I v-^







Edited by







: : Ltd. . Dent & Sons New York E. Button & Co.Beethoven By Frederick "The Great J. With Illustrations and Portraits London J. M.. of Crowest &c Author Tone Poets. P." &c.

1911. 1913 v'. 1903.U^ . 1904.First Edition 1899 Reprinted 1901. . 190S.

. however. Among all the Beethoven Hterature. especially young people. to make themselves more and more acquainted with the life and works of the mighty Beethoven one of the greatest intellects who have fault will No book as the initial — — ever graced the earth.Preface be found in the choice of the subject of this volume of the "Master Musicians" Beethoven has been the theme of many writers.W. it has been difficult to find a handy volume. at once illuminative and concise a book which. 24 Ampthill Square. Series. would provide the larger public of ordinary readers with a complete and proper view of the immortal master. N. while it would appeal to the average musician. It is hoped the present work will meet this deficiency. which is not unaccountable when we consider his extraordinary personality. I trust the result of my effort will be to induce readers. London. and the enormous reach of his musical works and influence. THE AUTHOR.


— — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — x A Foremost Personality Physical Appearance Man and Mind CharacterFondness for Joking An undesirable Lodger Some of the istics Lodgings Troubles with Servants A Bohemian's Den As a Lover Female Attachments A Postilion d Amour Temperament and BEETHOVEN THE MAN — — — — — — — — — — — — Disposition — Affection for his Nephew — Good Traits— Receives Schubert— Opinions on fellow-Musicians— Beethoven and the Professors— A bad Man of Business — Intellectuality in Musicians Beethoven Maxims — The "Letters" — His Politics — Dismisses Napoleon— Rates Goethe— Habits of Abstraction— Portraits — Masks. Busts and Monuments— No Formal Religionist— Purity of Life : Worthy Deeds 48 BEETHOVEN THE MUSICIAN : Sublimity of Style and Expression— Student Application Head and Hand Worker Early Productiveness Clamourings for Freedom Juvenile Compositions The Musical Hour Beethoven the Pianist The — — — — — — — — — — — — — Symphony— Sixth Symphony— Sees to Business — Seventh Symphony — Ninth Symphony — Eighth Symphony— Political Outpourings Composer As Conductor First Symphony Mount of Olives and Prometheus Second Symphony "Kreutzer" Sonata "Eroica" Symphony Concerto in G Fidelia Fourth Symphony C Minor vii — — — .— — Contents BIOGRAPHICAL Birth and — Parentage Earliest Training First Appointment Interview with Mozart Teacher Pupil of Haydn and others A Virtuoso First Benefit Concert A Pupil in Czemy Idol of Vienna Becomes Deaf— Forsakes Playing and Conducting Financial Embarrassments In Love Harassing Times Adopts his Nephew Tries Law-Philharmonic Society's Negotiations Mass in D Rossini Furore Gloomy Forebodings Work and Suflfering Visits his Brother Host and 'Guest The Coming End Final Scenes Death and Burial .

...— Contents Last Quartets As a Sacred Music Composer Mass in C Mass in Rise of the Orchestra Orchestra as found by Beethoven Orchestral Variety Instrumental Influence Wagner on Beethoven's Orchestration— Manns on Wagner— Wagner "additions" to Beethoven Metaphysical Qualities of the Music Humanity of his Music Legitimacy of Style and Practice Expansions of Forms Painstaking Workmanship As a Chamber-Music Composer Symphonist and Sonatist— Characteristics of Style and Diction Beethoven's D— — — — — — — — — — — — — "Three Styles "—Followers APPENDIX A Bibliography « • APPENDIX B List of the Published Works etc. . — of Beethoven founded on — ii8 253 Nottebohm's 266 APPENDIX C Principal Incidents in the Life orf" Beethoven .. .. ....... Thematic Catalogue.. ...•« 293 lU ...• .. 287 APPENDIX D Beethoven Personalia and Memoranda ... ..

•71 . by Herbert Railton) .12 ... drawing . . . 78 Portrait by Robt. 104 132 Beethoven's Last Grand Piano by Graf. Beethoven's Deathplace {drawn by Herbert ton from a Thompson) . .22 Rail- Room '^ in which Beethoven was born {from Times''^) . Frontispiece Beethoven's Birthplace {from a . . • 50 Portrait at Age of Thirty-one .. Klceber's Portrait of i 8 17 .. Cast of Beethoven's Living Face. 1812 .• sketch kindly lent by Herbert 39 Lyser's Sketch of Beethoven .List ot Illustrations PACK A. The Musical . . Vienna ix . Krausse after the Original OF Waldmuller and the Cast of his Face .

. from MS. 26 Beethoven's Tim£s'^) {reduced. Portrait of Beethoven's Mother {from ^^The Musical Times^') . Op. {reduced^ . .Illustrations Facsimile of "Broadwood" Letter .170 A Flat Major Watch . Sonata. .227 236 Portrait of Beethoven's Father {from ^The Musical Times^^) . ..144 . .. from " The Musical . . FROM '' The Musical Tinpes^) .. 246 .. .

on December lyth. was born. n. from the continental custom of baptizing the day after birth. 1767. and is now distinguished by a tablet. took unto himself a wife on November 12th. The parents were of opposite — — ^ Some authorities give the l6th. on the The house was Rhine. Johann Beethoven. a widow. for his „ ^ ^ ' ^ father and grandfather were both Court musicians. in the person of Maria Magdalena Leym.fh v He came of good musical stock.^ i77oNo. which was placed thereon in 1870. Of this pair the wonder-musician. the greatest probably the world will ever see. . 515 Bonngasse. view with Mozart of LuDWiG VAN Beethoven was born at Bonn. tenor singer.— A Biographical Birth and Parentage — Earliest Training— First Appointment — Inter— Teacher — Pupil of Haydn and others — Virtuoso — First Benefit Concert — A Pupil in Czerny — Idol Vienna — Becomes Deaf— Forsakes Playing and Conducting—Financial Embarrassments — In Love — Harassing Times — Adopts his Nephew — Tries Law-Philharmonic Society's Negotiations — Mass in D — Rossini Furore — Gloomy Forebodings Work and Suffering— Visits his Brother — Host and Guest —The Coming End — Final Scenes — Death and Burial. He stood the second of a family of seven five sons and two daughters of whom he alone rose to eminence.

Beethoven temperaments the father being as sour in disposition One result of this was that as the mother was sweet. inasmuch as but for stress of domestic conditions this second child would . in after years. Never would it be Beethoven's portion. probably. The Van " in the name was no sign of nobility. with an irascible temper. was not surprising. Penury stared in the family's face. have received so large a share of J-. young Ludwig adored his mother and feared his father the latter a rather unfortunate circumstance. to enjoy that priceless blessing. Inspired the parent's musical ministrations. The burden of poverty which the Beethovens supported was not altogether an unmixed evil. ^ by what had been accomplished by the father of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart as a musical " wonder.^3o per annum the father's salary in the Elector of — — was the slender income upon which Cologne's Chapel Little wonder that the head the family had to subsist. the consoling retrospect of a happy childhood.. — ' ' . not." however. of the household ruled with a stern Who could be complaisant in face of such a condition That he fell betimes into irregular of ways and means ? habits. even cruel hand. though eminently undesirable. inasmuch as he was to come a good deal under the paternal — — " influence. The Beethovens were very respectable but poor. Beethoven senior set about the shaping of anThe incentives were eminently other harmonic prodigy. he was a severe cross-grained parent. and here favourable. faults which made the humble home less comfortable than it should have been for the great mind sharing its roof. Granted. rr. and less than . His comwas a child with pronounced musical abihty. then.

although in later years Beethoven discounted both the association Nor was and instruction. all which the quiet. continued the boy's musical education Zambona. meanwhile. French and Italian. but this terminated ere the boy had reached his thirteenth year. His talent for composition increased. violin and harmony. while his playing had so advanced that at eleven and a half years father took the — — of age he acted as Neefe's deputy organist in the Elector's Then. even. In 1783 Beethoven went another step forward he was . he even earned some money by a short musical tour to Holland. This consisted of instruction in the piano. the world and to this circum- owes its heritage of Beethoven. He came also under the notice of Pfeiffer and Zambona. The former.A The to music practice Promising Pupil . . and kept him and exercises almost unceasingly. and at the age of nine he had learned all that his father had to teach him. a boon companion of the father's. " playing with force and finish and reading well at sight." Neefe undoubtedly was proud of his pupil. " If he goes on as he has begun he will become a second Mozart. mainly." the master far wrong when prophesying. Beethoven was four years old when he began to study music. teaching him some Latin. They instructed him in organ-playing and musical theory . little fellow in hand. Van den Eeden and Neefe took young Beethoven in charge. grave child learned readily though not without frequent reproach and cuff from the harsh parent. Some small accompaniment of general education crept in through one of the common schools. Neefe could write of his pupil as Chapel. and from this time his artistic progress was very marked. Subsequently. mercial value was gauged therefore stance.

