Traditional Food Storage Methods: A Client Diagnosis and Information Attainment Treatment Plan Sara Linden Emporia State University



Traditional Food Storage Methods: A Client Diagnosis and Information Attainment Treatment Plan

Diagnosis Interview I conducted my client diagnosis interview in my client¶s living room on the afternoon of April 23rd. I had asked my client, Matt, a few days earlier if he had any information he needed help finding, and by this time he had let me know that he did, in fact, have an information gap. Matt is not a frequent library user and has had extremely limited interactions with reference assistance and library staff. We sat on the couch, comfortably near one another, relaxed and in a quiet, calm setting.I smiled and spoke reassuringly to my client, as he seemed a bit nervous about the interaction and questioning at first, even though we¶ve known each other for a long time. I believe it was the interview process and the structured, meaningful interview questions. The client became more at ease as the interview progressed. The client¶s first statement was ³What are examples of traditional foods and how do you preserve foods?´ To assess the situation, I asked a neutral question: ³What are you trying to do in this situation?´ The client replied that he wanted to grow organically grown traditional foods and figure out how to preserve them to use for the duration of the year after harvest. To assess gaps in the client¶s knowledge, I asked what was missing in his understanding of the problem. Matt stated that he was ³starting from square one´(M. Linden, personal communication, April 23, 2010). Finally, to assess the use, I asked my client ³If [he] could have the help [he] wanted, what would it be?´ My client hesitateduncertainly. So I rephrased: ³For example, how are you planning to use this information? Are you interested in any particular format of the information?´ (Dervin & Dewdney, 1986). This helped clarify my client¶s understanding of the question.



Matt responded that he wanted to use it for his garden.He is planning on growing large quantities of produce and wants to store it so it does not spoil. He is interested in foods that were traditionally grown in particular cultures, and most importantly, the storage of those foods. With regards to the format, he said books and online sources were fine, the most important thing was that the material had good visual aids and were very detailed with lots of examples(M. Linden, personal communication, April, 23, 2010). I restated what I understood his information need to be (information and directions about traditional food storage methods for a personal garden¶s bounty, represented textually and visually in a detailed way, with an interest in any effective format) and we agreed that we were both on the same page. I was resolved to find my client some good, detailed food preservation information.

Information Filtration After the client interview, my next step was to develop and conduct a search for my client¶s information needs. I decided that I would start by doing a relaxed Google search, just to get more familiar with the topics, and then I would move from there to DIALOG in order to test the subject terms I had gathered. After fleshing those two options out, my plan was to then move to some library catalogs and online booksellers to find some books. I planned to allow myself the flexibility to restructure my search as needed. I began with some Googling. I searched the internet to find some websites dealing with traditional food preservation, like pickling, canning, drying and root cellaring. My client had a loose definition of traditional. Geographically, he was most interested in Eurasian and Native/North American techniques, with no particular emphasis on strict time periods, as long as the methods were culturally traditional. This was vague and allowed for a lot of information hits,



broadening the search. Searching the internet allowed for a lot of basic information gathering, with my search vocabulary building rapidly. From my basic foundation created from simple internet searching and pearl growing, I moved to DIALOG to search for some scholarly articles. I used the guided search tool, searching both the Humanities and Social Sciences directory categories. With the help of DIALOG, I found six varied sources discussing traditional food preservation including Appalachia, Canadian Cree, rural Kentucky, colonial New England and Ontario, Canada. When I felt as though I had reached the end of my ability to extract information from DIALOG¶s database, I switched back to more internet searching. I found an excellent resource on an internet forum listing users¶ favorite traditional food books and cookbooks. One tip suggested searching the web for Society of Creative Anachronism (SCA) recipes and information, due to that group¶s interest in researching medieval foods and cooking techniques. Another suggestion that I followed from the forum link was an Amazon user¶s ³Listmania´ guide to ³Essential SCA Cooking and Food History Books,´which I noted as a nice place to begin when I was ready to start my Amazon searching and book review reading. Another tip from the forum posting led me to Michigan State University¶s digital library of historical American cookbooks, many of which include preservation tips and often reference traditional, ³old-world´ foods.After scrolling through the five page listing, I had selected several more books and websites that I thought would be well-suited to my client¶s information needs. At this point, I felt that the library catalog searching should begin.I searched by keyword and then cross-referenced each applicable title¶s call number by searching the surrounding books. Additionally, I searched the appropriately linked subject terms. The local library search was a little disappointing, as I only found one book that looked like it would relate to one aspect



