1 Examine traditional society in china at the turn of 20th century Before Europeans first arrived in Asia, China was one of the most advanced and powerful nations in the world. It was the most populous, was politically unified, and most importantly, it had mastered the art of agriculture. However, when Europeans first landed on Chinese shores, they found a nation that had revered to traditional culture and warfare. Industrialization was almost nonexistent. At the beginning of the 20th century, China was divided into sphere of influence with each powerful Western nation trying to exert as much control over it as possible. The Chinese resented foreigners control and expressed this at the beginning of the 20th century with the Boxer Rebellion. At the same time, the traditional government of China began to fail in the early years. The Chinese people, being resentful of foreigners and dissatisfied with inability of the present government to throw them out, initiated the Revolution of 1911, replacing the Chinese 2000 year old imperial system with the Republic of China headed by Sun Yat-sen. In March of 1912, Sun Yat-sen resigned and Yuan Shih-kai became the next ruler of China. Yuan attempted to reinstate an imperial system with himself as emperor causing Sun to start one of China’s first political parties, Kuomintang or KMT. Sun fought hard to establish a democracy but was largely unsuccessful until the 1920’s. In 1917, China entered World War I on the side of the allies. Although China did not see any military action, it provided resources in the form of laborers that worked in allied mines and factories. The Treaty of Versailles ignored China’s plea to end concessions and foreign control of China. On May 4, 1919, the May Fourth Movement took place in which students demonstrated in protest of the Treaty of Versailles. The Movement helped the Chinese by promoting science and making Chinese adopt a new easier form of writing. Moreover, the movement was the foundation for the forming of the Communist Party of China (CCP). During the 1920’s, China was divided in a power struggle began between the CCP and KMT. The KMT controlled a majority of China with a strong base in urban areas while the CCP displaying smallholdings in rural communities. By 1928, the CCP was expelled and China was nationalized under the KMT. However, the Communist Party of China resurfaced on November 1, 1931 when it proclaimed the Jiangxi providence as the Chinese Soviet Republic. The army of the Republic of China, under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek tried to destroy the Communist army in 1934, however, Chiang failed but did cause the CCP to flee northward in the Long March. Also in 1931, Japan began to occupy Manchuria and established a puppet government called Manchukuo. The Japanese aggression in China became full blown on July 7, 1937, the beginning World War II. By 1939, Japan controlled most of the east coast of China, while Chiang blockaded the Communists in the northwest region. By 1944, the United States began to help nationalist China, but the nationalist remained weak due to high inflation and economic strife. In January of 1946, the two factions of China began to have another power struggle. The KMT, supplied by the United States, controlled the cities, while the CCP had a strong hold in the countryside. To make matters worse, high inflation demoralized the citizens and military. By 1948, the CCP began to wage war against the KMT, taking control of Manchuria and working its way south. On October 1, 1949, with the retreat of the KMT to Taiwan, Mao Zedong established the People’s Republic of China. The People’s Republic of China completely changed the culture and geography of the Chinese people. It implemented five-year plans that consisted of land reform, social reform, cultural reform, and economic planning. The changes lead to the Great Leap Forward and Great Proletarian Cultural

including Mao Zedong. although tensions strained after the death of Joseph Stalin in 1955. It was not until 1970’s that most Western nations established diplomatic ties to Communist China. Deng seized power and brought younger men with his views to power. China was colonized late. China remained quit for some years after the power struggle after the death of Mao. In the same year. exploiting it as a colony. In response. causing a flaw in Jiang’s power. and Taiwan during the Sino-Japanese War of 1885-95. national defense. The western powers joined together to put down the rebellion in Beijing and protect Western nationalists. the allied westerners sent 19. and many other nations fought to gain spheres of influence over the China. He developed state constitutions and brought new policies to the party in 1982. the West began to see China as another potential colony as the Age of Imperialism began during the 19th century. In 1949. Deng retired and Zhao Ziyang became general secretary. Great Britain. and science/technology. headed by Jiang Qing. China came into the world’s eyes again with the Tiananmen Square incident.Reform. the Chinese. These thugs. Japan. China also implemented a 30-year alliance with Russia against Japanese and Japanese allies. due to its large geographical area and large population. However. The United States. in June they surfaced in Beijing. Seeing his opportunity. Russia. As time progressed.000 soldiers and captured Beijing on August 14. With the help of President Richard Nixon and his philosophy of Détente. industry. in 1989. roamed the countryside attacking missionaries and Chinese converts of Christianity until. when China lost influence of Korea. mostly from the north. but who would know that these contacts would have a great impact on the future. The event caused nations around the world to question China’s view of human rights and freedoms. The Boxer Rebellion was the spark that ignited the political strife and conflict that would happen for the remainder of the 20th Century. As China was increasing its world reconciliation. The failure of the rebellion and Empress’s army to throw out foreigners caused the Chinese people to lose confidence in the Imperial System that had been established. China was incorporated into the world community. The high point of the People’s Republic of China came in 1971 when it was given Taiwan’s position on the United Nation’s Security Council. the founders of the People’s Republic of China were slowly dying. many Chinese were tired with the foreigners and in the summer of 1900 and a secret society roamed the country of China called the "Righteous and Harmonious Fists. however the dowager Empress Tz’u-hsi blocked Western advances with her army. At the turn of the century. 1900. . Students demonstrating in the streets of Beijing were attacked and killed by Chinese soldiers. saw the Westerners and other Asian nations as inferior and ignored their presence. China finally realized that foreigners were carving up their lands. In 1987. However. Boxer Rebellion Westerners established contacts with China starting with Marco Polo. students demonstrated in Tiananmen Square in honor of Zhou. Deng’s plan was based on the four modernizations of agriculture. and Li Peng became premier. At first. Vietnam. Relations between the two countries remained strained until 1985. The lack of Zhou Enlai and Mao in leadership roles in 1976 caused a power struggle developed between Deng Ziaoping and Mao’s supports." The believed that the current Chinese government was unable to throw out the foreigners and they took it as their goal and mission to overthrow the western control over their lands.

To help with his effort. By 1923. he appointed Chiang Kai-shek as president. unify China. To help with his effort. Sun Yat-sen – His Hawaiian Roots. However. however soon after graduation he turned to politics. however he is remembered today as the father of modern China. Sun Yat-sen’s fight was to overthrow the Manchu Dynasty. In 1925." 5 February 2000. He left China for 16 years to return in 1911 when the successful rebellion in Wuhan prompted other providences to rebel.uor. Sun and also contains a page that gives the name of articles and books that were written on and about him. "Dr. Although the site is dedicated to Dr. Eng discusses the political leaders of China. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) Sun Yat-sen had an extensive education in the United States and Hong Kong to become a medical doctor. Chiang Kai-shek Dr. The site is broken down into different social studies of China with links to other sites that help broaden the subject. During the next year he staged an unsuccessful revolution that caused him to leave China and to stage two more revolutions in 1917 and 1921. had a hard time accomplishing his goal due to his inability to raise a large enough army and appeal to the public. Accessed 30 March 2000. this site doesn’t contain much usefulness except to hear a speech he gave and the name of books some biographies. the site does contain a good resource..org/. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) Sun Yat-sen had an extensive education in the United States and Hong Kong to become a medical doctor. socialism. His first major role in China was in 1895 where he helped stage the unsuccessful Canton uprising against the Emperor. During the next year he staged an unsuccessful revolution that caused him to leave China and to stage two more revolutions in 1917 and 1921. he was able to lead a small band of a new regime and reorganized the KMT in the . accessed 20 February 2000. Sun Yat-sen efforts and thought in Hawaii. Dr. available from http://newton. he was able to lead a small band of a new regime and reorganized the KMT in the Soviet Union Communist model. Sun Yat-sen." Available http://sunyatsen. Eng.hawaii. historical and more. and democracy. In all. He believed that the time was right to overthrow the emperor. and establish a democracy. he strengthened the Kuomintang (KMT) or nationalist party that same year and proclaiming himself provisional president of a newly formed republic. By 1923. He believed that the time was right to overthrow the emperor. In 1924. he was forced to resign in 1913. although a visionary. Dr. economical. Robert Y. His first major role in China was in 1895 where he helped stage the unsuccessful Canton uprising against the Emperor. However. He summarized his principles in the Three Principals of the People: nationalism.html. Sun Yat-sen died. The site also contains links to other helpful sites in each category that he breaks down China into. "East & Southeast Asia: An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources. he strengthened the Kuomintang (KMT) or nationalist party that same year and proclaiming himself provisional president of a newly formed republic. In the History section.edu/Departments&Programs/AsianStudiesDept/china. however soon after graduation he turned to politics. Eng puts together an informative site that contains many different types of information on China – political. he was forced to resign in 1913. He left China for 16 years to return in 1911 when the successful rebellion in Wuhan prompted other providences to rebel.Sun Yat-sen. It contains real player speech by Dr.