Elector Max Franz. Beethoven appointed accompanist or deputy conductor of the Opera This. indeed was best. The initial to interview between the two sons of art appears have been distinctly formal. Mozart resided at Vienna. favoured the scheme and generously provided the young musician with the necessary funds for the journey. however. Mozart was Beethoven's senior by fourteen years. and Beethoven played the Viola formed a national opera.. Beethoven had decided to present himself in the musical capital of the world Vienna. and there was then a vast disparity in their reputations disproportion which was later on to be widely altered funds. were growing interested in Ludwig. therefore. brought him band. albeit there was much useful work be done and experience to be gained thereIt is ^^ by. A great art step had been planned. and to come face to face with this master musician was the chief object of the visit. therein . Ries and Romberg were also members. at the same time entertaining serious doubts whether he should not dismiss Neefe and appoint Beethoven chief organist. at this juncture to find friends. for Beethoven the folks. Beethoven was now seventeen years old he In 1787 and Neefe parted. Reicha. In 1784 the Elector Max Frederick appointed him second Court organist. . like his deputy organistship. confirmed the appointment with the salary of . and shortly afterwards Elector Max Franz. stepping in and helping the family with elder's position had not improved.^i 5 per annum. brother of the Emperor Joseph II. ^. . no to ' salary. Hke the Van Breunings and Cresseners. as. re- . About this time the Elector remodelled his band.a . His patron. The Bonn — — — — musically. a pleasant surprise.

he will make a noise in the world some day. he said. Beethoven seeing this requested Mozart to give him a theme upon which to extemporise. " She was indeed a kind mother to me. and my best subject of another fugue — — — 5 . The venerable Abb^ Stadler was present at this interesting scene. . The boy Beethoven sat down excitedly. deal of fanciful colour has been thrown around Mozart was not opposed to the meeting. after watching with speechless wonder the winding up. Writing to a friend.— Death of his Mother membering the genius of the two musicians. Trustworthy details have not come down. although a good j. of the themes which he had given out to the great unknown from Bonn. from which letter we get a glimpse of the inner mind of the young genius at this time. Beethoven stayed only a short time in Vienna. for he received news of his mother's serious illness. He arrived home just in time to see her breathe her last after a long battle with consumption. permitted him to play. but played so effectively that Mozart stepped softly into the next room and whispered to his friends. the introduction. Mozart. . Dr Von Schaden at Augsburg. amid a labyrinth of melodies. but assuming that he had come armed with a prepared piece gave little heed to it. sceptical of the power attributed to young Beethoven as an improvisatore. but the onus probandi the burden of proving his case — — M t Here is the accepted story : rested with Beethoven. " Pay attention to him. and told the story to Lenz. This took the shape of a " fugue chromatique subject " and combined the counter a trap which the aspirant did not fail to detect." Such was the independent verdict of the great Mozart the then idol of the musical world.

Beethoven. Johann went from bad to worse his his boy's mother. was kind. Fortunately. managed by its means and by occasional playing in public to keep the home together. In 1792 a great event took place. The Breunings particularly made much of Beethoven. Baron Van Swieten and others. It was the political changes in Germany. the struggling son was met importuning al- the police for the corpus of his helplessly-intoxicated father. his good friends. rr. the young genius set to work manfully. and though he disliked teaching. Beethoven visited Vienna for the second time. which the surroundings of his own home denied him. More than •> i • • i -» «• we learn. Ah ! utter the sweet whom can I my imagination Some who was happier than I when I could still name of mother. and the charming Babette Koch. Count Waldstein. As matters transpired he was turning his back finally upon Bonn." This same year he lost his sister Margaretha. drinking propensities increasing until matters eventuated in the Court authorities declining r further to entrust him with money. It was under their roof indeed that he acquired the culture and superior tastes. treating him as one of the family. he speedily found friends willing to help him. rp T With the passing of the father. presenting him with a pianoforte and hard cash.Beethoven friend. five years of teaching drudgery now confronted Beethoven. Withal. the Archduke Rudolph. — i 1 eacher once. Count Waldstein. the Breunings. much needed. conthe latter being very 6 . and it was heard To now say it ? Only to the silent form which ! pictures to me. although he was always a natural nobleman. his home. daughter of the proprietress of the Zehrgarten where he took his meals. particularly.

which compelled him He never returned to the Rhine. "from childhood filled with sentiments of benevolence. " He is. however.Leaves Haydn sequent on the French Revolution. The ambitious student. ^ Ferdinand Ries. was fortunate enough to engage the attention /> ^s y /* of Haydn. as in sponding age. the grandeur and sublimity of his poetic mind had yet to break forth. my brother. after all. considering that Mozart had composed many symphonies." However badly the boys behaved towards him they had only to shed a few tears and all was soon forgotten . There is reason to fear that Beethoven not regret did the parting. and both gave him He also took lessons on the lessons. The Beethoven's brain-power was comparatively slow in unfolding." ^ awakened to a sense of the exceptional young Beethoven. he used to say at such times of either. . as he himself expresses it. and of such an excellent theorist zr j \f -^ as Albrechtsberger. his whole heart went out to his charges. That Beethoven should still be needing lessons at the age of twenty-two may to some seem curious. talent of . though himself so young. Beethoven remained two years only with Haydn. to 1794 the "Father of Symphony" left Vienna for his visit England. had ordained that he should He repair to Vienna to complete his musical education. violin from Schuppanzigh. and although he was one of the prodigious piano players of the day. to alter his plans. and was. to take up towards them the duties of both father and educator. Obliged. operas and other pieces at a correElector. Two younger brothers soon followed him to Vienna. with a world of musical ideals struggling within him.

8 . may be found for Haydn's neglect when it is remembered that he was himself a hard pushed man. the Haydn C minor Trio as being "music of the advised deferring the publication of future. when he account for Haydn's beheard Beethoven's Opus the three Trios for pianoforte. This advice gave offence. haviour. page 93.— Beethoven smarted under a sense of inattention from his master." — ^ "Musical Sketches. busy with his plans for visiting England. If Schenk's testimony is to be trusted this discontent was well grounded. Beethoven could not brook discipline. so as to help Beethoven with his counterpoint. however. These were played at Prince Lichnowsky's. and Consequently this the famous contrapuntist demanded. if it is to be allowed. It is extremely difficult to first veritable chef d'otuvre of originality. The whole ruse soon exploded." not suited for the taste of the musical public of that time. and that he was receiving but eight groschen about 9jd. The Albrechtsberger association was scarcely more satisfactory. symmetry and poetical imagery. The corrected exercises arising out of Schenk's assistance Beethoven copied and submitted as his own work to Haydn. however. and was attributed by Beethoven to envy and jealousy on the part of Haydn. Gelinek had discovered Beethoven and arranged that Schenk should meet him privately at his house. An excuse. when they parted in 1795 ^^ master reproached the pupil "He will never do anything according to rule. beauty. i. violin and violoncello of Vienna. in the presence of Haydn and most of the amateurs and artists — — "a I." vol. to the annoyance of all concerned. for each — lesson."^ as the late Mr Ella described it.