of my client¶s search. However, I knew that I could reassure my client that the other books I found could most likely be attained through interlibrary loan services, if he did not wish to purchase the book straight away. Moving along, I decided to search Amazon¶s books in a more in depth fashion than I had done previously by following links, since that had been part of my information attainment treatment plan and I did find a few additional resources that I had not seen previously. Quite a few of the resources that I had chosen earlier in my search resurfaced in this second search. I wrapped up my online bookseller search and began to finalize the information attainment treatment plan.

Treatment Plan Discussion After sorting and compiling a list of suggested resources, my client and I sat down to review the list and discuss the information attainment treatment plan. I gave a brief explanation of each book and web resource and elaborated about exactly how each source was relevant to his specific needs. After presenting the suggested sources, I waited as the client looked over the list on his own and answered any questions he had about the given resources, which included specific questions about a few particular books, and several questions relating to the DIALOG sources. He put check marks (which I have included in the final, attached copy of the selected resources) next to items he felt looked especially interesting. We discussed the ways in which my client could access the sources. From there, I asked my client if he was pleased with the results. He replied in the affirmative. He felt that the references were satisfactory in their variety between focusing on traditional foods and preservation. Matt was also pleased with the variety of formats (layperson books, websites and scholarly articles) and he felt that the resources ³covered the spectrum of



[his] question´(M. Linden, personal communication, April 30, 2010). He noted that in the past, materials he had consulted excluded aspects of his topic that he was interested in, focusing only on one aspect of his question and not relating the topics together. He felt that the selected resources related the aspects of his question more in a more interconnected manner. The client had no suggestions for improvement, but did offer several bits of praise. He felt that the diagnosis interview was thorough and stated that I ³asked good questions´. More specifically, my client went on to say that I ³pulled the information out of [him]«and helped [him] clarify his information need with [my] questions´(M. Linden, personal communication, April 30, 2010). This bit of evaluation was very pleasing to hear. Our readings and my personal experience has emphasized that one of the most important parts of the interview process is the drawing out of the information from the client, so I was happy to hear that particular sentiment expressed. Although my client did not offer much in the way of reflective critique, one thing I think would have helped the search and results fit even better with my client¶s needs is if I could have performed at least a portion of the search with the client present. I feel that the presence of the original information seeker would help the search match more closely with the client¶s needs. Although that approach would not always be possible in every circumstance, I do believe that by using personal judgment and when time and schedules permit, information searching with the client would be a more effective strategy in some cases.



References Dervin, B. & Dewdney, P. (1986). Neutral questioning: A new approach to the reference interview.RQ, 25(4), 506-513.



Suggested Resources
*Checked items indicate sources that my client felt were particularly interesting. Books  American Indian Food by Linda Murray Berzok Build Your Own Underground Root Cellar by Phyllis Hobson Cold Storage for Fruits & Vegetables: Storey Country Wisdom Bulletin A-87by John and Martha Storey Honey from a Weed: Fasting and Feasting in Tuscany, Catalonia, the Cyclades and Apuliaby Patience Gra Keeping Food Fresh: Old World Techniques & Recipes by Claude Aubert Making Sauerkraut and Pickled Vegetables at Home: Creative Recipes for Lactic Fermented Food to Improve Your Health by Klaus Kaufmann  Preserving Food without Freezing or Canning: Traditional Techniques Using Salt, Oil, Sugar, Alcohol, Vinegar, Drying, Cold Storage, and Lactic Fermentation by The Gardeners and Farmers of Centre Terre Vivante  Root Cellaring: Natural Cold Storage of Fruits & Vegetables by Mike Bubel Wild Fermentation: The Flavor, Nutrition, and Craft of Live-Culture Foods by Sandor Ellix Katz

