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English translation by Corrado Conti and Leonardo Ratafià Final revision by Andrea Lojelo, Marius Carey, Mika Raymond and Paul O' Brien
Introduction Basic concepts TIRES screen SUSPENSION screen – Springs – Dampers – Preload – Rod – Packers – ARB CORNER screen – Camber – Toe – Pressure SETUP screen – Brakes – Fuel – Steer ratios – Caster – Wings – Gear ratio – Differential VIEW screen – FOV – Seat position – Virtual mirror – Force Feedback Settings – Colored bars page 3 page 4 page 5 page 7 page 7 page 8 page 10 page 10 page 11 page 11 page 13 page 13 page 14 page 14 page 16 page 16 page 17 page 17 page 17 page 17 page 19 page 19 page 21 page 21 page 22 page 22 page 22 page 22
This guide has been designed and written with the intention to clarify and simplify certain concepts regarding the setup of a racing car for the simulator netKar PRO. This is not meant to be a treated as the final word on race car setup. It’s the fruit of my own knowledge and personal experience as well as my interpretation of resources available in books and websites devoted to the topic. Special thanks to "Miles Glorious " and "Kunos" for the technical advice and thanks to the authors of the source material from which I have drawn inspiration. Happy reading.
A “setup” is the set of adjustments of a vehicle’s mechanical components, that optimizes its driving performance and its ability to maintain the speed and trajectory set by the driver. The setup is closely related to suspension, steering system, tires, chassis and wings or “spoilers”. Each piece, when changed, influences the behavior of the other components, and it contributes to the overall "car balance." Everything must be kept in balance to avoid unpredictable behavior and sudden loss of control. The road stability is the capacity of the vehicle to maintain the trajectory set by the driver. When cornering, the centrifugal force pushes the car towards the outside. If the centrifugal force is greater than the force of friction holding the tires on the asphalt we have two different types of grip loss. If the front tires lose grip it's called understeer (tendency of the car to go straight), when the rear tires lose traction, it's called oversteer (tendency of the car to turn around and go into a spin). During motion a car is subjected to weight transfer. During a corner much of the weight is transferred on the outside of the turn, loading the suspension. This is called “rolling”. Under acceleration and braking instead, the weight is transferred respectively to the rear and the front of the car by loading the respective suspensions. This is called “pitching”. We close this introductory note explaining, in a rough outline, the 3 major forces that come into play: downforce, lift and drag. Downforce is the aerodynamic force that "pushes" the vehicle to the ground. In contrast, lift indicates the force that “pulls” the vehicle up. Also during motion aerodynamic drag comes into play, which is the aerodynamic force that is opposed to forward progress.
The tires are the only element that connects the car to the ground and therefore their optimisation is crucial for peak performance. The tires are affected by many factors such as stiffness of the spring/dampers, anti-roll bars, camber angle, caster angle, toe, downforce and tire pressure. Generally the more rigid the structure is (springs / shocks / anti-roll bars) the harder the tires will work, and heat up, because will be forced to do "extra work". We can say that if you have a fairly uniform temperature between the outside, center and inside, the tire is working properly; usually the tires offer better grip with temperature differences between the inside and outside of 5 ° / 10 °. nKPro optimal temperatures are around 80 ° for the slick and 60 ° for the grooved tires. MOUNT FRONT / REAR: Mount new tires WEAR: Mileage of the tires currently mounted on the car IMO: An abbreviation for Inside, Middle and Outside, displays tire temperatures on the inside, middle and outer side. Imagine you're seated in the driver’s seat then, the rectangle "IMO" top left shows the temperatures of the left front tire, the top right of the front right, rear left of the bottom left and bottom right of the right rear. The following are examples of temperature readings and analysis of results from a single tire: – 95 80 75 = too much negative camber – 75 80 95 = too much positive camber – 95 80 95 = pressure too low – 80 95 80 = pressure too high – 90 90 70 = pressure too high and too much negative camber
– 90 70 70 = pressure too low and too much negative camber The additional rectangles to the right display the type of tires that are mounted on the car.