In 1932. Sun Yat-sen died. The region remained peaceful for five year until in 1937. "Dr. Sun and also contains a page that gives the name of articles and books that were written on and about him.edu/Departments&Programs/AsianStudiesDept/china. The Japanese soldiers raped and killed millions of women and children in the city of Nanking. During the Japanese invasion of China. 1931. In . Japanese forces attacked Shanghai. The region remained in Japanese hands until August 8. had a hard time accomplishing his goal due to his inability to raise a large enough army and appeal to the public. Accessed 30 March 2000. and establish a democracy. although a visionary. Within days. Although the nationalist offered little real resistance again. called the Rape of Nanking. when the Japanese were fearful of losing control of Manchuria because the rising strength of the KMT. and democracy.org/. historical and more. After the war. Within a few months." 5 February 2000. the Japanese army controlled all of Manchuria because the KMT offered little resistance. Eng. Manchuria laid ideal to foreign interest until September 18. The Japanese staged an explosion on Mukden Railroad that gave Japan the reason to take over the city of Mukden with the Kwantung Army. Eng puts together an informative site that contains many different types of information on China – political. unify China. causing it to be the most technological advanced region of China. 1945. Robert Y. Manchuria Manchuria and Japan in China Manchuria. The Japanese began to exploit the lands of Manchuria and invested in heavy industry. This allowed the Japanese established the puppet state of Manchukuo with the last emperor of China as its leader. which in turn. Dr.uor.hawaii. socialism. In the History section. the Japanese used Manchukuo to invade China to start World War II. Sun Yat-sen – His Hawaiian Roots. The site also contains links to other helpful sites in each category that he breaks down China into. The site is broken down into different social studies of China with links to other sites that help broaden the subject. Sun Yat-sen’s fight was to overthrow the Manchu Dynasty. In 1925. Although the site is dedicated to Dr.. when Russian army invaded. In 1924. this site doesn’t contain much usefulness except to hear a speech he gave and the name of books some biographies. accessed 20 February 2000. however he is remembered today as the father of modern China. the war was over and Manchuria was handed back over to the Chinese. available from http://newton. he appointed Chiang Kai-shek as president.Soviet Union Communist model. but the Russian army gave the Japanese arms to the Chinese Communist Party. helped them expel the KMT in 1949. He summarized his principles in the Three Principals of the People: nationalism. "East & Southeast Asia: An Annotated Directory of Internet Resources. It contains real player speech by Dr. has been site of much conflict and problems within the past one hundred years.html." Available http://sunyatsen. economical. one of the greatest horrors of the twentieth century occurred. In all. Sun Yat-sen. Sun Yat-sen efforts and thought in Hawaii. Its first major 20th century happening was in 1905 during the RussoJapanese War between Japan and Russia over the control of northern China and the Korea peninsula. the site does contain a good resource. the KMT and CCP banded together to protect China. Eng discusses the political leaders of China. the northeastern section of Mainland China.

the US passed the Taiwan Relations Act. With three candidates running. the Chinese in Taiwan elected a president that was proindependence. in the year 2000. he participated in the May Fourth Movement and realized that the Chinese revolutionaries were striving for a Marxist government. was one of the worst politicians. In 1945. which caused the KMT to flee to Taiwan completely in 1949. Japan began to colonize the island and controlled it until the end of World War II when the Allies gave it back to China. 1979. The incident brought US military vessels to the area. At the time. To help protect Taiwan. he was enlightened and began to work his strategy to seize control of China. the UN allowed it to stay on the Security Council and many nations did not recognize the communist government on Mainland China. His plan was to . Mao helped form the Chinese Communist Party or CCP. President Chen Shui-bian of the People’s Republic of China threatened to use force to keep Taiwan part of China. In 1895. Manchuria has been a land that was vital to Japan due to its ability to be developed into an industrial land. the United States ended diplomatic relations with Taiwan and recognized the People’s Republic of China. Henry Kissinger met with Zhou Enlai establishing the first relationship between Communist China and the United States. The act committed the US to resist force used against Taiwan. the Shanghai Communiqué formally stated that the United States believed that Taiwan was part of China and there was only one China however it did not state whether the CCP or KMT was the rightful government. independence from China became a major issue. he opened up foreign relations with Communist China and helped Communist China gain entrance into the UN and the Security Council in October in Taiwan’s place. US assistance to Taiwan continued until the election of President Richard Nixon. Currently. Even though nationalist China was based in Taiwan. Mao Zedong Mao Zedong or Mao Tse-tung (1893 – 1976) Mao Zedong. The problem is that other nations are choosing sides. the United Nation was formed with China on the UN Security Council. creating a state of military readiness and maybe World War III. but also in 1979. Through Nixon’s efforts. Communist China showed increasing interest to discuss issues on a higher level and opens itself to the United States with the Ping Pong Diplomacy. Taiwan Taiwan China lost control of Taiwan in the first Sino-Japanese War of 1885-95. This treaty was important to the United States because it would prevent Russia from having an ally on the UN Security Council during the Korea War. Finally. On March 20. On January 1. Taiwan remained silent until in 1987 when Taiwan ended its policy of martial law and elections were held in 1990. In 1921. In 1970. Finally in July of 1971. Mao’s first part in Chinese history comes from his enrollment in Peking University. The United States withheld military assistance to Taiwan until the 1954 when the United States was scared that Taiwan would turn communist. That same year. 2000. Here. but the Mainland Chinese are willing to fight to keep it part of the People’s Republic. the KMT or nationalist party under the leadership of Chiang Kai-shek ruled China.conclusion. Japan could not have waged its war against China and the rest of the world. Communist China tried to influence Taiwanese elections by using missiles. although noted in history as one of the greatest revolutionaries. Two years later. the United States signed the mutual security treaty of 1954. the presidential election of Taiwan brought world attention. Without Manchuria. In 1972. In 1996. a civil war broke out between the KMT and the CCP. Due to this. Taiwan threatens to break away from China.

causing all private industries to be socialized by 1955 and having 98% of the farming populations participating in communes by 1957. he started to lose power to Zhou Enlai and Deng Ziaoping in the 1970’s. he began to hand land over to the peasants from the landlords.appeal to the rural peasant class to gain control of the countryside and use them to surround the large urban centers. In 1934. His land reform was completed three years later. Mao was driven out of Jiangxi by the KMT army and thus began the Long March northward. Mao used the help of advisors and loans from the Soviet Union. In 1950. near the end. and cheating while at the same time. The KMT and CCP. He denounced bribery. However. believing that China should be ruled by Chinese. He tried to implement such programs such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. Although the first five-year plan was largely successful. However the plan failed after the Soviet Union began to withdraw advisors and support. The third goal of Mao was aimed at the economy and the practices of institutions. His social reform even went as far as to allow children to denounce their parents if they did not follow the communist line. while famine caused massive hunger in 1959. Mao and the CCP may have been destroyed had it not been for the Japanese invasion of China in 1937. With his death on September 9. He would then take control of the entire government. A civil war persisted until in 1949. tax fraud. he gave women equal rights including the right to own property and equal rights in marriage and divorce. Mao Zedong was great leader when it came to revolution and fighting for dominance. the second five-year plan failed due to a change in Russian policy toward China and natural disaster. In 1950. he left a power vacuum for leadership of the country. The first five-year plan was to increase industrialization through the Soviet model. Mao became ruler of China with the formal title of Chairman of the People’s Republic. introduced the first five-year plan in 1953. The way they did this was through collective farming and government ownership of all transportation and most industries. however once he came into power. The early years of the communist government were trying to curtail the patterned lives of the people and to implement a Marxist state that was first based on agriculture but in time. It down played liberal arts and put emphasis on technical skills and education. although. The first five-year plan was a success and caused the implementation of the second five-year plan in 1958. 1976. this did not deter him from trying to set up the Chinese Soviet Republic in the Jiangxi Providence in November of 1931. Mao remained leader of China for the rest of his life. Mao Zedong began to reform the economy and social characteristics of China. the Great Leap Forward was a . would be based on industrialization. The second plan’s goal was to increase industrial and agriculture production by 75%. Great Leap Forward and Great Proletarian Cultural Reform Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution In attempts to bring China out of its technological backwardness. Mao took control of Mainland China. he was a poor leader and politician due mostly to his inability to subdue his passion for revolution five-year plans The Five-Year Plans of China After the Chinese Communist Party had gained control of China in 1949. The five-year plan included education too. united to fight the Japanese and expel all foreigners from Chinese soil. The first goal of Mao was to introduce land reform similar that of the USSR. but his hopes were shattered when Chiang Kai-shek was determined to rule China in 1925. The first five-year plan’s goal was to maximize agricultural production to pay for increased industrialization and Soviet aid. the rivalry persisted and Mao formed the People’s Liberation Army in 1946. The second goal of Mao was to promote equality and the communist party. After the war.

three straight years of poor harvest left many of the people that had joined communes hungry or starving. The failure of the Great Leap Forward lead many high ranking communist party members to doubt the ability of Mao causing him to resign as chairman of China in 1959. To add to the underperformance of the program. Mao did not want to lose power as the Chairman of the Communist Party and felt the only way to keep power was to call for the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution. was one of the few rulers of China that believed that some capitalistic programs could help China. It was the revitalization of the revolutionary feelings of the youth while. This revolution led to nations around the world looking down on China and created a lost generation. put Deng under criticism from the start. Mao’s supporters took power away from Deng when Zhou died later that year. The movement slowed production. they believed that his economic reforms were through capitalist forms of production. Most importantly. He became a personal adviser to Mao Zedong. 1976. Disorder was rampant throughout the country and especially in Wuhan in July 1967. including Mao’s wife Jiang Qing. seizing the opportunity. In 1976. Deng. although communist in nature. The failure of the Great Leap Forward was the beginning of the downfall of Mao as a politician. that same year Mao died and his supporters soon lost their control over the government when they were arrested on October 6. Deng Ziaoping Deng Ziaoping (1904 – 1997) Deng Ziaoping.program implemented by Mao in 1958. Mao was aggravated by Deng’s lack of support and defaced Deng by parading him around Beijing as "freak. Deng Ziaoping. hurt the economy and most of all. has been the most visual and powerful person in the Chinese Communist Party. in the last couple of years. a new group of people. Deng was a strong leader that was able to take the reins during the 1970’s. In the mid 1960’s factions of the communist party began to surface against Mao and many started to believe that a Marxist state was not working. It was an extension of his second five-year plan that set up small backyard furnaces to increase steel production and to create communes out of the collective farms already established. His belief in communism came at a young age when he moved to France and joined the communist party in 1922. He slowly left political life. including Deng Xiaoping. Supporters of Mao. made foreign nations sever their ties to China. Tiananmen Square Tiananmen Square ." For the next couple of years. such as Mao and Zhou. With the death of many of the old leaders of China. at the same time. However. began to gain power in the communist party. until 1990 when he resigned from his last political office. He slowly gained power in the party until in 1962 when he began to play down Maoist policies. took control of the Chinese government and promoted his followers to high positions in the government. Deng became leader of China for a short time when Zhou fell ill. He later moved to the Soviet Union to study Soviet communism before he returned to China as an underground organizer of the Chinese Communist Party in 1927. closed schools. but held no major positions in the party until 1952 when he was named vice-premier. revolution. The program ended in failure due to the population’s reluctance to enter communes and that the steel produced was of low quality and quantity. The end result of the revolution was a generation without education and many farms lay unused for years. His inability to deal with his failure caused him to do the only thing he knew well. it was used to oust opponents of Mao. Deng held very little power until in 1973 Zhou Enlai took Deng under his wing. Also. he was able to fill the power vacuum and bring the country through it without much incident.