Web Resources Feeding America by Michigan State University Libraries and MSU Museum Food and Drink of Eastern Europe:Primarily Poland and Russia, An overview by Jadwiga Zajaczkowa Food Processing: Technology and Nutritive Value by Pascale Gerbouin-Rerolle pdf Gode Cookery: Medieval Cooking by James L. Matterer  Introduction to Storage Vegetables by the Walden Effect Blog


9  Store Your Food by Kelly and Rosanna Hart

Scholarly Articles 1/9/116 (Item 53 from file: 35) DIALOG(R)File 35:Dissertation Abs Online (c) 2010 ProQuest Info&Learning. All rts. reserv. 777879 ORDER NO: AAD82-11261 "A COMFORTABLE SUBSISTENCE": A HISTORY OF DIET IN NEW ENGLAND, 1630-1850 Author: MCMAHON, SARAH FRANCIS Degree: PH.D. Year: 1982 Corporate Source/Institution: BRANDEIS UNIVERSITY ( 0021 ) Source: Volume 4212A of Dissertations Abstracts International. PAGE 5222 . 358 PAGES Descriptors: HISTORY, UNITED STATES Descriptor Codes: 0337 This study examines changes in the composition of New England diet, refinements in the culture of food, and the relationship between diet and the broader social and economic history of New England from the early-seventeenth to the mid-nineteenth centuries. Estate inventories presented at probate court in Middlesex County, Massachusetts and widows' allowances as allocated in wills contain information about the quantity and variety of foods in the diet of early New Englanders. They also document the seasonal variations in the supply of food and allow the correlation of disparities in the composition of diet with the usual social and economic indicators. Seventeenth-century court testimonies, eighteenth- and nineteenth-century autobiographies, cookbooks, and farmer's almanacs illuminate the practices of food production and preservation, describe the methods of cooking and meal preparation, and document changing attitudes about eating habits and family meals throughout New England. Early New England diet was a diet of subsistence. A limited variety of stored provisions composed the winter staples, while the summer fare comprised fresh foods. Twice a year, families with meager resources experienced an uneasy transition as their food supply shifted between fresh and stored provisions. During the eighteenth century, many farmers began to produce and preserve more ample quantities of the traditional staples, while the role of supplementary foods in the diet gradually was expanded. By the nineteenth century, the extension of supplies of both stored and fresh provisions through the year provided New England households with an abundant and varied diet. Changes in the diet occurred within the constraints of traditional agricultural methods and old technologies of foodpreservation. The adaptation of English farming methods to the New England soil and climate determined the changes in seventeenth-century diet. The increasing pressure of the population on the land and gradual exhaustion of the soil in the eighteenth century forced many farmers to alter their allocation of land and labor in order to maintain their previous standards of living. In fact, their efforts produced a more ample and varied diet. The



improvements in turn inspired new attitudes about diet. Instead of "enough" food, New Englanders came to expect "wholesome," "good solid" food, and the family meal developed into an occasion of social as well as physical nurture. Finally, by the nineteenth century, the increasingly varied diet encouraged creativity in cooking and diversity in meal planning, and gave rise to new conceptions about "proper diet." 

