Autonomic nervous system Books/Autonomic nervous system/Physiology of autonomic nervous ...

The micturation is a complex mechanism involving autonomic nervous system and partly ... Retrieved from " http : / / www . pharmpedia . com / Books ... - 23k

Books/Autonomic nervous system/Introduction
From Pharmpedia

Autonomic Nervous System 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Introduction Sympathetic system Parasympathetic system Enteric nervous system Neurotransmission Receptors Cholinergic receptors Adrenergic receptors

9. Physiology
Nervous system plays an important role in the control and coordination of biological function at sub cellular, cellular and at higher levels for the regular activity as well as for the correction of abnormal activity. The nervous system receive stimuli transmits the information at higher centre and initiate response that help in the well being of the organism. Nervous system is divided into two parts • • central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

peripheral system is further divided into autonomic nervous system (ANS) and somatic nervous system. This ANS is again divided into parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system.

some people can be trained to control some functions of the ANS such as heart rate or blood pressure. such as the heart. reflexive manner. parasympathetic nervous . For example. Thus ANS has a property to regulate organ functioning automatically. However.In emergencies that cause stress and require us to "fight” or take "flight" (run away and ) 2. The two subparts of ANS. we do not notice when blood vessels change size or when our heart beats faster.2 Autonomic Nervous System The organs (the "viscera") of our body. In most situations. stomach and intestines." Autonomic is a combination of two words autos (self) and nomos (regulating). The ANS is most important in two situations: 1. The ANS is part of the peripheral nervous system and it controls many organs and muscles within the body.In non emergencies that allow us to "rest" and "digest. are regulated by a part of the nervous system called the autonomic nervous system (ANS). we are unaware of the workings of the ANS because it functions in an involuntary. Thus it could maintain the homeostasis of an organ to exist.

The ANS regulates: Muscles • • • • • In the skin (around hair follicles. intestines and bladder (smooth muscle) Of the heart (cardiac muscle) Glands The ANS is divided into three parts: • • • The sympathetic nervous system The parasympathetic nervous system The enteric nervous system Books/Autonomic nervous system/Sympathetic system From Pharmpedia The preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system have their origin (cell bodies) in the thoracic and lumbar region (thoracolumabar) of the spinal cord. celiac or mesenteric ganglia).e. e. smooth muscle) Around blood vessels (smooth muscle) In the eye (the iris.g. The adrenal medulla resembles a sympathetic ganglia and preganglionic fibres innervate it. Your sympathetic system is in activated stage and why after 10 or 15 minutes your breath becomes normal. . Para vertebral ganglia (lie in vertebral column) and prevertebrl column (lie in abdomen. supposing you are doing vigorous exercise means you are utilizing energy i. Now again a question arises in the mind that why this dynamic equilibrium is shifted to one side the answer is. myocardial muscle have specific rate of muscle contraction and muscle relaxation for normal demand biological system. If any system innervates only by parasympathetic or sympathetic system then their effect is controlled by their own mechanism or by some third system while. if both are innervating to same system then their activity is controlled by the activity of other system.3 system participates in conserving the energy while sympathetic nervous system participated in utilizing the energy. The above can explained by the following example Heart an organ innervates by both parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system so if sympathetic system gets activated means energy is utilized in the form of heart contraction or increased heart beat so to relax the myocardial muscle parasympathetic system gets activated and relax the myocardial muscle as the demand for oxygen by the body is decreased but do remember that in normal condition they are in the state of dynamic equilibrium i. There are two major groups of sympathetic ganglia. because parasympathetic system starts superseding the sympathetic system to conserve the energy beyond the needed amount. smooth muscle) In the stomach.e.

mid brain and medulla oblongata) and in the sacral portion of the spinal cord (craniosacral region) the parasympathetic ganglia are located usually very close to or in the effecter organ. i.e.4 Sympathetic nervous system Books/Autonomic nervous system/Parasympathetic system From Pharmpedia The preganglionic axons of the parasympathetic system have their origin (cell bodies) in the lower brain (cranium. . The parasympathetic fibres are long while the postganglionic axons arising from parasympathetic ganglia are short.