the Breunings and more all maintained open doors for. but this was only casual help. and there were few among the music-loving Viennese aristo^ cracy who did not feel at heart that great y. Count Waldstein. and bestowed bounteous patronage upon Beethoven. and there was no more regular study under the guidance of others. an uninviting personal appearance. Beethoven now faced the world as a virtuoso a role he could fill consummately. Forster gave him the benefit of their knowledge. nor a furious temper prevented the wealthy dilettanti from pressing him into their houses. social temperament were thus neither difference in rank and station. Nor did Beethoven lack staunch friends at this still time. dedicated music to them. As a composer and pianist he had already made a deep impression. Prince Kinsky.Staunch Patrons "he has learnt nothing. Prince Lobkowitz. Here Beethoven's tutelary experiences ended. for he had Both Salieri and Aloys little more to do with masters." Albrechtsberger said of him. This freedom was always stipulated for by Beethoven. — — things were to come from this young man. he whom we to-day willingly acclaim as the greatest of all the sons of German musical art. the Prince and Princess Karl Lichnowsky. and went in and out of their establishments as freely as if the houses were his own. and showering upon him whatever share of their favours he would deign to receive. especially when we remember Still. In return Beethoven played for these great folk. and — . that some of the un- fortunate features of Beethoven's early presenting themselves. On the contrary several of the best families rallied round him in a manner that did infinite credit to their devotion to art. The Archduke Rudolph.

but his fame was now so noised abroad that the public clamoured to hear one of whom private report spoke so much. to lodge in a garret as at Bonn . It was no longer necessary for him. the young master made a tremendous impression this with his Concerto in C major. therefore. and did.Beethoven he availed himself of it largely. Hitherto he had performed at palaces and mansions. but he could. was invariably the case. rent ground apartments which he used. From that day to the hour of his death the Austrian capital became Beethoven's home. Beethoven is sure to return. i" ^i^ of the widows and orphans of musicians. whenever he was so willed This flourishing condition as to occupy his own place. 1795. Needless as it almost is to state it. which piece he played at once installing himself an exceptional personality in the eyes of the Viennese world. He would. keep away for weeks from a patron's place. — — What and the far with public appearances. his kindly admirers would say. Beethoven was now from badly off.^6o which the Lichnowskys generously provided. and the domestics made enquiries as to his apartments. especially with an annuity of . Very appropriately this debUt was at a charitable concert. This same year (1795) Beethoven played for the first time in public at Vienna. indeed. and then return to it as if no lapse whatever had occurred in " The Princess Christiana Lichnowsky." If he remained absent an unusually long while. teaching. without explanation. he used to observe. " Leave them alone." which. of things explains his presence at more than one charitable he had done floor 10 . " would have put a glass case over me. composition. offerings of wealthy admirers." the occupation. given by the Artists' Society in the Burg Theatre on March 29th.

mainly in his beloved Vienna. Duet from Emperor's Hymn the Creation (Haydn) . An incident happened in 1801 which is worth noting. ^ The programme was made up of the following works Symphony (Mozart) . quite a boy. another tour to Prague (1798) . played by the composer (Beethoven) . i (Beethoven).First Benefit Concert performance then about notably a concert for the benefit of Mozart's widow and children. but both 1800 and the following year were chiefly remarkable for Beethoven's vast creative activity. while his wanderings included a visit to Prague. and he found time to make one or two professional journeys — necessary for a highly-wrought temperament that was constantly being subjected to the severest mental strains. In 1800 (April 2nd) Beethoven gave his first benefit concert. Septet (Beethoven) . The next few years were marked by no very striking Composition mainly occupied Beethoven's incident. Work after work followed with amazing rapidity repose —so . became Beethoven's pupil. attention. Symphony No. Nuremberg. brought about by some „ ^ wretched rivalries among the artistes engaged. and although well supported by many friends and admirers. Improvisation Other con(Beethoven) . also to get some respite of holiday and during the 1796-1801 period. It was held at the Burg Theatre at 7 o'clock in the evening. and Berlin (1796). Thus he : . Grand Pianoforte Concerto. Czerny. were certs notably one given by Punto the hornplayer graced by the presence of the young master. — — — — II .. and a change of lodgings The rest of his time was passed to Hetzendorf (1801). Air from the Creation (Haydn). they were poorly rewarded by j-. a bad performance.

with Beethoven through Czerny. and that Beethoven now for the first time began to work We have seen with a view to earn his daily sustenance. Misfortune about this juncture began to play a part in the Beethoven's life drama. 985. however . p.c r ^ u ^ generation of pianoforte players may be a remove from the great link connecting Beethoven with them. A „ ^~ and a few musical professors and people this • ^ mind of Bonn. and some writers say that with his decease a bounty which the prince bestowed also ceased. The rising Pupil . but they even can trace a union if slight. thoroughly reciprocated the good feelings of his illustrious mentor. under the Czerny roof. There is probably not a pianoforte player in the country who has not been influenced by Czerny's compositions for that instrument notably his " Complete Pianoforte School " . 12 . who had a lovable disin lodgings. as Czerny gathered much contained therein from his pupilage with Beethoven the merest user of " Czerny " can in a measure claim to be in direct touch and influence with the master- ^ .^ — * '• History of Music" (Naumann) vol. In 1801 he lost his patron Elector of Cologne . and was so pleased with all their charming domestic life and surroundings that he contemplated taking lodgings Matters eventuated otherwise. and never tired of expressing how much he owed to Beethoven's teaching and influence. and. ii.— Beethoven stands a direct connection between the great Bonn master in country who are still living. He visited Czerny's parents. Beethoven became quite interested in Czerny and regarded him almost as a son. and one more chapter was spared probably in the long narrative of Beethoven's experiences and methods Happily Czerny. position.

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some time before this. For with the circumstances of his ^ — — ! ! ! ! . friend. indeed. Realising that resignation was all that lay before him. The malady increased with such strides that in a year or two Beethoven presented the piteous spectacle of a giant musician. he exclaimed " Resignation what a miserable refuge. symptoms which had been showing themselves were growing more aggravated and unmistakable. ^ ^^ and cry out it did. nearly stone deaf. Now could the great soul indeed cry out. first visit to the /v / / Austrian capital in 1787.^ Yet patronage and potentates were not now uppermost in Beethoven's mind. he was not deceived. and yet the only one left for me. ^. Beethoven could but admit that he was growing Horrid thought yet one which the master could deaf not dispute. . No.: Deaf however that Beethoven was battling with the world successfully Artistically. at little more than thirty years of age." he wrote to a existence as a trust. but neither one nor the other brought cure or relief. a contrast. I should long ago have done so by my own hands. not yet in middle age. Beethoven stood the idol of the Viennese musical centre. His imagination wrought another picture not of progress and princes but of a state and condition of himself too awful to contemplate." Fortunately he had a great sense of " If I had not read. I may say that I pass my life wretchedly. in lamentations which ^ ^^ must move all who read them. The highest and noblest sought him. 13 . Alas fears ere long were placed beyond all doubt. " that man must not of his own free will end his life. Doctor after doctor in turn was consulted. and numerous remedies were resorted to.

" and so on. Who that has ever listened spell-bound. "I will grapple with fate . he says " The fond hope I brought with me here of being to a certain extent cured. Beethoven heard it not.' and lead a solitary life. If at times I sought to break from my solitude." as it is called." Those who have read Beethoven's " Will. and yet it was impossible for me to say to people. "with a passionate." once out with him on one of his favourite country walks. when someone than in others. will not sympathise with him in such pathetic utterthat ' — — ! ' . The pupil drew his attention to a sounding shepherd's pipe . I was forced early to separate myself from men. . how harshly was I repulsed by the renewed consciousness of my affliction . near me hears the note of a far-off flute. . nay transported into almost a seventh heaven by the all but divine swells of harmony which have left the soul of this truly great tone poet. Writing from a village near Vienna.. it shall never drag me down . "Thus. keenly susceptible to the charm of Society. but. will recall the master's pitiful reference to his calamity in document. to realise Beethoven's sense of his infirmity. and I do not. and I do not Ries was or the distant shepherd's lay. especially when every expedient had been tried in vain. ! ances over his dire misfortune as. lively temperament. but at times I shall be the most miserable of God's One has only to read his " Letters " creatures. Speak louder Shout Nor could I proclaim an imperfection in I am deaf that organ which in me should have been more perfect What humiliation. I will seek to defy my fate." he says. and with a shake of his head expressed his disadvantage with a melancholy sadness of mien. : . Beethoven nearly two years I have often already cursed my existence. alas though both stayed to listen.