The task of the springs is to carry the weight of the car and absorb uneven road surfaces. A soft spring will offer more grip than a hard spring, but also it will accentuate roll and pitch and result in less precise car control. A soft spring also requires greater ground clearance to avoid “bottoming out” and scraping the undercarriage. The ultimate objective of adjusting the spring is to maximize traction, cornering grip and vertical movements of the car. Edit / effect: – Soften front = increases grip at the front at the expense of stability and steering precision, increases oversteer when cornering, decreases traction especially in corner exit, increases cornering grip on uneven surfaces, less front tire wear, need to increase front ride height, greater pitch forward when braking – Stiffen the front = increase stability and understeer, more understeer when cornering, better traction especially in corner exit, less cornering grip on uneven surfaces, front tire wear increases, quicker driving response, less pitch forward when braking – Soften rear = increase rear grip and increase understeer, better traction in corner exit, more grip and traction while cornering on uneven surfaces, less rear tire wear, slower driving response, need to increase the rear ride height. – Stiffen the rear = reduction of rear grip and the balance of the car moves towards oversteer, loss of traction in corner exit, less grip and traction while cornering on uneven surfaces, more rear tire wear, quicker driving response – Soften front and rear = more grip and traction while cornering on uneven surfaces, less tire wear, slower driving response, need to increase the ride height
– Stiffen the front and rear = ability to use lower ride heights and lower the center of gravity and therefore generate more downforce, less grip and traction while cornering on uneven surfaces, Increased tire wear, quicker driving response Hz: Displayed in the center bar at the bottom. Hz is the unit of measurement (cycles per second) for an oscillating motion. The car’s body is suspended on the suspension’s springs and the tires, so, by definition is an “oscillator”. The oscillation frequency indicates how "rigid" the setup of a vehicle is regardless of its weight. This unit of measurement helps to standardize the “stiffness” or “rigidity” of different cars unrelated to their respective weight and spring load. If we just used the spring load to express the rigidity of a car this value would not take into consideration other factors, most importantly the weight of the vehicle. For instance a 500Kg car on a 20 N/mm spring would be much stiffer than a 1000kg car on the same spring. This "variability" is overcome by using Hz. If I have a car that measures 2Hz we are expressing its value independently of the weight and spring stiffness involved. This mechanism not only works well for comparing different cars, but also to compare different axes on the same car. Suppose you have a car with 60% of the weight on the front; if you set the same springs on the front and rear, then the rear axle would be clearly more rigid. By expressing everything in Hz instead, we make it independent of the weight and if, for example, we have a machine with 2Hz behind and 2Hz in front we are sure to have the same level of stiffness on the two axes. Edit / effect: – Front and rear with the same frequency in Hz = balanced car – Front with more Hz = car understeer – Rear with more Hz = car oversteer It can be divided in different categories of cars depending on the frequency of the spring at the wheel: – 0.5 to 1.5 Hz = standard car – 1.5 to 2.5 Hz = racing car without wings or ground effects – 2.5 to 3.0 Hz = low downforce racing cars and GT cars – 3.0 to 4.5 Hz = racing car with moderate downforce – From 4.5 to 8.0 + Hz = racing car with high downforce Generally, with most of the cars we tend to use a frequency of 10-20% higher in the rear than the front; this "rule" does not always apply to cars with wings, where the frequency is often higher on the front than the rear. The aim is to have a front that has very little changes in height while the rear will lower considerably on the straights reducing the “rake” (rake is the difference in height between the front and the rear of a car; when the front of the car is lower than the rear it's called “positive rake”), and consequently drag and downforce, thus increasing speed. Alternatively you can use higher “packers” to reduce front travel while maintaining relatively soft springs. Some cars use a third spring to accomplish the same effect.