present in all vertebrates has these functions: to regulate the normal (digestive) activity of the digestive system and prepare it for whatever its future may hold: whether it be sampling lobster thermidor or dodging a headlong charge from the king of the tigers.) And while a skull doesn’t protect this nervous system. And like the spinal cord. stomach and intestines compare it to a microcomputer. chemicals of the family of psychoactive drugs that includes Valium and Xanax. It uses the major neurotransmitters: dopamine. With a population of 100 million nerves. Books/Autonomic nervous system/Neurotransmission . nitric oxide and norepinephrine. It has sensory and motor neurons. information processing circuits. Scientists who study the network of nerves surrounding the esophagus. and the glial cells. It even has benzodaizepines. many of its structures and chemicals parallel those of the mainframe brain. of a time when the most important thing in life was eating. and gall bladder). The enteric nervous system. acetylcholine. The enteric nervous system is a meshwork of nerve fibers that innervate the viscera (gastrointestinal tract." But while microcomputers represent the future of silicon processing. and call the better-known brain-in-the-head a "mainframe. (Want to see our coverage of spinal cord repair? Things could be looking up for paralyzed people. it transmits and processes messages. the enteric nervous system is as complex as the better studied spinal cord. pancreas. this biological micro-in-the-belly is a relic of the distant past. serotonin.5 Books/Autonomic nervous system/Enteric nervous system From Pharmpedia The enteric nervous system is a third division of the autonomic nervous system that you do not hear much about.

Both the transmitters are synthesized primarily in the nerve endings and stored in the synaptic vesicles and released only when nerve impulse gets arise. These are acetylcholine and norepinephrine (nor adrenaline). Preganglionic synapse in both parasympathetic and sympathetic ganglia. All somatic motor end plates on skeletal muscle. Preganglionic synapse in both parasympathetic and sympathetic ganglia. These are acetylcholine and norepinephrine (nor adrenaline). Two chemical transmitters have been established as neurotransmitter in the ANS. All somatic motor end plates on skeletal muscle. Neurotransmission in the autonomic nervous system occurs at four major sites. this called synapse and with effecter organ. Chemicals fill this synaptic cleft. this junction called neuroeffector junction. . Neurotransmission in the autonomic nervous system occurs at four major sites. 2.6 From Pharmpedia A nerve consists of lots of neurons and all these neurons are connected with each other with synaptic cleft (space between head of one neuron and tail of another neuron). Parasympathetic postganglionic neuroeffector junctions. 3. Acteylcholine as a neurotransmitter released three sites these are 1. Parasympathetic postganglionic neuroeffector junctions. Two chemical transmitters have been established as neurotransmitter in the ANS. 3. 2. which acts as transporter of impulse between neurons forming the junction are called neurotransmitter. Both the transmitters are synthesized primarily in the nerve endings and stored in the synaptic vesicles and released only when nerve impulse gets arise. Acteylcholine as a neurotransmitter released three sites these are 1.

Receptor controlled generation of second messenger (G-protein linked with c AMP or G protein linked with phosphoinositide systems). Thus. Receptor linked to ion channels (ligand gated or voltage gated receptors) 2. Its better that always remembers that at postgnglionic sympathetic site norepinephrine is the transmitter except in sweat glands and some blood vessels in skeletal muscles and for left places its acetylcholine. autonomic ganglia. the response of acetylcholine on parasympathetic ganglia. sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla and neuromuscular junction are called nicotinic . cardiac muscle and exocrine gland) resembles the action of the naturally occurring plant alkaloid muscarine. parasympathetic postganglionic nerve terminals and skeletal muscle motor nerve terminals. Acetylcholine in large dose exhibits its effects through ganglionic stimulation. \ Books/Autonomic nervous system/Receptors From Pharmpedia In the transmission of nerve impulse. continuous conduction of electrical signal is required and this done by neurochemicals by acting on receptors. The action of acetylcholine on visceral effectors (smooth muscle of GIT. and the neurons that release this substance are called adrenergic neurons. This response resembles the effect of naturally occurring alkaloid nicotine. could follow any of the following mechanisms for adrenergic and cholinergic agonist and antagonist:1. Atropine blocks this receptor of acetylcholine. Therefore these receptors of acetylcholine on visceral effectors are called muscarinic receptors. which are either voltage gated or chemical. mediated. The drug receptor interaction is a signal transmission phenomenon. The drugs that mimic the action of actetylcholine are called cholinergic or parasympathomimetic drugs similarly the drugs mimic the action of norepinephrine are called aderenergic or sympathomimetic drugs. These receptors are located on heads or tails of neuron called dendron or on effecter organ like muscles etc.7 Norepinephrine as neurotransmitter is released at most sympathetic postganglionic neuroeffector junctions. Books/Autonomic nervous system/Cholinergic receptors From Pharmpedia Acetylcholine is the transmitter at three different sites.