But much that should have been music to him appeared only to be " noise. ^ ^^ 1 8 1 3. doubtless.^ As might be expected in sacrifices up all his this dire calamity involved him on all sides.^ . but the load could not be lightened. ^^ so persistent was the clamour of the musiclovers of Vienna. grant me one day of pure felicity. to see him and hear him." he writes to Pastor Amanda. As autumn leaves fall and hopes blighted. Gradually he gave piano-playing and conducting." His great good friend Pastor Amanda gave him what consolation he could. ^5 . for he could and losses not hear sufficiently well what he himself or „ others played. How long have I been estranged from the gladness of true joy? When. 1800. O my God." for which reason. feeling. and implored " I beg you those who knew of it not to talk about it. that Beethoven quite tore himself away from public pianoforte-playing „ ^. so are my ! ! is too hard. in the beautiful days of summer is gone for ever. Beethoven grew ashamed of his affliction. It was not until the year „. will keep the fact of it not confide to my deafness a profound secret. however. O Providence. and any human being. — ^Letter. that the tones of an orchestra would penetrate his hearing better than the pianoforte's sounds.Forsakes Public Appearances me. Almost as I came I Even the lofty courage that so animated me depart. whenever . That the wrench was painful to him may be gathered from the fact that he planned some orchestral concerts shortly afterwards. particularly. when shall I again feel it in the temple of nature and of man ? Never Ah that utterly now forsakes wither.

as if by a spell of sheer desperation. Beethoven was one of the strong men of the earth. Mdlle. might never have been demon- — 16 . and for the first time in Beethoven's great career we witness the matured strength of the giant composer asserting itself in a character and degree which. he was in reality so deaf that he did not hear the storm of applause which followed the performance. The creative faculty of the master-musician broke all restraints. miraculous. took him by the hand and turned him face to face with the excited audience that he realised what was going on. he attempted to conduct the first performance of his " Choral " Symphony. The dreadful burden of deafness Beethoven carried thenceforth with him to the grave providing in this way an analogy to the case of the sightless tone-poet Handel. Although he stood before his band of devoted followers. Unger. leading as though he heard all. and it was not until the vocalist. he took the precaution to plug his ears with cotton-wool. he applied himself to the one sphere alone left him with a force and energy that was Uttle short of Stirred. Rarely was Beethoven induced to wield the baton during Towards its close (in 1824) the later years of his life. He staggered under his heavy load. but for the awful calamity that had settled upon him. he launched forth score after score of ever-increasing magnitude and grandeur. but it did not break him down. Denied two aspects of his artcalling.Beethoven he was within other people's hearing of wind instruments. Great man that he was he girt himself anew and took fresh courage. though this led to a pathetic scene. who had been laid to rest eleven years before Beethoven first saw the light.

Sir ^ George Grove. Otherwise it would not have been necessary for him to memorialise.. however. as he did unsuccessfully (in December 1807). whenever and however he made it. which as a renowned Beethoven critic rightly says of the " give " Letters " containing them an extraordinary picture of the mingled independence and sensibiHty which characterised this remarkable man. *'I live only in my time. the directors of the Court Theatre for a permanent engagement." ^ Such words fitly describe the condition of affairs . 1801. deafness. His patrons undoubtedly remained staunch friends. and always preferred to depend upon the salary of a public appointment." vol. "Dictionary of Music and Musicians. and any other external circumstance. No doubt he was a bad manager of both his private and business affairs. * Letters to Wegeler. " I often work at three — — . at a salary of 2400 florins per annum and a benefit performance." ^ With all this masterly activity. on the condition that he composed one grand opera and one operetta yearly. pain. it is to be feared that the gain accruing to Beethoven was absurdly inadequate to his needs to the demands made upon his goodness of heart by deserving and undeserving friends and relations or to the musical worth of the scores. B 17 ." he wrote at this and four things at once. and of the entire mastery which music had in him over friendship. page 181. strated. 1. and assisted him not illiberally but Beethoven had a sturdy independent spirit. and lacked the faculty of taking care of money. Most of such posts in the vicinity of Vienna were filled by accomplished contemporaries who were his seniors in years though certainly not his superiors as musicians. . love. Slender Income music.

The King of Westphalia. not surprising. payable half-yearly. then. in 1808 an opening presented itself. It — — was a tempting offer for Beethoven. He consulted his friends. The Archduke Rudolph and the Princes Lobkowitz and Kinsky drew up and signed an undertaking. the guarantors through unavoidable circumstances failed to carry out theirs. a German. finally accepted the post. Unfortunately did not prove a long-lived contract. Jerome Buonaparte brother of Napoleon offered him the post of Court Chapel-master at Cassel. who was not He did not hold it Revolution doctrines.— Beethoven Happily. F. contrived to twist into a slight towards himself. despite the fact that he. Unquestionably the great musician's fame was expanding the while —each new composition no that he put forth adding It is alike to his reputation and adherents. by some process of reasoning. by which they guaranteed Beethoven 4000 florins per annum. would have to accept service under a French prince. and one which Beethoven gladly availed himself of. . provided he remained in Vienna. the duties light. however. Reichardt. dated March I St. and forthwith set about devising an arrangement which would at least keep Beethoven in Vienna. 1809. This was a laudable proceeding. long.^300 per annum. he should take the course of self-dependence ^ without sympathy with French J.£^75 for travelling expenses. as we find him offering it to Ries a proceeding which — Beethoven. and with many claims upon him. and in a short time the value of the document it Beethoven kept and emolument depreciated considerably.-^ The terms were a salary of ^. that with fixed appointments. Though his part of the agreement. and . and the upshot was that these declined to entertain the proposal for a moment.

Even the cannonading of Napoleon's troops when forcing Vienna. and much exposed. Composition followed composition with amazing rapidity. and forthwith there began a period of productivity which must have astonished even such matter-of-course people as publishers. Outside his beloved and incessant occupation of composing Beethoven gave such time as he could to going into society. A reference to the published works of Beethoven this year will give some All these idea of his extraordinary powers and industry. scores were issued from the famous press just mentioned and more regularly followed. albeit his lodgings being on the city wall. among other transcendent tone canvases the " Choral " Symphony. the Missa Solennis and many another work of immortal merit and worth. and resulting in the Schonbrunn Peace does not appear to have disturbed the quality of his muse this year .Passion for the Country a strongly his career stood marked feature of his character which throughout him in right good stead. "No — — »9 . and if the master-mind had been composing for dear life's sake he could hardly have done more. up to the year 1816. entered into business relations with that eminent house Messrs Breitkopf & Hartel. for there he could address himself to Nature in all her beauty. and to periods of change long and short in the country around Vienna. Nothing in the shape of attraction seemed strong enough to direct him from the apparently necessary course of getting his ever-crowding ideas upon paper. and be alone which latter state was one which he much appreciated. He. Wagram. when began that glorious sequence of maturest labours which gave the world. The great man was passionately fond of the country. he fled to the cellars to avoid the concussions. this year (1809).

growing impatient with the constant requests for his company. Dobling." he wrote to the Baroness Droszdick^ " the intense happiness I feel in getting into the country. to enjoy the full — 20 .' No man. It is as if every tree and every bush could understand my mute enquiries and respond to them. however. or whether sojourning in the less luxurious and comfortless atmosphere of some one of his frequently-changed lodgings. The love affairs of great interest. even if we think only of his domestic capacities was ever better equipped for this happy condition than he who had just given to the world the "Eroica" symphony. Hetzendorf." Beethoven one can conceive. hills and dales. but he did arrive at that interesting point in existence which touches that trembling stage of experience conveyed in two words being 'in love. Fidelio. the " Appassionata Sonata. and truly meant it when. shrubs. men — and the greatest among these have proved ordinary mortals in this respect. whether he was sheltered amid the palatial surroundings of some princely patron. He disliked any control. It was not the master's lot. naturally command In Love Our subject —Beethoven— was never — married. at intervals. convinced that no one loves country life as I do. His favourite places for ruralising were Modling. my dear trees. certainly. where the master is reputed to have composed some of the music of among I am . between two ash trees. and Baden while there is still cherished in the royal garden of Schonbrunn a favourite spot." It was this rage for the fresh air and fields which made him such a bad stay-at-home bird. the Fiddio opera and other such immortal scores. he complained outright that he w^as forced too much into society. the woods.