The shock absorber (damper) is the element that "restricts" the oscillations produced when the spring is compressed and released. The damper must always be adjusted depending on the spring used and not vice versa; since a damper set too soft will not be able to "slow down" the oscillations produced by a spring that's too hard. The damper also controls the rolling and pitching, so they are very important for the dynamic behavior of the car. You can modify the dampers in the following parameters:
FAST BUMP: Determines the behavior of the compressed shock on bumpy asphalt and curbs. Too high (stiff) values do not allow the suspension to compress quickly enough to follow the undulations of the road, on the contrary too low (soft) can make the car "float" or max out the spring / suspension. FAST REBOUND: Determines the behavior of the shock in the extension phase on bumpy asphalt and curbs to ensure good contact with the asphalt. SLOW BUMP: It determines the behavior of the compressed shock on the transitions (braking, acceleration, change of direction). Increasing this value, the compression is slowed down during the transition, decreasing it is speeded up. SLOW REBOUND: Determines the behavior of the extended shock during transitions (braking, acceleration and change of direction). Increasing this value slows down the extension during the transition, decreasing it speeds it up. Edit / effect: Front: – Softer Compression = increased grip at the front at the expense of stability – Stiffer Compression = slows the weight transfer in the initial stage of braking – Softer Extension = may considerably decrease understeer in the middle of the corner at expenses of stability. – Stiffer Extension = reduces understeer in mid-corner and can lead to oversteer on exit Rear: – Softer Compression = better grip and traction at the rear, may increase understeer during all phases of the corner. – Stiffer compression = reduces understeer on corner entry and mid-corner, can lead to oversteer while accelerating at corner exit – Softer Extension = can significantly reduce understeer on corner entry at the expense of stability – Stiffer Extension = may increase understeer on corner entry % CRITICAL: Displayed in the center bar at the bottom, shows the percentage of critical damping, which is the point where the amount of damping stops the oscillations of the spring. The amount of damping is characterized by a damping coefficient; the higher this ratio, the faster the spring is damped. A critical damping of 1.0 (100%) corresponds to the value in which all the force is dissipated without oscillations. We can roughly say that a coefficient greater than 0.5 is ideal for control of the car’s body, therefore this value is used for 'slow' adjustments of the shock absorbers, while values between 0.3 and 0.4 are excellent at damping the imperfections of asphalt and curbs and are generally used for 'fast' adjustments of the shock absorbers . The damping coefficients depend on several factors; experience has shown that these values are recommended: – Fast Bump and Fast Rebound = 0.3 to 0.4, in every case should be lower than the corresponding "slow" values – Slow Bump = 0.5 to 0.7; as a last resort, 1,2 if it’s necessary to make the tires work – Slow Rebound = 0.5 to 0.7; if the weight transfer control is insufficient then try 0.3 The following chart shows the behavior of the different damping coefficients.
The preload is the pre-compression of the spring in its initial condition. A spring is always preloaded. The preload acts on the spring by varying the shock’s travel and ride height of the car. In vehicles without suspension arm for the height adjustment , adjusting the preload is the only way to change the height from the ground. For vehicles equipped with arm instead, it may be useful to change the travel of the shock while maintaining the desired height. Please note that preload does not change the stiffness of the spring, for example a 100N/mm spring preloaded with 10mm is as stiff as the same spring preloaded with 30mm. What changes is "when" the spring will begin to work. In fact, a spring preloaded to 10N will start working only after this threshold, and not before.
The ROD value is the length of the arm that connects the wheel to the suspension, changing the height from the ground but leaving unchanged the position of the piston inside the shock, and therefore not altering the stroke. Ride height also affects the downforce of the vehicle (a component of the aerodynamic forces pressing the vehicle to the ground). The closer the bottom of the vehicle is to the ground, the more downforce it will create, as well as lowering the center of gravity. On cars with wings it's normal to have the rear higher than the front, as the downforce pushing the car down, is greater at the rear. On cars without wings, the height is used to adjust understeer and oversteer. It's preferable to have ride height as low as possible to increase downforce and grip. A lower car will require stiffer springs, shock absorbers and anti-roll bars. RIDE: The “actual” height from the ground is displayed on the bar at the bottom left and refers to car while it’s standing still. F displays the height of the front, R dispays the height of the rear. Edit / effect: – Increase front = weight shifts towards the rear, more understeer due to less load on the front, you may soften the front spring
– Decrease front = weight shifts towards the front, more grip from the front tires, increasing oversteer or reducing understeer, may limit the use of soft springs on the front – Increase rear = weight shifts towards the front, the car tends to oversteer, you may soften the rear springs – Decrease rear = weight shifts towards the rear, balance tends to understeer / less oversteer, may limit the use of soft springs – Increase front and rear = can allow the use of soft springs to increase the performance on uneven surfaces and traction out of corners – Decrease front and rear = may touch the ground with the bottom of the car, may limit the use of soft springs, lower the center of gravity, increase the overall downforce
The packers are spacers placed on the damper’s shaft and are used to limit the suspension’s movement. This is useful to prevent the bottom of the car from hitting the ground without increasing the car's ground clearance. The value in brackets is the stroke of the shock. Increasing the value of the packer reduces the stroke.
The anti-roll bar (or anti-sway bar) is a semi-rigid bar attached to the center of the frame and to the suspension’s extremities. Its purpose is to transfer the movement and some of the suspension load to the other side of the same axle during cornering to find the optimal balance between understeer and oversteer. When using a rigid bar the car will roll less and acquire responsiveness and accuracy during changes of direction. It will, however, also have less lateral grip due to having less weight on the inside wheel and more on the outside one. The hardness of the bar determines how much load is transferred from one wheel to another. Acting on the front bar can be very important to influence the overall behavior of the car, while changes to the rear are very helpful in particular for optimising corner exit. In summary we can say that a soft bar will increase the lateral grip at the expense of speed and accuracy during changes of direction, while a rigid bar will decrease grip but will increase speed and precision. Edit/effect: – Soften the front = shifts the balance of the car to oversteer, less prompt driving response, better grip on curbs and bumps, less front tire wear. – Stiffen the front = increases the overall stability and shifts the balance of the car to understeer, less grip on uneven surfaces, quicker driving response, greater front tire wear – Soften rear = more understeer when cornering, more traction out of corners, increased cornering grip on uneven surfaces, slower driving response, less rear tire wear – Stiffen the rear = more oversteer when cornering, less traction out of corners, less grip when cornering on uneven surfaces, quicker driving response, greater rear tire wear – Soften front and rear = more traction and cornering grip, less tire wear, slower driving response, more roll
– Stiffen the front and rear = less cornering grip and loss of traction on uneven surfaces, increased tire wear, quicker driving response, limited roll % ROLL FRONT: The distribution of rolling momentum on the front. This value is a function of three variables (2 in the case of the F2000 and Ftarget that mount the mono shock at the front) 1) Stiffness of the springs (if not a mono-shock) 2) Anti-roll bar stiffness 3) Axle Track (distance between wheels on the same axle) The ROLL COUPLE% expresses how the load moves from one side to the other of the car and how it is distributed between the front and rear: – ROLL% equal to the weight distribution of the car = car balanced – ROLL% higher than the weight distribution of the car = understeer Cars in nKPro have the following weight distributions: – 500 Abarth AC= 64% front – F1600 = 44% front – F1800 = 43% front – F2000 = 45% front – FTarget = 41% front – KS2 = 46% front – Osella PA-21S = 44% front – Vintage GT = 47% front As a starting point you can use a percentage equal to the static rolling weight distribution +5% , although it is normal to have a front roll percentage of 51-53%.
Camber is the angle between the vertical axis of the wheels and the vertical axis of the vehicle when viewed from the front or rear. If the top of the wheel is further out than the bottom (that’s, away from the axle), it is called positive camber; if the bottom of the wheel is further out than the top, it is called negative camber. If the axis of the ground and tires are the same, the camber angle is zero. This adjustment is made to allow the tire to have the largest footprint possible while negotiating a corner, since the centrifugal force tends to "push" the car out by compressing the suspension and reducing the camber angle (that tends to go positive), and consequently reducing the footprint of the tire tread. Also, due to the lateral acceleration, the sidewall of the tire, which is not rigid, tends to deform and camber adjustment also serves to compensate for this deformation. If the camber in a static position is zero, during cornering this will change to positive camber and move the tire patch toward the outer wall, decreasing the grip. Increasing the camber (negative) facilitates cornering grip, but will reduce grip during acceleration and braking in a straight line, as this will decrease the tire's footprint during forward motion. In this setting we must also take into account the stiffness of the suspension and tire pressure, as a car with soft suspension will require more negative camber than a car with a rigid suspension. In a race car we always use negative camber (except rare cases, for example on oval circuits). The camber is very important to utilise the tires in an optimum way and is precisely adjusted according to temperature detected.
Edit/effect: – Negative camber = more grip in corners and higher top speed – Zero camber = more grip during acceleration and braking in a straight line CAMBER: The “real” camber is displayed in the center bar at the bottom (camber). LF (left front) refers to the left front wheel, RF (right front) to the right front, LR (left rear) to the left rear and (RR right rear) to the right rear.