8 receptors. The ganglionic nicotinic receptors are blocked by hexamethonium. M3 is also IP3 /DAG linked but they are located on smooth muscle and exocrine glands will result in the contraction of muscles and secretion from gland because it will increase the cytosolic calcium. M2 and M3 are subtypes of muscarinic receptor. At the skeletal muscle motor plate the cholinergic receptors are nicotinic in nature. Its action in CNS is unknown. As these receptors are found in heart they will decrease the generation of impulse as a result of this decrease heart rate and slow conduction of impulses. M1. M2 receptor is located in heart which is also G.protein coupled but its activation will down regulate the activity of c-AMP(cyclic adenosine monophosphate) and also responsible for the opening of potassium channel as both are responsible for decreased activity because of hyper polarization activity. d-tubocurarine blocks these receptors in the skeletal muscle. This activated system will result in increase concentration of cytosolic calcium. M1 receptor is G-protein coupled receptor which is linked with IP3 /DAG. And as we know calcium is responsible for long phase depolarization in autonomic ganglia and also result in release of histamine and acid from gland located GIT (gastrointestinal tract). .

Generally alphareceptors are excitatory (vasoconstriction) and beta-receptors are inhibitory (vasodilatation) in nature with the exception of heart where beta-receptors are stimulatory while in visceral smooth muscles where alpha and beta-receptors both are inhibitory in nature. Books/Autonomic nervous system/Adrenergic receptors From Pharmpedia Fig 2. Also cause release of catecholamine from adrenal medulla and also site specific excitation or inhibition in brain. Both Nm and Nn are Na+ and k+ channel linked but Nn also linked with an extra Ca++ channel. Fig 2. some organs show the presence of one-type receptors and some are showing both type.12 Mechanism of Neuro transmission . Nn causes depolarization in autonomic ganglia result in post ganglionic impulse.10 Signaling in sympathetic system Fig 2. Nm is located in neuromuscular junction causes contraction of skeletal muscles because it causes depolarization of muscle end plate. adrenoceptors are classified as alpha and beta-receptors. Therefore. The distribution of these receptors in different organs is also different. based on the nature and physiological response obtained.11 Secretion of Adrenal Medula Nor epinephrine is the neurotransmitters at the sympathetic postganglionic nerve terminal that innervate visceral effectors the stimulation of adrenoceptor on these tissues always do not produce identical response.9 Characteristic of important subtypes of nicotinic receptor Nicotinic receptors are of two types’ Nm and Nn.

e. which signal nucleus for formation of specific proteins which are responsible for gland secretion. Characteristic of important subtypes of beta (β) receptor β1. Role of Reflex action in regulation of heart activity . α2 is also linked with IP3 /DAG which will result in increase concentration of cytosolic calcium but is also linked with c AMP which is down regulated mood because of opening of k+ channel and closing of Ca2+ channel or blocking of calcium channel. decreased depolarization or reduced activity so it’s a good target in the treatment of CNS disorders. force of contraction (positive ionotropy) and conductivity in the atrioventricular region (A-V region). β3 is present on adipose tissue and its much detail is not available.10 Characteristic of important subtypes of alpha (α) receptor There are two types of α receptor α1 and α2. as it reduces the central sympathetic outflow as its linked with IP3 /DAG it results in vasoconstriction as of α1. circular and radial if you contract one other will relax so contraction of circular muscle results in gut relaxation. As β1 will result in activation of protein kinases which are responsible for contraction of smooth muscles and secretion from glands and depolarization in case nerve conduction while opposite for β2. activation of parasympathetic out flow of the heart results in decrease a in heart rate (bradycardia) and prolongation in the AV conduction time. β2 is located in heart and juxta glomerular cells in kidney. also postjunctional in brain. urinary tract and eye. β1 is present in bronchi. α1 is linked with IP3 /DAG and phospholipase A2 which will result in increase concentration of cytosolic calcium which is responsible for contraction of smooth muscles in blood vessels (vasoconstriction) and arrhythmia (contraction of cardiac muscles) but one point should be noted that it is responsible for gut smooth muscle relaxation because there two sets of muscles are present. Books/Autonomic nervous system/Physiology of autonomic nervous system From Pharmpedia Cardiovascular system Both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves innervate heart. On the other hand. platelets and extrajunctional in certain blood vessels. The activation of the sympathetic outflow to the heart results in increased heart rate (tachycardia). uterus. pancreatic beta cells. blood vessels. As α2 is located in prejunctional site of synapse it will result in reuptake of neurotransmitters i. α1 is located on post junction of effecter organ and α2 is located in prejunctional nerve ending. IP3 /DAG also result in activation of protein kinases. β2 and β3 are three sub types of β receptors and all are c AMP linked but differ in their location and accordingly in their activity with an exception that β2 is linked with down regulated c AMP so it will responsible for decreased activity.