tear gas. Military personnel were sent into the city to break up the protest. Estimated death totaled at 1000 soldiers and 3000 civilians. By the end of June. students and more liberal Chinese thought of establishing a democracy. Mao Zedong pronunciation (help·info) (December 26. Even after Mao’s death. He led the People's Republic of China (PRC) from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976. Over a quarter million students joined the demonstration within the next month and near the end of April. 1976) was a Chinese revolutionary. and machine guns on the unarmed protesters. died causing 1000 students to hold a prodemocracy demonstration in the central plaza of Beijing in his honor. On April 15. 1893– September 9. but during his rule. Thousands of troops stormed the square. but protesters were able to block them from entering Tiananmen Square. the protest swelled to over one million. Hu. On March 17. political theorist and communist leader. almost 2 thousand people were arrested and 27 executed for counterrevolutionary activities. the protest was small and no action was taken against the liberal students. using tanks. students still believed that a democracy was the best way to go with the Chinese political system. the Chinese army made their move. This event strained the world’s relationship with China because of the government’s abuse of human rights especially since early action on part of the government could have stopped the bloodshed. 1989. At first. Hu Yaobang became a hero to many Chinese liberals in 1987 when he did not halt student unrest. the center of the unrest. His theoretical contribution to Marxism- . clubs. On June 4th. the current secretary general of the Communist Party. the Chinese government warned students to end demonstrating otherwise action would be taken.Mao Zedong forced the nationalist Chinese to flee to Taiwan in 1949. causing the Chinese government to implement martial law three days later. but the Chinese government reported only 300 fatalities.

During his stay in Shanghai. The KMT imprisoned them both. military mastermind.[8] Likely due to poor language skills (Mao never learned to speak Mandarin). he laid the economic. He is officially held in high regard in China as a great revolutionary. and at his recommendation. Mao was living with He Zizhen. At this time. such as the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. Following his graduation. age 27. Mao worked as an assistant librarian at the University Library under the curatorship of Li Dazhao. 1893. are blamed for costing millions of lives. When the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing Dynasty broke out in 1911 he joined the Revolutionary Army in Hunan. and Qian Xuantong.[6] Early life Mao was born on December 26.Leninism. and visionary.[9] On July 23. it is believed that Mao traveled with Professor Yang Changji. philosopher. In October 1930. He later left the farm to continue his studies at a secondary school in Changsha. He eventually returned to school. His father was a poor peasant who had become a wealthy farmer and grain dealer. and Anying was later sent to his relatives after the KMT killed his mother[citation needed]. Jiangxi. attended the first session of the National Congress of the Communist Party of China in Shanghai. which Mao never acknowledged. causing severe famine and damage to the culture. and savior of the nation. Mao is regarded as one of the most influential figures in modern world history. Mao. Conversely. Mao registered as a part-time student at Beijing University and attended a few lectures and seminars by intellectuals.[7] and in 1918 graduated from the First Provincial Normal School of Hunan. Two years later. but left school at 13 to work on the family farm. a co-worker and 17 year old girl from Yongxing. Mao's policies and political purges from 1949 to 1976 are widely believed to have caused the deaths of between 50 to 70 million people. he engaged himself as much as possible in reading which introduced him to Communist theories. This is generally accepted in China as well as by the Chinese Communist Party[citation needed].[5] and named by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most important people of the 20th century. Mao is viewed by many[who?] as a poet. with a contentious and ever-evolving legacy. and his brand of Communist policies are now collectively known as Maoism. in Shaoshan. In the spring of 1912 the war ended. Additionally. technological and cultural foundations of modern China. he turned down an opportunity to study in France. political strategist.[1] As a consequence. Hu Shi. the Kuomintang (KMT) captured Yang Kaihui as well as her son. Mao remains a controversial figure to this day. the capital of Hunan province. Anying[citation needed]. 1921. who would come to greatly influence Mao's future thought. such as Chen Duxiu. At age 8 he began studying at the village primary school. Many Chinese[quantify] also believe that through his policies. military strategies. the Republic of China was founded and Mao left the army. Mao's social-political programs. Professor Yang's daughter and a fellow student. owing the latter primarily to the cult of personality fostered during his time in power. Professor Yang died in 1920 but prior to his death had held a faculty position at Peking University.[2][3][4] Since Deng Xiaoping assumed power in 1978. society and economy of China. Hunan province China. transforming the country from an agrarian society into a major world power. despite an existing marriage with Luo Yixiu arranged by his father at home. He married Yang Kaihui. he was elected as one of the five commissars of the . his college teacher and future father-in-law. to Beijing in 1919.[clarification needed] his portrait continues to be featured prominently on Tiananmen and on all Renminbi bills. many Maoist policies have been abandoned in favour of economic reforms.

In early 1927. During his stay at home. he was a delegate to the first National Conference of the Kuomintang. and unarmed labour struggles could not resolve the problems of imperial and feudal suppression. His political ambitions returned. The Party had become poor. warn against the behaviour of the blindfolded man trying to catch sparrows. and Mao fled from Changsha. This is considered the initial and decisive step towards the successful application of Mao's revolutionary theories. Mao sought to subvert the alliance of imperialism and feudalism in China. and in 1921 he attended the organizational meeting of the Communist Party of China (or CPC). This dependence on the rural rather than the urban proletariat to instigate violent revolution . in an urgent meeting held by the Communist Party. Mao's interest in the revolution was rekindled after hearing of the 1925 uprisings in Shanghai and Guangzhou. an important city that the CPC emphasized for the Revolution. he made a report based on his investigations of the peasant uprisings in the wake of the Northern Expedition. obtained through experience.Central Committee of the Party during the third Congress session. grass-roots knowledge. Mao became acting Propaganda Director of the Kuomintang. In 1924. Mao led several labour struggles based upon his studies of the propagation and organization of the contemporary labour movements. where he was elected an Alternate Executive of the Central Committee. His two most famous essays. Mao began to depend on Chinese peasants who later became staunch supporters of his theory of violent revolution. The essays. Later that year. and the 'Imperial envoy' descending from his carriage to 'spout opinions' . he became an Executive of the Shanghai branch of the Kuomintang and Secretary of the Organization Department. encouraged by his father. Both essays reflect the guerilla roots of Maoism in the need to build up support in the countryside against a Japanese occupying force and emphasise the need to win over hearts and minds through 'education'. He thought the KMT to be both economically and politically vulnerable and thus that the revolution could not be steered by Nationalists. the Chinese literary works: Outlaws of the Marsh and Romance of the Three Kingdoms.[11] Mao had a strong interest in the political system. and Mao became disillusioned with the revolution and moved back to Shaoshan. Mao remained in Shanghai. He pondered these failures and finally realized that industrial workers were unable to lead the revolution because they made up only a small portion of China's population. these struggles were successfully subdued by the government. are concerned with the practical strategies of a revolutionary movement and stress the importance of practical. After graduating from Hunan Normal School. the highest level of schooling available in his province. the base of the Kuomintang. Mao returned to Hunan where. However.[12] However. according to some scholars. 'On Contradiction' and 'On Practice'. the Party encountered major difficulties organizing labor union movements and building a relationship with its nationalist ally. to take part in the preparations for the second session of the National Congress of Kuomintang. Throughout the 1920s. He first encountered Marxism while he worked as a library assistant at Peking University. For a while. Mao returned to Hunan at the instruction of the CPC Central Committee and the Kuomintang Central Committee to organize the Hunan branch of the Kuomintang. and he then went to Guangdong.[10] In 1924. reproduced later as part of the 'Red Book'. Hunan after he was labeled a radical activist. Mao spent six months studying independently. Other important influences on Mao were the Russian revolution and. In October 1925. the KMT. both from 1937. Mao was first introduced to communism while working at Peking University.

'[15] The wives of several suspects had their breasts cut open and their genitals burned. Mao joined his army with that of Zhu De. Mao's authoritative domination. were against Mao's land policies and proposals to reform the local party branch and army leadership. was challenged by the Jiangxi branch of the CPC and military officers. just three years after their departure. 'airplane ride'.[14] Under the direction of Mao. Jiangxi. which was defeated and scattered after fierce battles. [11][13] War In 1927. Critics accuse Mao's authority in Jiangxi of being secured and reassured through the revolutionary terrorism. Mao's opponents. or red terrorism. Mao himself was from a peasant family. In the Jinggang Mountains. From 1931 to 1934. and thus he cultivated his reputation among the farmers and peasants and introduced them to Marxism. Mao persuaded two local insurgent leaders to pledge their allegiance to him. they moved to the Jinggang Mountains. built a modest but effective army. as commander-in-chief. undertook experiments in rural reform and government. Afterwards. Mao's tactics were strongly based on that of the Spanish Guerillas during the Napoleonic Wars. called the "Revolutionary Army of Workers and Peasants". who.[17] were killed during this purge. Mao was married to He Zizhen. but he himself made a distinction between guerrilla warfare (youji zhan) and Mobile Warfare (yundong zhan).[16] perhaps as many as 186. This military rearrangement in Sanwan. where Mao re-organized the scattered soldiers. Yang Kaihui. Mao reacted first by accusing the opponents of opportunism and kulakism and then set off a series of systematic suppressions of them. had been arrested and executed in 1930.000. Mao conducted the famous Autumn Harvest Uprising in Changsha. and provided refuge for Communists fleeing the rightist purges in the cities. however. In Jiangxi. among whom the most prominent was Li Wenlin.distinguished Mao from his predecessors and contemporaries. with the help of Zhu De. There. It was alleged[citation needed] that Mao orchestrated the Anti-Bolshevik League incident and the Futian incident. Mao led an army.[15] Short (2001) estimates that tens of thousands of suspected enemies. and 'monkey pulling reins. creating the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army of China. . it is reported that horrible methods of torture took place[15] and given names such as 'sitting in a sedan chair'. Later. 'toad-drinking water'. Mao also ordered that each company must have a party branch office with a commissar as its leader who would give political instructions based upon superior mandates. rearranging the military division into smaller regiments. especially that of the military force.[18] Mao. the exhausted troops were forced to leave Hunan for Sanwan. the founder of the CPC's branch and Red Army in Jiangxi. Red Army in short. Here. His previous wife. Mao's methods are normally referred to as Guerrilla warfare. Jiangxi. Mao helped establish the Soviet Republic of China and was elected Chairman of this small republic in the mountainous areas in Jiangxi. Mao's Guerrilla Warfare and Mobile Warfare was based upon the fact of the poor armament and military training of the Red Army which consisted mainly of impoverished peasants. Jiangxi initiated the CPC's absolute control over its military force and has been considered to have the most fundamental and profound impact upon the Chinese revolution.