1/9/86 (Item 23 from file: 35) DIALOG(R)File 35:Dissertation Abs Online (c) 2010 ProQuest Info&Learning. All rts. reserv. 01710884 ORDER NO: AADAA-IMQ43208 Time to preserve: A study of two generations of food preservers in rural Wellington County (Ontario) Author: Reid, Catherine Jo-Anne Degree: M.Sc. Year: 1999 Corporate Source/Institution: University of Guelph (Canada) ( 0081 ) Adviser: Glen C. Filson Source: Volume 38/02 of MASTERS ABSTRACTS. of Dissertations Abstracts International. PAGE 431 . 114 PAGES Descriptors: HOME ECONOMICS ; WOMEN'S STUDIES ; HISTORY, CANADIAN ; ECONOMICS, LABOR Descriptor Codes: 0386; 0453; 0334; 0510 ISBN: 0-612-43208-4 This thesis explores the practice of foodpreservation for two generations of rural women in Wellington County, Ontario. Foodpreservation is examined in terms of localizing the food system. Using grounded theory methodology, interviews were held with 18 women: nine born before the Second World War, and nine born during, or after, the Second World War. Government documents on foodpreservation were also examined for patterns. The profiles of the two generations of food preservers are similar: all participants learned through informal sources and used similar techniques. Yet the values associated with foodpreservation are different. Older women preserved for economic savings and for preventing food waste. Younger women, mentioning self-sufficiency and the superior taste of home preserves, spoke of how time prevented them from preserving. The results are discussed within the context of the globalization of the food system and women's participation in the labour force.  1/9/45 (Item 10 from file: 7) DIALOG(R)File 7:Social SciSearch(R) (c) 2010 The Thomson Corp. All rts. reserv. 02606528 Genuine Article#: NL456 Number of References: 39 Title: HOME GARDENING AND FOOD PRESERVATION PRACTICES OF THE ELDERLY IN RURAL KENTUCKY Author: QUANDT SA; POPYACH JB; DEWALT KM Corporate Source: UNIV KENTUCKY,DEPT ANTHROPOL,211 LAFFERTY



HALL/LEXINGTON//KY/40506; BASTYR COLL,DEPT NUTR/SEATTLE//WA/98105; UNIV PITTSBURGH,DEPT ANTHROPOL/PITTSBURGH//PA/15260 Journal: ECOLOGY OF FOOD AND NUTRITION , 1994 , V 31 , N3-4 , P 183-199 ISSN: 0367-0244 Language: ENGLISH Document Type: ARTICLE Subfile: SciSearch; CC AGRI--Current Contents, Agriculture, Biology & Environmental Sciences Journal Subject Category: NUTRITION & DIETETICS Abstract: Previous research on the nutritional vulnerability of the elderly has failed to examine the unique potential for dietary enhancement provided by gardening and foodpreservation among the rural elderly. The goal of this paper is to describe contemporary home gardening and foodpreservation practices in persons 55 years and older in rural Kentucky. Data come from a year of qualitative research and two subsequent surveys designed to record seasonal variation in diet and nutritional strategies of a sample of 639 respondents. Fifty-six percent of the elders had home gardens; they were in better functional status and less likely to live alone than nongardeners. A core garden of 7 items most commonly raised was identified from a total of 22 items reported. Most elders preserved home produce; preservation techniques specific to particular foods are identified. Patterns of foods grown and favored preservation techniques are analyzed in relation to historical traditions, traditional beliefs, and food preferences in the region. Descriptors--Author Keywords: HOME GARDENING ; FOODPRESERVATION ; NUTRITIONAL ANTHROPOLOGY ; ELDERLY ; RURAL ; ETHNOGRAPHY ; KENTUCKY ; APPALACHIA ; SEASONAL VARIABILITY ; NUTRITIONAL STRATEGIES Identifiers-- KeyWords Plus: DIETARY ADEQUACY Cited References: HRA7412191 US DHEW, 1974 RR4 HOM EC REG RES P, 1990 RURAL DEV PERSPECTIV, 1985, V2, P22 STATUS RURAL ELDERLY, 1983 ARCURY TA, 1990, V18, P105, HUM ECOL ARENSBERG C, 1955, V57, P1143, AM ANTHROPOL ARNOW H, 1960, SEEDTIME CUMBERLAND BENNETT JW, 1976, ECOLOGICAL TRANSITIO CASPERSEN CJ, 1991, V133, P1078, AM J EPIDEMIOL CORDES SM, 1989, V23, P757, HEALTH SERV RES CRELLIN JK, 1988, PLAIN SO EATING REMI DEWALT KM, 1981, V40, P2606, FED PROC ECKERT JK, 1987, P241, QUALITATIVE GERONTOL EGERTON J, 1987, SO FOOD HOME ROAD HI ELDER GH, 1977, V2, P279, J FAMILY HIST ELSBORG L, 1983, V53, P321, INT J VITAM NUTR RES FOSMIRE GJ, 1984, V4, P19, J NUTRITION ELDERLY GUTHRIE HA, 1972, V12, P330, GERONTOLOGIST HEISER CB, 1987, FASCINATING WORLD NI HILLIARD SB, 1972, HOG MEAT HOECAKE FOO