from a mere material point of view he would have proved a virtuous. circumstance which.^8o per annum. even as it could not understand him. generous swain and fond and thrifty husband is not so clear. is evident enough. That he appreciated female society. a realization of what 'love' is.Act of Charity This was denied him. such an extent that it had sunk as low as . preciation in the value of paper money a rr JtiCLt'ClSStfl'^ * matter that affected Beethoven's income to _. and a deabout this time. loan of 2300 florins with his friends the Brentanos." Pecuniary embarrassment an attendant that dogged Beethoven throughout his career plagued him sorely There had been deaths. As has been well said live on in the immense solitude of and made miserable by contact with a world which he could not understand. had manifestly heart. can only be deplored. A concert in aid of the poor was being given in Gratz Beethoven could not send money. The matter was strictly pre- served between them. Whether. made a soft place in his its who like others. for the institution. The indications provided sayno. and — project than of his genius. however. This had forced him to negotiate a — — — . but he for(181 2). sudden " he was destined to we hear less of the ripening of the collapse. to one who has brought so much peace and harmony into this world. nor would he hear of any goodness of the great 21 . his in May of this year that he first met Bettina Brentano — junior by some fifteen years. warded the Mount of Olives^ Choral Fantasia and other MS. and that the question of marriage was occupying It was his mind at this time (1810) and others is patent. Albeit the natural man's heart directed him to charity's course even under such stress. scores..

but comthat extraordinary orchestral composition posing a piece " entitled " Wellington's Victory. 22 . Spohr the second violins . In 1 814 Vienna was the scene of the Peace Congress. and without any thought precedence or merit. the notable musicians Spohr.^ Never was there a more generous payment in return. ' The famous English painter. Salieri. Saal. It is a pity he did not paint Beethoven's portrait. taking the whole charge — — heart. I would as cheerfully have taken my place at the big drum . for we had no other motive but the serving of our fatherland. — "Everyone of whom was anxious of — for the benefit of the fatherland all ." Beethoven Later on we find him at Carlsbad of a benefit concert for the sufferers in a fire which took place at Baden . wounded at Hanau. It was a rare assemblage of distinguished artistes Beethoven wrote afterwards ^ At this concert (Dec. There was an audience of 600 persons. or the Battle of Vittoria all for the benefit of the Austrian and Bavarian soldiers. Moscheles. while Maelzel who invented the metronome organized the performance. 8th. Mayseder. one of the most magnificent halls and concert rooms in Europe. they took their places in the orchestra. Romberg and Hummel were in the orchestra. but only because the music was of my composition. and those who had sacrificed so much for us. for Beethoven. was at this time in Vieima. Now was a busy season . including sovereigns. The direction of the whole was entrusted to me. the zenith of his powers his industry 1813). Sir Thomas Lawrence.^ and Beethoven seized the occasion to give two concerts These took place in the Redouten for his own benefit. If anyone else had written it. Schuppanzigh led the first violins. He was at was astonishing. princes and notabilities of State. and when there came the news of the defeat at Vittoria he was to the front again not only conducting the concert. SaHeri marked the time for the cannonades and drums.



for which reason his doctor. He left Beethoven the heritage of his unhappy son Carl quite a boy. too. and his allowance to the composer was jeopardized to the extent that Beethoven had to sue the executors which. the mechanician.' "that the love he has shown me will pass over to my son Carl. was engaged. Then he had an action running with Maelzel. but when. who. these came to hand they proved of little service to the distressed With all this he was engaged in legal complicaman. that desired to honour him. His health was far from good. presents.000 florins. valuable — — . was still a source of great worry to him especially as he hated the thought of wholly relinquishing the work of conducting. Maelzel. tions sufficient to turn the head of any ordinary being. consequently. it was alleged. fortunately. which he was projecting " running " in England. had ordered him the baths and waters. drawbacks. His deafness. who had long been suffering from consumption. His brother Carl. His patron Prince Kinsky had died suddenly. — * he will do everything for his intellectual development and 23 .Carl It —the He and the Nephew for was a period of bustle and sunshine Beethoven. he did. during which he was a constant drain upon the earnings of the master indeed he had cost him at various times as much as 10. since everyone from the Empress of Austria downwards was the recipient of many proceeds of the concerts Still there were considerably benefited his exchequer." ran the words in his brother's Will. finally. to make a pair of ear-trumpets for the master. Yet a greater distraction awaited Beethoven. had surreptitiously obtained a copy of the " Battle " Symphony. died (1815) after a more or less reckless life. " So I expect with full confidence. Malfatti.

True till death the composer finally left him his sole heir. which has lasted three months and a half. may tranquil condition.^iooo in hard cash thanks to the abiding love of his That he could not have fallen §°*^*^ uncle. although her conduct towards me has on several occasions been unbecoming. that I. Beethoven adopted the boy. this expectation was more than fulfilled. and from that day forward the prosperity of his nephew was Beethoven's chief concern. Ad -hf h into better hands is clear from the tenour T.. at my lodging you will see the consequences being obliged to confide in strangers. and a post-mortem search among his belongings soon revealed seven looo florins bank shares stored in a drawer. I repeat that I have nothing against your wife. for even without this my life may not be of long duration. Away with everything which does — ' : — not help to get into a If mend more the matter. Apart from this. my illness.T ft. my good Carl. With the subsequent sale of furniture.Beethoven further his success in life. — 24 . ^ of a lovable letter which Beethoven had previously written to this brother. so essential for me. a fragment of which is as follows " God forbid that the natural tie between brothers should again be unnaturally torn asunder. especially when I am ill." This charge involved the master in further legal embroilment this time with his sister-in-law whom he deemed an unfit person to have charge of his relating to lent money have already spoken). indeed. Do not refer to other matters " (probably you look of my — by the musician. MSS. has made me extremely sensitive and excitable." And. of which we " If you can come to-day you can take Carl with you. and other effects this improvident scapegrace found himself the possessor of something like .

the accumulation of grief. surnaming her " Queen of the Night. When at length attempt at suicide was shocking to see. poser's favour with the custody of the lad. intrigues. for he dearly loved the boy. who was an like a storm upon his feelings. who had been removed from her the boy obeyed only the promptings of his own heart when he. determined to carry out the strongly expressed wish of his dying brother." and. contrary to the admonition of his uncle. by acting vigorously according to his moral conviction. and it is to be feared caused the master many The litigation went on for a pang and many a thaler. guilt. This course led to an action at law between Beethoven and the widow. fatherless nephew. " The resolution and firmness which eye-witness. he placed his charge in one of the Vienna schools where his mother could see him monthly. ! — — : 25 . Carl was discovered severely wounded. the more exposed to her continual slanders. The mother sought in every possible way to regain her influence over the boy. and after attempting self-destruction was placed for a Beethoven's state of mind at this season in an asylum. disregarded the inviolable law of nature. Eventually Beethoven had the satisfaction of getting was a vain step. Beethoven was four years. it is to be hoped. and the first anxiety had been overcome. he questioned her morality.A Thankless Heritage Not without reason. The fellow went from bad to worse was expelled. and suffering in connection with the circumstance poured down Schindler. and law-suits because he himself. Alas it him into the University. " ran to his mother. reports ." and the result naturally was that he was false and deceitful towards both parties. and from being at first only a spoilt child became thoroughly In 1820 an Appeal was decided in the comcorrupt.

The Corporation of Vienna had shown their appreciation of Beethoven and his music by presenting him with the Freedom of the city. involuntarily tractable. obedient to every breath of wind. mainly merciless appeals to which they were — — subjected. which despite the substantial sums that from time to time accrued to him were unequal to the many drains. my rock Thou canst look in my innermost thoughts. by which one more worry was added to the many which eventually drove the master into a premature ! man — — grave. o mein Alles du siehst mein Inneres und weisst wie wehe mir es thut Jemanden leiden machen Miissen bei meinem guten Werke fiir meinen theuren Karl " (God. Nor is it surprising that with such turmoil and worry Beethoven gave us this while no music. This event led to another appeal at law. my strength. if 26 ." Instead of repaying his uncle with gratitude the unhappy nephew rewarded his tender generous care with base thanklessness. One incident may have somewhat lightened the load of existence about the painful period we have just dwelt upon. he lost by death a liberal patron Prince Lobkowitz (1816) and with him an allowance which that nobleman had been making. mein Fels. It behoved Beethoven now to concern himself about his resources. Gott. No wonder that at such a time Beethoven cried " Gott. which were rarely.Beethoven had always been observable in his whole demeanour and character vanished at once. Not yet was the great man's cup of trouble full. At a time when his resources were seriously crippled by expenses of law suits. and judge how it grieves me to cause suffering even by good actions to my heart's one Carl). mein Hort. and pressing requests. God. and he stood before us an old of about seventy years of age.

who caused a very acceptable grand piano to be sent as a gift to Beethoven (1817). Ries. Mr Thomas Broadwood. translated from his own doubtful French. As soon as I receive your splendid instrument." Philharmonic " Negotiations by him. If they could not secure the master himthey were determined to acquire some of his scores. Beethoven duly acknowledged the present in a letter. runs as follows " Never have I experienced a greater pleasure than your advice of the forwarding of the piano which you have honoured me in presenting. 300 guineas were assured to him for the engagement. and it was the then head of this eminent firm of pianoforte makers. I will immediately send you the result of the first impressions which I shall gather from it. but the master in keeping with a peculiar habit he „. I shall regard it as an altar upon which I will sacrifice to the divine Apollo the best offerings of my soul. — — « niontc The his bought several of ^* /• /• compositions. nevertheless. ever. 1818. and duly trust that they may be found worthy of your instrument. and Birchall * Vienna. 27 . The result was offers that the negotiations proved fruitless. . Among those interested in the great man of Vienna were the Broadwoods. Of course his fame had reached although a century ago news hardly travelled as fast and faithfully as they do now. : had of demanding more whenever he received wanted 400 guineas... February 3rd." ^ The Philharmonic Society also made strenuous exertions to induce Beethoven to visit England professionally. self. a desirable aim which was attained through the instrumentality of his admirers Messrs Neate. and musical desire and enterprise here in England were less urgent than is the case to-day. the tenour of which. Society. refused this country.

dishevelled. and in the winter of 181 8-1 81 9 Beethoven had become engrossed in a composition suitable for the occasion. and according own showing In the state of his intention health did not favour such a journey. exhausted with long periods of work and abstinence from food of any kind. : — great man resorted to singing. Day and night did the indefatigable worker occupy himself with the score. was to be installed as Archbishop of Olmiitz. his was fixed upon relieving himself of at least one stupendous musical idea which had taken possession of his ever imaginative brain. the Archduke Rudolph. until his devotion to his task was looked upon as something more than extraordinary.Beethoven the publisher. and no one could guess if it would ever see the light. Never before had the composer seemed so wholly abstracted with a task. the date of which was March 20th. Relief only came to him in working upon three or four vast panoramas in the throes of 28 . Just now — 8 18 —however. Conception after conception fastened upon him with such rapidity that his brain was continually on the rack with the profoundest problems and musical possibilities. to These negotiations extended from 1815 1 1818. The work designed for this ceremony was a grand Mass. His friend. 1820. Beethoven was much occuto his pied. Shut in a room alone. as if mental torture." Nor could the score be finished for the Installation. shouting. In appearance he was wild. the one in D major. the every comfort was absent. stamping. a struggle with the elements of composition which really alarmed those who were cognizant of what was happening. fact. Schindler was an eye-witness of the surroundings " The house was deserted by servants.

The scores aroused unbounded enthusiasm.Rossini Fever . and when it was repeated on the 23rd. due as much to Beethoven's difficult temper as to anything else. By Beethoven it was regarded as his greatest and most successful work . 29 . after much wrangling. Notwithstanding.^ It was not until February 1822 at one and the same time this that the Mass was completed. France. with Httle better result. or the major part of it. Beethoven had great difficulty in getting subscriptions for the work. He addressed circular letters to the sovereigns of Prussia. asking for 50 ducats towards its pubHcation. Schindler. and truly it is one of the grandest and most profound art compositions ever created. and Schuppanzigh. the composition of either one of which would have made an ordinary man immortal. but at the expiration of nine months. was produced with the "Ninth" Symphony at the Karnthnerthor Theatre. two years after the date fixed for the ceremony. and left Beethoven and his nephew to eat the dinner. 1824. About this time Rossini appeared on the horizon of musical Europe. and as was his wont. no more than seven copies had been guaranteed Eventually. whom he had invited to dine with him. Sweden. Speedily his fame spread to every ! * These scores were the magnificent Sonata and the "Ninth" Symphony. 109. a fair copy of the score was sent to the Archduke. Beethoven so roundly abused his friends. Saxony and Russia. This was on May 7th. the Mass. in E major Op. he at period of pressure added to his mental and physical strain by engaging upon two vast harmonial projects. for which event we have to thank his friends Lichnowsky. albeit the concert was a failure . that they rose up. hurried out of the room. and on the 19th of the following month.

The purport of this Address. thus to convince the world that Germany could yield greater music than could Italy.— Beethoven quarter of the Continent. . was strongly In fact he persistaverse to all public manifestations. was that he should produce the Mass. which was signed by Prince Lichnowsky and the leading musical personages in Vienna. for real — 3® . might easily have been otherwise however. or was not. the Ninth Symphony and a new opera. developing more and more as he grew older. when Rossini's glory was at its highclear. restless little body the " public " cared music in its thirst for ravishing Italian tune. as the great composer with his self-contained. consolatory to him to receive a public proof of esteem at such a time is not altogether Nevertheless. moody temperament. est a public Address and demonstration were prepared in Beethoven's honour a step which Schindler says comThis forted him greatly in his hour of apparent neglect. j^ meteor. ently shunned every attempt made to draw him into public view. Whether it was. and there was scarcely a capital which was not swept by this brilliant musical „ . cerned. with what prophetic instinct we — may credit Beethoven if w^e regard the musical reputations and values of the two composers to-day! Undismayed and unalterable the Vienna master pursued his deep ponderings in the very depths of theoretical research and invention pouring forth his fancies and deductions in page after page of the "Choral" Symphony and other colossal works marking the closing years of the great musician's career. their credit To to be be it said Beethoven's intimate friends did not fever. desert him during the Rossini although it is feared that that fickle. Beethoven stood unmoved unconAnd.

towards what proved. and perhaps starve . for others. All too tender-hearted especially of his and considerate of Carl. " if by God's will my health be restored I shall be able to comply with all commissions which I am now receiving from all parts of Europe. Beethoven began to have misgivings. to be the closing years of his life. with his naturally morose ^ and serious disposition he aggravated. my works are so great. nephew whom he entertained an affection which was Beethopelessly misplaced. only too truly. and I may yet acquire prosperity.. he was reduced to making his — 3» ." Now. such was the composer's impecuniosity. until ^ h /I he weaved them into really frightful pictures on which his mind dwelt persistently. how could things have reached such a pass that in the year 1820. Else. "that I humbly thank the Almighty. but poured out the melancholy story of his unhappy lot to business houses and intimates ahke. he "The publishers' demands for had never been busier. — Straightened Resources None the less Beethoven was kept busy indeed. Fearful and gloomy thoughts took possession of him and these. Nor did he keep all this to himself. The chief of his painful imaginations was a presentiment that he was about to die another was that he would be morbid the victim of actual want. hoven." he wrote in 1822. pushed on the work of composition under conditions which at times — were appalling." And again. Had this been for his own benefit it would be understandable enough but it was in order that he might provide himself with funds wherewith to meet the many demands that were constantly being made upon his generosity. — — ideas indeed. in order to make more money.