According to the standard Chinese Communist Party line. After the end of World War II." More than one million Kuomintang soldiers were involved in these five campaigns. in contrast. Mao Zedong's military strategies. Chiang.confirmed to their superiors that the CPC was both strong and popular over a broad area. At this Conference. prompting them to engage in the "Long March. continued to support Chiang Kai-shek. the Americans sent a special diplomatic envoy. This fact was not understood well in the US.S. there was a struggle for power within the Communist leadership. sought to build the ROC army for the certain conflict with Mao's communist forces after the end of World War II. he had them surrounded. that the Nationalists were better equipped and fought more against Japan. the Red Army had no less than 45.[citation needed] However. In the end. the contacts with the USA developed with the CPC led to very little. with a further 200.000 soldiers. Some argue. now openly against the . year-long journey that Mao emerged as the top Communist leader. It was during this 9. the U. By October 1934. The US regarded Chiang as an important ally. who waged five waves of besieging campaigns against the "central soviet area. Mao led the Communist resistance against the Japanese in the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). to the Communist Party of China. however. Wang Shiwei. Also while in Yan'an. usually entitled "soviet areas". In turn. Mao was removed from his important positions and replaced by individuals (including Zhou Enlai) who appeared loyal to the orthodox line advocated by Moscow and represented within the CPC by a group known as the 28 Bolsheviks." a retreat from Jiangxi in the southeast to Shaanxi in the northwest of China. and Ding Ling. four of which were defeated by the Red Army led by Mao. Mao further consolidated power over the Communist Party in 1942 by launching the Shu Fan movement. United States fliers shot down over North China.600 kilometer (5. chairman of the Kuomintang government. or "Rectification" campaign against rival CPC members such as Wang Ming.[22] In 1944. called the Dixie Mission. According to Edwin Moise. and precious lend-lease armaments continued to be allocated to the Kuomintang. there had been more than ten regions.[19] The relative prosperity of "soviet areas" startled and worried Chiang Kai-shek. in Modern China: A History 2nd Edition: Most of the Americans were favorably impressed.000 local militia acting as a subsidiary force. from his base in Yan'an. The CPC seemed less corrupt. was determined to eliminate the Communists. and more vigorous in its resistance to Japan than the KMT. able to help shorten the war by engaging the Japanese occupiers in China. [20] Under increasing pressure from the KMT encirclement campaigns.. Mao entered the Standing Committee of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China. Mao divorced He Zizhen and married the actress Lan Ping. under control of the CPC. Both the Communists and Nationalists have been criticised for fighting amongst themselves rather than allying against the Japanese Imperial Army. who had earlier assumed nominal control of China due in part to the Northern Expedition. Around 1930. Mao spent part of the war (as to whether it was most or only a little is disputed) fighting the Kuomintang for control of certain parts of China. Chiang. more unified.were all encouraged by revolutionary passions and aspiring after a communist utopia. During the Sino-Japanese War.. By June 1932 (the height of its power). laid out in On Guerrilla Warfare were opposed by both Chiang Kai-shek and the United States. who would become known as Jiang Qing. aided by the Zunyi Conference and the defection of Zhou Enlai to Mao's side.965 mile).

Mao took up residence in Zhongnanhai. in virtually . In the early morning of December 10. Changchun took five months. Mao is famously said to have announced: "The Chinese people have stood up" (though whether he actually said it is disputed[24]).000 civilians are believed to have perished during the siege. (Li's book.) and gave large supplies of arms to the Communist Party of China. and there he ordered the construction of an indoor swimming pool and other buildings. and usually several.000 people were executed during the years 1949–53. during which significant numbers of landlords were beaten to death at mass meetings organized by the Communist Party as land was taken from them and given to poorer peasants. Historical records showed that Mao directed the PVA campaigns in the Korean War to the minute details. PLA troops laid siege to Chengdu. Li Zhisui. The Private Life of Chairman Mao. [26] there was also the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries.S.[27] which involved public executions targeting mainly former Kuomintang officials.S. Hiroshima took nine seconds. PLA lieutenant colonel Zhang Zhenglu. Mao was called Chairman Mao or the Great Leader Chairman Mao The Communist Party assumed control of all media in the country and used it to promote the image of Mao and the Party. Mao was the Chairman of the PRC. 1949. From 1954 to 1959. because there was a policy to select "at least one landlord. It was the culmination of over two decades of civil and international war. 1949. is regarded as controversial.People's Liberation Army led by Mao Zedong in the civil war for control of China. the last KMT-occupied city in mainland China. who documented the siege in his book White Snow.[citation needed] In 1948. The Chinese people were exhorted to devote themselves to build and strengthen their country through Communist ideology.S. preferring not to wear formal clothes unless absolutely necessary. Leadership of China The People's Republic of China was established on October 1. which lasted from June until October.[29] Mao himself claimed that a total of 700.[28] The U. and Chiang Kai-shek evacuated from the mainland to Taiwan (Formosa) that same day. State department in 1976 estimated that there may have been a million killed in the land reform. the Soviet Union gave quasicovert support to Mao (acting as a concerned neighbor more than a military ally. Red Blood. former employees of Western companies and intellectuals whose loyalty was suspect. 1949. At least 160.) In October 1950. businessmen accused of "disturbing" the market. although newer Chinese records indicate the Soviet "supplies" were not as large as previously believed. Kuomintang forces suffered massive losses against Mao's forces. In his speech declaring the foundation of the PRC. Mao often did his work either in bed or by the side of the pool. his personal physician.000 killed in the counterrevolutionary campaign. Mao made the decision to send the People's Volunteer Army into Korea and fought against the United Nations forces led by the U. compared it to Hiroshima: “The casualties were about the same.S. the People’s Liberation Army starved out the Kuomintang forces occupying the city of Changchun.”[23] On January 21. Likewise. The Nationalists under General Chiang Kai-Shek were vilified as were countries such as the United States of America and Japan. During this period.[30] However. to avoid open conflict with the U. 800. a compound next to the Forbidden City in Beijing. especially by those sympathetic to Mao. and consistently fell short of the promised amount of aid. support was part of its view to contain and defeat world communism. according to Dr. The U.[25] Along with Land reform.

"while the worst among them should be shot."[41] Following the consolidation of power. at least 1. and death of many citizens. in his biography of Mao. Given the freedom to express themselves. silencing. Mao also launched a phase of rapid collectivization. in 1958. This was initially tolerated and encouraged. as well as those who were merely alleged to have criticized. Programs pursued during this time include the Hundred Flowers Campaign.[38] Starting in 1951.[36] Mao played a personal role in organizing the mass repressions and established a system of execution quotas. A climate of raw terror developed as workers denounced their bosses. For example. The CPC introduced price controls as well as a Chinese character simplification aimed at increasing literacy.[42] Others such as Dr Li Zhisui have suggested that Mao had initially seen the policy as a way of weakening those within his party who opposed him. the Great Leap Forward. the victims often being humiliated at struggle sessions. ." but in practice allowed security chief Kang Sheng to drive opponents to suicide and that "this pattern was repeated throughout his leadership of the People's Republic." These campaigns took several hundred thousand additional lives. Mao's government reversed its policy and persecuted those. Large scale industrialization projects were also undertaken.[33][34] In addition. wives turned on their husbands. Mao launched the First Five-Year Plan (1953–8). Great Leap Forward Main article: Great Leap Forward In January 1958. The success of the First Five Year Plan was to encourage Mao to instigate the Second Five Year Plan. Mao gave explicit instructions that "no cadre is to be killed. The Hundred Flowers movement led to the condemnation. totalling perhaps 500. Mao Zedong launched the second Five-Year Plan known as the Great Leap Forward. a method designed to intimidate and terrify people to the maximum. Authors such as Jung Chang have alleged that the Hundred Flowers Campaign was merely a ruse to root out "dangerous" thinking.5 million people.every village for public execution". people jumping to their deaths became so commonplace that residents avoided walking on the pavement near skyscrapers for fear that suicides might land on them. with death tolls possibly in the millions. The plan aimed to end Chinese dependence upon agriculture in order to become a world power.[27] Nevertheless he defended these killings as necessary for the securing of power. and children informed on their parents.[31] the number of deaths range between 2 million[31][32] and 5 million. new industrial plants were built and agricultural production eventually fell to a point where industry was beginning to produce enough capital that China no longer needed the USSR's support. but was surprised by the extent of criticism and the fact that it began to be directed at his own leadership. With the Soviet Union's assistance. also linked to Mao's Anti-Rightist Movement. who criticized. Mao insisted that minor offenders be criticized and reformed or sent to labor camps. Philip Short notes that in the Yan'an Rectification Movement.[35] perhaps as many as 4 to 6 million. in which Mao indicated his supposed willingness to consider different opinions about how China should be governed. After a few months.[39] In Shanghai. the vast majority via suicide.[citation needed] It was only then that he used it as a method of identifying and subsequently persecuting those critical of his government. the Party in what is called the Anti-Rightist Movement.[40] Some biographers have pointed out that driving those perceived as enemies to suicide was a common tactic during the Mao-era.[36] were sent to "reform through labour" camps where many perished. known as the three-anti/five-anti campaigns. liberal and intellectual Chinese began opposing the Communist Party and questioning its leadership. Mao initiated two successive movements in an effort to rid urban areas of corruption by targeting wealthy capitalists and political opponents.000.[37] which were often exceeded.

and many of the peasants ordered to work on massive infrastructure projects and the smallscale production of iron and steel. he knew how bad the disaster had become. As a result. Many peasants accused of hiding food were tortured and beaten to death. the relatively small agricultural collectives which had been formed to date were rapidly merged into far larger people's communes. most notably Dr. as Mao issued quotas for pigs. Li Zhisui. and not only grain. blaming bad weather or other officials for the famine. Mao lost esteem among many of the top party cadres and was eventually forced to abandon the policy in 1962. Jasper Becker notes that Mao was dismissive of reports he received of food shortages in the countryside and refused to change course. However. alleged that Mao knew of the vast suffering and that he was dismissive of it. Although the steel quotas were officially reached. notably Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. Under the Great Leap Forward. Mao and other party leaders ordered the implementation of a variety of unproven and unscientific new agricultural techniques by the new communes. The net result. Mao and national propaganda claimed that he was only partly to blame. According to some. ducks and eggs. and he believed the party was doing everything it could to manage the situation" Jung Chang and Jon Halliday. the Great Leap Forward led to millions of deaths in China. The extent of Mao's knowledge as to the severity of the situation has been disputed. He refused to open state granaries.[44] Other violent campaigns followed in which party leaders went from village to village in search of hidden food reserves. in Mao: the Unknown Story. as it had been made from assorted . chickens. Mao was not aware of anything more than a mild food and general supply shortage until late 1959. he was able to remain Chairman of the Communist Party. 553). 553). was that the rural peasants were not left enough to eat and many millions starved to death in the largest famine in human history. which was compounded in some areas by drought and in others by floods. each layer in the party hierarchy exaggerated the amount of grain produced under them and based on the fabricated success. believing that peasants were lying and that rightists and kulaks were hoarding grain.a plan intended as an alternative model for economic growth to the Soviet model focusing on heavy industry that was advocated by others in the party. and hinted to his top echelon that they should not be too shocked if they happened (438–439). also losing some political power to moderate leaders. he was more than ready for myriad deaths to result. This famine was a direct cause of the death of tens of millions of Chinese peasants between 1959 and 1962. 1959.[43] and instead launched a series of "anti-grain concealment" drives that resulted in numerous purges and suicides. party cadres were ordered to requisition a disproportionately high amount of the true harvest for state use primarily in the cities and urban areas but also for export.[45] Whatever the case. The Great Leap Forward was a disaster for China." In Hungry Ghosts. livestock and farm implements were brought under collective ownership. "But I do not think that when he spoke on July 2. "Although slaughter was not his purpose with the Leap. In an effort to win favor with their superiors and avoid being purged. many children who became emaciated and malnourished during years of hardship and struggle for survival. died shortly after the Great Leap Forward came to an end in 1962 (Spence. Some private food production was banned. Under this economic program. almost all of it made in the countryside was useless lumps of iron. Further. with the Presidency transferred to Liu Shaoqi. Combined with the diversion of labor to steel production and infrastructure projects and the reduced personal incentives under a commune system this led to an approximately 15% drop in grain production in 1959 followed by further 10% reduction in 1960 and no recovery in 1961 (Spence.

Nevertheless.[50] Various other sources have put the figure between 20 and 46 million.scrap metal in home made furnaces with no reliable source of fuel such as coal."[47] At the Lushan Conference in July/August 1959. stifling criticism of the Great Leap policies. around five per cent. and fellow Communist regimes in North Korea. estimates a death toll of 36 million. According to Zhang Rongmei. were those whom Mao called 'enemies of the people'. and all our neighbors did likewise." Moreover. Landlords. as the handful of Western observers allowed access during this time had been restricted to model villages where they were deceived into believing that Great Leap Forward had been a great success.973 billion yuan from 1960 to 1962.[52] . a geometry teacher in rural Shanghai during the Great Leap Forward: "We took all the furniture.[49] There is a great deal of controversy over the number of deaths by starvation during the Great Leap Forward. an accurate figure is difficult to ascertain. religious leaders. several leaders expressed concern that the Great Leap Forward was not as successful as planned. Mao. fearing loss of his position. Until the mid 1980s. whom Mao had rejected on ideological grounds. primarily through Hong Kong and Taiwan. We put all everything in a big fire and melted down all the metal. the figure was around 30 million.[50] exports increased by 50%. The worst of the famine was steered towards enemies of the state. canals and other infrastructure projects. a former Xinhua News Agency reporter who had privileged access and connections available to no other scholars. Banister concluded that the official data implied that around 15 million excess deaths incurred in China during 1958–61 and that based on her modelling of Chinese demographics during the period and taking account of assumed underreporting during the famine years.[43] Censuses were carried out in China in 1953. much like during the 1932–33 famine in the USSR. former members of the nationalist regime. Anyone who had in previous campaigns of repression been labeled a 'black element' was given the lowest priority in the allocation of food.[51] Yang Jisheng. which millions of peasants and prisoners had been forced to toil on and in many cases die for. 1964 and 1982. Senior officials who reported the truth of the famine to Mao were branded as "right opportunists. The official statistic is 20 million deaths. pots. little was known about the scale of the disaster in the Chinese countryside. when official census figures were finally published by the Chinese Government. rightists. The most direct of these was Minister of Defence and Korean War General Peng Dehuai. rich peasants. orchestrated a purge of Peng and his supporters. as given by Hu Yaobang. most of the dams. There was also an assumption that the flow of individual reports of starvation that had been reaching the West. Years later the CPC would conclude that 6 million people were wrongly punished in the campaign. and pans we had in our house. The first attempt to analyse this data in order to estimate the number of famine deaths was carried out by American demographer Dr Judith Banister and published in 1984.[46] As Jasper Becker explains: "The most vulnerable section of China's population. must be localized or exaggerated as China was continuing to claim record harvests and was a net exporter of grain through the period. Because Mao wanted to pay back early to the Soviets debts totaling 1. North Vietnam and Albania were provided grain free of charge. counter-revolutionaries and the families of such individuals died in the greatest numbers. Given the lengthy gaps between the censuses and doubts over the reliability of the data."[48] A campaign against right opportunism was launched and resulted in party members and ordinary peasants being sent to camps where many would subsequently die in the famine. proved useless as they had been built without the input of trained engineers.

They attempted to marginalize Mao by taking control of economic policy and asserting . He thought that a renewal was required. The split was triggered by border disputes.[54] There are political aspects to this period as well. but Defense Minister Lin Biao staunchly defended Mao. "Long Live the great Union between the Parties of Albania and China!" A meeting between the two leaders. called the "Conference of the Seven Thousand. Japan. and Mao (believing he had a superior understanding of Marxist ideology) eroded the previous patron-client relationship between the CPSU and CPC. The resulting tension between Khrushchev (at the head of a politically/militarily superior government). Partly-surrounded by hostile American military bases (reaching from South Korea. 5. Most of the problems regarding communist unity resulted from the death of Stalin and his replacement by Khrushchev. introducing elements of private control of peasant smallholdings and importing grain from Canada and Australia to mitigate the worst effects of famine. a revolution of culture that would unseat and unsettle the "ruling class" and keep China in a state of 'perpetual revolution' that served the interests of the majority. and arguments over the control and direction of world communism.[53] A brief period of liberalization followed while Mao and Lin plotted a comeback. He was concerned that those in power were becoming estranged from the people they were supposed to serve. with the party upholding all of his positive contributions to the revolution. Upon the death of Stalin. He saw that the revolution had replaced an old elite.[53] The overwhelming majority of delegates expressed agreement. The Caption at the bottom reads. and therefore Mao never challenged the suitability of any Stalinist doctrine (at least while Stalin was alive). Stalin had established himself as the successor of "correct" Marxist thought well before Mao controlled the Communist Party of China. Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping's prominence gradually became more powerful. Both the internal crisis and the external threat called for extraordinary statesmanship from Mao. Mao thought that a greater threat to China was not from forces outside of the Communist Party." State President Liu Shaoqi denounced the Great Leap Forward as responsible for widespread famine. due to start of the Sino-Soviet split which resulted in Khrushchev withdrawing all Soviet technical experts and aid from the country. respectively. but from people from within who would subvert it and create a new elite who would control the masses of the population. but as China entered the new decade the statesmen of the People's Republic were in hostile confrontation with each other. Corruption was also a concern. with a new one. not a tiny elite. had favored the idea that Mao should be removed from actual power but maintain his ceremonial and symbolic role. Liu and Deng. the period was dominated by the further isolation of China. and not serve them (capitalism from within). At a large Communist Party conference in Beijing in January 1962. In China.[53] Liu and Deng Xiaoping rescued the economy by disbanding the people's communes. Cultural Revolution undertaken by Mao Zedong A Cultural Revolution Poster promoting relations between Enver Hoxha and Chairman Mao. however. then the State President and General Secretary. and other disputes pertaining to foreign policy. the formerly favourable Soviets were now denounced as "revisionists" and listed alongside "American imperialism" as movements to oppose. never really occurred Mao was concerned with the nature of post 1949 China. China was now confronted with a new Soviet threat from the north and west. and Taiwan). Mao believed (perhaps because of seniority) that the leadership of the "correct" Marxist doctrine would fall to him.On the international front.