HOOKER RJ, 1981, FOOD DRINK AM HIST HORWATH CC, 1989, V59, P1, WLD REV NUTR DIET JEROME NW, 1980, P13, NUTRITIONAL ANTHROPO KAPLAN R, 1978, V5, P145, ENVIRON BEHAV KISH L, 1984, SURVEY SAMPLING KOLASA KM, 1974, FOODWAYS SELECTED MO KOLASA KM, 1974, V6, P89, J NUTR EDUC LEARNER RM, 1981, V78, P330, J AM DIET ASSOC LEE GR, 1980, V36, P62, J SOC ISSUES MURPHY SP, 1990, V22, P284, J NUTR EDUC NINEZ V, 1985, V7, P1, FOOD NUTR B PHILLIPS DE, 1976, V5, P29, ECOL FOOD NUTR RAWSON IG, 1978, V18, P24, GERONTOLOGIST ROE DA, 1990, V6, P319, CLIN GERIATR MED RYAN AS, 1989, V1, P321, AM J HUM BIOL SINGLETON N, 1980, V1, P77, J NUTR ELDERLY STUCKEY SJ, 1984, V38, P255, HUM NUTR-APPL NUTR WIGGINTON E, 1992, FOXFIRE BOOK YOUMANS EG, 1977, V429, P81, ANN AM ACAD POLIT SS 1/9/41 (Item 6 from file: 7) DIALOG(R)File 7:Social SciSearch(R) (c) 2010 The Thomson Corp. All rts. reserv. 03063881 Genuine Article#: XG849 Number of References: 44 Title: Transmission of indigenous knowledge and bush skills among the Western James Bay Cree women of subarctic Canada Author: Ohmagari K; Berkes F Corporate Source: 6-25-24 HIGASHIRINKAN,/SAGAMIHARA/KANAGAWA 228/JAPAN/ (REPRINT); UNIV MANITOBA,NAT RESOURCES INST/WINNIPEG/MB R3T 2N2/CANADA/; UNIV MANITOBA,DEPT ANTHROPOL/WINNIPEG/MB R3T 2N2/CANADA/ Journal: HUMAN ECOLOGY , 1997 , V 25 , N2 ( JUN ) , P 197-222 Publisher: PLENUM PUBL CORP , 233 SPRING ST, NEW YORK, NY 10013 ISSN: 0300-7839 Language: English Document Type: Article Subfile: CC SOCS--Current Contents, Social & Behavioral Sciences Journal Subject Category: SOCIOLOGY; ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES Abstract: The transmission of 93 items of women's indigenous knowledge and bush skills was studied in two subarctic Omushkego (West Main) Cree Indian communities, Moose Factory and Peawanuck, Ontario, Canada. About half of all bush skills were still being transmitted at the ''hands-on'' learning stage. Some skills such as setting snares and fishnets, beadwork, smoking geese, and tanning moose and caribou hides were transmitted well. Many skills no longer essential for livelihoods, such as some fur preparation skills and foodpreservation techniques, were not. Loss of certain skills and incomplete transmission of others (a lower level of mastery than in older generations) were attributable to changes in the educational environment. diminished time available in the bush, problems related to learning bush skills at later ages, and changes in value systems. These factors seemed to impair the traditional mode of education



based on participant observation and apprenticeship in the bush, which provided the essential self-disciplining educational environment. Policy measures to counteract these trends may include the institution of a hunters' income security program to provide incentives for family units to go on the land, rather than all-male hunting parties. Descriptors--Author Keywords: indigenous knowledge ; traditional skills ; knowledge transmission ; learning ; livelihood systems ; mixed economy ; subsistence ; Cree ; James Bay ; subarctic Canada Identifiers-- KeyWord Plus(R): ONTARIO Cited References: *DEN CULT I, 1993, TRAD DEN ENV KNOWL P BARROAN J, 1987, V2, INDIAN ED CANADA BERKES F, 1994, V47, P350, ARCTIC BERKES F, 1995, BIODIVERSITY CONSERV BERKES F, 1978, V7, P155, ECOL FOOD NUTR BERKES F, 1977, V5, P289, HUM ECOL BLYTHE J, 1985, 21 TASO MCMAST U BROKENSHA DW, 1980, INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE CAVALLISFORZA LL, 1981, CULTURAL TRANSMISSIO CHAMBERS R, 1988, SUSTAINABLE RURAL LI CICINSAIN B, 1995, PROPERTY RIGHTS ENV FEIT HA, 1989, WE ARE HERE POLITICS FLANNERY R, 1962, V57, P475, ANTHROPOS FLANNERY R, 1995, E SMALLBOY GLIMPSES FREEMAN MMR, 1993, V52, P243, HUM ORGAN GADGIL M, 1993, V22, P151, AMBIO GADGIL M, 1987, V2, P369, TREND ECOL EVOL GEORGE P, 1989, V4, P58, BRIT J CANADIAN STUD GEORGE PJ, 1987, V47, P447, J ECON HIST HEWLETT BS, 1986, V88, P922, AM ANTHROPOL HONIGMANN J, 1981, V6, HDB N AM INDIANS JOHNSTON B, 1988, INDIAN SCH DAYS KATER A, 1993, V1, P20, INDIGENOUS KNOWLEDGE LONG J, 1978, V70, P75, ONTARIO HIST LYTWYN VP, 1993, THESIS U MANITOBA WI MILLER JR, 1987, V14, P3, CANADIAN J NATIVE ED NIEZEN R, 1993, V30, P510, CAN REV SOC ANTHROP NOCK D, 1988, VICTORIAN MISSIONARY OHMAGARI K, 1995, P322, 26 ALG C PINKERTON E, 1994, TRADITIONAL ECOLOGIC PRESTON R, 1979, CHILDHOOD ADOLESCENC PRESTON R, 1975, NATL MUSEUM MAN MERC PRESTON R, 1982, 13 ALG C PRESTON S, 1986, P239, CANADIAN MUSEUM CIVI ROGERS E, 1963, P14, CONTRIBUTIONS ANTH 2 RUDDLE K, 1977, P53, ED TRADITIONAL FOOD RUDDLE K, 1993, TRADITIONAL ECOLOGIC