really no ground. the misgivings of a morbid nature aggravated There were by worry. as Thayer calculates he was in the he could to the tune of 7000 florins spring of 1823 easily have remedied matters.^soo he would visit London with a symphony and concerto. There was but even this negotiation came to nothing. and there were friends on all On December 20th.Beethoven dinner. for four days. 1823. and which the uncle's strict conscientiousness would not permit him to touch. and his consequent strenuous efforts towards the last to raise money were the outcome simply of a disordered brain. Beethoven's apprehensions concerning his condition of health. the Philharmonic Society in London again came forward and offered him 300 guineas and a benefit money upon even those who all sorts of pretences. the presentiment of a speedily approaching end. sides who would have helped him. the bank shares. therefore. The chief publishers of Europe were wanting compositions from Beethoven. which he had willed to his unprofitable nephew Carl. concert if guaranteed to be of not less value than . however. for any great anxiety reIf he was in debt at specting his monetary affairs. neglect and insidious disease. which took possession of him so com: 32 . Unscrupulous persons besieged him of for gifts and there were in order to turn them to their own account peculated his scores on the excuse of disposing of them to his advantage to a publisher. in the closing years of his life. about this time. of a glass of beer and some loans or rolls. Nevertheless Beethoven was far from being really poor His belief that he was. were by no means without founda- — — — tion on the contrary. for instance.

which were not paid for. and which had long kept him a 'subject' of the doctors. a government official and quite a "man about town. In 1824 he placed himself in communication with the publisher Schott of Mayence." who had ingratiated himself into the composer's favour. Still he would not give up work rather he applied composition with increased vigour for no other reason it would seem than that he might leave his rascal nephew well provided for. grew worse. into the hands of the publishers Schott. 130. whole course of his life. for a consideration. as they all found their way. was rendered worse from the fact that he had fallen out with his physicians as indeed he fell out with everybody. ^ * With the assistance of one Carl Holz. and the A minor op. The situation. 127. too. until in the winter of 1824 there were decided indications of serious stomach troubles. Quartets proved to be the fore-shadow of an actual fact. and doctors Braunhofer and Staudenheim flatly refused The indifferent — to attend him. These were the Quartets in E flat op. B flat op. who bought the scores of the Mass j jj/ and 'Ninth' Symphony for 1000 florins the ^ ». himself to — — tl . state of his health which had always more or less troubled him.— Galitzin's pletely. About this time Prince Galitzin wrote from St Petersburg commissioning three string quartets which were to be liberally paid for when composed and dedicated to this Russian noble. c 33 . Beethoven was now at the eleventh hour more active in stimulating commercial negotiations for his work than he had ever been in the and 600 florins the other. one. 132. Schlesinger and Artaria.

1824. we are told. the sight he mentioned turned him round and lo met must have made his heart bleed. but that this was more by eye He was as deaf to than ear became painfully palpable.a Beethoven All this while the burden of a slowly-breaking constituon the master's mind. will my delivery into the hands to much under engagements you . or we may conclude they would not have allowed him to figure in such an unfortunate Always irritable and ashamed of his calamity. anxious about his "Choral" Symphony. may have imagined that he alone knew the terrible secret to the uttermost. The sympathetic concourse. 34 . and pocket insults and reprimands rebukes which arose invariably from — — own defective hearing. b6. at once grasped the situation. Thus the master. All Beethoven's He had wielded the was eventually discovered. despite his many complainings. In one of his letters to " I hope that Apollo and the Muses Schott he writes tion lay : prevent for some time I am still of the Reaper. the applause at the conclusion as he had been to the strains of his own music. and what my mind is at present filled with must be poured out before I go to the Elysian fields.ton and led the band. position. however. Beethoven is seen conducting its first performance proceeding which would seem to indicate that even the composer's closest friends were unacquainted with the full extent of his deafness." Incessant work and a resolute will were the mainstays ! — The loving — soul already ^ September 17th." ^ This was the year when. and the demonstration that then followed has been described by Schindler as "a volcanic outburst of joy and tears. he was no mild cAef d'orchestre^ although the bandsmen were ever ready to make allowances for.

cultivate the art of accumulating it so strenuously that in time they become lost to all sense of everything else. — possible. was a who carried on business at Linz and Vienna. and the results were. "I want to bring a few more worthy scores into the world and then to die in peace. a class of men who. and the apothe- — 35 . Beethoven's second brother. There ever has been. however. and later on resided in retirement at Gneixendorf. in a letter to Wegeler he says. and later on. so far lower myself to join such bad company ? " he once wrote to his brother." he wrote to Schott . For in spite of all that had been done to keep him from that disgraceful connection. inasmuch as there exists abundant evidence to prove that no man ever possessed a more touching affection for his kin than did Beethoven. " I feel if I had written little more than a few notes. whom he had warned on his first coming to Vienna against "the whole clique of bad women. a condition for which the man of drugs must have been mainly to blame. and ever will be. The fact is. This dispensing chemist had become suddenly rich by the execution of some peculiar orders he had received from the French in the great wars of 1809. with an ingrained love of money." So he laboured on as unceasingly. Beethoven did not approve of the wife which this brother had married." chemist. brother Johann. if more disastrous than in the case of the wife of his other brother Carl. He and the composer were on anything but brotherly terms. Nikolaus Johann. had obeyed his old inclinations.Brotherly Relationships upon which the great existence now depended. so that when he received invitations " Could I to visit the estate he invariably made excuse.

Johann from the luxury of his retirement called upon the working musician. required to acquaint the apothecary with his arrangements in respect to his nephew. who having failed — y came to grief in a profession and subsequently in trade. and . proved to be the last he undertook ere essaying that bourne along which no traveller has yet turned a face. perforce. was straining every nerve to leave this rake in a state of To further the . A young man. and unable to neglect his dying brother's charge. j^ Beethoven. was scarcely a fit and proper person to for become suddenly possessed of a small fortune Beethoven. and. —the means extinct tribe. to pay a visit in 1826 a journey which. left his card. having endorsed it on the back : L. ». would even have resorted to pen and score-paper as he lay in his University studies. He returned the card forthwith. with extraordinary love and devotion. proved unsuccessful in an attempt at suicide. It ran : Johann Van Beethoven. unhappily. Van Beethoven. finding Occasionally a sally of insinuation Thus. Matters had reached a climax with Carl. '. and finally ordered out of Vienna.— Beethoven cary belonged to this by no resultant — was the usual one differ. fearful of his own approaching end. him out. The brothers were estranged and agreed to escaped both. — 36 . was expelled the army. Brain Proprietor. one day. It was to this brother that Beethoven had. The composer rose to the occasion. Land Proprietor.end absorbing him he independence.

