ISOLATION

OF

BERBERINE
UDC 547.944/945

M. M. Tadzhibaev, I. N. Z a t o r s k a y a , K. L. Lutfullin, a n d T. T. S h a k i r o v

Berberine is used in medicine as a cholagogue [1] and is the starting matorial for the preparation of a new drug, and therefore the necessity for its isolation has arisen. For this purpose we have investigated the bark and wood of the roots of Berberis oblonga. It was known previously that berberine was isolated from some species of Berberis [2-6]. W e extracted our raw material by the methods described. However, berberine was obtained in comparatively low yield (Table 1) since in the cited reference the use of two extractions with the preliminary moistening of the raw material with 10% N H 4 O H to liberate the tertiary bases was envisaged, which subsequently complicates the isolation of the quaternary bases. In view of this, we extraeed the berberine from the bark and wood of the roots of Berberis oblonga with ethanol directly from the raw material without preliminary wetting with ammonia. The concentrated extract was treated with sodium iodide to give berberine iodide [3]. The combined tertiary bases were isolated from the mother solution. The bark of the roots of Berberis oblonga yielded 2% of berberine and 0.6% of combined tertiary bases, and the wood yielded 0.8% and 0.2%, respectively.
EXPERIMENTAL Isolation of Berberine

E x t r a c t i o n . The ground wood of the roots of B e r b e r i s oblonga (25.0 kg) was e x t r a c t e d with 95% ethanol c o u n t e r c u r r e n t l y in a b a t t e r y of e x t r a c t o r s . The e x t r a c t was concentrated in a v a c u u m e v a p o r a t o r to 40 liters. P r e p a r a t i o n of T e c h n i c a l B e r b e r i n e I o d i d e . With s t i r r i n g , a 50% solution of NaI was added in a thin s t r e a m to the c o n c e n t r a t e d e x t r a c t . A f t e r 1-2 h, the c r y s t a l s of b e r b e r i n e iodide that had deposited w e r e s e p a r a t e d off and w e r e dried in a v a c u u m - d r y i n g cabinet. This gave 650.0 g of technical b e r b e r i n e iodide. P u r i f i c a t i o n of the T e c h n i c a l P r o d u c t a n d R e c r y s t a U i z a t i o n . The technical product (650.0 g) was washed twice with acetone, dried in a v a c u u m - d r y i n g cabinet, and dissolved in a m i n i m u m amount of boiling methanol (1 : 100), and the solution was filtered hot and w a s cooled. The c r y s t a l s that deposited w e r e TABLE 1. C o m p a r a t i v e Results on the Isolation of B e r b e r i n e Yield, % on the weight of the a i r - d r y raw m a t e r i a l Extraction wood of the r o o t s berberine not isolated A c e t o n e - w a t e r (1:1); chloroform, [2] 0.24 Chloroform; ethanol [3] Ethanol; c h l o r o f o r m ( b e r b e r i n e 0.05 chloride) [4] Methanol (with the p r e l i m i n a r y moistening 0.2 of the raw m a t e r i a l with 5% HCL) s u m of the tertiary bases 0.35 0.1 b a r k of the roots berberine sum of the tertiary bases 1.2 0.2

1.1 0.1 0;5

O r d e r of the Red Banner of L a b o r Institute of the C h e m i s t r y of Plant Substances, A c a d e m y of Sciences of the Uzbek SSR. M . I . Kalinin Andizhan State Medical Institute. T r a n s l a t e d f r o m Khimiya P r i r o d n y k h Soedinenii, No. 1, pp. 48-50, J a n u a r y - F e b r u a r y , 1974. Original a r t i c l e submitted N o v e m b e r 22, 1972.
© 19 75 Plenum Publishing Corporation, 227 West 17th Street, New York, N. Y. 10011. No part of tins publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written permission o f the publisher. A copy o f this article is available from the publisher for $15.00.

42

fixed layer of silica gel. 425. 4.3 [TLC. K. The extract was concentrated and treated with 10% B2SO4. and T. The residual filtrate was made alkaline to pH 9-10 with 25% NHaOH and was extracted with chloroform.0 g. Sadykov. Goryaev. The Production of Pharmaceutical Chemicals [in Russian]. S. CONCLUSIONS The conditions for the extraction and i~olation from the wood and bark of the roots of Berberis oblonga have been studied. 2Zh. Nauk TadzhSSR. M. Nauk UzSSR. This gave 60. D. R. 5. 3. B. Ref. Dzhalilov. I. 46 (1963). LITERATURE 1. Kruglykhina. D. Lutfullin. Izv. Dokl. 3. Khim. The Search for New Biologically Active Substances [in Russian]. 4 (1965). p. S. Shreter. I. No. p. Davidyants and Yu. Extraction of the Tertiary Bases. M. V. chloroform-methanol (9 : 1)]. Akad. O. Vasilleva and A. Shvitser. Zh. Moscow-Leningrad (1934). The sulfuric acid extract of the alkaloids was washed with chloroform. F. Moscow (1970). 6. Moscow (1967). Mashkovskii. mp 262-263°C (from methanol)~ R f 0. The y i e l d o f berberine iodide from the bases of the roots was 200. Ismailov. Akad. L. Drugs [in Russian]. and the washed acid solution was made alkaline with25% NH4OH and extracted with chloroform. Kholodkov. K.0 g of combined alkaloids (tertiary bases). 437 (1965). No.separated off and dried in the air. CITED 2. and Z. 17. 43 . Part 1. D. T. D..

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