SINDELL P, 1987, ED CULTURAL PROCESS SPINDLER L, 1977, CULTURE CHANGE MODER STENBAEK M, 1987, V40, P300, ARCTIC TITLEY EB, 1986, NARROW VISION DC SCO TRUDEAU J, 1966, THESIS CATHOLIC U AM WARREN MD, 1995, CULTURAL DIMENSION D ZITZOW D, 1990, V3, P7, AM INDIAN ALASKA NAT 1/9/37 (Item 2 from file: 7) DIALOG(R)File 7:Social SciSearch(R) (c) 2010 The Thomson Corp. All rts. reserv. 03846581 Genuine Article#: 626EH Number of References: 15 Title: Deconstructing Haute cuisine: Food preservation as a factor in the culinary arts Author: McFadden F (REPRINT); Trang C Corporate Source: Drexel Univ,Hospitality Management Dept,Philadelphia//PA/19104 (REPRINT); Drexel Univ,Hospitality Management Dept,Philadelphia//PA/19104 Journal: JOURNAL OF HISTORICAL SOCIOLOGY , 2002 , V 15 , N4 ( DEC ) , P 515-531 Publisher: BLACKWELL PUBL LTD , 108 COWLEY RD, OXFORD OX4 1JF, OXON, ENGLAND ISSN: 0952-1909 Language: English Document Type: Article Journal Subject Category: HISTORY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES; SOCIOLOGY Cited References: CHANG KC, 1978, FOOD CHINESE CULTURE CHONG E, 1993, HERITAGE CHINESE COO DAVIDSON A, 1999, OXFORD COMPANION FOO EASTMAN WF, 1975, CANNING FREEZING CUR JENKINS S, 1996, S JENKINS CHEESE PRI KIPLE KF, 2000, CAMBRIDGE WORLD HIST LO EYF, 1999, CHINESE KITCHEN MCGEE H, 1984, FOOD COOKING RITCHIE CIA, 1981, FOOD CIVILIZATION HI SHEPHARD S, 2000, PICKLED POTTED CANNE SIMOONS FJ, 1991, FOOD CHINA CULTURAL SO YK, 1994, CLASSIC FOOD CHINA TANNAHILL R, 1988, FOOD HIST WINDRIDGE C, 1994, FOUNTAIN HLTH A Z TR YOUNG G, 1999, WISDOM CHINESE KITCH  1/9/30 (Item 30 from file: 1) DIALOG(R)File 1:ERIC (c) format only 2010 Dialog. All rts. reserv. 0004363413 ERIC Number: ED209055 Science and Appalachia. Price, Margaret Blair 46 pp. July 1977 (19770700) Language: English



Document Type: Guides - Classroom - Teacher Record Type: Abstract Record Status: New Year Added: 1982 Journal Announcement: RIEMAR1982 Educational Level: Secondary Education Number of Reference: 0 Utilizing Appalachian culture to teach science on the secondary level, this guide considers some early Appalachian Indian and White practices and presents the scientific principles involved. First, the folk practice or procedure is described. Then scientific facts governing the situation are presented. Following directions for an experiment which demonstrates the scientific principles involved, the conclusion section discusses the folk custom in terms of the scientific principles. The section on Early Indian Ways describes various practices used by the Indians of Appalachia to survive and to improve their quality of life. The section on Mountaineer Ways also highlights early methods for improving the quality of life and for survival. There is a description of early foodpreservation and storage and of different uses of natural substances. Folklore is included as an historical science of Appalachia because it attempts to throw light on man's past in an inductive manner. (CM) Descriptors: American Indian Culture; Anthropology; Biology; Chemistry; *Cultural Background; Curriculum Development; Earth Science; *Folk Culture; *Instructional Materials; Organic Chemistry; Physics; Physiology; Quality of Life; Regional Characteristics; Rural Areas; *Rural Population; *Science Activities; *Science Education; Secondary Education; Social Sciences Identifiers: *Appalachia; Survival Dialog Update Date: 20090918; 02:08:17 EST 1/9/10 (Item 10 from file: 1) DIALOG(R)File 1:ERIC (c) format only 2010 Dialog. All rts. reserv. 0007976405 ERIC Number: EJ510797 Food Preservation beyond the Season. Hanes, Phyllis Across the Table v3 n1 p2-5 1992 1992 (19920000) Notes: Journal availability: IMC Fertilizer, Inc., One Nelson C. White Parkway, Mundelein, IL 60060-9528. Language: English Document Type: Reports - Descriptive; Journal Articles Record Type: Abstract Record Status: New Year Added: 1996 Journal Announcement: CIJJAN1996 Examines how current scientific knowledge of foodpreservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ) Descriptors: Environmental Education; Food; *History; *Research; *Technology



Identifiers: *FoodPreservation; *Food Processing Dialog Update Date: 20090921; 01:18:33 EST

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