Toe is the angle between the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and the central axis of the wheel. We have negative toe (toe-out) when the convergence is open (the front part of the tire is pointing towards the outside of the car) and positive toe (toe-in) when it is closed (the front of the tire is pointing towards the inside of the car). Toe adjustments are generally made to facilitate the turn-in and load transfer, but also have an impact at a constant speed through the corners and straights. During the weight transfer, toe-out tends to speed up the reaction and reduces the stability in that axis, especially when there is more vertical load on that axle; on the contrary toe-in tends to slow them down. Under conditions of constant speed in the middle of the corner, decreasing the weight on the opposite axis, toe-out causes understeer since the outer wheel is "directed" towards the outside of the corner. Opposite behavior is achieved using toe-in, with the outer wheel pointing towards the inside of the corner. In a straight line with zero toe (neutral), we will have less friction generated by the tire than if we use positive or negative toe, because the direction the tire is rolling coincides with the direction of the car. High toe angles (both positive and negative) lead to a lower speed and higher tire temperatures, as well as uneven tire wear. A positive toe will heat and consume too much of the outside of the tire, and negative toe will have the same effect on the inside of the tire. On production cars or cars with little modifications, acceleration and braking can change the toe angles; weight movement under braking tends to open up the toe on both axes, while accelerating traction tends to close it. Edit/Effect: – Open toe (Toe Out) = quicker steering response, make the car turning into a corner quicker, less stability – Close toe (Toe In) = slower steering response, make the car turn slower into a corner, car more stable
The correct tire pressure is essential for the performance and durability of the tires. Insufficient pressure cause overheating and irregular tire wear (on the outside and inside of the tire) that limit the duration and performance. Too high pressure cause a reduction in performance as the contact with the asphalt decreases and increases tire wear in the center of the tire. Pressure has a direct impact (but it's not the only factor) in the tire contact patch with the road. Also it affects pitch and roll. The "right" pressure is when the difference between the central and internal temperature is
equal to the one between the central and external. In other words, the central temperature should be the average between the internal and external. Edit/Effect: – Low pressure = more contact area, more rolling friction, tire overheating – High pressure = less contact area, lower rolling friction, lower temperatures
The brake is the device used to slow or stop the movement of the car. The type of brake most often used is a disc brake which employs friction between the discs and pads; the latter are "pushed" hydraulically against the disc after the brake pedal is pressed. BRAKE BIAS: Defines how the total braking force is distributed between the front and rear tires; the closer the percentage is to 100%, the more the braking will be distributed between the front wheels, and the more the car will tend to understeer when braking. In contrast, away from 100% the braking is transferred to the rear wheels and the car will tend to oversteer when braking. During braking, the weight shifts to the front of the car, the brakes must be balanced to correct for the displacement of the weight and to avoid locking the front wheels (if the distribution is balanced towards the front) or rear (if the distribution is balanced towards the rear). It’s recommended to have a higher percentage of the braking towards the front to ensure greater stability. The ultimate goal of this adjustment is to maximize the overall brakes efficiency and to find the right balance when entering the corner. Edit/Effect: – Bias towards the front = understeer under braking, possibility of locking the front wheels – Bias towards the rear = oversteer under braking, possibility of locking the rear wheels
BRAKE MULT: Is the brake multiplier. Moving backwards from 100% (maximum braking force), applying the same pressure on the pedal, will result in less braking force, although it will be easier to modulate.
Indicates the level of fuel to be deployed in the tank. The greater the amount of fuel on board, the greater the weight of the car. This value also affects the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. FILL: Fill the tank with the amount of fuel selected.
The steering-ratio is the ratio of rotation between the steering wheel and the front wheels of the car. In practice with a steer-ratio of 10:1 the wheel will rotate by 1 ° every 10 ° of steering wheel. With low ratios the steering will be more direct, in contrast with high ratios the steering will be more progressive and controllable. The real cars simulated in nKPro use these steering ratio values: – 500 Abarth = 15:1 – F1600 = Unknown (recommended 13:1) – F1800 = Unknown (recommended 13:1) – F2000 = 12:1 – FTarget = 13:1 – KS2 = 12:1 – Osella PA-21S = Unknown (estimated 13:1) – Vintage GT = 16:1 For proper steering configuration it is also necessary to set steering linearity to 100% and your controller to 900 ° in the control panel; nKPro will then adjust automaticaly the correct steering wheel degrees for each car category.
Caster is the angle to which the steering pivot axis is tilted forward or rearward from vertical, as viewed from the side. To clarify the concept we imagine that the caster is the angle between a vertical line perpendicular to the ground and the front fork of a motorcycle, which takes the place of the fork upright. When the caster angle is more pronounced, the difference in camber of the wheels when cornering is greater. The caster changes the wheelbase of the car (distance between front and rear wheels), therefore a high caster angle increases the wheelbase, making the car more stable but less agile. In contrast, a reduced caster angle shortens the wheelbase improving agility when entering a corner, but decreasing stability. Edit/effect: – High caster= increased wheelbase, straight-line stability, higher camber with steered wheels, therefore static camber can be reduced. – Low caster = decreased wheelbase, increased agility in the turn in, more understeer in the middle of the corner.
The task of the wings (or Spoilers) is to create downforce (an aerodynamic force that presses the car to the ground). The greater the downforce, the greater the force that keeps the car stuck to the ground, and thus the greater the grip. On cars without wings, when moving through the air the shape of the car body generates lift (as well as resistance), and pulls up the car instead of pushing it down; this phenomenon is also harmful to the grip of the vehicle, and the more it is minimized, the better. Inclined wings produce more downforce but also produce more drag; a lower wing angle instead generates less downforce, but also less drag and more top speed. The effect of downforce varies approximately with the square of speed; with increasing speed the aerodynamics has more effect. In principle, the wings are more important in faster than slower parts of the track, where mechanical grip prevails over that generated by aerodynamics. It's important to find the right compromise between grip and maximum speed. So in high speed circuits we will use lower values than for the slower circuits; in twisty circuits with shorter straights, we will use high values to increase stability and grip. In general, the rear wing is adjusted to find a good compromise between grip and top speed, while the front is adjusted to find the desired balance in high speed corners. Edit/effect: – Increase front = increases the level of front grip, especially in high speed cornering and braking zones, increases drag and decreases understeer – Decrease front = decreases downforce on the front wheels, increasing understeer in fast corners – Increase rear = increases grip and greater stability in fast corners, lower top speed, increased understeer, reduces the height of the rear – Decrease rear = less stability in fast corners, reduces aerodynamic drag for the benefit of top speed, reduced rear grip FRONT WING: Change the angle of the front wing. REAR WING: Change the angle of the rear wing. It is usually larger than the front, and therefore has a greater effect on the behavior of the car. PROJECTED MAX SPEED: Speed estimated by the combination of wings and the gear ratios in use. PROJ. AERO CP: It's the position of the aerodynamic center of pressure with respect to center of gravity of the machine. In practice if it's the same as the center of gravity, the car has the same balance regardless of the speed, if it is behind the car acquires stability with increasing speed, if it's ahead it's the contrary, the machine loses stability and has more oversteer with increasing speed. This value must be somewhere between 50% and 60% of the wheelbase in order to properly balance the car; however, in nKPro the center of pressure is relative to the center of gravity and not the wheelbase. So, for example, if you want to use a center of pressure of 53% relative to the wheelbase on the F2000, which has a weight distribution of 45% front (ie 55% rear), you will have to move from 0% to 2% front. (number): The number in brackets next to "proj.aero cp" is the ratio between lift and drag. The higher the number, the more efficient the ratio between lift and drag.
Changing gear ratios is very important to take advantage of the full power of the engine on various tracks. For example, at the Prato circuit we cannot use the gear ratio we use at Newbury, because the two tracks are very different, and take advantage of the engine in a completely different way. At slower circuits it's better to use a short ratio to enable fast acceleration, while in high speed circuits long ratios allow higher speeds on the straights. In principle, we shall adjust the first gear for the slower corners and the last gear according to the fastest point on the track, in order to hit the rev limiter just before the braking point. The other gears should be adjusted so they don't have too much of a jump in speed between them. The gear ratios also affect the engine braking and fuel consumption. AUTO CLUTCH: Automatic Clutch. It’s useful for when not using 3 pedals. The automatic clutch does not affect engine stalling. SIMPLE GEAR: Allows you to change gears without requiring you to lift your foot off the gas pedal on vehicles without a sequential gearbox (500, F1600, F1800). Enabling this setting, the gear changes will be slower and less effective.
The differential is the mechanical device that allows the driven wheels to turn at different speeds from each other. During a turn the internal wheels travel less than the external ones, and if there wasno differential the wheels controlled by the engine would travel at the same speed causing one of the wheels to slip and therefore reducing grip and traction. The wheels can turn at different speeds not only during a corner but, for example, even when one wheel is on the curb or grass and the other is properly on the road. The moment a wheel loses traction, the differential, which transmits the same torque to each of the two wheels, is no longer able to transmit torque, increasing its speed and decreasing the torque on the other wheel, which at this point is no longer able to move the vehicle. This type of differential is known as "open". Evolution has led to the use of a differential called "auto-locking", that has the ability to lock, partially or completely, when difference between the wheels in speed or torque exceeds a certain threshold. This will allow redistributing the torque between wheels and decreasing their speed. COAST: The percentage of differential locking during braking. Low values increase the turn in speed but decrease stability. A higher value increases braking stability, but can lead to sudden oversteer (in the case of rear-wheel drive) or extreme understeer (in the case of front-wheel drive).
POWER: Indicates the percentage of differential locking during acceleration. Higher values will increase traction but decrease stability, lower values provide less efficient acceleration but applies it more progressively. PRELOAD: Indicates the percentage of differential locking in the neutral phase, i.e. neither during strong acceleration nor during the braking phase, so in most cases it acts at the middle of the corner. Higher values lead to understeer, and lower values oversteer.
The FOV is the field of view, that is what we see from the cockpit. There is a rule to calculate FOV that is "mathematically correct" and is equal to: FOV = arctan( AM*0.5 / DDM) *2 AM = height of the monitor screen, DDM = distance between our eyes to the screen, both expressed in meters. But the mathematically correct FOV is not what the driver would see in real life, so you have to adjust to a compromise. Low FOV (30) – More "track" view – Easier to evaluate with precision the racing line – Easier to evaluate how tight the corner is – Lack of side vision (cannot see the apex in tight corners) – Less sensation of speed FOV high (60 +) – Good side vision – Increased sensation of speed – Difficulty in assessing racing lines from cockpit view, the road in front of the car is obscured, 1m to the right or left becomes just a few pixels at the center of the screen – All corners seem to be 300km/h highway rated turns It's easy to see that the pros and cons of the two solutions are each the inverse of the other, so basically there is no rule about which is the better value, it's all very subjective.
SEAT HEIGHT: Raises and lowers the position of the seat inside the car. SEAT POS: Moves back and forth the position of the seat inside the car. NOTE: Changing the seat position does not alter or affect the FOV.
The V-Mirror (Virtual Mirror) "simulates" the central rear view mirror and allows a better view of the rear in addition to the side mirrors
FF GAIN: It’s basically the strength of FFB. The higher the value is, the harder the FFB will be but it will communicate less information to the wheel. On the contrary, a low value will communicate more information, but the driving force will be reduced. FF DAMPING: Increases the "brake" or resistance of the steering wheel to the speed of rotation. FF FRICTION: Increases the "brake" or resistance of the steering wheel regardless of the speed of rotation. NOTE: Damping and Friction can be helpful with the use of some wheels as BRD and G25 which have virtually zero friction in the gears. The DFP instead has enough "brake" and does not require these precautions.
The colored bars in the lower left are made visible by pressing the F8 key. The first three bars to the left indicate that the pedals are being pressed down. Conversely, if the bars are not visible the pedals are not being pressed. BLUE: Clutch pedal. If AutoClutch is activated, the clutch is operated by the software. RED: Brake pedal. When decreasing BrakeMult with equal pressure on the pedal, the bar drops. GREEN: Accelerator pedal. GREY: The gray bar refers to the Force Feedback, and depends on the values of Gain, Damping and Friction. If the bar reaches the maximum and the red rectangle appears, it means that the signal of the FFB is saturated and there is missing information at the steering wheel. There is no correct value for the gray bar. A good compromise is to make sure that the bar remains at about ¾ in the turns and that it’s saturated when hitting the curbs and bumps.
28 february 2011
MaiDireCamber have no responsibility for any errors in translation from original version. www.maidirecamber.blogspot.com
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