the schools in China were closed and the young intellectuals living in cities were ordered to the countryside to be "re-educated" by the peasants. national police chief: "Don't say it is wrong of them to beat up bad persons: if in anger they beat someone to death. motor neurone disease. Mao was faced with declining health due to either Parkinson's disease or.themselves politically as well. a divide between the two men became apparent. During the Cultural Revolution. such as Lee Feigon and Mobo Gao. By 1971. as the Cultural Revolution pierced into every part of Chinese life. Said Xie Fuzhi. it is not as if we cannot do without a few people. Chen Yuen. and posthumously expelled Lin from the party. according to Li Zhisui. there were 1. Health care was free. Millions of lives were ruined during this period.[58] It was during this period that Mao chose Lin Biao. however. commissioned its first nuclear submarines and made various advances in science and technology. Lin Biao died in a plane crash over the air space of Mongolia. Lt. This period is often looked at in official circles in China and in the west as a great stagnation or even of reversal for China. Mao is said to have ordered that no physical harm come to anyone. who seemed to echo all of Mao's ideas. The CPC declared that Lin was planning to depose Mao. although the official history of the People's Republic of China marks the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976 with Mao's death. .772 people murdered in Beijing alone. Some also attributed Mao's decline in health to the betrayal of Lin Biao. as well as creating general economic and social chaos in the country. depicted by such Chinese films as To Live. Gen. Mao declared the Cultural Revolution to be over.[59] In 1969. Chaos reigned in many parts of the country. Mao lost trust in many of the top CPC figures. During the Cultural Revolution. presumably in his way to flee China. including a famous philosopher. perished in the violence of the Cultural Revolution. 1970). Lin was later officially named as Mao's successor. It is estimated that hundreds of thousands. in August and September 1966. claim there were many great advances. China is such a populous nation. where they performed hard manual labor and other work.[55] Believing that certain liberal bourgeois elements of society continued to threaten the socialist framework.[52] When Mao was informed of such losses. Mao remained passive as various factions within the Communist Party mobilized for the power struggle anticipated after his death. launched the Dong Fang Hong satellite (January 30. Many claim that Mao responded to Liu and Deng's movements by launching the Cultural Revolution in 1966. While many — an estimated 100 million — did suffer."[57] As a result. and in some sectors the Chinese economy continued to outperform the west. perhaps millions. The Blue Kite and Farewell My Concubine. At this time. then so be it. In the last years of his life. probably anticipating his arrest. Ion Mihai Pacepa described his conversation with Nicolae Ceauşescu who told him about a plot to kill Mao Zedong with the help of Lin Biao organized by KGB. . particularly that people had been driven to suicide. groups of young people known as the Red Guards struggled against authorities at all levels of society and even set up their own tribunals. The Revolution led to the destruction of much of China's traditional cultural heritage and the imprisonment of a huge number of Chinese citizens. he is alleged to have commented: "People who try to commit suicide — don't attempt to save them! .[60] some scholars. to become his successor. The highest-ranking Soviet Bloc intelligence defector. and living standards in the country side . although the case for this is perhaps overstated. but that was not always the case. China exploded its first H-Bomb (1967)."[56] The authorities allowed the Red Guards to abuse and kill opponents of the regime. as well as lung ailments due to smoking and heart trouble.[61] They actually go so far as to conclude that the Cultural Revolution period actually laid the foundation for the spectacular growth that continues in China. and millions were persecuted. Official history in China states that Lin was planning a military coup or an assassination attempt on Mao.

but she instructed the nurses on duty to follow her example later. and Hua Guofeng called Jiang Qing back from her trip. Mao's breathing stopped and his face turned blue. A memorial service was held in Tiananmen Square on September 18. The medical team protested that the dust from the powder was not good for his lungs. His body lay in state at the Great Hall of the People. Jiang Qing left the room while the medical staff put him on a respirator and performed emergency cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The doctor on duty objected. claiming that he had been lying too long on his left side. whose pictures can expel the evil spirit and bad luck. His body was later placed into the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong. which were the threeevils in pre-1949 China since the Opium War. and Stalin. There was a three minute silence observed during this service. and she sprinkled powder on his body. His condition continued to fluctuate and his life hung in the balance. The next morning. September 9 was chosen because it was an easy day to remember. Lenin. During the Cultural Revolution. Mao was regarded as the undisputed leader of China's working class in their 100-year struggle against imperialism. 1976. On the afternoon of September 7. Mao was awake and alert throughout the crisis and asked several times whether he was in danger. that is. Mao's condition was still critical. knowing that he could breathe only on his left side. but she insisted on rubbing his back and moving his limbs. many Chinese people regard Mao as a Godlike figure. feudalism and capitalism. to worship ” men like Marx. One is a healthy personality cult. Mao expressed support for the idea of personality cults if they venerated figures who were genuinely worthy of adulation: “ There are two kinds of personality cults. Mao suffered a heart attack. She spent only a few moments in Building 202 (where Mao was staying) before returning to her own residence in the Spring Lotus Chamber. X rays indicated that his lung infection had worsened. Mao barely revived and Hua Guofeng urged Jiang Qing not to interfere further with the doctors' work. 1976. Jiang Qing went to Building 202 where she learned the news. At the 1958 Party congress in Chengdu. on September 5. who led the ailing China onto the path of an independent and powerful nation.continued to improve. Engels. Three days later. Mao had been in poor health for several years and had declined visibly for at least 6 months prior to his death. The other is . Mao had just fallen asleep and needed the rest. far more severe than his previous two and affecting a much larger area of his heart. she went again. Mao's organs were failing and he was taken off the life support a few minutes after midnight. and his urine output dropped to less than 300 cc a day. as her actions were detrimental to Mao's health and helped cause his death faster. Because they hold the truth in their hands. She demanded the medical staff to change Mao's sleeping position.[61] Death: Mao's final week and days At five o'clock in the afternoon of September 2.[62] Cult of Mao Mao's figure is largely symbolic both in China and in the global communist movement as a whole. Mao took a turn for the worse. but she had him moved nonetheless. Mao's already glorified image manifested into a personality cult that influenced every aspect of Chinese life. even though he had wished to be cremated and had been one of the first high-ranking officials to sign the "Proposal that all Central Leaders be Cremated after Death" in November 1956. Even today. September 8.

Mao also has a presence in China and around the world in popular culture. you ain't gonna make it with anyone anyhow. and their thoughts of Mao were generally positive. led by Deng Xiaoping. Mao's Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-Tung. there was a power struggle for control of China. Party members were encouraged to carry a copy with them and possession was almost mandatory as a criterion for membership. China's youth had generally been raised during the Communist era. which was traditionally a phrase reserved for the reigning Emperor. not analyzed and blind worship. Thus. stating that "it shows his influence. Just like Che Guevara's image. wanted to overhaul the Chinese economy based on market-oriented policies and to de-emphasize the role of Maoist ideology in determining economic . which was known as the Little Red Book was published. over 40 million people have visited Mao's birthplace in Shaoshan. his has become a symbol of revolutionary culture. Since 1950. the restorationists. The caption above the picture says "Chairman Mao gives us happy lives". Over the years. Their feelings for him were of such strength that many followed his urge to challenge all established authority. Mao proposed the Socialist Education Movement (SEM) in an attempt to educate the peasants to resist the temptations of feudalism and the sprouts of capitalism that he saw re-emerging in the countryside from Liu's economic reforms. Large quantities of politicized art were produced and circulated — with Mao at the center. advocated a return to central planning along the Soviet model. Mao is still regarded by some as the "never setting Red Sun". As anticipated after Mao’s death. led by Chairman Hua Guofeng. Music from the period emphasized Mao's stature. that he exists in people's consciousness and has influenced several generations of Chinese people's way of life. as did children's rhymes. In October 1966. The phrase Long Live Chairman Mao for ten thousand years was commonly heard during the era. He has been compared to the Sage Kings of the classical China[66]. Among the latter group. defended the phenomenon.[63] In 1962. where his face adorns everything from t-shirts to coffee cups. who wanted to continue the policy of revolutionary mass mobilization. On one side was the left wing led by the Gang of Four."[67] He has been immortalized in the song "Revolution" sung by The Beatles with the lyric. His quotations were typographically emphasized by putting them in boldface or red type in even the most obscure writings. badges and musical compositions referenced Mao in the phrase "Chairman Mao is the red sun in our hearts" and a "Savior of the people" The Cult of Mao proved vital in starting the Cultural Revolution. present in homes. offices and shops. Today.a false personality cult. which had taught them to idolize Mao. The youth also did not remember the immense starvation and suffering caused by Mao's Great Leap Forward. whereas the reformers." Legacy Mao's official portrait at the Tiananmen gate. On the other side was the right wing opposing these policies. Mao's granddaughter Kong Dongmei. Hunan[66] Popular culture A 1950 Chinese propaganda poster showing a happy family of five enjoying life under the image of Mao Zedong. they were his greatest supporters. "And if you go carryin' pictures of Chairman Mao. Mao's image became displayed almost everywhere.e. Numerous posters. i.

saying "Remember the words of Chairman Mao: 'It's always darkest before it's totally black. as do other Communist Parties around the world which are part of the Revolutionary Internationalist Movement. the reformers won control of the government. Some historians claim that Mao Zedong was a dictator comparable to Hitler and Stalin.[77] John McCain misattributed a campaign quote to Mao several times during his 2008 presidential election bid.[78] Peru's Shining Path. we have buried forty-six thousand scholars alive. Mao's military writings continue to have a large amount of influence both among those who seek to create an insurgency and those who seek to crush one. As an example.."[74] Historians such as Jung Chang argue that Mao was well aware that his policies would be responsible for the death of millions saying for instance that "half of China may well have to die.[70][71] with a death toll surpassing both. China itself has moved sharply away from Maoism since Mao's death. and the Nepalese revolutionary movement.[citation needed] Mao's poems and writings are frequently cited by both Chinese and non-Chinese. goes further and claims he was dismissive of the suffering and death caused by his policies: "Mao's way of thinking and governing was terrifying. In 2008. Mobile Warfare methodologies. He put no value on human life. and most people outside of China who describe themselves as Maoist regard the Deng Xiaoping reforms to be a betrayal of Maoism.[3][4] Mao was also frequently compared to China's First Emperor Qin Shi Huang. not that he wanted to.[72] During a speech to party cadre in 1958.'" The ideology of Maoism has influenced many communists. the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) followed Mao's examples of guerrilla warfare to considerable political and military success even in the 21st century. especially in manners of guerrilla warfare.and political policy. Mao's personal secretary. You are wrong. mainly in the Third World.[68][69] There continue to be disagreements on Mao's legacy. and also a great criminal because.[citation needed] Mao's major contribution to the military science is his theory of People's War. and liked the comparison."[73] Mao's English interpreter Sidney Rittenberg wrote in his memoir The Man Who Stayed Behind that he believes Mao never intended to cause the deaths and suffering endured by people under his chairmanship. including revolutionary movements such as Cambodia's Khmer Rouge. USA also claims Marxism-LeninismMaoism as its ideology.[citation needed] . Mao is regarded as a national hero of China. with not only guerilla warfare but more importantly. China opened the Mao Zedong Square to visitors in his hometown of central Hunan Province to mark the 115th anniversary of his birth. not that he intended to. Mao said he had far outdone Qin Shi Huang in his policy against intellectuals: "He buried 460 scholars alive. at which Mao is popularly regarded as a genius. You [intellectuals] revile us for being Qin Shi Huangs. with clear seniority over Hua Guofeng. Mao had successfully applied Mobile Warfare in the Korean War. In his remarks on the matter Rittenberg has declared that Mao "was a great leader in history. and was able to encircle. despite the overwhelming strength of UN firepower. notorious for burying alive hundreds of scholars. The deaths of others meant nothing to him. in line with Mao's view of "Capitalist roaders" within the Communist Party. but in fact. We have surpassed Qin Shi Huang a hundredfold. his wild fantasies led to the deaths of tens of millions of people. Deng Xiaoping. Eventually. defeated Hua in a bloodless power struggle a few years later. push back and then halt the UN forces in Korea. The official Chinese translation of President Barack Obama's inauguration speech used a famous line from one of Mao's poems.. lasting until Richard Nixon decided that developing relations with China would be useful in also dealing with the Soviet Union."[67] Li Rui."[75][76] The United States placed a trade embargo on China as a result of its involvement in the Korean War. The Revolutionary Communist Party.

[79] In 2006. famously saying that Mao was "70% right and 30% wrong".[citation needed] In the mid-1990s. There was not one Long March. less recognition was given to the status of Mao. Mao Zedong's picture began to appear on all new renminbi currency from the People’s Republic of China. Cosequences of Long march Firstly. led by an inexperienced military commission. to Shaanxi.000 miles) over 370 days. and regain their strength in safety. arduous. the Long March put the Communists well out of the reach of their enemies. under the eventual command of Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai. Course of Long March Long March lasted from 16 October 1934 to 19 October 1935. 2006. regroup. Finally. . to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army. the internal power struggle within the Chinese Communist Party was resolved in favour of Mao. the Nationalists of the Kuo Min Tang and the Japanese invaders. The First Front Army of the Chinese Soviet Republic. with his close friend Zhou En Lai as his second in command. the uncommitted and the hangers on died or deserted en route. So. This was officially instituted as an anti-counterfeiting measure as Mao's face is widely recognized in contrast to the generic figures that appear in older currency. . a story in the People's Daily reported that a proposal had been made to print the portraits of Sun Yat-sen and Deng Xiaoping. escaped in a circling retreat to the west and north. The Communists.500 kilometers (8. This accompanied a decline in state recognition of Mao in later years in contrast to previous years when the state organized numerous events and seminars commemorating Mao's 100th birthday. the Chinese government has never officially repudiated the tactics of Mao. Students in Shanghai now only learn about Mao in junior high school. the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army. Nevertheless. as various Communist armies in the south escaped to the north and west. was on the brink of complete annihilation by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's troops in their stronghold in Jiangxi province. who emerged as the undisputed leader. [1] The route passed through some of the most difficult terrain of western China by traveling west. and dangerous. Mao and the Communists could now reorganize. the Long March was long. who was opposed to the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution. but several. Secondly. fighting machine that would eventually takeover the whole of mainland China. the Chinese Communist Party emerged from the Long March a lean. The weak.As the Chinese government instituted free market economic reforms starting in the late 1970s and as later Chinese leaders took power. The most well known is the march from Jiangxi province which began in October 1934. the government in Shanghai issued a new set of high school history textbooks which omit Mao. has to a certain extent rejected Mao's legacy. Deng Xiaoping.[80] 4. Causes of Long March The Long March was a massive military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Chinese Communist Party. with the exception of a single mention in a section on etiquette. only the toughest and strongest survived the journey. On March 13. then north. which reportedly traversed some 12.mean. overall.

the Second Red Army and the Fourth Red Army Some translations refer to these same units as the “First Front Red Army". The retreat of all the Red Armies was not complete until 22 October 1936. In this sense. The First Red Army formed from the First. founded in 1921 by Chen Duxiu with Soviet support. Civil war The Chinese Communist Party (CCP). In a broader view. during the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945. the First Red Army). Early Communist units often formed by defection from existing Kuomintang forces. moreover.The Long March began the ascent to power of Mao Zedong. The bitter struggles of the Long March. This initial period of cooperation to unify China against the feudal warlords and the . the Second Red Army formed in eastern Guizhou by unifying the Second and Sixth Army Groups under He Long and Xiao Ke. founded by the revolutionary republican Sun Yat-sen. After the unexpected death of Sun in March 1925. keeping their original designations. Unlike other nationalist leaders. establishing a unified government in Nanjing in April 1927. from Yudu in the province of Jiangxi. forming the Eighth Route Army and the New Fourth Army. to Yan'an in Shaanxi. like Wang Jingwei. Second and Fourth Red Armies until Communist military forces were nominally integrated into the National Revolutionary Army. initially collaborated with the Chinese Nationalist Party or Kuomintang (KMT). The divisions of the "Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army" were named according to historical circumstances. “Second Front Red Army” and “Fourth Front Red Army" to distinguish them from the earlier organizational divisions. and would seal the personal prestige of Mao and his supporters as the new leaders of the party in the following decades. the Long March included two other forces retreating under pressure from the Kuomintang: the Second Red Army and the Fourth Red Army. which was completed by only one-tenth of the force that left Jiangxi. which included the leaders of the Communist Party of China. whose Northern Expedition forces succeeded in wresting control of large areas of China from local warlords. After the organization of these first two main forces. no standard nomenclature of the armies of the Communist Party existed. during the Chinese Civil War central control of separate Communist-controlled enclaves within China was limited. sometimes in a nonconsecutive way. a power struggle within the KMT favored Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang was hostile to continued collaboration with the Communists. By the time of the Long March. A “Third Red Army" was led by He Long who established his base area in the Hunan-Hubei border. The Long March most commonly refers to the transfer of the main group of the First (or Central) Red Army. whose leadership during the retreat gained him the support of the members of the party. the Long March lasted from 16 October 1934 to 19 October 1935. When the Fourth Red Army under Zhang Guotao was formed in the Sichuan-Shaanxi border area from several smaller units. official publications of the People's Republic of China refer to "The Long March of the Red Army". by 1932 his forces were soundly defeated and in October 1934 merged with the 6th Army Corps led by Xiao Ke to form the Second Red Army. numerous small units had been organized into three unified groups. when the three forces linked up in Shaanxi. would come to represent a significant episode in the history of the Communist Party of China. Background to the Long March The Red Army in 1934 Although the literal translation of the Chinese Cháng Zhēng is “Long March”. The three armies would maintain their historical designation as the First. Third and Fifth Army Groups in southern Jiangxi under command of Bo Gu and Li De (Otto Braun).

not the urban proletariat. In September 1933. By 1928. formed the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army. basic principles of guerilla warfare. thought to be in Hubei to the west and north. supplemented by peasants from the Communist rural soviets. forced Mao from the Politburo of the Communist Party in Ruijin and placed him briefly under house arrest. including industrial facilities. were the Communist party's base. and to avoid annihilation. Wuhan and Guangzhou) and the suppression of the Communist Party in Shanghai and other cities finally drove many party supporters to rural strongholds such as the Jiangxi Soviet organized by Mao Zedong. had already been evolved. Unsuccessful urban insurrections (in Nanchang. dominated by the "Twenty-Eight Bolsheviks". simple in nature and suited to the conditions of the time. The ideological confrontation between the CCP and the KMT soon evolved into the first phase of the Chinese Civil War.[3] Between 1930 and 1933.Japanese Empire ended abruptly in April 1927 when Chiang Kai-shek struck out against the Communists. with the advice and tactical assistance of his German adviser.. with the Red Army depleted by the prolonged conflict. By 1930.But beginning from January 1932.[4] A fortified perimeter was established by Chiang's forces. Direct engagements with the Nationalist army soon caused heavy casualties and loss of material and territory. Hans von Seeckt. a spy placed by Zhou Enlai in the KMT army headquarters in Nanchang brought news that Chiang Kai-shek was preparing a major offensive against the Communist capital. the First Red Army was unaware that these other Communist forces were also retreating westward. the Soviet Union and Comintern-influenced leaders of the party distrusted the ideas of Mao. the Communist Red Army had established the Chinese Soviet Republic in the provinces of Jiangxi and Fujian around the city of Ruijin. Ruijin. but were to be rejected as 'guerilla-ism'. and during the planning to evacuate Jiangxi. Although Fang Zhimin's troops were soon destroyed. who were numerically superior to the Communists at the time and did not expect an attack on their fortified perimeter. and Zhou.. including a German military advisor Otto Braun the Comintern military advisor Bo Gu. The Communist leadership decided on a strategic retreat to regroup with other Communist units. deserters and defecting Kuomintang army units. these movements surprised the Kuomintang. the National Revolutionary Army under Chiang Kai-shek eventually completely encircled Jiangxi.the old principles were no longer to be considered as regular. four attempts by Chiang to defeat the Communists were repelled by forces led by Mao. Communications between divided groups of the Red Army had been disrupted by the Kuomintang campaign.. The original plan was to link up with the Second Red Army commanded by He Long. The opposition to 'guerilla-ism' reigned for three whole years. and Jiangxi was besieged in an attempt to destroy the Communist forces trapped within. Mao was replaced by Zhou Enlai as leader of the military commission. Mao would later write of this period: "By May 1928. The committee abandoned Mao's tactics of mobile warfare against the Kuomintang forces. breaking through Kuomintang lines in June 1934. who held that the rural Chinese peasants. In July 1934. In spite of these successes."[6] In August 1934. Retreat and battles The First Red Army The first movements of the retreat were undertaken by forces led by Fang Zhimin. a militant group formed in Moscow by Wang Ming and Bo Gu. The early troop movements were actually a diversion to allow the retreat of more important leaders .[5] and the Chinese Red Army was commanded by a three man military committee.. the leaders of the party.

the First Red Army finally broke out of Guizhou and crossed the Yangtze on May 8. Mao's wife. continued to fight a delaying action after the main force had left. Personnel and material losses after the battle of the Xiang river affected the morale of the troops and desertions began. Mao's forces spent the next several months maneuvering to avoid direct confrontation with hostile forces. Although the failed leadership of Bo Gu and Li De was denounced. Given the harsh conditions of the retreat. The Communist forces had now been on the move for seven months since leaving Jiangxi and had only 25. led by Zhang Guotao. although the decision was not unanimous. in February 1935.000 under Bo Gu and Li De attacked the line of Kuomintang positions near Yudu. but still attempting to move north to join Zhang Guotao's Fourth Red Army. said by local officials to be Mao and He Zizhen's long-lost daughter. Under these conditions.[7] Several prominent members of the Chinese Soviet who remained behind were captured and executed by the Kuomintang after occupation of Ruijin in November 1934. More than 86. often capturing river crossings heavily defended by hostile warlords and Nationalist troops. By 12 December 1934. after three days Mao was not able to win the support of a sufficient number of Party leaders to gain outright power at the conference.000 troops. and there were strongly-defended Nationalist defensive lines ahead. Penetrating northward into areas populated by ethnic minorities hostile to Chinese encroachment. during a meeting of Party leaders in Tongdao. 1935.000 administrative personnel and thousands of civilian porters actually completed the breakout. Mao carefully avoided Zhang's discovery .000 men left.[8] were not as highly regarded in military affairs. the infant was left with a local family. gave birth to a daughter. but also by tribes hostile to all ethnic Chinese. In two days of bloody fighting. with its baggage of top communist officials. a force of 130.[10] Two British men retracing the Long March route in 2003 met a woman in rural Yunnan province.from Jiangxi. The Fourth Red Army In July 1935. In command of a much smaller force.[9] During this period. the direct route to Sichuan was blocked by Chiang's forces. Zhou Enlai (appointed Director of the Commission) and Wang Jiaxiang. Zhang Guotao preferred to establish a refuge near the border with the Soviet Union. 1935 to reshuffle the Party politburo. including Qu Qiubai and the youngest brother of Mao Zedong. leaving Mao in effective control of the First Red Army after the Zunyi conference. records. largely wounded or ill soldiers.000 troops and all of the civilian porters. the First Red Army. and then dispersed into the countryside. the remainder. The other two members. south of Hunan and into Guangxi. Mao was passed over for the position of General Secretary by Zhang Wentian. The terrain was another formidable opponent: the Red Army had to cross mountains and rivers. which had retreated west from Henan. the Communists met in Zunyi in Guizhou province from January 15–17. Mao Zetan. On 16 October 1934. but gained enough influence to be elected one of three members of Military Affairs Commission. He Zizhen. discontent with Bo Gu and Otto Braun appeared and Mao Zedong began a more active role in the leadership. 11. such as the Luding Bridge. Initially. whose support Mao had enlisted earlier. Chiang Kai-shek had reinforced the KMT defenses. crossing the Xinfeng river and through the province of Guangdong. fought through several lightly defended Kuomintang checkpoints. the Communist forces were harassed not only by the Kuomintang and their local warlord allies. 30 November to 1 December 1934.[11] By moving south and west. When the army resumed its march northward. the troops under Mao united with the Fourth Red Army. At the Xiang River. currency reserves and other trappings of the exiled Chinese Soviet Republic. The Communist leadership was determined to move into Shaanxi province. the Red Army lost more than 40.

establishing a base in Hubei.[15] Bosshardt later related his account of the details of daily life on the Long March in a book.[13] After an expedition of almost a year.of this fact. desertion. Xiao Ke's force would link up with He Long and his army. known in China as the “union of the three armies”. An advance party of the First Red Army called the Sixth Group. He Long and Xiao Ke were married to sisters who also accompanied the army.000 were among the original 100. the two forces split up. Jian Xianren. Mao wrote in 1935: . was sent towards the Second Red Army two months before the beginning of the Long March. Zhang. his army reached Shaanxi province. for 16 months. hunger and cold. the Communist Army confiscated property and weapons from local warlords and landlords. the Long March gave the Communist Party of China (CPC) the isolation it needed. even as a founding member of the CCP. and in August 1934 received command of the Second Red Army.000 soldiers who had started the march. while recruiting peasants and the poor. He Long's wife. After disagreement over the direction in which the troops should move.000 troops under Mao's command. including three sisters and a brother. ultimately made it to the final destination of Yan'an in 1935. less than 7. which took a different route.[14] Forces of the Second Army detained two European missionaries. was never able to challenge Mao's authority. He Long's force was driven further west than the First Red Army. the Ma clique. carried the baby daughter she had given birth to three weeks before the retreat began.[17] Aftermath While costly. led by He Long. On November 19. was largely destroyed by the forces of Chiang Kai-shek and his Chinese Muslim allies. Nevertheless. the Second Red Army set out on its own Long March. and military casualties. Of these. Chiang Kai-Shek had He Long's relatives executed. A variety of factors contributed to the losses including fatigue. allowing its army to recuperate and rebuild in the north of China. then west and finally north through China. the Second Red Army reached Bao'an (Shaanxi) on 22 October 1936. Finally. Rudolf Bosshardt and Arnolis Hayman. then across the Jade Dragon Snow Mountain massif and through the Tibetan highlands of western Sichuan. who commanded the KMT Twentieth Army in 1923 before joining the Communist Party of China (CPC).000 to around 40. only some 8. membership in the party fell from 300. sickness. The remnants of Zhang's forces joined elements of the Second Red Army. south. In 1932 he established a soviet in the Hunan-Kiangsi border area. It also was vital in helping the CPC to gain a positive reputation among the peasants due to the determination and dedication of the surviving participants of the Long March. commanded by Xiao Ke. the First Front Army. The remnants of Zhang's Fourth Red Army eventually joined Mao in Shaanxi. During the retreat.[13] The Second Red Army The Second Red Army began its own withdrawal west from Hubei in November 1935. in October 1935. [12] Zhang Guotao's Fourth Red Army.000. All along the way. and overcame Zhang's influence over the subordinate commanders of the Communist forces. but lost communication with the First Army that came behind. eventually linking up with Mao's forces in Shaanxi. In retribution. 1935. all the way to Lijiang in Yunnan province.[16] Union of the three armies Mao's First Red Army traversed several swamps and suffered ambushes from the Tibetans and the Hui[citation needed]. and the end of the Long March. Jian Xianfo gave birth to a son in the desolate swamps of northern Sichuan. but with his army destroyed.

. It has announced to some 200 million people in eleven provinces that the road of the Red Army is their only road to liberation.000 li (12. quoted by his biographer Edgar Snow in Red Star Over China. they believe. controversy arose about the distance covered by Mao's First Front Army in the Long March. the resurgent Communist Eighth Route Army. In 2003. This policy won support for the Communists among the rural peasants."The Long March is a manifesto. Li Xiannian. Since the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949. allowing it to gain experience.000 miles[1]) was Mao's estimate.000 miles). Other participants in the March also went on to become prominent party leaders.000 li (6. In 2003. Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping. It has proclaimed their utter failure to encircle.000 km (3. in spite of the desperate need for food and supplies. citing "The 25.700 miles). while the imperialists and their running dogs. Dong Biwu. are impotent. the Long March has been glorified as an example of the Communist Party's strength and resilience. there were estimates that the distance traveled was closer to 18.[12] retraced the route in 384 days."[22] However.[24][25] relating personal experiences of a fictional participant in the Long March. it seemed he had single-handedly saved the Red Army and defeated Chiang Kai-shek". pursue. Lin Biao. policies ordered by Mao for all soldiers to follow. two British researchers. [20] The figure of 25. instructed the army to avoid harm to or disrespect for the peasants.500 kilometres or about 8. including Zhu De.[21] Their report has been disputed by the Chinese media. Chiang Kai-shek and his like. published not long after the end of the Long March in 1938. perhaps even doubled.[12] Hostilities ceased while the Nationalists and Chinese Communists formed a nominal alliance during the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 until 1945. even at the time that Edgar Snow's account was written.[23] The Chinese government produced a movie in 2006. Mao exaggerated."[18] In addition. The Long March is also a propaganda force. My Long March. the length of the march. later called the People's Liberation Army. Jocelyn and McEwen conclude in their book that "Mao and his followers twisted the tale of the Long March for their own ends. Ed Jocelyn and Andrew McEwen. obstruct and intercept us. Ye Jianying. returned to drive the Kuomintang out of Mainland China to the island of Taiwan. The Long March solidified Mao's status as the undisputed leader of the CCP. It has proclaimed to the world that the Red Army is an army of heroes. Liu Shaoqi. The Red Army fought a disciplined and organized guerilla campaign[19] against superior Japanese forces. the Chinese Communist Party persevered and strengthened its influence. ..[12][14] and in their 2006 book "The Long March" estimated the March actually covered about 6. During these years.000 li of the Red Army's Long March are a historic fact and not open to doubt. Mao's role was mythologized to the point where . Yang Shangkun. Following the end of World War II. the Eight Points of Attention.

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