mydriatic and cyclopegic. prostatic urethra and vas deferens. Stimulation of the parasympathetic nerves causing contraction of the smooth muscles of the cilary body. The lens thickens and the eye accommodates for near vision (cycloplegia). Reproductive system In male sympathetic stimulation causes vasoconstriction and contraction of the smooth muscles of the prostrate. The parasympathetic system promotes vasodilatation of blood vessels of the cavernous tissue of the penis and thus promotes penile errection therefore sympathetic system is important for ejaculation and the parasympathetic is for the penile errection. peptic ulcer. When the smooth muscles of the cillary body are relaxed. The opposite mechanism works in case of hypotension in which parasympathetic system has increased activity. These fibers arise from cells in the super cervical ganglion. The circular muscle of the iris (constrictor pupillae) is innervated by Para sympathetic nerves arising from cervical ganglia. but decreases the tone of sphincter. Parasymsympathetic stimulation causes contraction of the detrusor muscle and relaxation of the sphincter leading to emptying of the bladder. Now this accommodated for far vision. which aids in visual accommodation. and their stimulation causes the contraction of the radial muscle fibers leading to dilation of the pupil (mydriasis). It does not inhibit gastric secretion. In this condition the pupil is widely dilated and the power for accommodation is lost simultaneously. glaucoma. Cholinergic and adrenergic receptors agonist and antagonist are very good target for treatment of various dysfunction as agonist or antagonist like heart disorder. this decreases the lateral tension on the lens. is attached to the cillary body by suspensory ligaments. Organ and the receptors simulation The Autonomic Nervous System Structure Sympathetic Stimulation Iris (eye muscle) Pupil dilation Parasympathetic Stimulation Pupil constriction . Stimulation of the cholinergic fibers causes contraction of the circular smooth muscle of the iris and this produces he contraction of the pupil (miosis) The lens. Urinary bladder The stimulation of sympathetic fibers innervating the vasculature of the bladder causes the urethral orifice to close. Gastro intestinal tract Both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves sympathetic stimulation to the GIT inhibits peristaltic movements and increases the tone of the sphincter richly innervate the GIT. This reflex action slows the heart. The radial muscle of the iris (dilator papillae) is innervated by sympathetic fibers. When there is sudden change in mean arterial blood pressure because of increased sympathetic activity leads to the activation of baroreceptor reflex and increased out flow of parasympathetic system.11 Reflexes regularize the heart activity. The dilatation of pupil so produced is known as active mydriasis. motion sickness etc. Table 1. urinary dysfunction. spasm. The micturation is a complex mechanism involving autonomic nervous system and partly voluntary control. preanesthetic medication Parkinson’s diseases. Parasympathetic stimulation increases peristaltic activity and the secretion of gastric and other digestive juices. the cillary body exerts tension on the lens causing it to flatten. Eye The smooth muscles that control the size of the pupil and the degree of the visual accommodation are supplied by autonomic nervous system. seminal vesicles.

N. motility increased Digestion increased Secretions and motility increased . Increased urine secretion .12 Salivary Glands Oral/Nasal Mucosa Heart Lung Stomach Small Intestine Large Intestine Liver Kidney Adrenal medulla Bladder Saliva production reduced Mucus production reduced Heart rate and force increased Bronchial muscle relaxed Peristalsis reduced Motility reduced Motility reduced Increased conversion of glycogen to glucose Decreased urine secretion Norepinephrine and epinephrine secreted Wall relaxed Sphincter closed Saliva production increased Mucus production increased Heart rate and force decreased Bronchial muscle contracted Gastric juice secreted.13 Mechanism of direct acting adrenergic drugs Fig.A.Nagappa .14(a) Mechanism of indirect acting adrenergic drugs Fig 14(b) Mechanism of indirect acting adrenergic drugs adrenergic This is a free Pharmpedia textbook Author Prof. Wall contracted Sphincter relaxed Fig.

13 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful