current settings. but wishes to obtain extra configuration parameters (such as NS servers or default gateway) from a DHCP server. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To display client interface numbers. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. To display client interface names. the address has been manually configured or obtained through PPP/IPCP).

use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface.4.3. For example. use the DHCPCLIENT SHOW INTERFACECONFIG command. the DHCPSERVERPOOLSIZE is set to 20 hosts.168.102.102. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command The number of DHCP client addresses in a pool. To display client interface names. if the LAN DHCP address is 192. The new DHCP server uses its lan IP address as the address to give out as the default gateway address. To retrieve the current settings. If the interface name does not correspond with an existing IP interface. Default Value name NA number NA pool size NA Example --> dhcpclient set interfaceconfig client1 dhcpserverpoolsize 20 See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG DHCPSERVERINTERFACE Syntax DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} DHCPSERVERINTERFACE <interface name> Description This command allows the user to specify an existing IP interface on which the automatically configured DHCP server can be created. . the first address in the pool will be 192. the DHCP server will be placed on the first LAN interface that it finds. Information such as DNS server addresses can then be distributed to LAN clients. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).246 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . The LAN DHCP server is configured using parameters received by a DHCP client interface on the WAN.DHCP given address pool size is set to a number greater than 0. To display client interface numbers. The first address in the pool is the address immediately after the LAN DHCP address. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. Note: When the DHCP server is automatically configured.168.

use the DHCPCLIENT SHOW INTERFACECONFIG command. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command The name that identifies an existing IP interface. To retrieve the current settings. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. by default the DHCP client will not pass DNS server addresses to the DNS client. Default Value name N/A . To display client interface numbers. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command Default Value name NA number NA interface name NA Example --> dhcpclient set interfaceconfig client1 dhcpserverinterface ip2 See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG DHCPSERVERPOOLSIZE DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG GIVEDNSTOCLIENT Syntax DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} GIVEDNSTOCLIENT {ENABLED|DISABLED} Description This command enables/disables whether a DHCP client passes received DNS server addresses to the DNS client. To display client interface names. If no DHCP interfaceconfigs have been added to the system.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 247 To retrieve the current settings. To display client interface names. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the DHCPCLIENT SHOW INTERFACECONFIG command. To display IP interface names. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command.

DHCP client passes learnt DNS server addresses to the DNS relay. by default the DHCP client will pass DNS server addresses to the DNS relay. To display client interface numbers. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. DHCP client passes learnt DNS server addresses to the DNS client. A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface.248 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . N/A ENABLED disabled DISABLED Example --> dhcpclient set interfaceconfig client1 givednstoclient disabled See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG GIVEDNSTORELAY Syntax DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} GIVEDNSTORELAY {ENABLED|DISABLED} Description This command enables/disables whether a DHCP client passes received DNS server addresses to the DNS relay.DHCP number A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. Default Value name N/A number N/A ENABLED enabled DISABLED Example --> dhcpclient set interfaceconfig client1 givednstorelay disabled . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). DHCP client does not pass learnt DNS server addresses to the DNS relay. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. To retrieve the current settings. To display client interface numbers. If no DHCP interfaceconfigs have been added to the system. use the DHCPCLIENT SHOW INTERFACECONFIG command. DHCP client does not pass learnt DNS server addresses to the DNS client. To display client interface names. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command.

use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. using the IP SET INTERFACE DHCP command. Default Value name N/A number N/A ipinterface N/A Example --> dhcpclient set interfaceconfig client1 interface ip2 See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS IP LIST INTERFACES IP SET INTERFACE DHCP DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG NOCLIENTID Syntax DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} NOCLIENTID Description This command deletes a client identifier from a DHCP client. To display client interface names. The DHCP server must have 'allowunknownclients' enabled in order to work with DHCP clients that are not specifically named in DHCP server configuration or its lease database. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To display interface names. A name that identifies an existing IP interface. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specifie d with this command and a default value (if applicable). The interface must have DHCP enabled. To display client interface numbers. The client interface can only set the IP configuration if the IP interface has DHCP enabled.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 249 See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG INTERFACE Syntax DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} INTERFACE <ipinterface> Description This command sets the IP interface that will have its configuration set by the DHCP client interface.

A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. This command determines the length of lease time requested. To display client interface numbers. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. Default Value name N/A number N/A Example --> dhcpclient set interfaceconfig client1 noclientid See also DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG CLIENTID DHCPSERVER SET ALLOWUNKNOWNCLIENTS DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG REQUESTEDLEASETIME Syntax DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} REQUESTEDLEASETIME <requestedleasetime> Description The DHCP client requests a specific lease time from the DHCP server for the allocated IP addresses. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface.DHCP Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface. To display client interface numbers. The lease time (in seconds) that a DHCP client requests from the DHCP server. To display client interface names.250 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. The DHCP server will `cap' a requested lease time if it is too large. To display client interface names. use the DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS command. Default Value name N/A number N/A requested lease time 86400 Example --> dhcpclient set interfaceconfig client1 requestedleasetime 70000 See also DHCPCLIENT LIST INTERFACECONFIGS DHCPSERVER SET MAXLEASETIME DHCPSERVER SET DEFAULTLEASETIME . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

168. This command sets the time for which the client tries to reacquire its last address. If the first unicast fails. The IP address is displayed in the following format: 192.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 251 DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG SERVER Syntax DHCPCLIENT SET INTERFACECONFIG {<name>|<number>} SERVER <ipaddress> Description If DHCPCLIENT SET DHCPINFORM has been set to enabled. Option Description A name that identifies an existing DHCP client interface.168. it gives up and tries to discover a new address. A number that identifies an existing DHCP client interface.102.. it tries to reacquire the last address that it had. To display client interface numbers. Option Description Default Value .3 Default Value name NA number NA ipaddress NA Example --> dhcpclient set interfaceconfig client1 server 192. To retrieve the current settings.2 See also DHCPSERVER SET INTERFACECONFIG DHCPINFORM DHCPCLIENT SET REBOOT Syntax DHCPCLIENT SET REBOOT <reboottime> Description When the DHCP client is restarted. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). At the expiry of this time.101. this command will unicast the first DHCPINFORM message to the specific DHCP server at the specified IP address. the DHCPINFORM will default to broadcasting its messages. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To display client interface names. use the DHCPCLIENT SHOW command. use the dhcpclient list interfaceconfigs command The IP address of a DHCP server that DHCP client can use to obtain configuration parameters. use the dhcpclient list interfaceconfigs command.

use the DHCPCLIENT SHOW command. backoff time: 120 See also DHCPCLIENT SET REBOOT DHCPCLIENT SET RETRY DHCPCLIENT SET BACKOFF .DHCP reboottime The time (in seconds) for which a client tries to reacquire the last IP address it had. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). 10 Example --> dhcpclient set reboot 5 DHCPCLIENT SET RETRY Syntax DHCPCLIENT SET RETRY <retrytime> Description This command sets the time that must pass after the client has determined that no DHCP server is present before it tries again to contact a DHCP server. To retrieve the current settings. After this time the client gives up and tries to discover a new address.252 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . Default Value retrytime 300 Example --> dhcpclient set retry 150 DHCPCLIENT SHOW Syntax DHCPCLIENT SHOW Description This command displays the following global configuration information about DHCP client: • reboot time • retry time • maximum backoff time Example --> dhcpclient show Global DHCP Client Configuration: Reboot time: 10 Retry time: 300 Max. Option Description The time (in seconds) that must pass after the client has determined that no DHCP server is present before it tries again to contact a DHCP server.

Reset imminent. Example --> dhcpclient update dhcpclient: Reset request acknowledged.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 253 DHCPCLIENT UPDATE Syntax DHCPCLIENT UPDATE Description This command updates the DHCP client configuration. . Changes made to the client configuration are not actually applied until this command has been entered.

configure and manage DHCP Relay module. The relay can store a maximum of 10 DHCP server addresses.168.DHCP DHCP Relay Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. The IP address is displayed in the IPv4 format (e.252.197.102. Option Description The IP address of a DHCP server that DHCP relay can use.g 192.0 See also DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS DHCPRELAY UPDATE DHCPRELAY CLEAR SERVERS Syntax DHCPRELAY CLEAR SERVERS . DHCP relay CLI commands The table below lists the DHCP relay commands provided by the CLI: Command DHCPRELAY ADD SERVER DHCPRELAY CLEAR SERVERS DHCPRELAY DELETE SERVER DHCPRELAY ENABLE|DISABLE DHCPRELAY LIST SERVERS DHCPRELAY SHOW DHCPRELAY UPDATE DHCPRELAY ADD SERVER Syntax DHCPRELAY ADD SERVER <ipaddress> Description This command adds the IP address of a DHCP server to the DHCP relay's list of server IP addresses.254 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).3) Default Value ipaddress N/A Example --> dhcprelay add server 239. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to enable. Any new server IP addresses added are not actually used until the DHCPRELAY UPDATE command has been entered.

Example --> dhcprelay clear servers See also DHCPRELAY DELETE SERVER DHCPRELAY DELETE SERVER Syntax dhcprelay delete server <number> Description This command deletes a single DHCP server address stored in the DHCP relay's list of server IP addresses. use the DHCPRELAY LIST SERVERS command. Trying to configure DHCP relay when DHCP server is enabled results in CLI warning message. Note: DHCP relay and DHCP server cannot be enabled at the same time. Option Description A number that identifies the DHCP server in the DHCP relay’s list of servers.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 255 Description This command deletes all DHCP server IP addresses stored in DHCP relay's list of server IP addresses. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). DHCP relay must be enabled in order to carry out any DHCP relay configuration. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Disables configuration of DHCP relay. Default Value number N/A Example --> dhcprelay delete server 3 See also DHCPRELAY LIST SERVERS DHCPRELAY CLEAR SERVERS DHCPRELAY ENABLE|DISABLE Syntax DHCPRELAY {ENABLE|DISABLE} Description This command enables/disables DHCP relay. Option ENABLE DISABLE Description Enables configuration of DHCP relay. Default Value enable Example --> dhcprelay enable . To display server numbers.

102. Example --> dhcprelay update dhcprelay: Reset request acknowledged.3 2 | 239.197.0 -----------------------See also DHCPSERVER LIST SUBNETS DHCPRELAY SHOW Syntax DHCPRELAY SHOW Description This command tells you whether DHCP relay is enabled or disabled. Reset imminent. Changes made to the relay configuration will not take effect until this command has been entered. . Example --> dhcprelay list servers DHCP Servers: ID | IP Address -----|-----------------1 | 192.256 Chapter 10 – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol .252.168.DHCP See also DHCPSERVER ENABLE|DISABLE DHCPRELAY LIST SERVERS Syntax DHCPRELAY LIST SERVERS Description This command displays the DHCP relay's list of DHCP server IP addresses with their identification numbers. Example --> dhcprelay show server Global DHCP Relay Configuration: Status: ENABLED See also DHCPRELAY ENABLE|DISABLE DHCPRELAY UPDATE Syntax DHCPRELAY UPDATE Description This command updates the DHCP relay configuration.

To make use of network resources easier. When a user enters a DNS name in an application. to locate computers and services through user-friendly names. such as the Internet.com” to locate a computer such as a mail or web server on a network.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 257 Chapter 11 Domain Name System -DNS Introduction DNS is an abbreviation for Domain Name System. DNS services can resolve the name to other information associated with the name. A friendly name can be easier to learn and remember. most users prefer a friendly name such as “alliedtelesyn. such as an IP address. name services such as DNS provide a way to map the user-friendly name for a computer or service to its numeric address. If you have ever used a Web browser. you have used DNS. a system for naming computers and network services that is organized into a hierarchy of domains. which is finding the IP address of a computer based on its name. computers communicate over a network by using numeric addresses. For example. DNS naming is used in TCP/IP networks. Figure 12. The following graphic shows a basic use of DNS. Domain Name System . However.

It's possible configure the DHCP server running on the internal Residential Gateway's IP interface in order to offer the IP address of it's internal IP interface as DNS server's IP address for the internal hosts DNS requests. The DNS relay does not bind itself to any one specific interface or interface type. It relies on the well-known UDP and TCP port number for a DNS server (port number 53) for receiving DNS traffic. Because the server is able to answer the query based on its local database. DNS responses received from the server are then forwarded back to the original host making the DHCP request. When DNS relay will receive a DNS request it will check if the answer to this request is in this file and in this case it will answer to the question. Only the Residential Gateway needs to know the address of the real DNS Server looking into it's internal DNS Relay servers list. it replies with an answer containing the requested information.com. It's also possible write a file named "dnsrelaylandb" with information about host attributes and a domain name and IP address mask. So. which is a host (A) resource record that contains the IP address information for host. devices on the LAN can treat the Residential Gateway as though it were the DNS Server. Both UDP and TCP DNS requests are supported.258 Chapter 11 – Domain Name System . to use this function you must add DNS server addresses that will be used by the Residential Gateway ONLY for its own lookups. a client computer queries a server. . AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 are provided with an internal DNS client. DNS packets which arrive at the Residential Gateway.DNS In this example.alliedtelesyn. will be relayed on to a known DNS Server.com as its DNS domain name. In this way. DNS Relay The AT-RG613. DNS queries can be more involved than this and include additional steps not shown here. In practice. asking for the IP address of a computer configured to use host. DNS Client AT-RG613. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 can act as a DNS relay. addressed to the Residential Gateway. if it hasn’t enough information it will forward the request to a DNS server. The example shows a simple DNS query between a single client and server. but rather will listen for traffic on all available IP interfaces.alliedtelesyn. It is possible to nominate both a primary and a secondary DNS server to contact.

g. The relay can store a maximum of 10 DNS server addresses. Option ip-address Description The IP address of a DNS server that DNS relay can use.0.17.90.168. configure and manage the DNS Relay module. 192.0. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).102.100 See also DNSRELAY LIST SERVERS DNSRELAY CLEAR CACHE Syntax DNSRELAY CLEAR CACHE . DNS Relay CLI commands The table below lists the dnsrelay commands provided by the CLI: Command dnsrelay add server dnsrelay clear cache dnsrelay clear landatabase dnsrelay clear servers dnsrelay delete server dnsrelay list servers dnsrelay set landatabasefile dnsrelay show lanaddress dnsrelay show landomainnam dnsrelay show landatabasefilename DNSRELAY ADD SERVER Syntax DNSRELAY ADD SERVER <ip-address> Description This command adds the IP address of a DNS server to DNS relay's list of server IP addresses.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 259 DNS Relay Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613.0 Example --> dnsrelay add server 10. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to enable.3) Default Value 0. The IP address is displayed in the IPv4 format (e.

Option Description A number that identifies the DNS server in the DNS relay list. Example --> dnsrelay clear landatabase See also DNSRELAY SET LANDATABASEFILE DNSRELAY SHOW LANDATABASEFILENAME DNSRELAY CLEAR SERVERS Syntax DNSRELAY CLEAR SERVERS Description This command deletes all DNS server IP addresses stored in DNS relay's list of server IP addresses. DNS relay has a small local cache of DNS entries to increase performance for lookups of frequently used destinations. To display server numbers. use the DNSRELAY LIST SERVERS command Default Value id. Example --> dnsrelay clear cache DNSRELAY CLEAR LANDATABASE Syntax DNSRELAY CLEAR LANDATABASE Description This command clears the DNS relay LAN database that was set using the DNSRELAY SET LANDATABASEFILE command.DNS Description This command clears the DNS relay cache in the current session. Example --> dnsrelay clear servers See also DNSRELAY DELETE SERVER DNSRELAY DELETE SERVER Syntax DNSRELAY DELETE SERVER <id-number> Description This command deletes a single DNS server address stored in DNS relay's list of server IP addresses. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).number N/A .260 Chapter 11 – Domain Name System .

Default Value N/A Example --> dnsrelay set landatabasefile dnsrelaylandb See also DNSRELAY SHOW LANDATABASEFILENAME . Example --> dnsrelay list servers DNS Relay Servers: ID | IP Address -----|-----------------1 | 239.252.0 ------------------------ DNSRELAY SET LANDATABASEFILE Syntax DNSRELAY SET LANDATABASEFILE <filename> Description This command tells DNS relay which filename it should load its local database from. Your LAN then has its own small DNS relay local database. The file is an ASCII file that you have created and stored in the ISFS configuration file. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).197. DNS relay will load this database and use it to answer requests for local host names and/or IP addresses. The landatabase file contains the following: • information about local host names and IP addresses • the domain name that the relay should use • the IP address and netmask that the relay should use Once the filename is set. Option filename Description The name of an existing file that contains a database of LAN host names and IP addresses.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 261 Example --> dnsrelay delete server 3 See also DNSRELAY LIST SERVERS DNSRELAY LIST SERVERS Syntax DNSRELAY LIST SERVERS Description This command displays the DNS relay's list of DNS server IP addresses with their identification numbers.

10.39. address 172.0 LAN IP Mask: 255.com.39. address 172.262 Chapter 11 – Domain Name System .com See also DNSRELAY SHOW LANADDRESS DNSRELAY SHOW LANDATABASEFILENAME Syntax DNSRELAY SHOW LANDATABASEFILENAME Description This command displays the name of the file that was set using the DNSRELAY SET LANDATABASEFILENAME command.200.com. These information are in collected in the LANDATABASEFILENAME file.10.yourdomain.10. Example --> dnsrelay show landomainname LAN Domain Name: atkk.16.255.0 lan_mask 255.10 host_name host1.255. Example --> dnsrelay show lanaddress LAN IP Address: 172.com. The second example shows the LANDATABASEFILENAME content. These information are in collected in the LANDATABASEFILENAME file.yourdomain. Example --> dnsrelay show landatabasefilename LAN Database File Name: //isfs/dnsrelaylandb Example --> domain_name yourdomain.255.0 host_name host1.0 See also DNSRELAY SHOW LANDOMAINNAME DNSRELAY SHOW LANDOMAINNAME Syntax DNSRELAY SHOW LANDOMAINNAME Description This command displays the domain name used by the DNS relay to determine if a host name request is for the local database.DNS DNSRELAY SHOW LANADDRESS Syntax DNSRELAY SHOW LANADDRESS Description This command displays the IP address and subnet mask that the DNS relay uses to determine if a query is for an element of the local database.15 See also DNSRELAY SET LANDATABASEFILE . lan_address 172.39.255.

The DNS client uses this list when a user asks for the IP address of a host. but specifies an incomplete domain name for the host. DNS Client CLI commands The table below lists the DNSCLIENT commands provided by the CLI: Command dnsclient add searchdomain dnsclient add server dnsclient clear searchdomains dnsclient clear servers dnsclient delete searchdomain dnsclient delete server dnsclient list searchdomains dnsclient list servers DNSCLIENT ADD SEARCHDOMAIN Syntax DNSCLIENT ADD SEARCHDOMAIN <searchstring> Description This command creates a domain search list. . Option Description A search string used to find the IP address for an incomplete domain name. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to enable. The search string specified replaces any previous search strings added previously using this command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Default Value searchstring N/A Example --> dnsclient add searchdomain alliedtelesyn. You can have a maximum of 6 incomplete domain names in the search string.com DNSCLIENT ADD SERVER Syntax DNSCLIENT ADD SERVER <ipaddress> Description This command adds a server IP address to the server list. This enables you to retrieve a domain name for a given IP address.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 263 DNS Client Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. configure and manage the DNS Client module.

Example --> dnsclient clear servers See also DNSCLIENT ADD SEARCHDOMAIN DNSCLIENT DELETE SERVER DNSCLIENT DELETE SEARCHDOMAIN Syntax DNSCLIENT DELETE SEARCHDOMAIN <searchstring> Description This command deletes a single domain name from the domain search list.102.264 Chapter 11 – Domain Name System . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).219. Example --> dnsclient clear searchdomains See also DNSCLIENT ADD SEARCHDOMAIN DNSCLIENT DELETE SEARCHDOMAIN DNSCLIENT CLEAR SERVERS Syntax DNSCLIENT CLEAR SERVERS Description This command deletes all the server IP addresses to the server list.DNS Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). You can add a maximum of 3 addresses to the server list. Option Description The IP address of the server that has an unknown domain name. The IP address is displayed in the following format: 192.196 DNSCLIENT CLEAR SEARCHDOMAINS Syntax DNSCLIENT CLEAR SEARCHDOMAINS Description This command deletes all domain names from the domain search list.3 Default Value ipaddress N/A Example --> dnsclient add server 192.168. Option searchstring Description A number that identifies a search string used to find the IP address for an Default Value N/A .168.

Example --> dnsclient list searchdomains ID | Domain -----|--------------------1 | alliedtelesyn. use the DNSCLIENT LIST SERVERS command. To display server numbers.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 265 incomplete domain name. The DNS client uses this list to retrieve a domain name for a given IP address. Option Description The server number that identifies an IP address of the server that has an unknown domain name. To list domain search strings. The DNS client uses this list when a user asks for the IP address of a host. Default Value number N/A Example --> dnsclient delete server 1 DNSCLIENT LIST SEARCHDOMAINS Syntax DNSCLIENT LIST SEARCHDOMAINS Description This command lists the domain search strings that you have added to the DNS client using the DNSCLIENT ADD SEARCHDOMAIN command. Example --> dnsclient list servers DNS Client Servers: . but specifies an incomplete domain name for the host.com --------------------------- DNSCLIENT LIST SERVERS Syntax DNSCLIENT LIST SERVERS Description This command lists the server IP addresses that you have added to the DNS client using the DNSCLIENT ADD SERVER command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Example --> dnsclient delete searchdomain 1 DNSCLIENT DELETE SERVER Syntax DNSCLIENT DELETE SERVER <number> Description This command deletes a single server IP addresses from the server list. use the DNSCLIENT LIST SEARCHDOMAINS command.

168.100.1 ------------------------ .168.DNS ID | IP Address ----|-----------------1 | 192.266 Chapter 11 – Domain Name System .7 2 | 192.100.

SNTP Version 4 clients include an “anycast” mode in addition to unicast and broadcast access modes not available in past versions of NTP/SNTP clients SNTP Features The following feature are available on then AT-RG613. a request for time synchronization and expects a reply only from that particular server. but sends no reply o . a single (S)NTP server.A multicast NTP server periodically transmits a message to the local subnet broadcast address. The client then configures itself based on this information. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 system can function in one of three transfer modes: o Unicast Mode . and receives the synchronized timebased information. Broadcast /Multicast Mode . Also. The client is configured to listen. organize and adjust the time-synchronization of the local system.The SNTP client sends to a server.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 267 Chapter 12 SNTP The SNTP Version 4 client is an OSI Layer 7 application that allows the synchronization of the AT-RG613. The SNTP client described herein is a scaled down version of the Network Time Protocol (NTP) which is specified in RFC 1305. • SNTP in the AT-RG613. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 system clock to global sources of time-based information using UDP. The main difference between an SNTP and an NTP client is the fact that most SNTP clients will interact with. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway: • Boot time and runtime synchronization of the system clock can both be configured. at most. provides a complete and simplified method to access international timeservers to receive. Its detailed implementation. located at a specific previously configured address. which is described in RFC 2030.

the client will not automatically adjust the time or time zone to US Eastern Standard Time (-5h UTC) on any new time synchronization. Port 123 will be used in both the Source Port and Destination Port fields of the UDP header.268 Chapter 12 – SNTP o Anycast Mode – When the client is configured in anycast mode. A manual time zone configuration change from the user is needed to handle this transition. • 64 local time zones (which include summertime /daylight savings time) configurations are supported (see [10]).a. Therefore. • Automatic periodic timeserver polling is configurable. Any other server responses that are received by the client afterwards are ignored. The SNTP client mode session uses the standard remote UDP port 123 for all data transfers. and a time change date arrives. if the client configures the system time for EDT (US Eastern Daylight Time) which is –4h UTC. Summer Time) time zones are configurable using the SNTP client. The client subsequently binds to the first response it receives and continues its operations in a unicast mode with that particular server. • Configuration of packet timeouts and retry transmissions is supported. Time Zones and Daylight Savings (Summer Time) Conversion Although Daylight Savings (a. the user must manually configure the local time zone when the change in standard time occurs. there is no mechanism for the automatic change to/from a standard time/daylight savings time. . For example. One or several anycast SNTP servers can respond with an individual timestamp and a unicast address. • Getting NTP Time Server IP Addresses via DNS lookup can be used. it sends out a sync request to a local subnet broadcast address.k.

The SNTP client attempts to contact the specific server in the association in order to receive a timestamp when the sntpclient sync command is issued. and each mode can be separately enabled or disabled: • Unicast mode • Enable . This command can be used as an alternative to synchronizing the local system clock via internal or external timeservers.the unicast server is removed from the association list. There are three modes to choose from.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 269 SNTP Command Reference This section describes the commands available on AT-RG613. Example The following command sets the system clock to 11:10:13pm. AT-RG623 and ATRG656 residential Gateway to enable. .the mode sends unicast messages to the IP address or hostname in the SNTP server association list. • Disable . configure and manage SNTP module. SNTP CLI commands The table below lists the SNTPCLIENT commands provided by the CLI: Command SNTPCLIENT SET CLOCK SNTPCLIENT SET MODE SNTPCLIENT SET POLL-INTERVAL SNTPCLIENT SET RETRIES SNTPCLIENT SET SERVER SNTPCLIENT SET TIMEOUT SNTPCLIENT SET TIMEZONE SNTPCLIENT SHOW ASSOCIATION SNTPCLIENT SET CLOCK Syntax SNTPCLIENT SET CLOCK <yyyy:mm:dd:hh:mm:ss> Description This command sets the system clock to a specific time and date. 2nd November 2001: --> sntpclient set clock 2001:11:02:23:10:13 SNTPCLIENT SET MODE Syntax SNTPCLIENT SET MODE {UNICAST|BROADCAST|ANYCAST} {ENABLE|DISABLE} Description This command enables/disables a particular access mode for the STNP client.

the SNTP client sends time synchronized broadcast packets to the network and subsequently expects a reply from a valid timeserver. The server learnt by the anycast process takes precedence over any entries currently in the associations list when the sntpclient sync command is issued. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Sets the time synchronous access mode to use the broadcast server.270 Chapter 12 – SNTP • Broadcast mode • Enable . Option UNICAST Description Sets the time synchronous access mode to use the unicast server. Enables the selected time synchronous access mode. • Disable . Sets the time synchronous access mode to use the anycast server. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). This server will then be added to the server association list. Default Value N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A BROADCAST ANYCAST ENABLE DISABLE Example --> sntpclient set mode anycast enable See also SNTPCLIENT SET SERVER SNTPCLIENT SET POLL-INTERVAL Syntax SNTPCLIENT SET POLL-INTERVAL <0-30> Description This command sets the SNTP client to automatically send a time synchronization request (specific to the mode) to the network at a specific interval. and updates the local system time accordingly. The client ignores any later replies from other servers after the first one is received. If the pollinterval is set to 0. the polling mechanism will be disabled. . The client then uses the first reply it receives to establish a link for future sync operations in unicast mode. Enables the selected time synchronous access mode. • Disable .allows the SNTP client to accept time synchronization broadcast packets from an SNTP server located on the network. • Anycast mode • Enable .stops synchronization via broadcast mode.stops synchronization via anycast mode.

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 271 Option 0-30 Description Sets the polling interval (in minutes) that SNTP client will send a time sync request. Option ipaddress Description The IP address of the dedicated unicast server that SNTP can use to synchronize its time. The hostname of the dedicated unicast server that SNTP can use to synchronize its time. up to the number of retries specified in this command. it willcontinue sending request packets at a fixed interval (set by the SNTPCLIENT SET TIMEOUT command). You can set the server by specifying either the IP address or the hostname. Default Value 0 (disabled) Example --> sntpclient set poll-interval 10 SNTPCLIENT SET RETRIES Syntax SNTPCLIENT SET RETRIES <0-10> Description This command sets the number of retry attempts that will be made when no response is received from a timeserver. Default Value N/A hostname N/A . This can be any value between 0 and 30. Option 0-10 Description Sets the number of packet retry attempts made when no response is received from a timeserver. If the client receives no reply to its sync requests. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Default Value 2 Example --> sntpclient set retries 4 See also SNTPCLIENT SET TIMEOUT SNTPCLIENT SET SERVER Syntax SNTPCLIENT SET SERVER {IPADDRESS <ipaddress> | HOSTNAME <hostname>} Description This command sets the dedicated unicast server with which the SNTP client can synchronize its time. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

272 Chapter 12 – SNTP Examples IP address --> sntpclient set server ipaddress 129. Default Value 5 seconds Example --> sntpclient set timeout 10 See also SNTPCLIENT SET RETRIES SNTPCLIENT SET TIMEZONE Syntax SNTPCLIENT SET TIMEZONE <abbreviation> Description This command sets the local time zone. This cycle will continue until either a reply is received. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). the client will resend the request. The table also contains the difference in time (in hours and minutes) from the UTC. Option 0-30 Description Sets the received packet response timeout value (in seconds).nist.15. and a description of the area of the world (from west to east) where the time difference is calculated from: Abbreviation IDLW NT + UTC -1200 -1100 World Area of Time Zone International Date Line West Nome . This can be any value between 0 and 30. Options The following table gives the 64 time zone abbreviations that you can use in this command.gov SNTPCLIENT SET TIMEOUT Syntax SNTPCLIENT SET TIMEOUT <0-30> Description This command sets the received packet response timeout value (in seconds) upon sync request initiation.6. Setting the timeszonecan configure the local system to be up to + 13 hours different from Universal Time Coordinate (UTC).28 hostname --> sntpclient set server hostname time-a. The timezone is represented by one of the abbreviations given in a table below. or the cycle has been repeated for the number of times specified in the SNTPCLIENT SET RETRIES command. If a response is not received within the time specified by this command. 64 of the worlds most prominent time zones are represented (including both standard times and summer/daylight saving times).

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 273 HST AKST YST YDT PST PDT MST MDT CST CDT EST EDT AST NFST NFT BRA ADT NDT AT WAT GMT UTC WET CET FWT MET MEWT SWT BST EET FST MEST SST IST -1000 -0900 -0900 -0800 -0800 -0700 -0700 -0600 -0600 -0500 -0500 -0400 -0400 -0330 -0330 -0300 -0300 -0230 -0200 -0100 +0000 +0000 +0000 +0100 +0100 +0100 +0100 +0100 +0100 +0200 +0200 +0200 +0200 +0200 Hawaii Standard Alaska Standard Yukon Standard Yukon Daylight US Pacific Standard US Pacific Daylight US Mountain Standard US Mountain Daylight US Central Standard US Central Daylight US Eastern Standard US Eastern Daylight Atlantic Standard Newfoundland Standard Newfoundland Brazil Standard Atlantic Daylight Newfoundland Daylight Azores West Africa Greenwich Mean Universal (Coordinated) Western European Central European French Winter Middle European Middle European Winter Swedish Winter British Summer Eastern Europe French Summer Middle European Summer Swedish Summer Israeli Standard .

274 Chapter 12 – SNTP IDT BT IT USZ3 USZ4 INST USZ5 NST WAST USZ6 JT CCT WADT ROK KST JST CAST KDT EAST GST CADT EADT IDLE NZST NZT NZDT +0300 +0300 +0330 +0400 +0500 +0530 +0600 +0630 +0700 +0700 +0730 +0800 +0800 +0900 +0900 +0900 +0930 +1000 +1000 +1000 +1030 +1100 +1200 +1200 +1200 +1300 Israeli Daylight Baghdad Iran Russian Volga Russian Ural Indian Standard Russian West-Siberian North Sumatra West Australian Standard Russian Yenisei Java China Coast West Australian Daylight Korean Standard Korean Standard Japan Standard Central Australian Standard Korean Daylight Eastern Australian Standard Guam Standard Central Australian Daylight Eastern Australian Daylight International Date Line East New Zealand Standard New Zealand New Zealand Daylight Example In the example below. the time zone is set to Unites States Eastern Standard Time. . which is five hours earlier than UTC (-0500): --> sntpclient set timezone EST SNTPCLIENT SHOW ASSOCIATION Syntax SNTPCLIENT SHOW ASSOCIATION Description This command lists the server being used by the SNTP client and displays whether or not the client is currently synchronized with this server.

Round Trip Delay: 2 second(s) Local Clock Offset: -1 second(s) Resync Poll Interval 15 minute(s) Packet Retry Timeout: 5 seconds Packet Retry Attempts: 3 See also SNTPCLIENT SHOW ASSOCIATION SNTPCLIENT SYNC Syntax SNTPCLIENT SYNC Description This command forces the SNTP client to immediately synchronize the local time with the server located in the association list (if unicast) or.nist. 2001 .28 ** Local clock synchronized with this server. initiate an anycast sequence. Eastern Daylight Time Time Difference +-VTC: -4:00 Precision: 1/16384 of a second Root Dispersion: +0.6.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 275 Examples IP address --> sntpclient show association Time Reference Server IP address: 129. 28 Aug. Example --> sntpclient show status Clock Synchronized TRUE SNTP Standard Version Number: 4 SNTP Mode(s) Configured: Unicast Broadcast Local Time: Tuesday. See also SNTPCLIENT SET SERVER SNTP SHOW STATUS Syntax SNTPCLIENT SHOW STATUS Description This command displays the SNTP client status information.14:39:25 Local Timezone: EDT.15.2342 second(s) Server Reference ID: GPS. hostname --> sntpclient show association Time Reference Server Hostname: time-a. Example --> sntpclient sync See also SNTPCLIENT SET SERVER .gov ** Local clock synchronized with this server. if anycast is enabled.

users are often confused as to why one would want to use PPP over Ethernet at all. PPP has now been adapted to Ethernet.276 Chapter 13 – PPPoE Chapter 13 PPPoE Telecommunications companies offer serial communications links around the globe right now and have done so for many years. and is appropriately called PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE). PPP is generally used by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to allow dial-up users to connect to the Internet. Because of its ability to route TCP/IP packets over serial links and its authentication capabilities. . would require authentication. To make TCP/IP work over these serial links. PPP is used by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to allow dial-up users to connect to the Internet. care must be taken to ensure the authenticity of all communications. This authentication is part of PPP. Figure 13. When serial links that are part of the public telephone system are used. it was necessary to create a protocol that could transmit TCP/IP packets over serial lines. To this end PPP incorporates user name and password security. a router or server receiving a request via PPP where the origin of the request is not secure. The two protocols that do this are: • SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) • PPP PPP is more feature rich and has largely supplanted SLIP. Since PPP was designed to do things that were either impossible or unnecessary with Ethernet. Thus.

the basic TCP/IP protocol would be comparable to a network of city streets. PPP. on the other hand. would be comparable to a railway. Example of PPPoE connection. Additional access points can be added with little disruption. then is not PPPoE like running railway tracks down Main Street? In fact. Without disturbing main street traffic.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 277 If we were to compare TCP/IP traffic to vehicle traffic. It is relatively easy to count and monitor passengers. It is hard to tell how many cars are actually using each street. They offer speedy access between two welldefined points and allow you to count passengers. not serial communications. it is. on the other hand. DSL providers. one IP interface must be added to the PPP stack and attached to a PPPoE transport. Travel is generally between two well-defined points. . use Ethernet. Serial ISPs already use PPP over modem communications. yes. which allows them to secure communications through the use of user logins and have the ability to measure the volume of traffic each user generates. PPP over Ethernet brings this sort of functionality to ISPs that do not use serial links to connect their users. That is what tramways do. It is easy to get on to and off the street. many require the added functionality of PPP over Ethernet. And you need a ticket to board. You need a ticket to board. they bring the advantages of railways. PPPoE allows ISPs to monitor the volume of traffic that their users generate. You can't get on and off anywhere. Streets can serve many access points. If this is true. PPPoE support on the AT-RG6xx Residential Gateway series In order to use the PPP stack. Because of this.

Instead pppoe transports are mapped to VLANs that from a logical point of view act as an ethernet port would do in a simple system without VLANs To attach a pppoe transport to the Residential Gateway the following steps must be performed: • Create a VLAN on the wan port using. IP interfaces use typically the services provided by pppoe transports. which are unique identifiers the particular PPPoE Client. In fact among the negotiation parameters there are “User Name” and “Password”. it's necessary firstly negotiate which authentication protocol (PAP or CHAP) to be use. The other type of transport explained above in chapter 5 is ethernet. the same ethernet port can be shared between different VLANs. The most relevant feature of PPP connections is the Security provided by the PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) and CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) protocols. To establish the PPP connection. . the “speakers” are the PPPoE Client on the RG6xx and the PPPoE Server of the Access Concentrator on the other end of the connection. Packets transmitted through a pppoe connection or Ethernet connection will have different frame formats even though they convey the same type of information to the IP layer. Because the system supports VLANs. for example. Each PPPoE instance must have a unique subnet and belong to a unique VLAN. the command vlan add v2 vid 2 vlan add v2 port wan frame untagged • Define the vlan as PPPoE transport using the command: pppoe add transport v2 4 • Create an IP interface and attach the IP interface to the PPPoE using the following command: ip add interface ip2 ip attach ip2 v2 Negotiation of PPPoE connections A PPPoE connection is a point-to-point connection. PPPoE transport is an abstraction layer used to classify the format of the PPPoE packets that will be transferred through the network.278 Chapter 13 – PPPoE Typically PPPoE is the “way” to connect the internal device with the external world. and then send the authentication parameters (User Name and Password) requested by the access service. Therefore it's not possible map a pppoe transport directly to a physical ethernet port. Adding and attaching PPPoE connections PPPoE connections are added and attached using the commands provided in the IP and PPPoE modules respectively.

pppoe set transport v2 password abcdef… After the completion of the authentication phase of the PPP negotiation..AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 279 To configure the authentication related parameters on a PPPoE instance the following steps must be performed: pppoe set transport v2 welogin ( none/auto/chap/pap) pppoe set transport v2 username abcdef…. the PPPoE client negotiates with the Server the IP parameters for the connection: • IP address for client and server ends of the link • • Primary DNS Server IP address Secondary DNS Server IP address .

AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to enable. configure and manage the PPPoE module. PPPoE CLI commands The table below lists the PPPoE commands provided by the CLI: Command PPPOE ADD TRANSPORT PPPOE CLEAR TRANSPORTS PPPOE DELETE TRANSPORT PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS PPPOE SET TRANSPORT ACCESSCONCENTRATOR PPPOE SET TRANSPORT AUTOCONNECT PPPOE SET TRANSPORT AUTOCONNECT FILTER ADD PPPOE SET TRANSPORT AUTOCONNECT FILTER DELETE PPPOE SET TRANSPORT ENABLED/DISABLED PPPOE SET TRANSPORT GIVEDNS CLIENT PPPOE SET TRANSPORT GIVEDNS RELAY PPPOE SET TRANSPORT LCPECHOEVERY PPPOE SET TRANSPORT LCPMAXCONF PPPOE SET TRANSPORT LCPMAXFAIL PPPOE SET TRANSPORT LCPMAXTERM PPPOE SET TRANSPORT STATIC_IP/DYNAMIC_IP PPPOE SET TRANSPORT PASSWORD PPPOE SET TRANSPORT SERVICENAME PPPOE SET TRANSPORT USERNAME PPPOE SET TRANSPORT WELOGIN PPPOE SHOW TRANSPORT PPPOE ADD TRANSPORT Syntax PPPOE ADD TRANSPORT <name> <vlanname> [ACCESSCONCENTRATOR <concentrator>] [SERVICENAME <servicename>] .280 Chapter 13 – PPPoE PPPoE Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613.

A PPPoE tag that identifies a remote access concentrator (or PPPoE server).. If set. Default Value name N/A vlanname N/A port N/A concentrator N/A service name N/A Example --> pppoe add transport pppoe1 default 1 See also PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS ETHERNET LIST PORTS For more information on host unique tags. The tag name/number is determined by your ISP. If an access concentrator is also set. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits. Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the transport. A PPPoE tag that identifies a specific service that is acceptable to the PPPoE client.org/rfc/rfc2516.txt . If no concentrator tag is set. the PPPoE transport will connect to the first access concentrator it finds that uses this service. The internal system port that used to distinguish PPPoE packets.ietf.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 281 Description This command creates a PPPoE transport that performs dialout over Ethernet. see http://www. The service name is determined by your ISP. It allows you to specify the following parameters for the PPPoE client: • the vlan used to receive and send packets belonging to the PPP interface • the internal port that will transport data • access concentrator (optional • service name (optional) Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value for each option (if applicable). but it cannot start with a digit. PPPoE will only connect to the named access concentrator. Available values are from 1 to 8. PPPoE connects to the first access concentrator that responds. the PPPoE transport will connect to the specified service on the named concentrator. The vlan name used to carry PPPoE packets of the current PPP interface.

Example --> pppoe clear transports See also PPPOE DELETE TRANSPORT PPPOE DELETE TRANSPORT Syntax PPPOE DELETE TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} Description This command deletes a single PPPoE transport. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. It displays the following information about the transports: • transport identification number • transport name . A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. Default Value N/A number N/A Example --> pppoe delete transport pppoe1 See also PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS Syntax PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS Description This command lists PPPoE transports that have been created using the PPPOE ADD TRANSPORT command. To display transport names. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. it's necessary detach the IP interface using the IP DETACH command before removing the pppoe transport. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value for each option (if applicable). use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command.282 Chapter 13 – PPPoE PPPOE CLEAR TRANSPORTS Syntax PPPOE CLEAR TRANSPORTS Description This command deletes all PPPoE transports that were created using the PPPoE ADD TRANSPORT command. If an IP interface is attached to the pppoe transport. To display transport numbers.

If no concentrator tag is set. A PPPoE tag that identifies a remote access concentrator (or PPPoE server). A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. You can also specify a service name using the SET TRANSPORT SERVICENAME command so that PPPoE will only accept a specific service via a specific access concentrator. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To display transport names. If an access concentrator has been defined. Default Value N/A number N/A concentrator Empty string Example --> pppoe set transport pppoe1 accessconcentrator server5 See also PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS . PPPoE connects to the first access concentrator that responds. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 283 Example --> pppoe list transports PPPOE transports: ID | Name | Port -----|------------|----------1 | default | ethernet2 2 | vlan21 | ethernet2 -----------------------------See also PPPOE SHOW TRANSPORT PPPOE SET TRANSPORT ACCESSCONCENTRATOR Syntax PPPOE SET TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} ACCESSCONCENTRATOR <concentrator> Description This command specifies the access concentrator that you want PPPoE to connect to. it's necessary remove the pppoe transport where the access concentrator refers. To display transport numbers. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. PPPoE will only connect to the named access concentrator. The tag name/number is determined by your ISP. to remove it.

Enables PPPoE autoconnect. To display transport numbers. PPPoE automatically opens the link to the access concentrator whenever the link is down and a user needs to send TCP/IP packets to a public address. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command.txt. To display transport names.ietf. If enabled. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. It's possible specify one or more filters to block the autoconnect function when a UDP or TCP connection is requested to a particular port. Disables PPPoE autoconnect. http://www.284 Chapter 13 – PPPoE PPPOE SET TRANSPORT SERVICENAME PPPOE SHOW TRANSPORT For more information on PPPoE and access concentrators. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). see RFC2516.org/rfc/rfc2516. See PPPOE SET TRANSPORT AUTOCONNECT ADD FILTER command. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. . PPPOE SET TRANSPORT AUTOCONNECT Syntax PPPOE SET TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} AUTOCONNECT {ENABLED|DISABLED } Description This command enables/disables the PPPoE autoconnect function. Default Value N/A number N/A ENABLED DISABLED disable Example --> pppoe set transport pppoe1 autoconnect enable See also PPPOE SET TRANSPORT AUTOCONNECT FILTER PPPOE SET TRANSPORT AUTOCONNECT FILTER ADD Syntax PPPOE SET TRANSPORT {<NAME>|<NUMBER>} AUTOCONNECT FILTER ADD {TCPPORT <TCPPORT>|UDPPORT <UDPPORT> } Description This command disables the PPPoE autoconnect function when a TCP/UDP session is requested for a specific address port.

use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 285 Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Default Value N/A number N/A tcpport udpport N/A N/A Example --> pppoe set transport pppoe1 autoconnect filter add tcpport 23 See also PPPOE SET TRANSPORT AUTOCONNECT PPPOE SET TRANSPORT AUTOCONNECT FILTER DELETE Syntax PPPOE SET TRANSPORT {<NAME>|<NUMBER>} AUTOCONNECT FILTER DELETE {TCPPORT <TCPPORT>|UDPPORT <UDPPORT> } Description This command removes a PPPoE filter previously added with the command PPPOE SET TRANSPORT AUTOCONNECT FILTER ADD. The destination port related to the TCP section that must be blocked. To display transport names. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. Default Value N/A number N/A tcpport udpport N/A N/A . use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. The destination port related to the UDP section that must be blocked. To display transport names. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To display transport numbers. To display transport numbers. The destination port related to the UDP section that must be blocked. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. The destination port related to the TCP section that must be blocked.

Attaching a transport to an interface implicitly enables it. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value for each option (if applicable).286 Chapter 13 – PPPoE Example --> pppoe set transport pppoe1 autoconnect filter delete tcpport 23 See also PPPOE SET TRANSPORT AUTOCONNECT PPPOE SET TRANSPORT ENABLED/DISABLED Syntax PPPOE SET TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} {ENABLED|DISABLED} Description This command explicitly enables/disables a PPPoE transport. To display transport numbers. To display transport names. Enables a PPPoE transport. Default Value N/A number N/A ENABLED DISABLED disable Example --> pppoe set transport pppoe1 enabled See also PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS PPPOE SET TRANSPORT GIVEDNS CLIENT Syntax PPPOE SET TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} GIVEDNS CLIENT {ENABLED | DISABLED} Description This command controls whether the PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP) can request a DNS server IP address for a remote PPP peer. it gives the address to the local DNS client so that it can be used for DNS lookups initiated from the Residential Gateway itself. but for cases where no attach is performed (for example. Once IPCP has discovered the DNS server IP address. . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Disables a PPPoE transport. a PPP session that is not attached but needed for testing purposes) the transport must be enabled explicitly. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. You must have the DNS client process included in your image build in order to use this feature. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. multiple channels on an interface. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). it gives the address to the local DNS relay so it can be used for relayed DNS lookups. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. A DNS server IP address learnt by IPCP will not be passed to the DNS client. To display transport names.org/rfc/rfc1035. To display transport numbers. For information on DNS implementation and specification. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE Default Value N/A N/A .ietf. see ATMOS DNS Client Functional Specification: DO-008322-PS. PPPOE SET TRANSPORT GIVEDNS RELAY Syntax PPPOE SET TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} GIVEDNS RELAY {ENABLED | DISABLED} Description This command controls whether the PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP) can request the DNS server IP address for a remote PPP peer. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. see http://www. IPCP can request a DNS server IP address and then give the address to DNS client. Default Value N/A number N/A ENABLED enabled DISABLED Example --> pppoe set transport pppoe1 givedns client enabled See also PPPOE SET TRANSPORT GIVEDNS RELAY ENABLED|DISABLED PPPOE SET TRANSPORT REMOTEDNS PPPOE SET TRANSPORT DISCOVERDNS PRIMARY PPPOE SET TRANSPORT DISCOVERDNS SECONDARY For more information on DNS client. Option name number Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command.txt. Once IPCP has discovered the DNS server IP address.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 287 Option name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. You must have the DNS relay process included in your image build in order to use this feature. To display transport names. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport.

use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command.txt. To display transport numbers. PPPOE SET TRANSPORT LCPECHOEVERY Syntax PPPOE SET TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} LCPECHOEVERY <interval> Description This command tells a specified PPP transport to send an LCP (Link Control Protocol) echo request frame at specified intervals (in seconds). enabled DISABLED Example --> PPPOE SET TRANSPORT PPPOE1 GIVEDNS RELAY ENABLED See also PPPOE SET TRANSPORT GIVEDNS CLIENT ENABLED|DISABLED PPPOE SET TRANSPORT REMOTEDNS PPPOE SET TRANSPORT DISCOVERDNS PRIMARY PPPOE SET TRANSPORT DISCOVERDNS SECONDARY DNS RELAY CLI COMMANDS For information on DNS implementation and specification. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. The length of time (in seconds) between LCP echo request frames being sent. To display transport names. A DNS server IP address learnt by IPCP will not be passed to the DNS relay. Default Value N/A number N/A interval 10 seconds Example --> pppoe set transport pppoe2 lcpechoevery 0 .org/rfc/rfc1035. If no reply is received. If you do not want echo request frames to be sent. specify `0' as the interval. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport.ietf. specify zero (0) in the <interval> attribute. To display transport numbers. see http://www. If you do not want to send LCP echo frames. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport.288 Chapter 13 – PPPoE transport. the PPP connection is turned down. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). ENABLED IPCP can request a DNS server IP address and then give the address to DNS relay. This functionality is also known as `keep-alive'.

This is the number of configure-nak packets sent without receiving a valid configure ack before assuming the configuration is not converging. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). the maximum number of configures that can be transmitted without reply before assuming that the PPP peer is unable to respond. Upon having decided that the peer is not responding. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). . use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. To display transport numbers.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 289 See also PPPOE SHOW TRANSPORT PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS PPPOE SET TRANSPORT LCPMAXCONF Syntax PPPOE SET TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} LCPMAXCONF <lcp max configure> Description This command sets the maximum number of Link Control Protocol (LCP) configure requests that will be sent by an existing PPPoE transport before it decides that the PPP peer is not responding. To display transport names. the transport changes from the REQ SENT state back to the STARTING state. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. The LCPmaxconf can be any positive value. Link Control Protocol. Default Value N/A number N/A lcp max configure 10 Example --> pppoe set transport pppoe1 lcpmaxconf 20 See also PPPOE SHOW TRANSPORT PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS PPPOE SET TRANSPORT LCPMAXFAIL Syntax PPPOE SET TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} LCPMAXFAIL <lcp max fail> Description This command sets the Link Control Protocol (LCP) maximum fail number. ie it stops trying to negotiate the link.

To display transport numbers. Default Value N/A number N/A lcp max fail 5 Example --> pppoe set transport pppoe1 lcpmaxfail 20 See also PPPOE SHOW TRANSPORT PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS PPPOE SET TRANSPORT LCPMAXTERM Syntax PPOE SET TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} LCPMAXTERM <lcp max terminate> Description This command sets the Link Control Protocol (LCP) maximum terminate number for an existing PPPoE transport. it will assume that the PPP peer is unable to reply. Default Value N/A number N/A lcp max term 2 . The LCPfailterm can be any positive value. To display transport names. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. To display transport names. The maximum number of consecutive LCP negative acknowledgements (indicating that the information received contains errors) that can be transmitted before assuming that parameter negotiation is not converging. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. and will simply terminate the link.290 Chapter 13 – PPPoE Option name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. To display transport numbers. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. When the transport has sent this number of consecutive LCP terminate requests without receiving a reply. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). The LCPmaxfail can be any positive value. The maximum number of consecutive LCP Terminate Requests that will be sent without reply before assuming that the destination address is unable to respond.

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 291 Example --> pppoe set transport pppoe1 lcpmaxterm 20 See also PPPOE SHOW TRANSPORT PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS PPPOE SET TRANSPORT STATIC_IP/DYNAMIC_IP Syntax PPPOE SET TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} {STATIC_IP <ip-address> | DYNAMIC_IP} Description This command tells the PPP process the local IP address to be used on this PPP interface or sets the PPP interface to get the IP address dynamically.168. To configure correctly an authenticated pppoe connection it's necessary send also the PPPOE SET TRANSPORT WELOGIN command and set the . The IP address of the local `client-end' of the PPP link.0 Example --> pppoe set transport pppoe1 static_ip 192. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command.2 See also PPPOE SHOW TRANSPORT PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS PPPOE SET TRANSPORT REMOTEIP PPPOE SET TRANSPORT PASSWORD Syntax PPPOE SET TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} PASSWORD <password> Description This command sets an authentication password on a named transport.254. To display transport names.222. displayed in the IPv4 format: 111.0. The password is required when PPP negotiation takes place and is supplied to the remote PPP server for authentication.0.103. To display transport numbers.4 Default Value N/A Number N/A ip-address 0. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. Option Name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport.

It can be made up of one or more characters and/or digits. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. You can also set the access concentrator using the SET TRANSPORT ACCESSCONCENTRATOR command so that PPPoE will only accept a specific service via a specific access concentrator. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. . use the PPPOE SHOW TRANSPORT command.292 Chapter 13 – PPPoE authentication username using the PPPOE SET TRANSPORT USERNAME command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To remove a previously set servicename. Option Name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. To display transport names. The password will be required by the PPP server and is passed to the server using either the PAP or CHAP protocol. To display the password. Default Value N/A number N/A password N/A Example --> pppoe set transport pppoe2 password mercury See also PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS PPPOE SHOW TRANSPORT PPPOE SET TRANSPORT USERNAME PPPOE SET TRANSPORT SERVICENAME Syntax PPPOE SET TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} SERVICENAME <servicename> Description This command specifies the service name that is acceptable to the PPPoE client. An arbitrary word that acts as a password enabling you to be authenticated by the remote end of the link. it's necessary remove the pppoe transport where the servicename was added. To display transport numbers.. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport.

txt. the PPPoE transport will connect to the first access concentrator it finds that uses this service. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. To configure correctly an authenticated pppoe connection it's necessary send also the PPPOE SET TRANSPORT WELOGIN command and set the authentication password using the PPPOE SET TRANSPORT PASSWORD command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). If an access concentrator is also set. see RFC2516. A PPPoE tag that identifies a specific service that is acceptable to the PPPoE client.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 293 Option name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. The service name is determined by your ISP.org/rfc/rfc2516. To apply a positive authentication you must use not only this command but moreover you also must use PPPOE SET TRANSPORT PASSWORD and PPPOE SET TRANSPORT WELOGIN. http://www. the PPPoE transport will connect to the specified service on the named concentrator.ietf. To display transport names.. Default Value N/A number N/A service name Empty string Example --> pppoe set transport pppoe1 servicename jupiter See also PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS PPPOE SET TRANSPORT ACCESSCONCENTRATOR PPPOE SHOW TRANSPORT For more information on PPPoE and service names. Option Description Default Value . If set. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. The username is required when PPP negotiation takes place and is supplied to the remote PPP server for authentication. To display transport numbers. PPPOE SET TRANSPORT USERNAME Syntax PPPOE SET TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} USERNAME <username> Description This command sets a (dialout) username on a named transport. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command.

Option name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. To display the username.294 Chapter 13 – PPPoE name A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. To configure correctly an authenticated pppoe connection it's necessary set also the login username using the PPPOE SET TRANSPORT USERNAME command and set the authentication password using the PPPOE SET TRANSPORT PASSWORD command. To display transport numbers. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. N/A number N/A username N/A Example --> pppoe set transport pppoe2 username jsmith See also PPPOE SET TRANSPORT PASSWORD PPPOE SET TRANSPORT WELOGIN Syntax PPPOE SET TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} WELOGIN {NONE|AUTO|PAP|CHAP} Description This command sets the authentication protocol used to connect to external PPP servers (dialout). A name that identifies a user. To display transport names. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. Together with the password. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). use the PPPOE SHOW TRANSPORT command. To display transport numbers. It can be made up of one or more characters and/or digits. To display transport names. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport. this enables the PPP client to be authenticated by the remote end. The username will be required by the PPP server and will be passed to the server using the PAP or CHAP protocol. Default Value N/A number N/A . use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport.

PAP None CHAP Example --> pppoe set transport pppoe2 welogin pap See also PPPOE SET TRANSPORT THEYLOGIN PPPOE SHOW TRANSPORT PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS PPPOE SHOW TRANSPORT Syntax PPPOE SHOW TRANSPORT {<name>|<number>} Description This command displays the following information about an existing PPPoE transport: • Description • Interface number • Server .dialin status • Headers . The authentication protocol used by the remote PPP server is discovered and used. the server sends an authentication request to the remote user dialling in.the data format that the transport can accept or receive • SVC status (false) • Local IP address • Subnet mask • Remote IP address • Remote DNS • Propagate DNS to client (true or false) • Propagate DNS to relay (true or false) • Create route (true or false) • Specific route (true or false) • Route netmask . the server sends an authentication request to the remote user dialling in.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 295 NONE AUTO No authentication method is used. Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. Password Authentication Protocol. PAP passes the unencrypted username and password to be verified by the server. CHAP passes the encrypted username and password to be verified by the server.

0 Remote IP: 0.0 Subnet mask: 0.0. A number that identifies an existing PPPoE transport.0.0.0 Server: false SVC: false To relay: true .0. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command Default Value N/A number N/A Example --> pppoe show transport pppoe2 PPP Transport: pppoe2 Description: pppoe2 Interface ID: 1 Headers: learn Local IP: 0.296 Chapter 13 – PPPoE • Dialout Username • Dialout Password • Dialout Authentication method • Dialin Authentication method • LCP Max Configure • LCP Max Failure • LCP Max Terminate • LCP Echo Period • Autoconnect status (true or false) • User Idle Timeout setting (in minutes) • Access concentrator • Service name • Port name Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).0. To display transport numbers.0 Remote DNS: 0. To display transport names. Option Name Description A name that identifies an existing PPPoE transport.0.0 Propogate DNS to client: true Create route: true Specific route: false Route netmask: 0.0.0.0. use the PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS command.0.

: Service name: y See also PPPOE LIST TRANSPORTS . Failure: 5 LCP Max Terminate: 2 LCP Echo Every: 10 Autoconnect: true User Idle Timeout: 30 Access Conc.: none LCP Max. Conf.: none Dialin auth.: 10 LCP Max.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 297 Dialout username: Dialout password: Dialout auth.

In the opposite direction. The AT-RG623TX supports two ISDN Basic Rate ports to connect up to 8 ISDN terminals to the residential gateway. • on the ISDN models it implements the ISDN protocol conforming to Euro ISDN standards (ETSI). In this case the two ports use the same S/T bus and ISDN terminals can use one port or the other one independently. The AT-RG613TX(J) supports two FXS ports to connect up to 2 standard DTMF analogue telephones. The same FXO port acts like lifeline when the unit is powered off (or when no local user is registered to a SIP server or Gatekeeper).298 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports Chapter 14 VoIP Analogue and Digital access ports Introduction This chapter describes the telephony services available on the Residential Gateway and the support for analog voice ports (FXS) and digital ISDN interfaces (Basic Rate). fax with data networks incorporating packet-based protocols such as Internet protocol (IP). connecting the local phones to the PSTN operator. the FXO port allows an incoming PSTN call to reach a VoIP end-point. . The access port module also performs the voiceband processing required to interface analog or PCM voice. This system incorporates a voiceband processor (VoIP DSP) that operates in conjunction with analog interface circuitry and with the unit main processor (CPU). A further PSTN port (AT-RG613TXJ model only) is available to connect the Residential Gateway to a Central Office or to an analog PBX. The PSTN port (also named FXO port) allows a VoIP end-point to reach an external phone connected to the PSTN network. Up to 2 simultaneous calls can be made on the S/T bus (the limitation is due to the Basic Rate service that support only two bearer channels of 64Kbps each). The access port module controls both analog and digital ports: • on FXS models it detects hardware events like off-hook and DTMF key press and controls hardware functions like tone generation and ringing.

The analog front-end circuit is designed to support 5REN (Ring Equivalent Number) load on each FXS port.726-40Kbps • T. while the voice-band processor primarily performs mathematically intensive DSP algorithms.30 fax signals into T. simply by selecting the desired country via the VOIP EP SET COUNTRY command.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 299 The unit main processor implements packet network protocol stacks and system control. allowing the user to make external calls to a Central Office or to analog PBX.726-16Kbps.726-32Kbps and G. Voice Quality Management • Jitter Buffer Management • Fixed Gain Control configurable independently on TX and RX transmission • G. Connection from the unit to standard DTMF analogue telephones is made via two RJ11 8-pin connectors.729A/B CS-ACELP Speech CODEC with VAD • G. Analog ports are able to reproduce telecom tones similar to the tones provided from a regional central office or local exchange.168 Line Echo Cancellation (programmable 8 ms – 32 ms tail length) • Voice Activity Detection (VAD) • Comfort Noise Generation (CNG) Telecom Tones Management • Tone Generation • DTMF Detection Analog Ports On the AT-RG613TX model two FXS ports are provided.711 A-/µ-law 64 Kbps PCM Speech CODEC • G. G. The following are the features available on the Voice system: Voice Encoding/Decoding • G.38 support for transmission of T. An additional RJ11 connector is available as pass-through PSTN port when the unit is not powered.30 Intenet Fax Protocol (IFP) packets. In this case an internal relay connects the first FXS port to the PSTN port. G. On the AT-RG613TXJ model two FXS ports are provided plus one FXO port. . Digital Ports The AT-RG623TX supports two ISDN Basic Rate (BRI) ports.726-24Kbps.

The S/T loop portion of the circuit support up to 8 ISDN terminals according to a point-to-multipoint bus topology over a strictly limited distance and is intended for operation within the customer premises. Power may be transferred from the NT to TEs (or vice-versa) over the signal wires or one of the outer pairs. the AT-RG623TX is designed to operate like an NT (LT-S) termination offering access to a VoIP network instead of an ISDN network. ISDN BRI Physical Layer Connection from the S/T loop to a TE is made via two RJ45 8-pin connectors. plus one signaling channel (called the D channel) of 16Kbps. ISDN Basic Access. . Analogue Phone/FAX TA S/T BUS NT1 U BUS ISDN switch (LT) ISDN Switched Nework ISDN switch (LT) Digital Phone/FAX Digital Phone/FAX Figure 14. This allows two simultaneous calls (outgoing or/and incoming) to be in operation at the same time. One 100 ohm termination is already installed inside the AT-RG623TX unit. With respect to a standard ISDN Basic Rate Access. The S/T bus can be up to 100 meters long using 100 ohm UTP cable (only a short passive S bus).300 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports A block diagram of a typical Basic Rate Access circuit is shown in Figure 14.The four centre pins on the connector are used for the transmit and receive pairs. The S/T bus must be terminated with a 100 ohm resistive load at both ends. The letters S. From the system point of view they are one logical port and access a resource named isdn0. In this case there are no strong constraints between the minimum distance between TEs . The U loop may be several kilometres in length and runs between the NT and the Line Termination (LT) on the ISDN service provider's premises. The other 100 ohm termination must be installed during network configuration. but 10 meters between TEs is the suggested separation. The S/T loop may be shared by a number of TEIs and TAs communicating with a single Network Termination (NT). T and U refer to reference points in the ITU-T Recommendations defining ISDN. The Basic Rate access available on the AT-RG623TX consists of 2 data channels (called B1 and B2) of 64Kbps each.

basic steps. In normal operation the LAPD module will not require any configuring since the default configuration will allow it to function fully.. The default for BRI interfaces is to operate with automatic TEI (Terminal Endpoint Identifier) assignment.Call Control ISDN layer 3 is responsible for maintaining and controlling ISDN calls.A.A. VoIP subsystem configuration . The call control module uses ITU-T Recommendation Q. It is a layer 2. ISDN Layer 3 .1 Point-to-multipoint . ISDN Layer 2 . protocol which is used for communication between ISDN Terminal Equipment and Network Equipment (e. . LAPD is responsible for providing addressing.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 301 See ETS 300 012-1 Annex A .2.1.1 Short passive bus for more technical details. as illustrated in Figure 15. Users Creation Users Binding Incoming/ Outgoing Calls Figure 15. or data link layer.g. LAPD is not used on the ISDN B channels.LAPD LAPD is the Link Access Protocol for the ISDN D channel. analog or digital access ports are not configured in the system when the unit starts from a factory default configuration. the AT-RG623). Default Configuration Signalling Protocol Config.921. (SIP/H323) Access Port Creation Forwarding Database Access Port Config.2. flow control. Common Port creation and configuration (if necessary) are part of the VoIP system configuration steps required in order to receive or make calls.931 to set up and tear down ISDN calls. and error detection for higher layer users of the ISDN D channel. A single D channel is able to support multiple layer 3 entities. By default. as defined by ITU-T Recommendation Q.

tel2 tel3 tel To disable a port use the VOIP EP DISABLE command. On the AT-RG613. attempting to make a call through an undefined analogue port will result in absence of any tone provided by the unit. "C". Each access port has a unique identifier used during the VOIP EP CREATE command. A busy tone may be reproduced locally on the ISDN telephone depending on phone model (typically the busy tone is generated for few seconds and then the user is invited to replace the handset). no users can be added to the port and therefore no incoming calls can be received and no outgoing calls can be made. Port configuration Port configuration is managed through the VOIP EP SET command. It is used to configure the following subsections: • Digit Map/Dial Mask • Voice Coder/Decoder • Voice Quality Management • Telecom Tones Management Digit Map The Digit Map is a rule used by the access port to understand when dialing is is to be considered completed and the dialed number is ready to be processed by the call control layer.302 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports If a port is not defined. A digit map is defined either by a (case insensitive) "string" or by a list of strings. "#". The following constructs can be used in each digit map: DTMF: A digit from '0' to '9' or one of the symbols "A". It works for outgoing calls (in the direction from user to VoIP network). To create a port. use the command VOIP EP CREATE and to enable a port use the command VOIP EP ENABLE. tel2 tel1. "B". attempting to make an outgoing call through an undefined digital port will result in a DISCONNECT message from the unit. the following ports and port identifiers can be used: Model AT-RG613TX AT-RG613TXJ AT-RG623TX VoIP port type al-fxs-del al-fxs-del al-fxo-del dl-bri-lt-s VoIP port identifier tel1. . specified either as a set of digits or timers. On the AT-RG623. "D". Each string in the list is an alternative numbering scheme. or "*". or as an expression over which the port will attempt to find a shortest possible match. Depending on the model.

The symbol 'T' at the end of Digit Map indicates that if user has not dialed a digit for a time longer than the value of the inter-digit time. Assuming that dialling “9” makes an external call. Another way to achieve the same result would be: voip ep analogue set prt0 digitmap [234]xx It is possible to combine two or more expressions in the same Digit Map by using the “|” operator. The command to set the Digit Map could look as follows: voip ep analogue set prt0 digitmap xxx This Digit Map specifies that after the user has entered any three digits. if all extensions in the user company begin with 2. between "[" and "]". The left-most expression has precedence over the other expressions Let’s consider the case of a choice: the Digit Map must check if the number is internal (an extension). or external (a local call)."). The Digit Map is defined in such a way that after the user has entered 3 digits. If the symbol T appearsi in the middle of digit map expression is not considered and skipped during expression evaluation. Position: A period (". or 4. It's possible to refine this Digit Map by including a range of digits.. 3. 3. i. 3. Range: One or more DTMF symbols enclosed between square brackets ("[" and "]"). This can be easily incorporated in a Digit Map with the command: . Let’s consider an example where the user in an office wants to call a co-worker’s 3digit extension. or 4. which is equivalent to OR. it checks if the number begins with 9 and the second digit is any digit between 2 and 9 and the number has 7 digits It may sometimes be required that users dial the “#” or “*” to make calls. of occurrences of the preceding construct.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 303 Timer: The symbol 'T' matching the timer expiry. the call is placed. the called number is processed. Also. which matches any digit ("0" to "9"). the Digit Map could be defined with the command: voip ep analogue set prt0 digitmap ([2-4]xx|9[2-9]xxxxxx) In this case the Digit Map checks if the number begins with 2. or 4 and the number has 3 digits If not. note that the whole Digit Map shall not exceed 128 characters. For example. the corresponding Digit Map command could look as: voip ep analogue set prt0 digitmap [2-4]xx If the number dialed begins with anything other than 2. including zero.e. which matches an arbitrary number. the call is rejected and a busy tone is generated. the dialed number shall be considered complete. Subrange: Two digits separated by a hyphen ("-") which matches any digit between and including the two. Wildcard: The symbol "x". The subrange construct can only be used inside a range construct.

the number of digits specified by the dial mask parameter are removed from the selection This feature is available both on AT-RG613TX and AT-RG623TX models. It's possible to specify more than one codec type for each port using the command VOIP EP SET CODECS. The following codecs are available on the AT-RG613.729) (G.726 32kbps) (G.711 µ law) (G.711 A law) (G. When processing the outgoing call the call control layer removes any '#''. Dial Mask The Dial Mask specifies the number of digits that must be removed from the dialed number before checking the dialed number against the Digit Map. On AT-RG613TXJ model. On the fxo port dial mask works only far calls in the direction PSTN to VoIP thus only on incoming calls on fxo port. dial mask acts both on fxs ports and on the fxo port.304 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports voip ep analogue set prt0 digitmap xxxxxxx#|xxxxxxx* The “#” or “*” character could indicate users must dial the “#” or “*” character at the end of their number to indicate it is complete.38 (G. codec negotiation is performed locally by the call control layer.726 24kbps) (G.726 40kbps) . In the case of local calls. Different codec types are available in order to satisfy the requirements of different environments. The signaling protocol (SIP or H323) will negotiate the active codec based on the capabilities supported by the other peer involved in the VoIP connection. Voice Coder/Decoder The Voice system makes use of a specific DSP with an embedded sigma-delta Coder/Decoder to process voice and data from/to access ports. '*' and 'T' symbols from the dialed number. When a user digits the called party number.726 16kbps) (G. The codec specified at the leftdmost ens of the codec list has precedence over the other codecs. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 units: • g711a • g711u • g729 • g726-16 • g726-24 • g726-32 • g726-40 • T.

729 Annex A. G.711 μ/A-law 64 Kbps PCM Speech codec The G. 24kbps. G. but the G.729 Annex A is interoperable with G.729A is very close to that of G. and results in high quality speech known as "toll" quality. Α-law and µ-law are waveform codecs.729 except it performs slightly worse in environments with background noise and in the presence of bit errors.729 Annex B describes a voice activity detection/comfort noise generation algorithm that can be operated in conjunction with either of the speech coders to further reduce the bit rate during periods of silence.711 codec is specified by ITU-T and consists of two similar non-uniform pulse code modulation (PCM) schemes called µ. G. It results in good speech quality.726 codec is specified by ITU-T and is an adaptative differential pulse code modulation (ADPCM) speech-coding algorithm capable to operate at 16kbps. has very low delay. Much coarser quantisation steps are used for large amplitude signals. each input voice sample is converted into a 4-bit quantized difference signal resulting in a compression ratio (respect to a reference G711 codec) of 2:1. The speech quality for G.729 A/B CS-ACELP Speech codec The G. The digitised. The algorithmic delay (block processing size) is 10 ms (80 samples). however it requires less than half the processing requirements in terms of MIPS. Fine quantisation steps are used for the low level amplitudes.729A is 3. G. There is a lower complexity version of the original G. For 32 kbps operation. A-law is commonly used in Europe and µ-law is commonly used in North America and Japan.711 requires trivial processor resources but its high bit rate generally precludes its use in systems where bandwidth or storage space is a concern. with a MOS value of 4. G. For the 24kbps and 40kbps operation the quantized difference signal is 3 bits .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 305 A brief description of each codec is provided below. 32 kbps and 40kbps.711 codec is very simple. The complexity is high.law and A-law.729 algorithm also incorporates a 5 ms look-ahead resulting in a 15 ms delay for the encoder. which occur more frequently in speech signals.726 ADPCM Speech codec The G.729. The MOS for G.0. linear PCM input signals (13 and 14 bits respectively) sampled at an 8 KHz sampling rate are converted into an 8-bit compressed floating-point PCM representation for a total bit rate equal to 64Kbps The G. G.729 described in G.729 codec is specified by ITU-T and consists of a Conjugate Structure Algebraic CELP (CS-ACELP) analysis-by-synthesis algorithm that results in a compressed bit rate of 8 kbps. with some notes about quality and performance. which logarithmically quantise each input sample.9.

T. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 are designed to support the transmission of T. Voice Quality Management To increase the voice/data quality additional parameters can be set on the voice system DSP. In the case that access ports are not using the same codec. respectively. T. This may be because packets from other equal priority voice channels are also ready to be transmitted or because a lower priority data packet has started transmission and must be allowed to complete. this optimization is less effective and some channel data could suffer a variable delay (jitter). The system is designed to zeroing the process latency for ports using the same codec algorithm. or other network phenomena. speech quality is dramatically reduced.e. At 32kbps ADPCM has a low delay and is considered "tollquality". .38 support with the called or calling end-point respectively.g. AT-RG623 and ATRG656 models. virtually indistinguishable from A-law and u-law for a single encoding. The following settings are available on both the AT-RG613. and the willingness to reduce network packet efficiency by transmitting a partially filled packet. signal distortion) that are present when faxes are sent using codec designed for speech applications. When T.30 fax signals using T. The voice DSP make use of one shared output buffer in the encode direction. If this fails. the number of other voice channels.38 Internet Fax Protocol (IFP) packets. This delay results when a complete voice packet ready for transmission cannot be immediately transmitted. i. the Residential Gateway tries firstly to negotiate T. This delay is dependent on a number of factors including the minimum size data packet.38 support is enabled and a fax must be sent or received. Even if T. The jitter buffer is designed to prevent data starvation on the packet-receiving end. especially below 24kbps. which could simultaneously produce a packet. and may dynamically adjust its buffer depth depending on network performance characteristics.306 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports and 5 bits. At lower bit rates.38 is not properly a codec but is a technical solution to map FAX signals into a dedicated IP protocol that overrides the limitations (e.38 is reported under the codec supported list in AT-RG600 family. automatically the Residential Gateway switches to a non compressed codec like G711u or G711a. network congestion.38 support AT-RG613. A brief description of each setting is provided below: Jitter Buffer Voice-over-packet systems require a “jitter” buffer to compensate for delay variation due to packet queuing.

In this case an impedance mismatch in this device will almost always result in some “talker echo”. 16 and 32 msec. the less the echo amplitude that can be tolerated before being annoying to the talker. A value of 0 for Line Echo Cancellation results is turning off the Line Echo Cancellation feature. it's possible to set the gain on the Tx direction (from phone/user to AT-RG600/VoIP network) separately from that in the Rx direction (from AT-RG600/VoIP network to phone/user) to values between –48dB and +24dB. The delay parameter represents the delay in milliseconds that the jitter buffer waits before it transmits the data samples that are collected from the VoIP network. and is typically used in telephony applications to cancel the electrical echo caused by 2-to-4 wire conversion hybrids. which operates upon frames of digitised data. . The command VOIP EP SET JITTERDELAY is used to specify the jitter delay. Acceptable values for Line Echo Cancellation are 8. Gain control can be set separately on each access port on AT-RG613TX(J) modelswhile on AT-RG623 model it acts simultanously on both B1 and B2 channels. Therefore during periods of non-speech.168 Line Echo Cancellation (8 ms – 32 ms tail length) International Telecommunications Union. but many listeners find it disconcerting when the background noise is completely muted during periods when they are talking. while they are separate proprietary algorithms when used in conjunction with the G. The longer the delay through the system. This solution has the advantage of greatly reducing the average bit-rate.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 307 On the decoding path (from VoIP network to access port). allowing the output to mute. line echo cancellation is almost always required. Volume Gain Control To adjust volume gain appropriate to the operational environment. it is generally preferable to produce some amount of “comfort noise” (CNG) which sounds similar to the speaker’s background noise. Voice Activity Detection Generation (CNG) (VAD) / Comfort Noise Voice activity detection / comfort noise generation (VAD/CNG) are two algorithms designed to reduce bit rates beyond the nominal values defined by the selected codec when no speech is present. G.168 specifies the requirements for line echo cancellers.711 codec.729 algorithms. VAD/CNG features are embedded in codec G. which is a reflection of the received analog signal back to the far-end talker on the transmission path. A line echo canceller is an adaptive FIR filter. Telecommunications sector (ITU-T) G. voice/data packets are managed in separate jitter buffers (one for each access port) to compensate efficiently for jitter injected by the network. since virtually all VoIP systems add delay to the system. Thus. Silence detection algorithms simply replace periods when speech is not detected with silence.

931 SETUP message and in one or more INFO messages during the call establishment phase. Then if the call is established using an uncompressed codec (i.308 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports Telecom Tones Management On analog access models (AT-RG213) the called party number is provided to the unit through DTMF dialed digits. If the call is established using a compressed codec. - When the Residential Gateway is going to accept a call. the called party number is provided to the Residential Gateway both in the Q. In this case. g711u or g711a). the Residential Gateway will send DTMF tones using RTP packet Named Telephone Event only if the caller end-point supports it. the Residential Gateway will send DTMF tone in-band (independently if the caller endpint supports or not RTP packet Named Telephone Event) on the same path used for voice.e. DTMF Relay DTMF Relay is a protocol dependent solution used to transfer DTMF tones when in a call a low compressed codec is used. - Inter-digit time / Inter-digit critical time . otherwise it switches to the same path used for voice (accepting DTMF distorsion). If the call is established using a compressed codec. the Residential Gateway will send DTMF tones using RTP packet Named Telephone Event only if the called end-point supports it. Using the Multi Frame Mode. When the Residential Gateway attempts to establish a call. it adds to the capabilities list the RTP packet Named Telephone Event only if a compressed codec (g726 or g729ab) has been configured for the Voice access port involved in the call. it adds to the capabilities list the RTP packet Named Telephone Event only if a compressed codec (g726 or g729ab) has been configured for the Voice access port involved in the call. • DTMF Relay under SIP protocol To prevent tone distortion. Then if the call is established using an uncompressed codec (i.931 SETUP message during the call establishment phase. g711u or g711a).e. if tone is managed similarly to voice. the called party number is provided to the Residential Gateway in the Q. On digital access models (AT-RG623) the called party number is provided to the Residential Gateway using EnBlock mode or Multi Frame mode. during call establishment. the endpoints negotiate a specific RTP packet payload (Named Telephone Event) used only to tranfer DTMF tones as specified in RFC 2833 (section 3). Using the EnBlock Mode. the Residential Gateway will send DTMF tone in-band (independently if the called endpint supports or not RTP packet Named Telephone Event) on the same path used for voice. otherwise it switches to the same path used for voice (accepting DTMF distorsion). the tone may be distorted during compression and decompression phase and therefore a specific application must be used to support DTMF transfer.

then the connection is closed and a busy tone is generated.5000 425 1000 . Busy Tone and Ring Back Tone refer to ITU-T E.350 500 . To change the value of the inter-digit time use the VOIP EP SET IDT-PARTIAL command The Inter-digit critical time is the maximum acceptable time between the off-hook event and the dialing of the first digit. If a time greater than the inter-digit time elapses after the dialing of a digit. On-hook time is the minimum time (msec) that the analog line must stay in onhook before the system detects the on-hook state.2000 450 1000 .180 specifications as reported in the following table: Country Dial Tone Frequency (Hz) 425x25 450 425 350+440 450 440 425 400 425 400 Busy Tone Frequency Cadence (Hz) (msec) 400 450 425 480+620 450 440 425 400 425 400 375 . dialling is considered complete.200 400x17 400 .200 500 .4000 440 1500 .500 Ring Back Tone Frequency Cadence (Hz) (msec) 400 .200 Continuous Australia Austria Belgium Canada China France Germany Israel Italy Japan .1000 200 .500 500 . AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 are able to reproduce the same countryspecific telecom tones used by Central Offices or Foreign Exchanges simply by selecting the preferred country via the VOIP EP SET COUNTRY command. If a time greater than this has elapsed since off-hook and dialing has not yet started.4000 1000 .3500 250 .300 500 .3000 440+480 2000 . The Inter-digit time value is used by the timer 'T' in the digit map expression. Country-specific Telecom Tones The AT-RG613.4000 400 1000 .375 300 .4000 450 1000 .500 350 .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 309 The Inter-digit time is the maximum acceptable time between the dialing of one digit and the next.480 500 . Dial Tone. Off-hook time is the minimum time (msec) that the analog line must stay in off-hook before the system detects the off-hook state.4000 425 1000 .500 200 . To change the value of the inter-digit critical time use the VOIP EP SET IDTCRITICAL command Off-hook time / On-hook time Off-hook time and On-hook time are configuration parameters available only for analog access ports.4000 1000 .500 480 .2000 Cadence (msec) Continuous Continuous Continuous Continuous Continuous Continuous Continuous Continuous 600 .3000 425 400x16 1000 .

Any call originated from.500 1000 .5000 2000 .200 250 . To change the port status from disabled to enabled.375 500 . To show the users attached to a port.400 750 . use the VOIP USER SHOW command.2000 1500 .200 400 . use the VOIP EP ANALOGUE/DIGITAL SHOW command. or sent to. attempting to make an outgoing call through a disabled digital port will result in a DISCONNECT message from the unit. each user added to the port starts to un-register from the Location Server (SIP signaling protocol) or Gatekeeper (H323 signaling protocol).2000 2000 .500 375 .250 500 .4000 Note:Frequency in Hz: f1xf2 means f1 is modulated by f2 f1+f2 is the juxtaposition of two frequencies f1 and f2 without modulation. As soon the port is enabled all the users attached to the port automatically restart the process of registration with the location server or gatekeeper. Cadence in seconds: ON .500 800 .200 400 .310 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports New Zealand Norway Russia Singapore Spain Sweden Turkey United Kingdom United States 400 no tone no tone 425 425 425 450 350+440 350+440 Continuous // // Continuous Continuous Continuous Continuous Continuous Continuous 400 425 425 425 425 425 450 400 480+620 500 . When a port is disabled.4000 400 . A busy tone may be reproduced locally on the ISDN telephone depending on phone model (typically the busy tone is generated for few seconds and then the user is invited to replace the handset).200 400 . To show the user registration status. On the AT-RG623. .OFF Port enable/disable It's possible to temporarily disable a port by using the VOIP EP ANALOGUE/DIGITAL DISABLE command.3200 400 . use the VOIP EP ANALOGUE/DIGITAL ENABLE command. no dial tone is provided through a disabled analogue port. On the AT-RG613.3000 1000 .4000 400 .2000 500 .500 400 + 450 425 425 425x24 425 425 450 400+450 440+480 400 .750 200 . a user attached to a disabled access port is discharged.

EP). configure and manage access ports (also called end points . this will be explicitly indicated in the description.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 311 VoIP EP Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the Residential Gateway to create. The syntax for both analogue and digital ports is described below. Two types of port are defined: analogue and digital. If particular parameters or commands specific only for one type of port. If not otherwise stated. command parameters apply both to analogue and digital ports. voip ep CLI commands The table below lists the VOIP EP commands provided by the CLI: Command VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SET CNG VOIP EP SET CODECS VOIP EP SET COUNTRY VOIP EP SET DIALMASK VOIP EP SET DIALMODE VOIP EP SET DIGITMAP VOIP EP SET IDT-CRITICAL VOIP EP SET IDT-PARTIAL VOIP EP SET JITTERDELAY VOIP EP SET LEC VOIP EP SET OFFHOOK-TIME VOIP EP SET ONHOOK-TIME VOIP EP SET RXGAIN VOIP EP SET TXGAIN VOIP EP SET VAD VOIP EP SHOW .

Valid values are: al-fxs-del: analog line. On AT-RG613TX model. It can be made up of one or more letters or a combination of letters and digits. The maximum length is fixed to 16 characters. direct exchange line. Default Value name N/A port-type N/A . Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the access port. foreign exchange subscriber side. On AT-RG623TX model. up 2 analogue ports can be created with TYPE al-fxsdel and PHYSICAL-PORT tel1 or tel2. up 2 analogue ports with TYPE al-fxs-del and PHYSICAL-PORT tel1 or tel2 can be created plus a third analog port with TYPE al-fxo-del and PHYSICAL-PORT tel3. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option that can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). On AT-RG613TXJ model. but it cannot start with a digit. only one digital port can be created with TYPE dl-bri-lt-s and PHYSICAL-PORT tel. dl-bri-lt-s: digital line.312 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports VOIP EP CREATE Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE CREATE <name> TYPE <port-type> PHYSICAL-PORT <phyport-id> VOIP EP DIGITAL CREATE <name> TYPE <port-type> PHYSICAL-PORT <phyport-id> Description This command adds a named access port and binds it to a physical access port. only one digital port can be created with TYPE dl-brilt-s and PHYSICAL-PORT tel. al-fxo-del: analog line. LT-S termination. direct exchange line. This is the user access typology served by the physical port. On AT-RG623TX model. ISDN basic rate interface. the possible values depend on the model (analog access or digital access). an error is raised and the command fails. foreign exchange office side. If the physical resource is already assigned to another named port.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. Default Value N/A Example --> voip ep analogue delete prt0 --> voip ep digital delete prt0 See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SET . use the VOIP EP LIST command.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 313 phy-port-id This is the physical port providing the access to VoIP network. Deleting an access port where one or more users are attached. and a default value (if applicable). It may assume the following values depending on port-type selection: tel1: first analog fxs port tel2: second analog fxs port tel3: analog fxo port (only AT-RG613TXJ model) tel1: digital isdn port N/A Example --> voip ep analogue create prt0 type al-fxs-del physical-port tel1 --> voip ep digital create prt0 type dl-bri-lt-s physical-port tel1 See also VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SET VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP DELETE Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE DELETE <name> VOIP EP DIGITAL DELETE <name> Description This command deletes the named access port created previously using the VOIP EP CREATE command. To display existing access port names. causes a deregistration procedure to be invoked for the users attached to the removed port. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. which can be specified with this command.

Use the VOIP EP SHOW command to retrieve the Operational Status of a specific port. use the VOIP EP LIST command. use the VOIP EP LIST command. Default Value N/A Example --> voip ep analogue disable prt0 --> voip ep digital disable prt0 See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SET VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP ENABLE Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE ENABLE <name> VOIP EP DIGITAL ENABLE <name> Description This command enables the physical port referred to by the named access port. which can be specified with this command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. To display existing access port names. and a default value (if applicable). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. and a default value (if applicable). Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. Default Value N/A . To display existing access port names. which can be specified with this command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. Use the VOIP EP SHOW command to retrieve the Operational Status of a specific port.314 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP DISABLE Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE DISABLE <name> VOIP EP DIGITAL DISABLE <name> Description This command disables the physical port referred to by the named access port.

The following information is displayed: • end-point (analogue or digital) ID value • end-point (analogue or digital) name • physical port index • physical port typology Example --> voip ep analogue list Gateway access ports: ID | Name | Physical Port | Typology -----|------------|------------------|-----------------1 | prt0 | tel1 | al-fxs-del ---------------------------------------------------------> voip ep digital list Gateway access ports: ID | Name | Physical Port | Typology -----|------------|------------------|-----------------1 | prt0 | isdn0 | dl-bri-lt-s -------------------------------------------------------See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP SET VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP SET CFWD Syntax CFWD all-calls .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 315 Example --> voip ep analogue enable prt0 --> voip ep digital enable prt0 See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SET VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP LIST Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE LIST VOIP EP DIGITAL LIST Description This command lists the named access port defined in the system using the VOIP EP CREATE command.

Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. The timer allows users to decide a time threshold after which the call is considered not answered. In order to have all rules set at the same time. In this case a timer can be set. and can be set for following cases: • CFWD for all incoming calls • CFWD in case of busy state of the receiver of the call • CFWD in case of no answer. type the following command: voip ep <digital/analogue> disable <port-name> cfwd <all-calls/on-busy/on-noanswer> Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. If you want to disable it on the RG600.316 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports VOIP EP <analogue/digital> SET <name> CFWD ENABLE ALL-CALLS ONPREFIX <on-prefix> ON-SUFFIX <on-suffix> OFF-PREFIX <off-prefix> CFWD on-busy VOIP EP <analogue/digital> SET <name> CFWD ENABLE ON-BUSY ON-PREFIX <on-prefix> ON-SUFFIX <on-suffix> OFF-PREFIX <off-prefix> CFWD on-no-answer VOIP EP <analogue/digital> SET <name> CFWD ENABLE ON-NO-ANSWER ONPREFIX <on-prefix> ON-SUFFIX <on-suffix> OFF-PREFIX <off-prefix> VOIP EP <analogue/digital> SET <name> CFWD ON-NO-ANSWER TIMEOUT <secs> Description Call ForWarDing (CFWD) enables to forward incoming calls to another destination previously decided in a static way. you need to digit on the phone keyboard the "on-prefix + <the number> + on-suffix". you need to digit the "off-prefix". use the VOIP EP LIST command. To display access port names. You can see changes on the RG6xx by typing the following command: voip ep <digital/analogue> show <port-name> cfwd <all-calls/on-busy/on-noanswer> Then. to disable it on the phone. which can be specified with this command. The sequence to be composed on the phone keyboard. The feature must be enabled on the RG6xx via the command line. before the phone number to where the call will be forwarded The sequence to be composed on the phone keyboard after the prefix and the phone Default Value N/A on-prefix N/A on-suffix N/A . and a default value (if applicable).

To display access port names. The time threshold after which the call is considered not answered N/A secs N/A Example --> voip ep analogue set tel1 cfwd enable all-calls on-prefix *123* on-suffix # offprefix ** --> voip ep analogue set tel1 cfwd enable on-busy on-prefix *123* on-suffix # off-prefix ** --> voip ep analogue set tel1 cfwd enable on-no-answer on-prefix *123* on-suffix # off-prefix ** voip ep analogue set tel1 cfwd on-no-answer timeout 10 See also VOIP EP SHOW CFWD VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP SET CNG Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SET <name> CNG <status> VOIP EP DIGITAL SET <name> CNG <status> Description This command enables or disables the comfort noise generation feature. Valid values are: off: CNG disabled on: CNG enabled Default Value N/A status N/A Example --> voip ep analogue set prt0 cng off --> voip ep digital set prt0 cng off See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE . Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. The status of the comfort noise generation feature. and a default value (if applicable). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 317 number off-suffix The sequence to be composed by the user on his phone keyboard to disable the call forwarding. which can be specified with this command. use the VOIP EP LIST command.

726 16 kbps g726-24:referring to G. Valid values are: g711a: referring to G.g711u. and a default value (if applicable). T38 support must always be selected together with another speech codec (G711a/u or G726 or G729ab). To display access port names. which can be specified with this command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option.g729ab --> voip ep digital set prt0 codecs g711a.711 a-law PCM g711u: referring to G.726 24 kbps g726-32:referring to G.726 32 kbps g726-40:referring to G.318 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP SET CODECS Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SET <name> CODECS <codec-list> VOIP EP DIGITAL SET <name> CODECS <codec-list> Description This command sets the codec capability list for an existing access port.g711u. use the VOIP EP LIST command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port.729A/B 8 kbps ACELP A/B g726-16:referring to G.g729ab See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP SET COUNTRY Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SET <name> COUNTRY <country> .726 40 kbps T38 Default Value N/A codec-list N/A Example --> voip ep analogue set prt0 codecs g711a. The value or a comma separated list of values defining the compression algorithm on codec.711 µ-law PCM g729ab: referring to G.

Valid values are: australia austria belgium canada china france germany israel italy japan newzealand norway russia singapore spain sweden turkey uk usa Default Value N/A country N/A Example --> voip ep analogue(digital) set prt0 country USA See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP SET DIALMASK Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SET <name> DIALMASK <digit-number> . which can be specified with this command. The national signalling system and defines the analogue signaling criteria in use. appropriately for the selected country. busy tone and ring back tone frequencies and cadences on the physical port referred to by the named access port. To display access port names.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 319 VOIP EP DIGITAL SET <name> COUNTRY <country> Description This command sets dial tone. and a default value (if applicable). use the VOIP EP LIST command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option.

Acceptable values are from 0 to 3. To display the existing access port names. If PULSE mode is selected. it's also necessary select the pulse rate: 10pps or 20pps. if DIALMODE is set to AUTO. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. On fxs ports. dial mask works only in the direction PSTN to FXO port. On the fxo port. use the VOIP EP LIST command. The number of digits to be removed from the dialed number. and a default value (if applicable). if DIALMODE is set to AUTO. On AT-RG613 TXJ FXO port. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. which can be specified with this command. the Residential Gateway examines the type of signalling mode supported on the PSTN line and set the port signalling to the same mode automatically.320 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports VOIP EP DIGITAL SET <name> DIALMASK <digit-number> Description This command sets the dial mask value (number of chars to be removed from the dialed number) on the physical port referred to by the named access port. Example --> voip ep analogue set prt0 dialmode auto See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE . the Residential Gateway uses the same signalling mode selected for fxo port. Default Value N/A digit-number N/A Example --> voip ep analogue set prt0 dialmask 2 --> voip ep digital set prt0 dialmask 2 See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP SET DIALMODE Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SET DIALMODE {AUTO | DTMF | PULSE 10PPS|20PPS} Description This command sets the dial mode used by analogue ports.

The following symbols can be used: DTMF: A digit from '0' to '9' or one of the symbols "A"." Default Value N/A digit-map N/A Example --> voip ep analogue set prt0 digitmap x. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option.T See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP SET IDT-CRITICAL Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SET <name> IDT-CRITICAL <secs> VOIP EP DIGITAL SET <name> IDT-CRITICAL <secs> . use the VOIP EP LIST command. The digit map expression.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 321 VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP SET DIGITMAP Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SET <name> DIGITMAP <digit-map> VOIP EP DIGITAL SET <name> DIGITMAP <digit-map> Description This command sets the digit map rule on the physical port referred to by the named access port. To display the existing access port names. "B". which can be specified with this command. "C". "#". and a default value (if applicable). "D". or "*". A Digit map may have up to 32 chars.T --> voip ep digital set prt0 digitmap x. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. Timer: The symbol "T" Wildcard: The symbol "x" Range: The symbols "[" and "]" Subrange: The symbol "-" Position: The symbol ".

which can be specified with this command. The time duration in seconds of the interdigit critical time. and a default value (if applicable). To display access port names. and a default value (if applicable). use the VOIP EP LIST command. use the VOIP EP LIST command. The time duration in seconds of the interdigit time. To display existing access port names.322 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports Description This command set the Inter-digit critical time on the physical port referred to by the named access port. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. Acceptable values are from 5secs to 30secs. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. Default Value N/A secs N/A Example --> voip ep analogue set prt0 idt-partial 10 --> voip ep digital set prt0 idt-partial 10 See also VOIP EP CREATE . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. Default Value N/A secs N/A Example --> voip ep analogue set prt0 idt-critical 16 --> voip ep digital set prt0 idt-critical 16 See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP SET IDT-PARTIAL Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SET <name> IDT-PARTIAL <secs> VOIP EP DIGITAL SET <name> IDT-PARTIAL <secs> Description This command sets the Inter-digit time on the physical port referred to by the named access port. Acceptable values are from 2secs to 10secs. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. which can be specified with this command.

Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. The delay in milliseconds that the jitter buffer waits before it transmits the data samples that are collected from the VoIP network. and a default value (if applicable). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. . use the VOIP EP LIST command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. which can be specified with this command. and a default value (if applicable). To display the existing access port names. which can be specified with this command. Valid values are from 0 to 130msec: Default Value N/A msec N/A Example --> voip ep analogue set prt0 jitterdelay 6 --> voip ep digital set prt0 jitterdelay 6 See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP SET LEC Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SET <name> LEC <msec> VOIP EP DIGITAL SET <name> LEC <msec> Description This command sets the line echo cancellation length on the port referred to by the named access port.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 323 VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP SET JITTERDELAY Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SET <name> JITTERDELAY <msec> VOIP EP DIGITAL SET <name> JITTERDELAY <msec> Description This command sets the jitter delay value on the port referred to by the named access port.

16 and 32 msec. Default Value N/A msec N/A Example --> voip ep analogue set prt0 offhook-time 350 See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SHOW .324 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. Valid values are 0. The off-hook time in millisecond. The line echo cancellation length in milliseconds. Valid values are from 100 to 500msec. 8. use the VOIP EP LIST command. Only analog access ports accept off-hook time settings. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. which can be specified with this command. To display the existing access port names. Default Value N/A msec N/A Example --> voip ep analogue set prt0 lec 16 --> voip ep digital set prt0 lec 16 See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP SET OFFHOOK-TIME Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SET <name> OFFHOOK-TIME <msec> Description This command set the off-hook time on the port referred to by the named access port. and a default value (if applicable). use the VOIP EP LIST command. To display the existing access port names.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. The value of rx gain in dB. use the VOIP EP LIST command. use the VOIP EP LIST command. and a default value (if applicable). Default Value N/A gain N/A Example --> voip ep analogue set prt0 rxgain –3. which can be specified with this command. Default Value N/A msec N/A Example --> voip ep analogue set prt0 onhook-time 250 See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP SET RXGAIN Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SET <name> RXGAIN <gain> VOIP EP DIGITAL SET <name> RXGAIN <gain> Description This command sets the input gain (in the direction from AT-RG600/VoIP network to phone/user) of the port referred to by the named access port.0 . Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 325 VOIP EP SET ONHOOK-TIME Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SET <name> ONHOOK-TIME <msec> Description This command set the on-hook time on the port referred to by the named access port. Only analog access ports accept on-hook time settings. which can be specified with this command. To display the existing access port names. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. The on-hook time in millisecond. Valid values are from 100 to 500msec. and a default value (if applicable). Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. To display the existing access port names. Valid values are from –48dB to +28dB.

0 --> voip ep digital set prt0 txgain –3. and a default value (if applicable). The value of tx gain in dB. To display the existing access port names. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. which can be specified with this command.0 See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP SET VAD Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SET <name> VAD <status> VOIP EP DIGITAL SET <name> VAD <status> Description This command enables or disables the voice activity detection feature on the port referred to by the named access port. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option.0 See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP SET TXGAIN Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SET <name> TXGAIN <gain> VOIP EP DIGITAL SET <name> TXGAIN <gain> Description This command sets the output gain (in the direction from phone/user to ATRG600/VoIP network) of the port referred to by the named access port. Default Value N/A gain N/A Example --> voip ep analogue set prt0 txgain –3. and a default value (if applicable). Valid values are from –48dB to +28dB.326 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports --> voip ep digital set prt0 rxgain –3. . which can be specified with this command. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. use the VOIP EP LIST command.

To display the existing access port names. The status of the VAD feature.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 327 Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port. Valid values are: on VAD enabled off VAD disabled Default Value N/A status N/A Example --> voip ep analogue set prt0 vad off --> voip ep digital set prt0 vad off See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SHOW VOIP EP SHOW Syntax VOIP EP ANALOGUE SHOW <name> VOIP EP DIGITAL SHOW <name> Description This command displays the following information about a named access port: • Physical Port • Typology • Operational status • Comfort Noise Generation (CNG) • Codec Capabilities • Country • Critical-digit time • Inter-digit time • Dialing Mode (AT-RG613TX and AT-RG613TXJ models) • Digit map • Dial mask • Line Echo Cancellation (AT-RG613TX and AT-RG613TXJ models) • Jitter Delay • Voice Activity Detection (VAD) • Off-hook time (AT-RG613TX and AT-RG613TXJ models) . use the VOIP EP LIST command.

which can be specified with this command.T Dial mask: 0 Dial mode: DTMF Line Echo Cancellation (LEC): 16 Jitter Delay: 130 mSec. To display the existing access port names. Option name Description A name that identifies an existing access port.0 dB. Rx gain: -3.0 dB. Tx gain: +0. Voice Activity Detection (VAD): ON Off-hook time: 250 mSec. Attached users: See also VOIP EP CREATE VOIP EP DISABLE VOIP EP DELETE VOIP EP ENABLE VOIP EP LIST VOIP EP SET . use the VOIP EP LIST command. Inter-digit time: 4 Sec. and a default value (if applicable). On-hook time: 350 mSec.G711U Country: Italy Critical-digit time: 16 Sec.328 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports • On-hook time (AT-RG613TX and AT-RG613TXJ models) • Rx gain • Tx gain • Attached users Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. Default Value N/A Example --> voip ep analogue show prt0 --> voip ep analogue show prt0 Gateway access port: prt0 -------------------------------------------------Physical port: tel1 Typology: al-fxs-del Operational status: Activated Confort Noise Generation (CNG): OFF Codec Capabilities: G711A. Digit map: x.

Example --> voip lifeline disable See also VOIP LIFELINE ENABLE VOIP LIFELINE SHOW VOIP LIFELINE ENABLE Syntax VOIP LIFELINE DISABLE Description This command enable the lifeline support. A user. voip lifeline CLI commands The table below lists the VOIP LIFELINE commands provided by the CLI: Command VOIP LIFELINE DISABLE VOIP LIFELINE ENABLE VOIP LIFELINE SHOW VOIP LIFELINE DISABLE Syntax VOIP LIFELINE DISABLE Description This command disable the lifeline feature and in this case the fxo port is used to offer gateway service. . while incoming call may be forwarded to any internal and external user allowing destination re-dialling. Incoming calls are forwarded only to local fxs ports. Outgoing call is forwarded to it on dial selection base.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 329 VoIP Lifeline Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the Residential Gateway to manage the lifeline port (fxo port). the first dialled number allows to gain the access to VoIP network and next selection have to be dialled to reach the final destinationadds a named access port and binds it to a physical access port. calling from PSTN. Serious VoIP network failures like ethernet link down or location server/gatekeeper unreacheble bring outgoing call to be forwarded on the network terminated by fxo port. The following commands are available only on AT-RG613TXJ model. If it is enabled the system uses it as back-up line. needs two phases to reach the destination.

See also VOIP LIFELINE DISABLE VOIP LIFELINE ENABLE .330 Chapter 14 – VoIP Analogue and Digital Access Ports Example --> voip lifeline enable See also VOIP LIFELINE DISABLE VOIP LIFELINE SHOW VOIP LIFELINE SHOW Syntax VOIP LIFELINE SHOW Description This command shows the current lifeline status.

YESSIR). SIP is described as a control protocol for creating. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 to provide. SIP is one of a group of protocols required to ensure that this evolution can occur. to authenticate users (RADIUS. . Members in a session can communicate via multicast or via a mesh of unicast relations.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 331 Chapter 15 VoIP SIP Introduction This chapter describes the main features of the SIP standard. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 and how to configure and operate the AT-RG613. to be able to provide directories (LDAP). Internet telephony is evolving from its use as a "cheap" (but low quality) way to make international phone calls to a serious business telephony capability. the protocols supported. SIP is part of the IETF standards process and is modeled upon other Internet protocols such as SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) and HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol. SIP Protocol SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) is a protocol developed to assist in providing advanced telephony services across the Internet. or via a combination of these. Internet (or any IP Network) telephone calls and multimedia distribution. signalling inter-working with today’s telephony network. These sessions include Internet multimedia conferences. to be able to guarantee voice quality (RSVP. the implementation of the call processes in the AT-RG613. In order to provide telephony services there is a need for a number of different standards and protocols to come together . and to scale to meet the anticipated growth curves. change and tear down (end) calls between one or more users in an IP-based network. or connect to. a VoIP Network. It is used to establish. modifying and terminating sessions with one or more participants.).specifically to ensure transport (RTP). DIAMETER).

The SIP User Agent and the SIP Network Server. The User Agent is effectively the end system component for the call and the SIP Server is the network device that handles the signaling associated with multiple calls. In essence. users could be transferred or placed on hold. as any form of MIME type is supported by SIP. A third party joining a call may require different features to be enabled in order to participate in the call Protocol Components There are two components within SIP.332 Chapter 15 – VoIP SIP SIP supports session descriptions that allow participants to agree on a set of compatible media types. • Feature Negotiation This allows the group involved in a call (this may be a multi-party call) to agree on the features supported – recognizing that not all the parties can support the same level of features. there is plenty of scope for negotiation. the caller’s user agent can identify with a specific server to "resolve" the address information – it is likely that this will involve many servers in the network. a call may have been set up as ‘voice-only’. The User agent itself has a client element. the users may need to enable a video function. For example. In addition. SIP has to provide or enable the following functions: Name Translation and User Location Ensuring that the call reaches the called party wherever they are located. What will be available is perhaps an email-like address or a telephone number associated with the called party. the User Agent Server (UAS. • Call feature changes A user should be able to change the call characteristics during the course of the call. since the caller is unlikely to know the IP address or host name of the called party. It also supports user mobility by proxying and redirecting requests to the user's current location. Using this information.the SIP stateful proxy server. The main function of the SIP servers is to provide name resolution and user location. For example video may or may not be supported. • Call Participant Management During a call a participant can bring other users onto the call or cancel connections to other users. .) The client element initiates the calls and the server element answers the calls. Carrying out any mapping of descriptive information to location information. Ensuring that details of the nature of the call (Session) are supported. the User Agent Client (UAC) and a server element. The SIP Server element also provides for more than one type of server. This allows peer-to-peer calls to be made using a client-server protocol. but in the course of the call. There are effectively three forms of server that can exist in the network . SIP is not tied to any particular conference control protocol. the SIP stateless proxy server and the SIP re-direct server.

com). determines where to send these. including • The equivalent of 700-.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 333 A SIP proxy server receives requests. SIP URLs are easy to associate with a user’s e-mail address. 800. A stateless proxy server forgets all information once it has sent on a request. where numbers can be any (preferably unique) naming scheme • Personal mobility. Stateful proxy servers are then most likely to be the local devices close to the User Agents. and passes them onto the next server (using next hop routing principals). locationindependent address even when the user changes terminals . This allows a stateful proxy server to fork requests to try multiple possible user locations in parallel and only send the best responses back. Because of this similarity.type calls • • • • Call-forwarding no answer Call-forwarding busy Call-forwarding unconditional Other address-translation services • Callee and calling "number" delivery. This provides the address for the caller to contact the called party at the next server directly. backbone of the SIP infrastructure.e.. The difference between a stateful and stateless proxy server is that a stateful proxy server remembers the incoming requests it receives. SIP:user@company. but rather than passing these onto the next server it sends a response to the caller indicating the address for the called user. SIP addresses users by an email-like address. There can be many server hops in the network. along with the responses it sends back and the outgoing requests it sends on. Each user is identified through a hierarchical URL that is built around elements such as a user’s phone number or host name (for example. the ability to reach a called party under a single.and 900. SIP is typically used over UDP or TCP. controlling domains of users and becoming the prime platform for the application services. i. A re-direct server receives requests. SIP provides the necessary protocol mechanisms so that end systems and proxy servers can provide services: • User location • User capabilities • User availability • Call set-up • Call handling • Call forwarding. Stateless Proxy servers are most likely to be the fast. SIP provides its own reliability mechanism and is therefore independent of the packet layer and only requires an unreliable datagram service.

If the user takes the call. There are many ways it can do this. The request contains enough information for the called party to join the session. an answering service. the session can be redirected to a voice mail server or to another user. The first extension to answer takes the call. it can return to the customer’s phone client via a Web Interactive Voice Response page (IVR or could use the term Interactive Web Response or IWR).334 Chapter 15 – VoIP SIP • Terminal-type negotiation and selection: a caller can be given a choice how to reach the party. for example). for example. The client software might support videoconferencing. Alternatively. This feature is handy if a user is working between two locations (a lab and an office. SIP has two additional significant features. proxy or redirect the call to additional servers until it arrives at one that definitely knows the IP address where the called user can be found. the user’s telephony client receives the request—that is. the server may be a redirect server that may return the called user location to the calling client for it to try directly. and from there several options arise. the request is sent to the user. or where someone is ringing both a boss and their secretary. SIP Messages A SIP request message consists of three elements: • Request Line • Header . The first is a stateful SIP proxy server’s ability to split or "fork" an incoming call so that several extensions can be rung at once. In the simplest case. one SIP network server can. or a third user—by issuing another invite request to other users on the link. Take the example of a user contacting a company. e. but the user may only want to use audio conferencing. the user can always add functions—such as videoconferencing. Regardless. mobile phone. the user’s phone rings. Once found. such as searching the DNS or accessing databases. white-boarding. the client responds to the invitation with the designated capabilities* of the client software and a connection is established. of course. Clicking the appropriate link sends an invitation to that user to set up a call. If that server is a proxy server it will attempt to resolve the called user’s location and send the request to them. If the client knows the location of the other party it can send the request directly to their IP address. "Designated capabilities" refers to the functions that the user wants to invoke.. The second significant feature is SIP’s unique ability to return different media types. When the SIP server receives the client’s connection request. the caller initiates the call with an invite request.g. If the user declines the call. via Internet telephony. etc. If not the client can send it to a locally configured SIP network server. • Terminal capability negotiation • Caller and callee authentication • Blind and supervised call transfer • Invitations to multicast conferences When a user wants to call another user. During the course of locating a user. with the extensions of the available departments or users provided on the list.

. for instance: • a Soft Phone • an IP phone directly connected to the IP network Calls Involving Another Terminal The following example shown in Figure 16 illustrates how to reach a phone or fax on another AT-RG613/AT-RG623TX terminal. • Any LAN SIP endpoint on the IP network. addresses and protocol features. for mid-session signalling. AT-RG613. letting a server know the location of other users. such as another AT-RG613. terminates the call between two of the users on a call requests information on the capabilities of a server confirms that a client has received a final response to an INVITE • Register provides the map for address resolution. is also being added Related Standards Activity. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 can communicate with the following devices: • Another VoIP terminal on the IP network. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Call Processes The AT-RG613. The message body is independent of the SIP protocol and can contain anything. SIP defines the following methods (SIP uses the term ‘method’ to describe the specification areas): • Invite • Bye • Options • Ack invites a user to join a call. • Cancel ends a pending request.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 335 • Message Body A SIP response message consists of three elements: • Status Line • Header • Message Body The Request line and header field define the nature of the call in terms of services. but does not end the call • The INFO method.

Calls Involving a Terminal and a SIP Endpoint The following examples illustrate how a phone connected to an AT-RG613/ATRG623TX terminal can communicate with a LAN SIP endpoint on the IP network. which completes the connection to the phone which is attached to it.336 Chapter 15 – VoIP SIP SIP IP Phone VoIP Network Analog Phone (or Digital Phone) AT-RG613 (or AT-RG623) A B AT-RG613 (or AT-RG623) Analog Phone (or Digital Phone) SIP Server Figure 16. Phone --> AT-RG613/RG623 (A) --> AT-RG613/RG623 (B) --> Phone A user makes a call with the phone connected to an AT-RG613/AT-RG623. which reaches the corresponding LAN SIP endpoint on the IP network (Figure 17). which in turn contacts another AT-RG613/ AT-RG623. Such endpoints could be: • a Soft Phone • an IP phone directly connected to the IP network A user makes a call with the phone connected to an AT-RG613/AT-RG623. .

The following section describe SIP servers. call forwarding rules and access ports. Forwarding rules are also used for locally originated calls when the called party is not a local user and the call must be routed to a specific contact that typically is different from the proxy server. Users & Forwarding Database Introduction The VoIP SIP subsystem on AT-RG613. Definition of SIP servers. local users and forwarding database. are three basic steps in correctly configuring the VoIP SIP subsystem (see Figure 18).AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 337 SIP IP Phone VoIP Network Analog Phone (or Digital Phone) AT-RG613 (or AT-RG623) A B AT-RG613 (or AT-RG623) Analog Phone (or Digital Phone) SIP Server Figure 17. • Users are entities uniquely identified in the system by a name with an associated phone number. Phone --> AT-RG613/RG623 (A) --> SIP IP Phone VoIP SIP Servers. and optionally forwarding database rules. The User's phone number represents the user's address on the local system. . users. local users. • SIP servers are servers where local users register themselves (Location Servers) and where calls are routed (Proxy Servers) when an outgoing call is going to be set up. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 residential gateways is based on the concept of SIP servers. • Forwarding rules are local call routing rules used to forward an incoming call on a local user to a remote system or to a remote user.

SIP Servers Location Servers The SIP module needs to know where locally defined users attempt to register their contact in the network. Once a successful registration with a server has been achieved no further registration requests will be performed even if other location servers are defined. The VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER CREATE command is used to set the location servers used to register users. VoIP subsystem configuration . the system starts trying to use the server addresses defined in the Proxy Server list as a location server. In the case of registration failure on the Master server. Users Binding Incoming/ Outgoing Calls Figure 18. The system will attempt to register the local users on all the location servers available in the location server list (see VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER LIST command) until the first registration phase achieves a positive result. it's possible to set a location server as Master: all the registration requests will start from the master location server independently of the position of the server in the location servers list. In the case that more than one location server is defined in the system. If no location servers are defined.basic steps. the Location Server list will be used as server address table where registration requests will be sent. It's possible to define more that one location server in order to increase system reliability in case the first location server doesn't work or cannot be reached. .338 Chapter 15 – VoIP SIP Default Configuration SIP Signaling Protocol Configuration Access Port Creation Users Creation Location Servers Forwarding Database Proxy Servers Access Port Config.

. the user domain will be automatically associated to the location server address where the user has been registered. it's possible to define more that one proxy server in order to increase system reliability in case the first proxy server doesn't work or cannot be reached. The Proxy Server is also used as registration server if no location servers are defined. The system will attempt to contact all the proxy servers available in the proxy server list (see VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER LIST command) until the first server answers to the INVITE request.164 number must be defined. Users are defined by the VOIP SIP USER CREATE command. If users are defined without specify the user domain (see VOIP SIP USER CREATE command) and no Location Servers are defined. shared between users and forwarding rules. the user domain will be automatically associated with the proxy server where the user has been registered. In the case that the Master proxy server cannot be reached. Similarly to location servers. the Proxy Server list will be used as server address table where INVITE requests will be sent. In the case that more than one proxy server is defined in the system. Proxy Servers The SIP module needs to know which proxy server must be used when an outgoing call cannot be processed by a local number or by a well defined forwarding rule but must resolved by an external proxy server. In that case no further INVITE requests are sent to the other proxy servers even if the called user cannot be reached. optionally. composed of an address number and. The VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER CREATE command is used to inform the system about the proxy servers that can be contacted when an outgoing call is going to be established. it's possible to set a proxy server as Master: all the INVITE requests will start from the master proxy server independently of the position of the server in the proxy servers list.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 339 If users are defined without specify the user domain (see VOIP SIP USER CREATE command). Each user must have an associated user number. Users The system is designed to support up to 100 entries. an area code number if a complete E.

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Note: In any given system there cannot exist two or more users with the same area code and address. In any given system it is allowable to have two or more users with the same address but different area code or no area code at all. Users may inform the VoIP network about the location (IP address) where they can be contacted by registering themselves on the location server defined in the VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER CREATE command. In this way, other endpoints on the VoIP network can contact each user by simply using the user address. The domain where users are members is the domain defined in the VOIP SIP USER CREATE command. If the DOMAIN is not defined, users will get as domain the address of the Location Server (or Proxy Server if no location servers are defined) where they are registered. To know the user's registration status use the VOIP SIP USER SHOW command. The user number used in the location registration messages is the complete user number: area code + address number. users and access port A user needs to be attached to at least one physical port in order to receive or to make a call. To attach a user to a physical port use the VOIP SIP USER ADD command. When a user receives a call, only the access lines where the user is attached are engaged by the communication. The same user may be attached to more than one access port. In this case when a call is made to that user, all the lines on which the user is attached will be used to signal the incoming call. To know the physical port where a user is attached, use the VOIP SIP USER SHOW command Note that physical access ports don’t have their own fixed phone number. They inherit the phone number from the user number of attached users. More than one user may be attached to the same physical access port and therefore more than one phone number can be associated to the same physical access port. If a user receives a call but the physical line where the user is attached is already involved in another communication (because it is used by another user), the call is rejected. When an outgoing call (in the direction user to VoIP network) is made and more than one user is attached on the access port being used to make the call, the identity of calling user is deemed to be the first user defined in the list of users attached to that port. To know which users are attached to a physical port, use the VOIP EP SHOW command. All the local users belong to the same domain.

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When an access port is deleted from the system, all the users previously attached are removed from the port. Removing a user from a port, by using the VOIP SIP USER REMOVE command or by deleting the access port, results in an un-registration process from the location server defined during user creation phase.

Forwarding Database (FDB)
The forwarding database is a technical solution implemented on the Residential Gateway to redirect a call to a different destination address based on the called party number. The forwarding database is used by the signaling end-point layer every time the called end-point cannot be found among the local users. It is used both for incoming calls from the VoIP network or for outgoing calls generated locally and directed to a remote end-point. The forwarding database may collect up to 100 entries (including users). Forwarding entries are defined by the VOIP SIP FDB CREATE command. Each fdb entry is uniquely identified by a name and defines the conditions that a calls must satisfy in order to be routed to the end point specified by fdb entry parameters. • When the signaling end-point layer receives a call it retrieves the called end-point address (called number). o Typically the called number is defined in the call signaling messages received from the network (in the To header). If the call is originated locally, the called number address is equal the dialed number (unless the anologue/digital endpoint as the dialmask set to a value different from 0).

o

• The Called end-point address is searched for among the local user addresses to check if the recipient of the call is a user on the local system. • If the called end-point matches the address of a local user, the physical resource (analog or digital port) associated with the called user starts ringing (if the resource is available) • If the called number cannot be found among the local users, the forwarding database is scanned to look for all the entries matching the called number. The forwarding algorithm acts differently if the call is originated locally or the call is an incoming call: Local originated calls o If a match is found, the INVITE message is routed to the IP address defined in the CONTACT field of the matched fdb entry. The called user domain will be set to the DOMAIN value (optional) or to the CONTACT value (if no DOMAIN is specified) defined by the DOMAIN and CONTACT fields in the fdb entry respectively.

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If the fdb entry has defined the FWADDRESS field, the called number is changed from the dialed number to the number defined in the fdb entry FWADDRESS field. In this way it's possible to dial short numbers that will be replaced by full qualified numbers in the outgoing calls. By default, the calling user is the first user defined in the system that is attached to the outgoing physical port. o If no match is found in the forwarding database, the INVITE message is routed to the first available proxy server (starting from the Master proxy server if defined) using as called endpoint domain the same domain as the calling user. By default, the calling user is the first user defined in the system that is attached to the outgoing physical port. Incoming calls o If a match is found, a MOVED TEMPORARY message is sent back to the call originator reporting the contact address defined by the CONTACT field in the matched fdb entry. If the fdb entry has defined the FWADDRESS field, the called number is changed from the dialed number to the number defined in the fdb entry FWADDRESS field. o If no match is found in the forwarding database, the call is discharged.

Address and digit-map The address field specified in fdb entries can be defined using digit map expressions. Digit map expressions are used to increase system flexibility when defining forwarding rules that must mach multiple addresses (the digit map is used also in the voip access port module). A digit map is defined either by a (case insensitive) "string" or by a list of strings. Each string in the list is an alternative numbering scheme, specified either as a set of digits or as an expression to which the called address is compared by the signaling end-point layer to find the shortest possible match. The following constructs can be used in each digit map: Digit: A digit from '0' to '9' Wildcard: The symbol "x" which matches any digit ("0" to "9"). Range: One or more digit symbols enclosed between square brackets ("[" and "]"). Subrange: Two digits separated by hyphen ("-") which matches any digit between and including the two. The subrange construct can only be used inside a range construct, i.e., between "[" and "]". Position: A period ("."), which matches an arbitrary number, including zero, of occurrences of the preceding, construct. Digit map expressions are typically used when managing locally originated calls.

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In this case, using digit map expressions, it is possible to define a generic rule in such a way that all the calls are routed to a specific contact (e.g. the proxy server) that will be in charge of proceeding with the call routing. Digit map expressions are also useful for designing a small network without making use of any location servers or proxy servers or gatekeepers.

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VoIP SIP Command Reference
This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613, AT-RG 623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to configure and manage the SIP protocol signaling module.

VoIP sip protocol CLI commands
The table below lists the VOIP SIP PROTOCOL commands provided by the CLI: Command VOIP SIP PROTOCOL DISABLE VOIP SIP PROTOCOL ENABLE VOIP SIP PROTOCOL RESTART VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET DEFAULTPORT VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET EXTENSION VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET NAT VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET NETINTERFACE VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET ROUNDTRIPTIME VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET SESSIONEXPIRE VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SHOW

VOIP SIP PROTOCOL DISABLE
Syntax VOIP SIP PROTOCOL DISABLE Description This command stops the VoIP SIP signalling protocol and releases all the resources associated to it.: • any analogue or digital port defined in the system is removed. • any user defined in the system is deleted. • any forwarding entry in the fdb is deleted. • any SIP server reference (location and proxy) is removed. This command is typically used when it's necessary to change the VoIP signalling protocol, i.e. from SIP to H323. To simply restart the SIP module, use the VOIP SIP PROTOCOL RESTART command. It doesn't remove any resources defined under the voip main module. To enable the SIP module, use the VOIP SIP PROTOCOL ENABLE command. Example --> voip sip protocol disable See also VOIP SIP PROTOCOL RESTART VOIP SIP PROTOCOL ENABLE.

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VOIP SIP PROTOCOL ENABLE
Syntax VOIP SIP PROTOCOL ENABLE Description This command turns on the SIP signaling module. To bind the SIP module to a specific IP interface use the VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET INTERFACE command. Binding the SIP module to a specific IP interface defines the value of the source IP address for signallng and voice packets. SIP URLs with local reference offer the hostname and the IP address belonging the provisioned interface.

The SIP module MUST be enabled in order to create/set analog/digital ports, users, call forwarding rules and SIP servers..

Example --> voip sip protocol enable See also VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SHOW VOIP SIP PROTOCOL DISABLE

VOIP SIP PROTOCOL RESTART
Syntax VOIP SIP PROTOCOL RESTART

Description This command restarts the VoIP SIP signaling protocol module. Any pending and active calls are released. Users previously registered to location servers start to unregister themselves and then re-register. on the same location servers. This command doesn't release any resources (users, physical ports and fdb entries) previously created during module configuration. Example --> voip sip protocol restart See also VOIP SIP PROTOCOL ENABLE

VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET DEFAULTPORT
Syntax VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET DEFAULTPORT <ipport> Description This command sets the default listening/sending port used for SIP signaling

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messages. By default, when the SIP module is attached to an IP interface using theVOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET NETINTERFACE command, the following default value is used: • defaultport: 5060

Changing the signaling port causes the SIP module to restart.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description UDP/TCP port number used for signalling messages. Available values are from 1026 to 65534. Only even values can be accepted Default Value

ipport

5060

Example --> voip sip protocol set defaultport 5060 See also VOIP SIP PROTOCOL ENABLE

VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET EXTENSION
Syntax VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET EXTENSION <extension> Description This command sets the protocol features extended by the protocol.

100rel and Session Timer are always supported when requested; setting “session-timer” the user agent explicitly requires this keep-alive mechanism. Info method overlaps the event transfer supported by RTP sessions.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description extensions is a comma separated list of values defining the protocol extension. Available values are: info session-timer none Default Value

extension

none

Example --> voip sip protocol set extension session-timer

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See also VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SHOW

VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET NAT
Syntax VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET NAT {NONE | <host> } Description This command sets the NAT host reference. Any SIP URLs with local reference is hidden by the NAT address value. Changing the NAT reference causes the SIP module to restart.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description The address that must displayed in the local SIP URL references. It can be expressed in hostname format or IPv4 format. A Hostname can be a maximum of 255 characters long. Default Value

host

None

Example --> voip sip protocol set nat 10.17.90.110 --> voip sip protocol set nat at-rg600.voip.atkk.com See also VOIP SIP PROTOCOL ENABLE

VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET NETINTERFACE
Syntax VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET NETINTERFACE <interface_name> Description This command sets the IP interface used to access the VoIP network. • Signaling and voice packets will use the Source IP address defined for the selected interface. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option interface_name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. To display interface names, use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Default Value N/A

Example --> voip sip protocol set netinterface ip0 See also VOIP SIP PROTOCOL ENABLE

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VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET ROUNDTRIPTIME
Syntax VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET ROUNDTRIPTIME <msecs> Description This command sets the maximum time between the trasmission of a packet and the reception of the response. If the time expires, protocol primitives are retransmitted. Retransmission of protocol primitives are useful in case of unreliable transports like UDP to recover errors in transactions. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option msec Description The round trip time in milliseconds. Acceptable values are from 500 to 4000 msecs. Default Value 500

Example --> voip sip protocol set roundtriptime 1000 See also VOIP SIP PROTOCOL ENABLE

VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET SESSIONEXPIRE
Syntax VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET SESSIONEXPIRE <secs> Description This command sets the largest amount of time that can occur between session refresh in dialog before the session will be considered timed out.. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option secs Description The session expire time in seconds. Available values are from 30 to 86400 secs (24 hours). Default Value 1800

Example --> voip sip protocol set sessionexpire 180 See also VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SHOW

VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SHOW
Syntax VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SHOW Description This command displays basic SIP module configuration parameters set by the VOIP

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SIP PROTOCOL SET commands. Example --> voip sip protocol show Gateway base protocol: SIP -----------------------------------------------------------Network interface: ip0 Default port: 5060 NAT: 10.17.90.110 Round-trip time: 1000 msecs. Session expire time: 1800 secs. Extension features: none See also VOIP SIP PROTOCOL ENABLE VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET MEDIAPORT VOIP SIP PROTOCOL SET EXTENSION

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VoIP SIP Locationserver Command Reference
This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613, AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to enable, configure and manage the VoIP SIP Locationserver module.

voip sip locationserver CLI commands
The table below lists the VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER commands provided by the CLI: Command VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER CREATE VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER DELETE VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER LIST VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER SET MASTER

VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER CREATE
Syntax VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER CREATE <name> CONTACT <host:port/transport > Description This command creates a new entry in the location servers list. Each location server must have a different <name>. If the location server already exists, an error message is raised. This command is accepted only if the SIP module is already running. See the VOIP SIP PROTOCOL ENABLE command to turn on the SIP module. This command doesn’t set the master location server. To define a location server as master use the VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER SET MASTER command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the location server. The name must not be present already. The name can be a maximum of 16 characters long; cannot start with a digit and cannot contain dots '.' or slash symbols '/'. The hostname or IPv4 address of the location server where registrations are sent host can be a maximum of 256 chars long (when using hostname format). Default Value

name

N/A

host

N/A

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port

The UDP/TCP port on the location server to which signalling messages are sent. The protocol used to transport the signalling messages to the location server. Possible values are: udp tcp

5060

transport

udp

Example --> voip sip locationserver create default contact 192.168.102.3 See also VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER LIST VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER SHOW

VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER DELETE
Syntax VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER DELETE <name> Description This command deletes a single location server created using the VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER CREATE command. To show the list of existing location servers, use the VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER LIST command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description A name that identifies an existing location server (it can also be the ID value associated with the location server). To display the existing location servers, use the VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER LIST command. Default Value

name

N/A

Example --> voip sip locationserver delete backuplocserv See also VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER CREATE VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER LIST VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER SHOW

VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER LIST
Syntax VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER LIST Description This command lists information about location servers that were added using the VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVERS CREATE command. The following information is displayed:

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• server ID numbers • server names • Master: whether the server has been set as Master or not. A star symbol in the field identifies the server as the current location server where local user are registered. • Contact: the IP address (IPv4 or hostname format) of the location server Note: If a name is longer than 32 chars, the name is shown in a short format (only the initial part of the name is displayed). To show the full name use the VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER SHOW command, specifying the server ID instead of server name.

Example --> voip sip location list ID | Name | Master | Contact -----|------------|----------|-------------------------------------------1 | default | false * | 192.168.1.2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------See also VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER CREATE VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER SHOW

VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER SET MASTER
Syntax VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER SET <name> MASTER Description This command sets a location server as Master. If another location server was set Master previously, the flag Master is removed from the old one. To show the list of existing location servers, use the VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER LIST command. Example --> voip sip locationserver set backuplocserv master See also VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER CREATE VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER LIST VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER SHOW

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VoIP SIP Proxyserver Command Reference
This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613, AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to enable, configure and manage the VoIP SIP Proxyserver module.

voip sip proxyserver CLI commands
The table below lists the VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER commands provided by the CLI: Command VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER CREATE VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER DELETE VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER LIST VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER SET MASTER

VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER CREATE
Syntax VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER CREATE <name> CONTACT <host:port/transport > Description This command creates a new entry in the proxy servers list. Each proxy server must have a different <name>. If the proxy server already exists, an error message is raised. This command is accepted only if the SIP module is already running. See the VOIP SIP PROTOCOL ENABLE command to turn on the SIP module. This command doesn’t set the master proxy server. To define a proxy server as master use the VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER SET MASTER command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the proxy server. The name must not be present already. The name can be a maximum of 16 characters long; cannot start with a digit and cannot contain dots '.' or slash symbols '/'. The hostname or Ipv4 address of the proxy server where signaling messages are sent host can be a maximum of 256 chars long (when using hostname format). The UDP/TCP port on the proxy server to which signalling messages are sent. Default Value

name

N/A

host

N/A

port

5060

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transport

The protocol used to transport the signalling messages to the proxy server. Possible values are: udp tcp

udp

Example --> voip sip proxy create default contact 192.168.102.3 See also VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER LIST VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER SHOW

VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER DELETE
Syntax VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER DELETE <name> Description This command deletes a single proxy server created using the VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER CREATE command. To show the list of existing proxy servers, use the VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER LIST command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description A name that identifies an existing proxy server (it can also be the ID value associated with the proxy server). To display the existing proxy servers, use the VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER LIST command. Default Value

name

N/A

Example --> voip sip proxyserver delete backuplocserv See also VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER CREATE VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER LIST VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER SHOW

VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER LIST
Syntax VOIP SIP PROXY LIST Description This command lists information about proxy servers that were added using the VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER CREATE command. The following information is displayed: • server ID numbers

168.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 355 • server names • Master: whether the server has been set as Master or not. use the VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER LIST command. If another proxy server was set Master previously. the name is shown in a short format (only the initial part of the name is displayed). specifying the server ID instead of server name. • Contact: the IP address (IPv4 or hostname format) of the proxy server Note: If a name is longer than 32 chars. To show the list of existing proxy servers. Example --> voip sip proxyserver list ID | Name | Master | Contact -----|------------|----------|-------------------------------------------1 | default | false * | 192. Example --> voip sip proxyserver set backuplocserv master See also VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER CREATE VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER LIST VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER SHOW .1. A star symbol in the field identifies the server as the currect proxy server used by outgoing calls. the flag Master is removed from the old one.2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------See also VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER CREATE VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER SHOW VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER SET MASTER Syntax VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER SET <name> MASTER Description This command sets a proxy server as Master. To show the full name use the VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER SHOW command.

Default Value username N/A . If no location servers are defined. If no proxy server are defined. As soon as this command is entered. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). voip sip user CLI commands The table below lists the VOIP SIP USER commands provided by the CLI: Command VOIP SIP USER ADD VOIP SIP USER CREATE VOIP SIP USER DELETE VOIP SIP USER LIST VOIP SIP USER REMOVE VOIP SIP USER SHOW VOIP SIP USER ADD Syntax VOIP SIP USER ADD <username> PORT <portname> Description This command attaches a user created with the command VOIP SIP USER CREATE to a named port created with the command VOIP EP CREATE. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to enable. the system tries to register the user with the proxy server specified by the VOIP SIP PROXYSERVER CREATE command. use the VOIP SIP USER LIST command. the registration phase starts. To display the user's registration status and port association use the VOIP SIP USER SHOW command. To display the existing users. The system tries to register the user with the location server specified by the VOIP SIP LOCATIONSERVER CREATE command.356 Chapter 15 – VoIP SIP VoIP SIP User Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. configure and manage the VoIP SIP User module. registration phase is not performed until a location server or proxy server is added to the SIP module. Option Description A name that identifies an existing user (it can be also the ID value associated with the user name).

If the user already exists. use the VOIP EP LIST command. The phone number (E. To display the existing ports.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 357 portname A name that identifies an existing port. This command is accepted only if the SIP module is already running. This command doesn’t bind the user to a physical access port.164) used to reach the user. If the DOMAIN parameter is not specified. Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the user. Each user must have a different <username>. the VOIP SIP USER ADD command must be used. the user domain is set equal to the location server address (if defined) or proxyserver address (if location server is not defined). cannot start with a digit and cannot contain dots '. The username can be a maximum of 16 characters long. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). See the VOIP SIP PROTOCOL ENABLE command to turn on the SIP module. Default Value username N/A digit-map N/A . N/A Example --> voip sip user add MrBrown port fxs0 See also VOIP SIP USER ADD VOIP SIP USER CREATE VOIP SIP USER DELETE VOIP SIP USER LIST VOIP SIP USER REMOVE VOIP SIP USER SHOW VOIP EP LIST VOIP SIP USER CREATE Syntax VOIP SIP USER CREATE <username> ADDRESS <digit-map> [AREACODE <areanumber>] [AUTHENTICATION <login:password>] [DOMAIN <host >] [TRANSPORT <transport>] Description This command creates a new entry in the users list.' or slash symbols '/'. an error message is raised. In order to inform the system that the user is attached to a specific physical port. The name must not be present already. The address can be 32 characters long.

168. Valid characters are only numerical characters.102. The user name used during the authentication phase. The same rules defined for the username field also apply here.358 Chapter 15 – VoIP SIP area-number The prefix number to be dialed before the destination number. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified . except the password can start with a digit. As soon this command is entered. The login can be a maximum of 32 characters long. To show the list of existing users. The area number can be a maximum of 10 digits long. the deregistration phase starts (REGISTER request) to the location server (registar) removing the user from the user list on the server. The transport protocol used to contact the user. except the login can start with a digit. The password can be a maximum of 16 characters long. use the VOIP SIP USER LIST command. Valid values are: udp tcp empty login empty password empty host empty transport udp Example --> voip sip user create MrBrown address 12345 locationserver 192. The domain address in hostname format or IPv4 format. The same rules defined for the username field also apply here.3 See also VOIP SIP USER ADD VOIP SIP USER CREATE VOIP SIP USER DELETE VOIP SIP USER LIST VOIP SIP USER REMOVE VOIP SIP USER SHOW VOIP SIP USER DELETE Syntax VOIP SIP USER DELETE <username> Description This command deletes a single user created using the VOIP SIP USER CREATE command. The password used during the authentication phase. The domain can be a maximum of 255 characters long.

specifying the user ID instead of user name. Option Description A name that identifies an existing user (it can also be the ID value associated with the user name). To show the full name use the VOIP SIP USER SHOW command.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 359 with this command and a default value (if applicable). Example --> voip sip user list ID ---1 ---| Name | Area Code | Address |------------|------------------|-----------------------------------| MrBrown | | 12345 |------------|------------------|-----------------------------------See also VOIP SIP USER ADD VOIP SIP USER CREATE VOIP SIP USER DELETE VOIP SIP USER LIST VOIP SIP USER REMOVE VOIP SIP USER SHOW . The following information is displayed: • user ID numbers • user names • Area Codes • Addresses Note: If a user name is longer than 32 chars. the name is shown in a short format (only the initial part of the name is displayed). To display the existing users. use the VOIP SIP USER LIST command. Default Value username N/A Example --> voip sip user delete MrBrown See also VOIP SIP USER ADD VOIP SIP USER CREATE VOIP SIP USER DELETE VOIP SIP USER LIST VOIP SIP USER REMOVE VOIP SIP USER SHOW VOIP SIP USER LIST Syntax VOIP SIP USER LIST Description This command lists information about users that were added using the VOIP SIP USER CREATE command.

To know the ports where the user is added. To display the existing users. Option Description A name that identifies an existing user (it can also be the ID value associated with the user name). Default Value username N/A portname N/A Example --> voip sip user remove MrBrown port fxs0 See also VOIP SIP USER ADD VOIP SIP USER CREATE VOIP SIP USER DELETE VOIP SIP USER LIST VOIP SIP USER REMOVE VOIP SIP USER SHOW VOIP SIP USER SHOW Syntax VOIP SIP USER SHOW <username> Description This command displays the following information about a named user: • Address • Area Code • Domain • Authetication (login:password) • Transport • Attached ports Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). A name that identifies an existing port. .360 Chapter 15 – VoIP SIP VOIP SIP USER REMOVE Syntax VOIP SIP USER REMOVE <username> PORT <name> Description This command remove a single user from the port where it was added with the VOIP SIP USER ADD command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Removing a user from a port results in an un-registration request to the location server. use the VOIP SIP USER LIST command. use the VOIP SIP USER SHOW command.

168.102. use the VOIP SIP USER LIST command. To display the existing users.) Attached ports: port0 See also VOIP SIP USER ADD VOIP SIP USER CREATE VOIP SIP USER DELETE VOIP SIP USER LIST VOIP SIP USER REMOVE VOIP SIP USER SHOW . Default Value N/A Example --> voip sip user show MrBrown Gateway user: MrBrown -------------------------------------------------------------Address: 12345 Area Code (AC): Domain: 192.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 361 Option username Description A name that identifies an existing user.3 Authentication: charlie:123charlie Transport: State: registered (expire time: 2864 Sec.

Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies this specific fdb rule. The name must not be present already. It is optional and it is used to make a short selection rule (e.proxy> [DOMAIN <host>] [FWADDRESS <tel-number>] Description This command creates a new entry in the forwarding database (FDB).g. From and To fields). CONTACT is the host reference where the call is forwarded. The DOMAIN assigns the call domain and it is used to format the "To" and "From" headers. The fdb name can be a maximum of 16 characters long. voip sip fdb CLI commands The table below lists the VOIP SIP FDB commands provided by the CLI: Command VOIP SIP FDB CREATE VOIP SIP FDB DELETE VOIP SIP FDB LIST VOIP SIP FDB SHOW VOIP SIP FDB CREATE Syntax VOIP SIP FDB CREATE <name> ADDRESS <digit-map> CONTACT <contacthost:port/transport. The contact-host part is the default to form the URL domain (Request-URI. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to configure and manage the FDB module. ADDRESS is the called address expected to be received from the calling end-point in order to forward the call to the CONTACT. It is optional and the contact host part is used if it is not set. The FWADDRESS replaces the destination address of the call. The flag proxy modifies the rule to make the Request-URI: if it is present then the Request-URI domain gets the value from the contact-host part of CONTACT parameter otherwise the current call domain will be used.362 Chapter 15 – VoIP SIP VoIP SIP FDB Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. Default Value name N/A . dialed number 01 corresponds to 00390224141121) Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

use the VOIP SIP FDB LIST command. Possible values are: udp tcp If proxy is specified. The protocol used to transport the signalling messages to the contact host.g. otherwise the contact-host is considered to be another SIP end-point (e. contact 192. N/A contact-host N/A port 5060 transport udp proxy none host N/A tel-number N/A Example --> voip sip fdb create default address 9x. It can be a digit map expression as described in section 0. phone number) expected to be received.e. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Host can be a maximum of 256 chars long (when using hostname format).com See also VOIP SIP FDB LIST VOIP SIP FDB SHOW VOIP SIP FDB DELETE Syntax VOIP SIP FDB DELETE <name> Description This command deletes a single fdb entry created using the VOIP SIP FDB CREATE command. The digit-map can be a maximum of 32 chars long. . another AT-RG613. Is the new number to which the call is redirected.10 domain voip. The UDP/TCP port on the contact host to which signalling messages are sent.168. It can be a hostname or IPv4 address. To show the list of existing FDB entries. The hostname or IPv4 address of the remote end-point where call must be routed. Contact-host can be a maximum of 256 chars long (when using hostname format). ATRG623 and AT-RG656 unit) The domain assigned to the redirected call. the contact host is considered to be a proxy server.1.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 363 digit-map The called user address (i.atkk.

The following information is displayed: • FDB entry ID numbers • FDB entry names • FDB entry Address Note: If an fdb name is longer than 32 chars. --------------------------------------See also VOIP SIP FDB CREATE VOIP SIP FDB SHOW VOIP SIP FDB SHOW Syntax VOIP SIP FDB SHOW <name> Description This command lists information about a named FDB entry added to the forwarding data base using the VOIP SIP FDB CREATE command. Default Value name N/A Example --> voip sip fdb delete default See also VOIP SIP FDB CREATE VOIP SIP FDB LIST VOIP SIP FDB LIST Syntax VOIP SIP FDB LIST Description This command lists information about FDB entries added using the VOIP SIP FDB CREATE command. the name is shown in a short format (only the initial part of the name is displayed). To show the full name use the VOIP SIP FDB SHOW command. The following information is displayed: • Address . Example --> voip sip fdb list Gateway forwarding database: ID | Name | Address ----|------------|--------------------1 | pstn | 9x. specifying the user ID instead of user name. use the VOIP SIP FDB LIST command. To display the existing FDB entries.364 Chapter 15 – VoIP SIP Option Description A name (or the ID value) that identifies an existing user in the forwarding database.

5 Contact: 10.17. Option Description A name (or the ID value) that identifies an existing user in the forwarding database.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 365 • Domain • Contact Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).168. To display the existing FDB entries.90. use the VOIP SIP FDB LIST command.51 See also VOIP SIP FDB LIST .0. Default Value name N/A Example --> voip sip fdb show MrJohn Gateway forwarding database entry: MrJohn ---------------------------------------------Address: 2010 Area Code (AC): Domain: 192.

323 can be applied in a variety of mechanisms audio only (IP telephony). real-time audio.323 provides myriad services and. H. the protocols supported.323 is a standard that specifies the components. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 to provide. a VoIP Network. and audio.323 standard. and entertainment applications. AT-RG623 and ATRG656 and how to configure and operate the AT-RG613.32x that provides multimedia communication services over a variety of networks. protocols and procedures that provide multimedia communication services. and data communications over packet networks (see Figure 19). H. enterprise networks (ENs). Packet-based networks include IP based (including the Internet) or Internet packet exchange (IPX) based local-area networks (LANs). Packet Network (IP) H323 H323 Terminal H323 Terminal . therefore. audio and data.366 Chapter 16 – VoIP H323 Chapter 16 VoIP H323 Introduction This chapter describes the main features of H. H.323 Protocols H. the implementation of the call processes in the AT-RG613. video and data. metropolitan-area networks (MANs).323 is part of a family of ITU–T recommendations called H. H. business. audio and video (video telephony).323 can also be applied to multipoint-multimedia communications. video. can be applied in a wide variety of areas consumer. including Internet protocol (IP) based networks. H. and wide area networks (WANs). or connect to.

323 terminal can either be a personal computer (PC) or a stand-alone device.323 stack and multimedia applications.. H. For example.323 terminal can either be a PC or a stand-alone device.323 standard specifies four kinds of components.323 Components The H.323 network. Gatekeepers A gatekeeper can be considered the brain of the H.321 terminals on B– ISDN. which. Although they are not required. public switched telephone network PSTN.323 terminal and SCN networks (SCN networks include all switched telephony networks. authorization and authentication of terminals and gateways.324 terminals on SCN and wireless networks. an H. Because the basic service provided by an H. bandwidth management and accounting. An H. H.323 network and a non–H. converting media formats between different networks.323 network.323 network. e. however. Gateways A gateway connects two dissimilar networks.323 terminal plays a key role in IP–telephony services. and H.323 Terminals on a Packet Network H.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 367 Figure 19.323 terminals are compatible with H. H. gatekeepers provide important services such as addressing.320 terminals on ISDN. H. Gatekeepers may also provide call-routing services. when networked together. .323 terminal is audio communications.323 is to interwork with other multimedia terminals. an H. for communication between two terminals on an H. An H. provide the point-to-point and point-to-multipoint multimediacommunication services: • terminals • gateways • gatekeepers • multipoint control units (MCUs) Terminals Used for real-time bi-directional multimedia communications. The primary goal of H.323 terminals may be used in multipoint conferences. It supports audio communications and can optionally support video or data communications. running an H.323 gateway provides connectivity between an H.g. It is the focal point for all calls within the H. H. and transferring information between the networks connected by the gateway.323 network.323 and the multimedia applications.322 terminals on guaranteed QoS LANs. A gateway is not required. a gateway can connect and provide communication between an H. H. running an H. This connectivity of dissimilar networks is achieved by translating protocols for call setup and release.310 terminals on B–ISDN.

323 terminal.323 is independent of the packet network and the transport protocols over which it runs.711 recommendation (audio coding at 64 kbps). as specified in the ITU–T G.323 The protocols specified by H. negotiates between terminals for the purpose of determining the audio or video coder/decoder (CODEC) to use.323 are listed below: • audio CODECs • video CODECs • H. Because audio is the minimum service provided by the H. and MCUs are logically separate components of the H. However.3 kbps).323 terminal.1 (5.225 registration. The gatekeepers. admission.323 terminal and decodes the received video code that is sent to the video display on the receiving H. the support of video CODECs is optional as well. and 48 kbps). all H.722 (64.323 terminals must have at least one audio CODEC support. The MCU manages conference resources.323 terminals. G. Video CODEC A video CODEC encodes video from the camera for transmission on the transmitting H.323 terminal and decodes the received audio code that is sent to the speaker on the receiving H. Because H. All terminals participating in the conference establish a connection with the MCU. 56. Audio CODEC An audio CODEC encodes the audio signal from the microphone for transmission on the transmitting H. any H.728 (16 kbps).368 Chapter 16 – VoIP H323 Multipoint Control Units MCUs provide support for conferences of three or more H. gateways. and may handle the media stream.729 (8 kbps) may also be supported. and status (RAS) • H. .261 recommendation.323 specifies support of video as optional.225 call signaling • H.723. Additional audio CODEC recommendations such as G.323 standard but can be implemented as a single physical device.323 standard. G.3 and 6. and G.323 terminal providing video communications must support video encoding and decoding as specified in the ITU–T H. Protocols Specified by H.245 control signaling • real-time transfer protocol (RTP) • real-time control protocol (RTCP) H.

sequence numbering. Other RTCP functions include carrying a transport-level identifier for an RTP source. The primary function of RTCP is to provide feedback on the quality of the data distribution. admission control. Admission.323 is used to transport data over IP–based networks. Real-Time Transport Control Protocol Real-time transport control protocol (RTCP) is the counterpart of RTP that provides control services. RTP can also be used with other transport protocols. and delivery monitoring. UDP provides multiplexing and checksum services. provides transport-protocol functionality. H. H.245 Control Signaling H. time stamping. Whereas H. RTP. A RAS channel is used to exchange RAS messages. bandwidth changes.225 call signaling is used to establish a connection between two H.225 Registration. status. The call-signaling channel is opened between two H. .225 Call Signaling The H. admission. which is used by receivers to synchronize audio and video. RTP provides payload-type identification. This signaling channel is opened between an endpoint and a gatekeeper prior to the establishment of any other channels. together with UDP. These control messages carry information related to the following: • capabilities exchange • opening and closing of logical channels used to carry media streams • flow-control messages • general commands and indications Real-Time Transport Protocol Real-time transport protocol (RTP) provides end-to-end delivery services of realtime audio and video.323 endpoints. This is achieved by exchanging H. and status (RAS) is the protocol between endpoints (terminals and gateways) and gatekeepers. The RAS is used to perform registration.225 protocol messages on the callsignaling channel.323 endpoint. and Status Registration. RTP is typically used to transport data via the user datagram protocol (UDP).AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 369 H. and disengage procedures between endpoints and gatekeepers.323 endpoints or between an endpoint and the gatekeeper.245 control signaling is used to exchange end-to-end control messages governing the operation of the H. called a canonical name.

The gateway has the characteristics of both an H. and MCU capabilities.323 networks An application of the H..225 call signaling for call setup and release. In addition. a gateway runs H.323 gateway is in IP telephony.711 audio CODEC. The gateway translates these protocols in a transparent fashion to the respective counterparts on the non H. and H. T.323–network side and the non–H.245 for exchanging terminal capabilities and creation of media channels • H.320 terminals on the ISDN.323 and can be implemented as part of a gatekeeper or an MCU. and data formats may also be performed by the gateway.245 control signaling for exchanging capabilities.323 terminals must also support the G. video.323 terminals must support the following: • H. Translation between audio. in the case of a gateway to H.g. Terminals communicate with gateways using the H.245 controlsignaling protocol and H. Gateway and Gatekeeper Characteristics Gateway Characteristics A gateway provides translation of protocols for call setup and release.711 audio and H.323 network to a non–H. .323–network side. ISDN and SS7 protocols).225 call-signaling protocol.323 and non H. both terminal types require G.323 terminal are video CODECs. admissions.323 network and the other terminal on the non–H. and the transfer of information between H. ISDN network). H. where the H. A gateway may be able to support several simultaneous calls between the H.323 networks.323 network it connects. conversion of media formats between different networks.225 registration.323 network.323 network and vice versa.g. A gateway is a logical component of H. Audio and video translation may not be required if both terminal types find a common communications mode. so a common mode always exists. On the SCN side.370 Chapter 16 – VoIP H323 Terminal Characteristics H.323 side. and status (RAS) for registration with the gatekeeper. On the H. a gateway may connect an H.261 video.323 gateway connects an IP network and SCN network (e. Gatekeepers are aware of which endpoints are gateways because this is indicated when the terminals and gateways register with the gatekeeper.323 and non–H.120 dataconferencing protocols. Optional components in an H.323 terminal on the H. The gateway also performs call setup and clearing on both the H. For example. a gateway runs SCN–specific protocols (e..225 for call signaling and call setup • RAS for registration and other admission control with a gatekeeper • RTP/RTCP for sequencing audio and video packets H.

which the gatekeeper routes to the destination endpoints. terminals and gateways must use their services. Endpoints send callsignaling messages to the gatekeeper. Alternately. This feature of the gatekeeper is valuable. endpoints can send call-signaling messages directly to the peer endpoints. the AT-RG613. If they are present in a network. as monitoring of the calls by the gatekeeper provides better control of the calls in the network. The H. such as address translation and bandwidth management as defined within RAS. bandwidth control. A gatekeeper is a logical component of H.323 endpoints.323 networks that do not have gatekeepers may not have these capabilities. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Call Processes The AT-RG613. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 would need to contact a PSTN gateway Calls Involving Another Terminal The following example (see Figure 20) illustrates how to reach a phone or fax on another AT-RG613/AT-RG623TX terminal. however.323 endpoint on the IP network. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 can communicate with the following devices: • Another terminal on the IP network. for instance: • a Soft Phone • an IP phone directly connected to the IP network • A PSTN phone or fax. and zone management. load balancing among gateways. for example. such as another AT-RG613.323 standards both define mandatory services that the gatekeeper must provide and specify other optional functionality that it can provide. However. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656. Routing calls through gatekeepers provides better performance in the network.323 networks that contain IP telephony gateways should also contain a gatekeeper to translate incoming E. The services offered by a gatekeeper are defined by RAS and include address translation.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 371 Gatekeeper Characteristics Gatekeepers provide call-control services for H. • Any LAN H. AT-RG613. as the gatekeeper can make routing decisions based on a variety of factors. H.323 but can be implemented as part of a gateway or MCU. An optional feature of a gatekeeper is call-signaling routing. admissions control.164 telephone addresses into transport addresses. but H. .

Calls Involving a Terminal and a H. which completes the connection to its locally attached phone. Phone --> AT-RG613/RG623 (A) --> AT-RG613/RG623 (B) --> Phone A user makes a call with the phone connected to an AT-RG613/AT-RG623TX Residential Gateway. which in turn contacts another AT-RG613/AT-RG623TX Residential Gateway.323 endpoint on the IP network.323 Endpoint The following examples (see Figure 21) illustrate how a phone connected to an ATRG613/AT-RG623TX Residential Gateway can communicate with a LAN H.372 Chapter 16 – VoIP H323 H323 IP Phone VoIP Network Analog Phone (or Digital Phone) AT-RG613 (or AT-RG623) A B AT-RG613 (or AT-RG623) Analog Phone (or Digital Phone) H323 Gatekeeper Figure 20. Such endpoints could be: • a Soft Phone • an IP phone directly connected to the IP network .

A user's phone number represents the user's address on the local system. which reaches the corresponding LAN H.323 endpoint on the IP network.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 373 H323 IP Phone VoIP Network Analog Phone (or Digital Phone) AT-RG613 (or AT-RG623) A B AT-RG613 (or AT-RG623) Analog Phone (or Digital Phone) H323 Gatekeeper Figure 21. Users are entities uniquely identified in the system by a name with an associated phone number. describes access ports. VoIP H323 Users Introduction The VoIP H323 subsystem on the AT-RG613. Phone --> AT-RG613/RG623 (A) --> H323 IP Phone A user makes a call with the phone connected to an AT-RG613/AT-RG623TX Residential Gateway. The following section describe users while Error! Reference source not found. . User definition is a mandatory step in the correct configuration of the VoIP H323 subsystem (see Figure 22). AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential gateways is based on the concept of users and access ports.

Note 1: In any given system there cannot exist two or more users with the same area code and address. .basic steps. In the any given it is valid to have two ore more users with the same address but different area code or no area code at all. optionally. Users The system is designed to support up to 100 users. To know the user's registration status use the VOIP H323 USER SHOW command. a gatekeeper autodiscover procedure is initialized to find a list of available gatekeepers.164 number must be defined. Note 3: All the users must use the same gatekeeper. Users Binding Incoming/ Outgoing Calls Figure 22. In this way other endpoints on the VoIP network can contact each user by simply using the user address.374 Chapter 16 – VoIP H323 Default Configuration H323 Signaling Protocol Configuration Access Port Creation Users Creation Access Port Config. i.e. an area code number if a complete E. If no gatekeeper is specified. Note 2: Users may inform the VoIP network about the location (IP address) where they can be contacted by registering themselves on the gatekeeper defined in the VOIP H323 USER CREATE command. Each user must have an associated a user number composed of an address number and.it is not possible manage simultaneously registrations on multiple gatekeepers. VoIP H323 subsystem configuration . Users are defined by the VOIP H323 USER CREATE command.

only the access lines where the user is attached are engaged by the communication. use the VOIP EP SHOW command. results in an un-registration process from the gatekeeper defined during user creation phase. all users previously attached are removed from the port. All the local users belongs to the same domain. the identity of the calling user is deemed to be the first user defined in the list of attached users. When an access port is deleted from the system. use the VOIP H323 USER SHOW command Note that physical access ports don’t have their own fixed phone number. When an outgoing call (in the direction user to VoIP network) is made and more than one user is attached on the access port being used to make the call. Removing a user from a port. users and access port A user needs to be attached at least to one physical port in order to receive or to make a call. To attach a user to a physical port use the VOIP H323 USER ADD command. The same user may be attached to more than one access port. To know the physical port where a user is attached. . To know which users are attached to a physical port. the call is rejected. More than one user may be attached to the same physical access port and therefore more than one phone number can be associated with the same physical access port. When a user receives a call.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 375 The user number used in the registration messages is the complete user number: area code + address number. In this case when it receives the call all the lines where it is attached will be used to signal the incoming call. using the VOIP H323 USER REMOVE command or deleting the access port. If a user receive a call but the physical line where it is attached is already involved in another communication (because it is being used by another user). They inherit the phone number from the user number of the attached users.

This command is typically used when it's necessary to change the VoIP signaling protocol. from H323 to SIP. i. To enable the H323 module. To simply restart the H323 module. It doesn't remove any resources defined under the voip main module. use the VOIP H323 PROTOCOL ENABLE command. . VoIP h323 protocol CLI commands The table below lists the VOIP H323 PROTOCOL commands provided by the CLI: Command VOIP H323 PROTOCOL DISABLE VOIP H323 PROTOCOL ENABLE VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET MEDIAPORT VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET ALIAS VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET CONNECT VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET GATEKEEPER VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET NETINTERFACE VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET Q931PORT VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET RASPORT VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET REGISTRATION VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET RESPONSE VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET SECONDARYGATEKEEPER VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SHOW VOIP H323 PROTOCOL DISABLE Syntax VOIP H323 PROTOCOL DISABLE Description This command stops the VoIP H323 signaling protocol and releases all the resources associated with it.376 Chapter 16 – VoIP H323 VoIP H323 Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. • any user defined in the system is deleted. AT-RG 623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to configure and manage the H323 protocol signaling module.e.: • any analogue or digital port defined in the system is removed. Example --> voip h323 protocol disable. use the VOIP H323 PROTOCOL RESTART command.

By default. VOIP H323 PROTOCOL ENABLE Syntax VOIP H323 PROTOCOL ENABLE Description This command turns on the H323 signaling module.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 377 See also VOIP H323 PROTOCOL RESTART VOIP H323 PROTOCOL ENABLE. when the H323 module is started the following default values are used: • q931port: • rasport: 1720 1719 Example --> voip h323 protocol enable See also VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SHOW VOIP H323 PROTOCOL DISABLE VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET ALIAS Syntax VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET ALIAS <alias> • Description This command sets the user logical name used for remote party calling. translated by the Gatekeeper to the network address Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command. To bind the H323 module to a specific IP interface uset the VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET INTERFACE command.voip.com .225 registration messages to identify the residential gateway. Option alias Description The terminal alias used in H. users and H323 gatekeeper. and a default value (if applicable).atkk. The H323 module MUST be enabled in order to create/set analog/digital ports. Binding the H323 module to a specific IP interface defines the value of the source IP address for signallng and voice packets. Default Value N/A Example --> voip h323 protocol set alias at-rg613-1.

378 Chapter 16 – VoIP H323 See also VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SHOW VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET CONNECT Syntax VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET CONNECT <secs> Description This command sets response timeout value. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command. The port on primary gatekeeper where H225 registration messages are sent. Option Description The hostname or IPv4 address of the primary gatekeeper. Primary-host can be a maximum of 256 chars long (when using hostname format). By default. Default Value secs 30 Example --> voip h323 protocol set connect 60 See also VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SHOW VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET GATEKEEPER Syntax VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET GATEKEEPER <gk:port/id> Description This command sets the primary gatekeeper. Acceptable value are from 10 to 5255 seconds. the following default values are used: • registration: • response: • connect: 7200 secs 20 secs 30 secs Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). when the H323 module is started using the VOIP H323 PROTOCOL ENABLE command. and a default value (if applicable). Default Value gk N/A ipport 1719 . Option Description The interval time (expressed in seconds) for which the system waits for CONNECTmessages when a call is placed before tearing down the connection.

Option ipport Description The UDP/TCP port on the Residential Gateway used to send and receive signalling messages. Id can be 20 a maximum of 20 chars long N/A Example --> voip h323 protocol set gatekeeper 10. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. and a default value (if applicable).17. Default Value N/A Example --> voip h323 protocol set netinterface ip0 See also VOIP H323 PROTOCOL ENABLE VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SHOW VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET Q931PORT Syntax VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET Q931PORT <ipport> Description This command sets the UDP/TCP port on the Residential Gateway used to send and receive signalling messages.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 379 id It's the gatekeeper identifier. Option interface_name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface.90.110 See also VOIP H323 PROTOCOL ENABLE VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SHOW VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET NETINTERFACE Syntax VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET NETINTERFACE <interface_name> Description This command sets the IP interface used to access the VoIP network. To display interface names. Default Value 1720 Example --> voip h323 protocol set q931port 1740 See also VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET RASPORT VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SHOW . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command. Signaling and voice packets will use the Source IP address defined for the selected interface. and a default value (if applicable).

Default Value secs 7200 Example --> voip h323 protocol set registration 3600 See also VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET RESPONSE VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SHOW . the following default values are used: • registration: • response: • connect: 7200 secs 20 secs 30 secs Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Acceptable value are from 10 to 10800 seconds. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command.380 Chapter 16 – VoIP H323 VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET RASPORT Syntax VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET RASPORT <ipport> Description This command sets the UDP/TCP port on the Residential Gateway used to send and receive registration messages. Option Description The interval time (expressed in seconds) between two consecutive registrations. Option ipport Description The UDP/TCP port on the Residential Gateway used to send and receive registration messages. Default Value 1719 Example --> voip h323 protocol set rasport 1739 See also VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET Q931PORT VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SHOW VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET REGISTRATION Syntax VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET REGISTRATION <secs> Description This command sets registration timeout value. By default. and a default value (if applicable). when the H323 module is started using the VOIP H323 PROTOCOL ENABLE command.

Secondary-host can be a maximum of 256 chars long (when using hostname format). Default Value gk N/A ipport 1719 . The port on secondary gatekeeper where H225 registration messages are sent. Option Description The interval time (expressed in seconds) for which the system waits for ALERTING messages when a call is placed before tearing down the connection. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command. and a default value (if applicable). when the H323 module is started using the VOIP H323 PROTOCOL ENABLE command. Default Value secs 20 Example --> voip h323 protocol set response 40 See also VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET REGISTRATION VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SHOW VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET SECONDARYGATEKEEPER Syntax VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET SECONDARYGATEKEEPER <gk:port/id> Description This command sets the secondary gatekeeper. By default. Option Description The hostname or IPv4 address of the secondary gatekeeper. Acceptable value are from 10 to 5255 seconds.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 381 VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET RESPONSE Syntax VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SET RESPONSE <secs> Description This command sets response timeout value. the following default values are used: • registration: • response: • connect: 7200 secs 20 secs 30 secs Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

1.110 Secondarygatekepeer: 192.1.382 Chapter 16 – VoIP H323 id It's the gatekeeper identifier.111 See also VOIP H323 PROTOCOL ENABLE VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SHOW VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SHOW Syntax VOIP H323 PROTOCOL SHOW Description This command displays basic H323 module configuration parameters set by the VOIP H323 PROTOCOL ENABLE command.111 Alias: Timers: Registration: 7200 Response: 20 Connect: 90 See also VOIP H323 PROTOCOL ENABLE .168.90. Id can be a maximum of 20 chars long N/A Example --> voip h323 protocol set secondarygatekeeper 10. Example --> voip h323 protocol show Gateway base protocol: H323 -------------------------------------------------------------RAS port: 1719 Q931 port: 1720 Network interface: ip0 Gatekepeer: 192.17.168.

To display the existing ports. configure and manage the VoIP H323 User module. the registration phase starts to the Gatekeeper specified in the VOIP H323 USER CREATE command. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to enable. A name that identifies an existing port. Option Description A name that identifies an existing user (it can also be the ID value associated with the user name). Default Value username N/A portname N/A Example --> voip h323 user add MrBrown port fxs0 See also VOIP H323 USER ADD VOIP H323 USER CREATE . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). voip H323 user CLI commands The table below lists the VOIP H323 USER commands provided by the CLI: Command VOIP H323 USER ADD VOIP H323 USER CREATE VOIP H323 USER DELETE VOIP H323 USER LIST VOIP H323 USER REMOVE VOIP H323 USER SHOW VOIP H323 USER ADD Syntax VOIP H323 USER ADD <username> PORT <portname> Description This command attaches a user created with the command VOIP H323 USER CREATE to a named port created with the command VOIP EP CREATE.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 383 VoIP H323 User Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. To display the existing users. use the VOIP H323 USER LIST command. use the VOIP EP LIST command. H323 protocol: As soon this command is entered.

The username can be 16 characters in length. The name must not be present already. The username can be a maximum of 16 characters long.164) used to reach the user.384 Chapter 16 – VoIP H323 VOIP H323 USER DELETE VOIP H323 USER LIST VOIP H323 USER REMOVE VOIP H323 USER SHOW VOIP EP LIST VOIP H323 USER CREATE Syntax VOIP H323 USER CREATE <username> ADDRESS <DIGIT-MAP> [AREACODE <area-number>] Description This command creates a new entry in the users list. cannot start with a digit and cannot contain dots '. Valid characters are only digits. The prefix number to be dialed before the destination number. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. The phone number (E. This command is accepted only if the H323 module is already running. the VOIP H323 USER ADD command must be used. Default Value username N/A digit-map N/A area-number empty Example --> voip h323 user create MrBrown address 12345 See also VOIP H323 USER ADD VOIP H323 USER CREATE VOIP H323 USER DELETE VOIP H323 USER LIST VOIP H323 USER REMOVE VOIP H323 USER SHOW VOIP EP LIST . which can be specified with this command. This command doesn’t bind the user to a physical access port. an error message is raised. and a default value (if applicable). The address can be 32 characters long. Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the user. The area number can be a maximum of 10 digits long.' or slash symbols '/'. If the user already exists. In order to inform the system that the user is attached to a specific physical port. Each user must have a different <username>. See the VOIP H323 PROTOCOL ENABLE command to turn on the H323 module.

use the VOIP H323 USER LIST command. the deregistration phase starts to the Gatekeeper.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 385 VOIP H323 USER DELETE Syntax VOIP H323 USER DELETE <username> Description This command deletes a single user created using the VOIP H323 USER CREATE command. specifying the user ID instead of user name. Option Description A name that identifies an existing user (it can also be the ID value associated with the user name). To display the existing users. the name is shown in a short format (only the initial part of the name is displayed). To show the list of existing users. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). To show the full name use the VOIP EP USER SHOW command. The following information is displayed: • user ID numbers • user names • Area Codes • Addresses Note: If the user name is longer than 32 chars. removing the user from the user list on the server. . use the VOIP H323 USER LIST command. As soon this command is entered. Default Value username N/A Example --> voip h323 user delete MrBrown See also VOIP H323 USER ADD VOIP H323 USER CREATE VOIP H323 USER DELETE VOIP H323 USER LIST VOIP H323 USER REMOVE VOIP H323 USER SHOW VOIP EP LIST VOIP H323 USER LIST Syntax VOIP H323 USER LIST Description This command lists information about users that were added using the VOIP H323 USER CREATE command.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Default Value username N/A portname N/A Example --> voip h323 user remove MrBrown port fxs0 See also VOIP H323 USER ADD VOIP H323 USER CREATE VOIP H323 USER DELETE VOIP H323 USER LIST VOIP H323 USER REMOVE VOIP H323 USER SHOW VOIP EP LIST . To know the ports where the user is added. Option Description A name that identifies an existing user (it canalso be the ID value associated with the user name). use the VOIP H323 USER LIST command.386 Chapter 16 – VoIP H323 Example --> voip h323 user list ID ---1 ---| Name | Area Code | Address |------------|------------------|-----------------------------------| MrBrown | | 12345 |------------|------------------|-----------------------------------See also VOIP H323 USER ADD VOIP H323 USER CREATE VOIP H323 USER DELETE VOIP H323 USER LIST VOIP H323 USER REMOVE VOIP H323 USER SHOW VOIP EP LIST VOIP H323 USER REMOVE Syntax VOIP H323 USER REMOVE <username> PORT <name> Description This command remove a single user from the port where it was added with the VOIP H323 USER ADD command. To display the existing users. Removing a user from a port results in an deregistration request to the Gatekeeper specified in the VOIP H323 USER CREATE command. A name that identifies an existing port. use the VOIP H323 USER SHOW command.

) Attached ports: fxs0 See also VOIP H323 USER ADD VOIP H323 USER CREATE VOIP H323 USER DELETE VOIP H323 USER LIST VOIP H323 USER REMOVE VOIP H323 USER SHOW VOIP EP LIST .AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 387 VOIP H323 USER SHOW Syntax VOIP H323 USER SHOW <username> Description This command displays the following information about a named user: • Address • Area Code • State • Attached ports Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option username Description A name that identifies an existing user. Default Value N/A Example --> voip h323 user show MrBrown Gateway user: MrBrown -----------------------------------------------------Address: 10 Area Code (AC): 1 State: registered (expire time: 2739 Sec. To display the existing users. use the VOIP H323 USER LIST command.

dialed number 01 corresponds to 00390224141121) Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). CONTACT is the host reference where the call is forwarded. It is optional and it is used to make a short selection rule (e. The fdb name can be a maximum of 16 characters long. Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies this specific fdb rule. voip h323 fdb CLI commands The table below lists the VOIP H323 FDB commands provided by the CLI: Command VOIP H323 FDB CREATE VOIP H323 FDB DELETE VOIP H323 FDB LIST VOIP H323 FDB SHOW VOIP H323 FDB CREATE Syntax VOIP H323 FDB CREATE <name> ADDRESS <digit-map> CONTACT <host:port> [FWADDRESS <tel-number>] Description This command creates a new entry in the forwarding database (FDB).g. The FWADDRESS replaces the destination address of the call. phone number) expected to be received. ADDRESS is the called address expected to be received from the calling end-point in order to forward the call to the CONTACT. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to configure and manage the FDB module. Default Value name N/A digit-map N/A .388 Chapter 16 – VoIP H323 VoIP H323 FDB Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. It can be also a digit-map if an address pool must be forwarded to a specific host address. The name must not be present already.e. It can be a digit map expression The digit-map can be a maximum of 32 chars long. The called user address (i.

To show the list of existing FDB entries. The following information is displayed: • FDB entry ID numbers • FDB entry names . To display the existing FDB entries. use the VOIP H323 FDB LIST command.168. contact 192.1. Default Value name N/A Example --> voip h323 fdb delete default See also VOIP H323 FDB CREATE VOIP H323 FDB LIST VOIP H323 FDB LIST Syntax VOIP H323 FDB LIST Description This command lists information about FDB entries added using the VOIP H323 FDB CREATE command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description A name (or the ID value) that identifies an existing user in the forwarding database. Is the new number to which the call is redirected. Contact-host can be a maximum of 256 chars long (when using hostname format). The UDP/TCP port on the contact host to which signalling messages are sent.10 See also VOIP H323 FDB LIST VOIP H323 FDB SHOW VOIP H323 FDB DELETE Syntax VOIP H323 FDB DELETE <name> Description This command deletes a single fdb entry created using the VOIP H323 FDB CREATE command. N/A port tel-number 5060 N/A Example --> voip h323 fdb create default address 9x.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 389 contact-host The hostname or IPv4 address of the remote end-point where call must be routed. use the VOIP H323 FDB LIST command.

To display the existing FDB entries.17. use the VOIP H323 FDB LIST command. To show the full name use the VOIP H323 FDB SHOW command. the name is shown in a short format (only the initial part of the name is displayed).51 See also VOIP H323 FDB LIST . specifying the user ID instead of user name.390 Chapter 16 – VoIP H323 • FDB entry Address Note: If an fdb name is longer than 32 chars. Default Value name N/A Example --> voip h323 fdb show MrJohn Gateway forwarding database entry: MrJohn ---------------------------------------------Address: 2010 Contact: 10. Example --> voip h323 fdb list Gateway forwarding database: ID | Name | Address ----|------------|--------------------1 | pstn | 9x.90. --------------------------------------See also VOIP H323 CREATE VOIP H323 SHOW VOIP H323 FDB SHOW Syntax VOIP H323 SHOW <name> Description This command lists information about a named FDB entry added to the forwarding data base using the VOIP H323 FDB CREATE command. The following information is displayed: • Address • Contact Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option Description A name (or the ID value) that identifies an existing user in the forwarding database.

MGCP assumes that the gateways have limited storage and functionality.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 391 Chapter 17 VoIP MGCP Introduction The MGCP (Media Gateway Control Protocol) is a protocol that assumes a call control architecture where the call control "intelligence" is outside the gateways and handled by external call control elements. it’s simply expected to execute commands sent by the call agent. Connections & Endpoints MGCP introduces the concepts of connections and endpoints for establishing endto-end voice paths and the concepts of events and signals for establishing and tearing down calls. and the Media Gateway (MG) that provides conversion between the audio signals carried on telephone circuits and data packets carried over Internet or packets networks and expects to execute command sent by the Call Agent. two are the MGCP entities: Call Agent (Media Gateway Controller MGC) which handles the call control “intelligence”. the endpoint is unaware of the calls and conferences and does not maintain call states. So. Physical endpoint creation requires hardware installation while software is sufficient for creating a virtual endpoint. that means the call signaling and the call processing functions. the call agent. MGCP is a master/slave protocol. Endpoints are sources or sinks of data and can be physical or virtual. An interface on a gateway that terminates a trunk . while the call agent is mandatory and manages the calls and conferences and supports the services provided.

392 Chapter 17 – VoIP MGCP connected to a PSTN switch is an example of a physical endpoint. documented in RFC 2327. the pound sign "#" and others. For instance. e. dial-tone. The use of SDP facilitates interoperability with the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). and a call agent may request certain signals to be applied to an endpoint. The concepts of Signals and Events are used for establishing and tearing down calls. A call agent may ask to be notified about certain events occurring in an endpoint. are supported in many packages. and another package may support another group of events and signals for MF trunks. Connections may be either point-to-point or multipoint. A Call agent initiates transactions to manage/configure Endpoint using MGCP commands. The control primitives for MGCP operations are Signals sent from the call Agent to the gateway. These descriptions follow the conventions delineated in the Session Description Protocol (SDP) which is now an IETF proposed standard. Operations are performed by applying Signals TO. Digits include numbers between 0 and 9.g. Endpoint sends responses Call agent transaction requests using either a notification or restart command. The call agent uses MGCP to provision the gateways with the description of connection parameters such as IP addresses. A point-to-point connection is an association between two endpoints for transmitting data between these endpoints. The concepts of events and signals are central to MGCP. UDP port and RTP profiles. data transfer between these endpoints can take place. one package may support a certain group of events and signals for analog access lines. or letters. Transmission of audio over an ATM network. Example packages defined in the MGCP specification include: • • • • • Generic Media Package DTMF Package Trunk package Link package Handset package .g. or by using the "range" notation defined in the syntax of digit strings. The call agent can ask a gateway to detect a set of digits or letters either by individually describing those letters. Connections can be established over several types of bearer networks: • • Transmission of audio using RTP and UDP over a TCP/IP network. Once this association is established for both endpoints. Digits. Letters may include the asterisk "*". Packages are groupings of the events and signals supported by a particular type of endpoint. Signals and Events needed to support a specific telephony function or type of endpoint are grouped into Event/Signal Packages. off-hook events. and Events sent from the Gateway to the Call agent. A multipoint connection is an association among multiple endpoints for transmitting data among these endpoints. An audio source in an audio-content server is an example of a virtual endpoint. Events and signals are grouped in packages. and detecting Events FROM endpoints. e.

For example. AuditEndpoint.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 393 • • RTP package Announcement server package MGCP Protocol Commands There are eight commands in the protocol: NotificationRequest. DeleteConnection. A list of potential events includes: off hook transition. These parameters may include for example voice encoding. flash-hook. The Notify command includes the unique identifier that was sent by the call agent to the gateway in the NotificationRequest command. The CreateConnection request specifies a CallId that will be used for identifying the call or session to which this connection belongs. a notification may be requested for the event that a gateway detects that an endpoint is going off hook. and . The NotificationRequest allows the call agent to download a specific dialing plan to the gateway to be used for collecting the digits. AuditConnection and RestartInProgress. on hook transition. MF incoming seizure detected. The gateway includes in the Notify command a list of the events it observed. The call agent can also request that the gateway collect the dialed digits. continuity tone detected etc. ModifyConnection. The CreateConnection request also specifies the endpoint to be used for this connection and the parameters to be used for the connection. NotificationRequest The NotificationRequest command is used by the call agent for requesting from a gateway to be notified upon the occurrence of specified events in an endpoint. Another CreateConnection request for the remote endpoint is necessary for creating an end-to-end connection with two endpoints. This identifier is used for tying the NotificationRequest to the Notify message that will be sent by the gateway. More than one connection may actually share the same CallId. CreateConnection The call agent uses the CreateConnection command for binding an endpoint to a specific IP address and UDP port. Notify. A call agent also includes a unique identifier in the NotificationRequest that will be included by the gateway in the gateway’s Notify message when the requested event actually occurs. Notify Notifications are sent by the gateway via the Notify command in response to a NotificationRequest sent by the call agent to the gateway. CreateConnection.

This occurs because the call agent needs to send two CreateConnection requests for creating an end-to-end connection. . but also IP address UDP port. When the gateway acknowledges the CreateConnection request it also sends to the call agent a ConnectionId that uniquely identifies the connection with in an endpoint and local connection information about the IP address and UDP port it selected. The parameters in the ModifyConnection command are the same as in a CreateConnection request. it includes a list of parameters about the status of the connection in the response. The remote connection description may be unspecified in some CreateConnection requests. When the gateway acknowledges a DeleteConnection request. This information may be provided later via a ModifyConection request. A CreateConnection request may also include the parameters normally included in a NotificationRequest. The call agent can potentially select those but the gateway may be sharing those resources for other functions and it is preferable that the gateway does the selection." "network loopback" or "network continuity test." "conference. This improves the performance of the protocol. The call agent also specifies the mode of the connection." "inactive." "loopback. DeleteConnection The call agent can use the DeleteConnection command to delete an existing connection. When the first CreateConnection request is sent the call agent doesn’t yet know the remote connection descriptor.394 Chapter 17 – VoIP MGCP compression parameters. The ConnectionId is provided by the call agent to the gateway in a ModifyConnection request. This allows the call agent to send a CreateConnection and a NotificationRequest combined in one CreateConnection message. The DeleteConnection command may also be sent by a gateway to the call agent for indicating that a connection can no longer be sustained. The ModifyConnection can be used for: • • • Providing information about the other end of the connection through the remote connection descriptor Activating or deactivating a connection Changing the parameters of a connection." The CreateConnection request from the call agent may include a description of the remote side of the connection on the IP network i." send/receive. inter-arrival jitter and average transmission delay. The mode may be "send. number of packets lost. number of packets and octets received." continuity test.e." "data. These parameters include: numbers of packets and octets sent." "receive. ModifyConnection The Call Agent uses the ModifyConnection command for changing the parameters associated with a previously established connection. parameters of the connection like encoding.

The information that can be audited by the Call Agent includes: requested events. dialing plan and connection identifiers. The response of the gateway to the AuditConnection request includes all the requested information. local and remote connection descriptors. The parameters of the RestartInProgress message indicate the group of endpoints that the message applies to. The RestartInProgress method also includes a parameter that specifies the type of restart: o Graceful restart indicates that the endpoints will be taken out of service after a specified delay Forced restart indicates that the endpoints are taken immediately out of service Restart indicates that the service will be restored after the specified delay o o . The information that can be retrieved includes: call id. is taken in or out of service. RestartInProgress The RestartInProgress command is used by the gateway to signal that an endpoint. local connection parameters and the mode of the connection. or a group of endpoints.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 395 AuditEndpoint The AuditEndpoint command can be used by the call agent for getting details about the status of an endpoint or a list of endpoints. The response of the gateway includes all the requested information. AuditConnection The AuditConnection can be used by the call agent for retrieving information related to a specific connection of an endpoint identified by a ConnectionId.

Example --> voip mgcp protocol disable . To simply restart the MGCP module. use the VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL RESTART command.e. from MGCP to SIP to H323.396 Chapter 17 – VoIP MGCP MGCP Command reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613.: This command is typically used when it's necessary to change the VoIP signalling protocol. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to configure and manage the MGCP protocol module. use the VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL ENABLE command. MGCP commands The table below lists the mgcp commands provided by the CLI: Command VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL DISABLE VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL ENABLE VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL RESTART VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET DEFAULTPORT VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET MAXRETRANSMITIONTIME VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET NAT VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET NETINTERFACE VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET PIGGYBACK VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET PROFILE VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET ROUNDTRIPTIME VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SHOW VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT CREATE VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT DELETE VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT LIST VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL DISABLE Syntax VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL DISABLE Description This command stops the VoIP MGCP signalling protocol and releases all the resources associated to it. It doesn't remove any resources defined for the protocol. To enable the MGCP module. i.

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 397 See also VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL RESTART VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL ENABLE. the following default value is used: • defaultport: 2427 . when the MGCP module is attached to an IP interface using theVOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET NETINTERFACE command. Example --> voip mgcp protocol restart See also VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL ENABLE VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET DEFAULTPORT Syntax VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET DEFAULTPORT <ipport> Description This command sets the default listening/sending port used for MGCP signaling messages. Any pending and active calls are released. This command doesn't release any resources previously created during module configuration. Binding the MGCP module to a specific IP interface defines the value of the source IP address for signallng and voice packets. VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL ENABLE Syntax VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL ENABLE Description This command turns on the MGCP signaling module. By default. Example --> voip mgcp protocol enable See also VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SHOW VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL DISABLE VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL RESTART Syntax VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL RESTART Description This command restarts the VoIP MGCP signaling protocol module. To bind the MGCP module to a specific IP interface use the VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET NETINTERFACE command.

Default Value host None Example --> voip mgcp protocol set nat 10. Option Description The address that must displayed in the MGCP messages.90. It can be expressed in hostname format or IPv4 format.17.com See also VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL ENABLE VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET NETINTERFACE Syntax VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET NETINTERFACE <interface_name> Description This command sets the IP interface used to access the VoIP network. A Hostname can be a maximum of 255 characters long. Any MGCP message with local reference is hidden by the NAT address value. Changing the NAT reference causes the MGCP module to restart. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Only even values can be accepted Default Value ipport 2427 Example --> voip mgcp protocol set defaultport 2427 See also VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL ENABLE VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET NAT Syntax VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET NAT {NONE | <host> } Description This command sets the NAT host reference. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Available values are from 1026 to 65534. .110 --> voip mgcp protocol set nat at-rg600. Option Description UDP/TCP port number used for signalling messages.atkk.voip.398 Chapter 17 – VoIP MGCP Changing the signaling port causes the MGCP module to restart.

marconi. Option interface_name Description A name that identifies an existing IP interface. gb. This command is used to fix interoperability constraints when the MGCP module has to work with call agent that could differer from a standard implementation. To display interface names. Default Value N/A Example --> voip MGCP protocol set netinterface ip0 See also VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL ENABLE VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET PROFILE Syntax VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SET PROFILE <profile> Description This command sets specific customer MGCP call agent profile. Default Value none Example --> voip mgcp protocol set profile ags VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SHOW Syntax VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL SHOW Description This command displays basic MGCP module configuration parameters set by the VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL ENABLE command. use the IP LIST INTERFACES command. Example --> voip mgcp protocol show Gateway base protocol: MGCP --------------------------------------------------------Profile: sphere Supported packages: Basic. Generic Media. sphere and none. Possible values are: ags. Line Piggy-Back: Enable . DTMF.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 399 • Signaling and voice packets will use the Source IP address defined for the selected interface. ncs. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Option profile Description The specific customer call-agent type. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).

The name can be a maximum of 16 characters long.168.' or slash symbols '/'. Default Value name N/A host N/A Example --> voip mgcp callagent create default contact 192. 0 % VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT CREATE Syntax VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT CREATE <name> CONTACT <host > Description This command set the call agent address.3 See also VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT LIST VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT DELETE VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT DELETE Syntax VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT DELETE <name> Description This command deletes a previously defined call agent created using the VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT CREATE command. More than one call agent can be defined to increas system robustness in case of server failure. use the VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT LIST command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified . To show the list of existing CALLAGENT entries. The name must not be present already. Host can be a maximum of 256 chars long (when using hostname format). cannot start with a digit and cannot contain dots '. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).400 Chapter 17 – VoIP MGCP Network interface: Default port: NAT: Round-trip time: Maximum re-transmition time: Network loss rate: See also VOIP MGCP PROTOCOL ENABLE ip0 2427 None 10000 msecs. 30 secs. The hostname or IPv4 address of the call agent.102. Option Description An arbitrary name that identifies the call agent.

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 401 with this command and a default value (if applicable).39. Default Value name N/A Example --> voip mgcp callagent delete default See also VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT CREATE VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT LIST VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT LIST Syntax VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT LIST Description This command lists information about CALLAGENT entries added using the VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT CREATE command.201 --------------------------------------------------See also VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT CREATE VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT SHOW . Option Description A name (or the ID value) that identifies an existing call agent.1. use the VOIP MGCP CALLAGENT LIST command. The following information is displayed: • Call agent ID numbers • Call agent names Note: If a call agent name is longer than 32 chars. To display the existing calla agent entries. Example --> voip sip fdb list Gateway call-agents: ID | Name | Master | Contact -----|------------|----------|--------------------1 | default | true * | 172. the name is shown in a short format (only the initial part of the name is displayed).

This candegrade the voice quality (and video) received from the end user. it's possible to specify the DSCP field value or TOS field value inside the UDP packets used to tranport voice streams and voice signalling. On the AT-RG613.402 Chapter 18 – VoIP Media and QoS Chapter 18 VoIP QoS and Media Introduction SIP and H323 VoIP signalling protocols typically make use of unreliable transport protocols like UDP to transfer media information as voice packets. The command VOIP QOS SET DSCP is used to set the DSCP value while the VOIP QOS SET TOS command is used to set the TOS value. DSCP and TOS are mutually esclusive because they refers to the same IP Header field using only a different number of bits (3 bits in case of TOS. This transportwasn’t originally designed to transport data for real time applications. QoS To assign a specific priority to the originated voice packets. real time applications can suffer packet delay and latency due to overloading of network devices. . 6 bits in case of DSCP) and assigning different packet classification accordingly to the TOS or DSCP value. In a multiapplication network environment were traffic typology can be very variable. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway it's possible to assign to the voice/video media packets a high Quality Of Service value in order to force routers and switches to forward these packets with higher priority compared to the other type of packets simultaneously passing through the same network devices.

set the starting port number and the port range using VOIP MEDIA SET PORTRANGE command.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 403 Media AT-RG613. the other end-point was abruptly disconnected or network has critical problems) forcing the call release if no RTP packet flow has been detected for the current call for a time longer than the specified observation period. RTCP is also supported as a configurable parameter used to control RTP session. making it possible to open the correct firewall ports when media packets must cross security interfaces. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 can be configured to use a specific pool of ports for media transport.g. In this way it is always well known which ports are being used by the system. It's also possible set the Residential Gateway to detect if an incoming RTP flow is still present or not (e. . To configure the RTP pool ports. The ports specified by this command are the RTP ports used as Source Port for outgoing packets and also they are the ports where incoming RTP packets are expected to be received.

Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).e. . Acceptable value are from 0 to 63 Default Value none Example --> voip qos set dscp 24 See also VOIP QOS SET TOS VOIP QOS SET TOS Syntax VOIP QOS SET {TOS <tos-code> | NONE} Description This command sets the value of the tos field in the IP header of RTP voice packets.404 Chapter 18 – VoIP Media and QoS VoIP QoS Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. AT-RG 623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to configure and manage the VoIP QoS module. To disable DSCP support (i. VoIP QoS CLI commands The table below lists the VOIP QOS commands provided by the CLI: Command VOIP QOS SET DSCP VOIP QOS SET TOS VOIP QOS SHOW VOIP QOS SET DSCP Syntax VOIP QOS SET {DSCP <dscp-code> | NONE} Description This command sets the value of the dscp field in the IP header of RTP voice packets. remove any previous configuration perfomed on DSCP field on signalling and speech packes) use the VOIP QOS SET NONE command. Option dscp-code Description The value of dscp field.

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 405 To disable TOS support (i. remove any previous configuration perfomed on TOS field on signalling and speech packes) use the VOIP QOS SET NONE command. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Example --> voip qos show Gateway Quality of Service: ------------------------------------QOS (DSCP): 24 (TOS): none See also VOIP QOS SET DSCP VOIP QOS SET TOS . Option tos Description The value of tos field.e. Acceptable value are from 0 to 7 Default Value none Example --> voip qos set tos 4 See also VOIP QOS SET DSCP VOIP QOS SHOW Syntax VOIP QOS SHOW Description This command shows the value of DSCP and TOS fields used in the IP header of RTP voice packets.

new sessions will be refused for lack of available resource. AT-RG 623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to configure and manage the VoIP Media module. The value specified has to be an even number. Option any ipport Description any sets the default port range ipport is theUDP/TCP port number being set. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). 50600 Default Value n-ports 32 Example --> voip media set portrange 50500/12 See also VOIP MEDIA SET RTCP VOIP MEDIA SET RTCP Syntax VOIP MEDIA SET RTCP {OFF | ON } . If the port pool is sold out.. The range is 2 to 32 . The value specified must be an even number. the odd-numbered port is reserved for RTCP. The range is 1026 to 65534. VoIP Media CLI commands The table below lists the VOIP MEDIA commands provided by the CLI: Command VOIP MEDIA SET PORTRANGE VOIP MEDIA SET RTCP VOIP MEDIA SET SESSIONTIMEOUT VOIP MEDIA SHOW VOIP MEDIA SET PORTRANGE Syntax VOIP MEDIA SET PORTRANGE {ANY | <ipport/n-ports> } Description This command sets the port pool available for media transport. n-ports are the number of ports.406 Chapter 18 – VoIP Media and QoS VoIP Media Command Reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613.. Ports are dynamically allocated in pairs to support new connections.

Available values are form 0 mins to 1440 mins (24 hours). If no RTP packet is received on the UDP port used by the active call for a time longer than the SESSIONTIMEOUT value. Option Description The SESSIONTIMEOUT value expressed in minutes. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable). Example --> voip media show Gateway Media: ---------------------------------------------Port range: 50600/32 RTCP enable: on . 0 mins is equivalent to disable the SessionTimeOut feature. Option off on Description Turn off the RTCP support. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command and a default value (if applicable).AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 407 Description This command enables RTCP. Default Value off Example --> voip media set rtcp on See also VOIP MEDIA SET DSCP VOIP MEDIA SET SESSIONTIMEOUT Syntax VOIP MEDIA SET SESSIONTIMEOUT <mins> Description This command sets the maximum timeout interval used to detect a fail in the incoming RTP speech packets. Default Value min 0 Example --> voip media set sessiontimeout 1 See also VOIP MEDIA SHOW VOIP MEDIA SHOW Syntax VOIP MEDIA SHOW Description This command shows the media values defined by the VOIP MEDIA SET PORTRANGE or VOIP MEDIA SET RTCP commands. Enable the RTCP support. the other endpoint is considered disconnected and the active call is released.

.408 Chapter 18 – VoIP Media and QoS RTP session time-out: See also VOIP MEDIA SET PORTRANGE VOIP MEDIA SET RTCP VOIP MEDIA SET SESSIONTIMEOUT 1 Mins.

AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 409 .

set top boxes. As a result. network administrator operations can be very expensive and in-field configuration takes a lot of time. PCs) that need to be configured. The number of components can be very high and often the configuration of these devices to get them up and running requires a lot of work for network administrators.ZTC Chapter 19 ZTC Introduction Wide Area Networks consist of a lot of components (hubs.410 Chapter 19 . . residential gateways. so administrators can avoid having to connect to each device separately and repeat the same sequence of actions for each of them. Functional blocks The ZTC is a component-based application. The Zero Touch Configuration is able to update image software and unit configuration on multiple devices simultaneously. switches. which consists of different logical blocks that can be distributed on independent runtime environments or machines (see Figure 23). The Zero Touch Configurator (ZTC) is a tool designed to enable a network administrator to configure and manage network devices remotely and automatically without end-user intervention. routers.

. user management). • The ZTC Server. Through the ZTC-Shell. if existing. This client is installed on the devices to communicate with the ZTC Server. that contains all the application logic for: • User authentication and authorisation • • • • • Data consistency and syntax checking when requesting to add a new device configuration Application logic for creating new configuration scripts Application logic to execute commands on the device Data Access Object layer to access the data tier Several protocols for supporting different kind of clients • The ZTC WEB Interface. • The ZTC Embedded Client. or add new ones. This application lest users interact with the ZTC Server. Typically. all the main operations can be performed (read.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 411 RMI ZTC Shell HTTP ZTC Web Interface RMI ZTC Server LDAP LDAP Server WEB Browser RMI TFTP plugin TFTP file system TFTP Server ZTC Client Figure 23. The components of ZTC are independent. Through this interface they can view or update existing configurations. new configurations from ZTC Server • The ZTC Shell can be created for testing. ZTC Network Architecture The ZTC Network Architecture consists of the following parts: • An LDAP directory service in which data is stored. ZTC network architecture. It’s possible to access the ZTC-Server from the ZTC-Shell. and they can run on different machines and platforms. write. the devices connect to ZTC Server to perform the following operations: • Communicate their actual configuration to ZTC Server • Download. in a three-tiered architecture fashion. not for operational use.

is decoupled from the ZTC server. ZTC Client and ZTC Server communicate through TFTP protocol. The following three ZTC Client – ZTC Server communication phases are possible: • Pull-at-startup – This phase is executed when the unit startup. the ZTC client module is bind to an existing IP interface using the ztcclient enable dynamic listeninterface command. .412 Chapter 19 . ZTC Client The ZTC Embedded Client. The ZTC server IP address con be configured in the ZTC client module in two ways: statically or dynamically. Similarly to the static configuration. When the ZTC client needs to know the ZTC Server address. In this way the ZTC client module uses the facilities offered by the dhcpclient module to force the IP interface to ask to an external DHCP server the ZTC Server address. The ZTC WEB Interface. or. ZTC server has the responsibility to allow the download only of the correct configuration file depending on the unit identifier (the unit MAC address) and on the configuration rules defined inside the ZTC Server.This phase is executed every time the ztcclient polling timeout expires. ZTC Client is in charge to contact the ZTC server passing the current configuration. Attempting to enable ZTC client module dynamically on a static IP interface results is an error. shortly. the unit identifier and retrieves the new configuration if necessary. the ZTC Server IPv4 address is defined explicitly using the ztcclient enable static ztcserveraddr command. is the module running on the Residential Gateway in charge to communicate with the ZTC server. • When a dynamic configuration is used. a DHCP request is generated by the IP interface requesting a value for option 67 "bootfilename". used to interact with the ZTC Server. ZTC client works accordingly to the so-called "Configuration PULL" method. and can run on different machines. it's a dynamic IP interface. ztcclient enable dynamic listeninterface command turns on the ztcclient module forcing the module to query the server to retrieve the unit configuration file. The ZTC Client module as ZTC Server IP address uses the value returned by the DHCP server for option 67. ZTC client can be enabled dynamically only if the IP interface where it is bind. • Scheduled-pull. It manages the dialogue with the directory service backend and performs all operations on data. This command set the server IP address that will be used by all the next queries and also turns on the ztcclient module forcing the module to query the server to retrieve the unit configuration file. • When a static configuration is used. . the ZTC Client.ZTC The core of the application is the ZTC Server.

the application filename and a value derived from the current running configuration (that. • The ZTC server checks if there is a configuration for the Residential Gateway looking for the device MAC address into the LDAP server. • As soon the network is configured. during the bootstrap process. the Residential Gateway uses the facilities provided by the DHCP client module to setup the IP interface configuration. This behavior allows network administrator to control the unit configuration based only on the configuration file defined by the ZTC server framework. Pull-at-startup Figure 24 shows the Pull-at-startup phase executed by the ZTC client module when the Residential Gateway boostraps. These information define the current device status. This solution prevents memory flash failure when too many write requests are executed. the current running configuration is the result of the bootstrap configuration plus the unit configuration downloaded from ZTC server. When ZTC client is enabled. • The device executes the configuration file and starts the ZTC client timeout. If the unit restarts. it loses the previous downloaded configuration and starts from the bootstrap configuration. the CLI is locked. • Considering a scenario where ZTC Client is bind to a dynamic IP interface.g. . • When the timeout expires the Scheduled-pull phase is executed. The timeout defines the polling period before ZTC Server will be contacted.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 413 Storing Unit Configuration The configuration file downloaded from ZTC server is never stored permanently into the unit flash file system. When ZTC Client is enabled. and if necessary. • The ZTC Client contacts the ZTC server. it is null). Unlocking the CLI stops the ZTC client module. passing in the parameters list the Residential Gateway's MAC address. • The dynamic IP interface receives the new network configuration and the ZTC server address in the "bootfile-name" DHCP option. the ZTC Client runs. the system configuration save command) could change the bootstrap configuration file and therefore the resulting configuration when ZTC Client runs could be unpredictable. at boostrap. it returns the configuration file to the device. To unlock it. Any action that save permanently the configuration (e. press the "+" key.

. Pull-at-Startup ZTC phase. it reboots in order to execute the new configuration starting from a "well known" status: the boostrap configuration. and if necessary. the application filename and the hash key derived from the current running configuration.414 Chapter 19 . • The ZTC Client contacts the ZTC server. Scheduled-pull Figure 25 shows the Scheduled-pull phase executed by the ZTC client module when the ztcclient polling timeout expires. • The ZTC server checks if there is a configuration for the Residential Gateway looking for the device MAC address into the LDAP server. Start ZTC timeout ZTC idle Figure 24. • When the device receives the new configuration. These information define the actual state of the device. it returns the configuration file to the device. passing in the parameters list the Residential gateway MAC address.ZTC Residential Gateway DHCP server ZTC Server LDAP Database NULL Unit Bootstrap Setup Dyn Interface DHCP Request DHCP Ack (ZTC Server address) Start ZTCClient TFTP Read Request Software Release: <application filename> Unit Identifier: <unit mac address> Current Unit Config: null Retrieve Configuration File TFTP Data Packets (unit configuration commands list) Configuration File Run new conf.

. the ZTC client contacts again the ZTC server and execute exactly the same procedure defined in the Pull-at-startup phase. Scheduled-pull ZTC phase. Residential Gateway ZTC Server LDAP Database ZTC idle ZTC Timeout expires Start ZTCClient TFTP Read Request Software Release: <application filename> Unit Identifier: <unit mac address> Client Config: current config Retrieve Configuration File Configuration File compare Client config with LDAP config Yes ABORT TFTP Is it the same? No TFTP Data Packets (unit configuration commands list) Unit restart TFTP Read Request Software Release: <application filename> Unit Identifier: <unit mac address> Client Config: null Retrieve Configuration File Start ZTCClient TFTP Data Packets (unit configuration commands list) Configuration File Run new conf. Start ZTC timeout ZTC idle Figure 25.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 415 • Because the Residential Gateway never stores the configuration downloaded from ZTC server.

Default Value N/A Example --> ztcclient enable dynamic listeninterface ip0 See also ZTCCLIENT DISABLE . ZtcClient commands The table below lists the ztcclient commands provided by the CLI: Command ZTCCLIENT ENABLE DYNAMIC ZTCCLIENT ENABLE STATIC ZTCCLIENT DISABLE ZTCCLIENT SHOW ZTCCLIENT SET ZTCCLIENT UPDATE ZTCCLIENT ENABLE DYNAMIC Syntax ZTCCLIENT ENABLE DYNAMIC LISTENINTERFACE <ipinterface> Description This command enables the ztcclient and bind it on an existing dynamic IP interface. This command automatically creates a specific configuration rule that applies to the IP interface in order to force the dhcpclient module to request the ZTC server address inside the option list of the DHCP discover request sent to the external DHCP server. AT-RG623 and AT-RG656 Residential Gateway to configure and manage the ZTC Client module.416 Chapter 19 . Options The following table gives the range of values for each option. use the IP LIST INTERFACE command. thus it must have the DHCP flag enabled. use the ztcclient update command. This command requests that <ipinterface> is defined as dynamic interface.ZTC ZTC Command reference This section describes the commands available on the AT-RG613. To see the list of existing interfaces. To apply changes to the ZTC client module and turn on it. which can be specified with this command. and a default value (if applicable). Option ipinterface Description The name of an existing IP interface.

Example --> ztcclient disable See also ZTCCLIENT ENABLE ZTCCLIENT SHOW Syntax ZTCCLIENT SHOW Description This command shows the ZTC client configuration parameters.GENERAL PARAMETERS enabled: false dynamic: true configuration timeout: server address in use: .10 .3 See also ZTCCLIENT DISABLE ZTCCLIENT DISABLE Syntax ZTCCLIENT DISABLE Description This command disables the ztcclient module.3) Default Value ztcserveraddr N/A Example --> ztcclient enable static ztcserveraddr 192.168.168.1.168. To apply changes to the ZTC client module and turn on it. use the ztcclient update command.DYNAMIC CONFIGURATION 60 seconds 192. and set the ZTC Server IP address. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command.102. Option Description The IP address of the interface used to connect to the ZTC Server.g. and a default value (if applicable). The IP address must be specified in IPv4 format (e. 192.102. ZTC CLIENT CONFIGURATION . Example The following example shows the ZTC client parameters when a dynamic configuration is set.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 417 ZTCCLIENT ENABLE STATIC Syntax ZTCCLIENT ENABLE STATIC ZTCSERVERADDR <ztcserveraddr> Description This command enables the ztcclient.

Acceptable values are from 20 to 65535 secs Default Value configtimeout 60 Example --> ztcclient set configtimeout 30 ZTCCLIENT UPDATE Syntax ZTCCLIENT UPDATE Description This command saves the changes made with ZTCCLIENT SET CONFIGTIMEOUT and ZTCCLIENT ENABLE DYNAMIC or ZTCCLIENT ENABLE DYNAMIC commands and turn on the polling timeout. and a default value (if applicable). Example --> ztcclient update .STATIC CONFIGURATION server address for static configuration: 0.0.0 ZTCCLIENT SET Syntax ZTCCLIENT SET CONFIGTIMEOUT <configtimeout> Description This command changes the value of the configtimeout.ZTC interface: ip0 . Option Description The time that the ztcclient module stays in standby before checking the system configuration against the ztc server configuration. Options The following table gives the range of values for each option which can be specified with this command.0.418 Chapter 19 . which is the polling time interval before the ZTC client contacts the ZTC Server to check if a new configuration is available.

it's possible use one of the following solutions depending on the type of upgrade requested: • • • • using FTP using TFTP using the Windows™ based Loader application using the SwUpdate client module . to prevent file system corruption. To save permanently the contents of the isfs file system into flashfs file system. the flashfs file system is never access directly. All these files are stored permanently into the system flashfs file system and loaded during the unit bootstrap. all the changes made into the isfs file system are lost. During normal operation mode. To upgrade the AT-RG600 software. running into RAM. Programs that access (read or write) files stored into flashfs file system. named isfs (see chapter 1). If the unit is powered off. use the system configuration save command. use a copy of the flashfs file system.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 419 Chapter 20 Software Update Introduction AT-RG600 Residential Gateway software consists of the system application file (named image) plus additional support files. upload a new file or download an existing file.

it's possible browse the isfs file system with the ftp LIST command.420 Chapter 20 – Software Update FTP server AT-RG600 Residential Gateway implements an internal FTP server that provides access to the isfs file system. Then. TFTP server Similarly to FTP. When connected. using the same name defined for SNMP community write. simply use a FTP client application and login with the same username and password used for telnet access. but only packets acknowledge and packet retransmission. the content of isfs is copied back into flashfs and the unit is forced to reboot in order to restart from the new application code (or with the new configuration files). . it's possible request or sends the configuration file. FTP connection is used typically to download into the Residential Gateway a new image file but can be used also to retrieve or to download configuration and support files too. it doesn't result in a system restart when the connection is closed. when a file is loaded into the Residential Gateway using the tftp facility. TFTP is a file transfer protocol that is based on UDP transport protocol and therefore it less reliable than ftp.key". There is no connection control. To connect the FTP module. This file is a simple ASCII file that includes the TFTP password without any encryption. To retrieve or download a file from/to the Residential gateway it's necessary unlock the TFTP server sending (TFTP write request command) a special command file having filename "tftplock. Differently for FTP. TFTP connection is used typically to download or retrieve configuration and support files. Each TFTP connection is protected against uncontrolled access. AT-RG600 Residential Gateway support also an internal TFTP server that provide access both to flashfs and isfs file system. When the ftp connection is closed.

.key TFTP Write Request: filename TFTP Data or TFTP Read Request: filename TFTP Data Figure 26. The maximum file size that can be downloaded into the Residential Gateway is 8kbyte. Access to the Residential Gateway TFTP server. The loader can be used to upgrade an existing software version or can be used to download a new complete software release if the Residential Gateway is running in recovery mode.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 421 TFTP Client TFTP Write Request: tftplock. Windows™ Loader To upgrade the AT-RG600 Residential Gateway a special Windows™ based application has been developed: the Loader. To download files larger than 8kbyte use the FTP service. When using the Loader. all the existing configuration files are kept. When the Loader is used to upgrade the Residential Gateway from a previous software release. The loader uses the TFTP services provided by the Residential Gateway to download on the unit the application file plus all the other support files avoiding the user to download each file separately. the IP address of the residential Gateway must be selected and the SNMP community write name is requested as session password (see Figure 27).

SwUpdate module is a basic FTP client module running on the Residential Gateway that contacts periodically a TFTP server and retrieves from it the required software or support files.422 Chapter 20 – Software Update Figure 27. SwUpdate retrieves the TFTP Server address from a specific option (option 66 tftpserver-name) passed by the external DHCP server to the Residential Gateway IP interface. The Windows™ Loader SwUpdate module FTP. It then uses the path passed as filename string to navigate into the TFTP server. the Residential Gateway will consider only DHCP Offers that include the option 60 (dhcp-class-identifier) with one of the following possible values depending on the product code: "RG603" . In order to distinguish the correct DHCP Offer (in case more than one DHCP server is present in the network). In order to maintain backward compatibility with existing upgrade solutions. TFTP and Windows™ Loader are three upgrade solutions based on external client applications that typically require user manual operation or the development of dedicated script files. SwUpdate is able to manage software upgrades similarly to the DHCPCONF feature available on AT-RG200 Residential Gateway family.

DHCPCONF like SwUpdate operation mode.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 423 "RG613TX" "RG613TXJ" "RG613SH" "RG613LH" "RG613BD" "RG623TX" "RG623SH" "RG623LH" "RG623BD" "RG656TX" "RG656BD" "RG656LH" "RG656SH" SwUpdate is designed to download only the files that differ or are not present into the Residential Gateway file-system... a special file named MD5SUM must be created on the TFTP server. Residential Gateway NULL Unit Bootstrap DHCP Server TFTP Server DHCP Request: option 66 tftp-server-name option 60 dhcp-class-identifier DHCP Offer: filename: <tftp path> option 66: <tftp server address> option 60: dhcp-class-identifier = "rg6xx" Retrieve TFTP list file: MD5SUM TFTP files: image.conf. im. . In order to inform the SwUpdate module about which files it must download from the TFTP server.dat. . Unit restart Figure 28. derivedata.

rg613 initbun.rg656 NPimage services snmpd. the SwUpdate skip this download. To create the MD5SUM file it's possible use the md5sum command available under standard Linux platforms (free md5sum applications are available also under Windows™ Operating System). Example: Assuming the all the files included in the current directory must be downloaded into the Residential Gateway.conf im.factory im.eg1004 initbun.rg623 initbun. The MD5SUM file is a list of filename where each file name has associated the MD5 value.conf.tab version xgate_initbun . the following command must be used to generate the MD5SUM file: root# md5sum * > MD5SUM the MD5SUM file will list the following informations: 96643c6e3af928990ed42a42dda2c554 7cf32ce7ba89ab67f977a71ae5b205cd 6d3dabc798da4ec9267615f12d1d2a43 810fd9bbababa67844e75e6846805e65 fb32c37e1457fcc1304d9cf74cd19bad 444aa423a8d8a2d74640953ff6537948 6400dc3f72433a674f99c5b98aa5dae3 026238c689022c21468df407a5daaef6 b87817d7b9a6c81cc8570deb9e270f34 24ae0c8518b7a98a5aa1c34563032c42 1d0c14e81301cb630912790d077b79c0 08d016fe02cc6bde27110dc453e2b7b5 4634050e6bf5e91d5a5872c3eb08d56a 1b5498efa91b0d901a1235347b15e407 fd1fb4825195c080206104ac0443427f 147e3239ce2f712340fa786f0a55a088 d55d9bd33ae47f4ea3acb39ae950a952 5ed6d58a9482d7aa0b44ff28a1e8ca7e 6927f315890f4209b8a406a1ee75595a 0a48b795c03a4a012d1ba77dd647c307 47abd829e3ccf727f9e8b29cbf52ed1e f9ae2f9ec26a5af37418be160fe67339 5318c5d07deb1c00dd42628b0d6f7af6 ea8fd2f8c81724291d1b0bcdb8e93df6 cleanup cliconsole consoleinit derived_data.dat dnsrelaylandb image im.cnf snmpinit translate.conf.rg603 initbun. it retrieves immediately this file and then it download each file reported by this list.ztc_enabled_dynamic im. If a file reported into the MD5SUM list is already present into the Residential Gateway file-system with the same MD5 value.rg613txj initbun.424 Chapter 20 – Software Update When the SwUpdate module connects to the TFTP server.descriptions initbun initbun. otherwise it will download it.

TFTP working directory SwUpdate is able to navigate into the FTP/TFTP server directory. For example if the home directory is: /home/manager and the Residential Gateway path address is set to: at-rg600-software-xxx the working directory will be: /home/manager/at-rg600-software-xxx . The working directory can be specified defining in the SwUpdate module a parameter named path. SwUpdate will change the remote directory on the TFTP server accordingly to the filename option passed in the DHCP Offer message.AT-RG 600 Residential Gateway – Software Reference Manual 425 Plug-and-play If the Residential Gateway is set with dynamic IP interface and the DHCP server sends the option 66 tftp-file-name togheter with option 60 (dhcp-class-identifier) equal to same product code of the Residential Gateway. It identifies the relative path respect the login home directory where the SwUpdate module expects to found the files. SwUpdate module sets the server address to the address specified by the tftp-file-name option and will uses the TFTP protocol to retrieve the MD5SUM file instead of the FTP protocol.

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