** Dictionary of Music and Musicians. the ne'er-do-well nephew. his wife a common frivolous woman of questionable character." vol. and more than ever so now since he felt fired to work " while it was day. must have been a curiously the pompous. in October 1826 Beethoven. or bursting into sudden fury. and even at that early hour would repair to his table and start composing." had far from left his — — ^ Beethoven inspirations at home.Sturdy Guest on his bed of sickness. and in the midst of them all the deaf. ex- ploding in rough jokes and hoarse laughter. 37 . must have been appreciably agitated by the new-comer is certain. by and — — — turns entirely absorbed and pertinaciously boisterous. intensely selfish and ready to make game of his uncle or make love to his aunt . party. He would rise at halffive. set " The out for Krems. at some absolute misconception. Alone with Nature he sauntered all day about the fields calling past Sir George Grove. 198. p. setting every great composer household rule and household propriety at defiance. unpresentable. The musician always wholly absorbed in his art. Johann permitted this interview in half-hearted fashion. singing. a fifty mile journey from Vienna. with prodigal Carl. money-loving Gutsbesitzer ill-assorted one (land proprietor) . including Michael Kren." A tt t d hurried breakfast and off he was to the fields ^ the arena of all his inspirations. untidy. such a group has few elements of permanence in it." as a great critic has it. who was told off to attend upon Beethoven. "beating time with hands and feet. had not the doctors peremptorily refused his appeals to be allowed to compose. i. humming and writing.^ That the niggardly Johann and his household.

was biting weather. then very and then suddenly standing still. fast. so with great misgivings Beethoven hazarded an open conveyance 38 . shut up his bowels of compassion. The brother thought him mad many of Nature's flints to-day who would encourage a similar verdict if the occasion could arise. Beethoven having failed to interest Johann in Carl's future much less to provide that for a for him It in his Will. he required payment for his board and lodging which the composer thought was to be gratuitous. going now very slowly. The immortal beacon was not yet illuminating the musical universe with its glorious rays. A close vehicle was consequently indispensable for a fifty miles' journey . Johann. yet this was not forthcoming. the brother would not lend his.Beethoven waving his hands. and even the winter sun seemed permanently hidden. and with it all the food supplied was not suited to Beethoven's out. He denied him a fire in his room although it was midwinter . his own flesh and blood his ailing brother open-handed. cussion as to Carl led to a bitter quarrel so — The dismuch so on December 2nd composer and nephew packed up journey back to Vienna. and writing in a kind of pocket-book this one of those eternal sketchWell there are books. requiring warmth and attention he refused him the comfort which a drooping dog would need. for he really understood not the manner of man he was sheltering. That the precise pharmaceutist looked forward to the day when his abnormal guest would shake the dust from his feet and depart must not be regarded too harshly. open-hearted worker. He denied the toiling. — ! — — — — seriously disturbed and not robust appetite. not dreaming of future ages. suffering from a cruel internal disorder.

eeihovexi died. .u/ inVisxiiia vyfuixe.* . The ichwMypoaierK6.

was a two days' journey. yet difficulties presented themselves. Still home had to be reached. be it remembered having been expelled the city after the attempt upon his life. " Better from my belly than from my pen " was the burst — — — of the impatient sufferer. ment aggravated. : " of course necessary. indeed. Neither the physician nor his physic commended themselves to — — 40 . and indeed. but inflammation of the ^ P Medical assistance was lungs had set in. had he shed his entire musical self for posterity of all future. and it cost this wondrous man his life a consequence which would.— Beethoven — — supposed " the most wretched vehicle of hell " as the composer described it with the two-fold mischief of exposing himself to the cold damp elements. or ever. Beethoven had succeeded in so estranging his former consephysicians that he could not appeal to them quently a doctor Wawruch a nominee of a biUiard marker known to indolent Carl was summoned. Water was all that soon afterwards. The raw December weather had found out the weak spots in his enfeebled not only was the stomach ailconstitution Thf r . Indeed. Beethoven reached his home in the Schwarzspanierhaus and straightway took to his bed. and his nephew to the officiousness of the Vienna police. Nothing more was to come what might have been in store God only knows. but the sand-glass had run its course. the scapegrace. was drawn from that rich fount as the surgeon tapped him for his disease. and Beethoven though only clad in summer a milk-cart it is — — clothing resolutely faced It all. have been beyond the power of words or imagination to picture had he not already poured out his very life's blood in music.

He committed this hopeful. tion — physician. unhappily. and again on the 28th. so as to breast affairs.Coming End the patient nor arrested the complaints. Under Malfatti's treatment wherein iced punch took the place of abominable herbal decoctions a decided improvement was manifest. and begged his friend Moscheles to plead for him. He wanted to compose. The new year (1827) found the master still confined to his bed. He had improved sufficiently to transact business. To add to the and on December This opera8th the suflfering musician was first tapped. eventually consented to see the patient. who. was repeated on the 8th January. that Beethoven by word and manner ex- pressed a disgust for Wawruch's treatment. For himself there was nothing. — so — much so. with. of an appeal to the Philharmonic Society of London. He thought. — — first — — — — — . with no great pleasure. To the great credit of that body let it be stated that the Society at the earliest possible moment remitted £100 time . only now some nineteen years of age. but the doctors refused to let him. Malfatti. and finally look into his own affairs especially in Carl's interest. write letters. very Uttle benefit in the patient's Then recourse had to be had to a cast-off condition. study Schubert's songs for the pore over a forty-volume set of Handel Arnold's in score which Stumpff the well-known harpedition maker had very thoughtfully presented to him . and his long illness had involved him in debt. seriousness of the situation dropsy set 1 in. In his survey Beethoven learnt that he possessed 7000 florins in bank shares bought in the prosperous time of the Congress and now set religiously apart for Carl. to the care of an old lawyer friend Dr Bach the apothecary brother persistently declining the charge. therefore.

had so absorbed the composer's pilgrimage that the prospect of death the change to life instead of being much feared must have proved a glorious expectancy for him. indeed. The grey-stuff dressing-gown he wore was hanging open. The great mind was — prepared for its passing . Wasted by illness. as He was unshaven. of which Schopenhauer tells us. He had on great boots which reached to his knees. we entered How my heart beat And we Beethoven's apartment. where we saw enormous heaps of music tied together. certain complications obtained the mastery. and I took a seat opposite to him at Every one knows that conversations with the window. he appeared to be of tall stature. — — — ! 42 . and he seemed pleased to see him again. and Hiller thus described the "After having passed through a large antemeeting: chamber. as a boy of fifteen. and very speedily the disease and to the dying man. that sorrow which has a healing power. was one of the few who saw and spoke with Beethoven during his last days. Beethoven him cordially. were not a little surprised to see him sitting at his window. for ing his end. but it was too late the end was at hand. and his grizzled hair fell he rose. called and visited the bedside. and piled up in tall cupboards. embracing Hummel introduced me. He was the companion of his master Hummel on a professional tour to Vienna. The incident overjoyed Beethoven.Beethoven he was now unknowingly approachand a reaction setting in another tapping was decided upon. Hiller. with a good-humoured expression on his face. including Schubert. in shaggy masses over his temples. His face cleared. Friends. and became even friendly as he recognised Hummel. was very kind. Little relief followed.

' he murmured. and could only speak in a low tone. it was easy to see by his words how happy such a mark of sympathy had made him . places. on the 20th. which. I shall soon have to undertake the great journey. and he There could not raise himself in his bed without pain. — — ! ' ! . again for the last time.Final Illness Beethoven had to take place partly in writing . were now dim. and praising the English people. when we had seen him before. and that he should also pay a visit to Mme. he himbut the person whom he addressed had to How painful it must write all questions and answers. and travel about to different His eyes. which. the English. 43 . no more us exhausted. and seemed rather to devour than to read what had been written. Although often giving vent to similar forebodings. had accompanied us to his house). Hummel (who. at intervals. and to be obliged every instant to rein in his keen and brilliant intellect On such occasions he followed with eager eyes the hand that was writing. after greeting us. Philharmonic Society. "When we again stood by his bedside. uttering low groans at intervals self spoke. he said that as soon as he got well he should go to London and compose a grand symphonic overture for his friends. was now no hope of a cure. he still busied himself from time were never to time with sketches and plans. on the 23rd March. have been to the man who had always been excitable even irritable to have to wait for each answer. alas Speaking of the noble behaviour of the to be realised. retained all their old brightness. but he was in a state of extreme weakness. the aspect He lay before of the illustrious man was heartrending. and a fatal ending to his When we saw him illness was rapidly approaching. this time.

Soon Hummel. comaedia finita ^. intelligible words that escaped his lips were " I shall hear in Heaven. the master answered calmly. J dying man. " Plaudite amici. 1874. was a terrible As he lay." cried his — — — — ^ Monthly Musical Record. Breuning. apparently unconordeal for the death-watch. such as had not been equalled for many a year in which his intensified the solemnity of the sick-room brother Johann's wife and Hiittenbrenner were keeping vigil. and throughout the following day. and his friends might applaud. a sudden storm of thunder and self added to the gloom lightning. and almost unable to speak." Beethoven's strong constitution made a great fight with the King of Terrors. " and these were administered The last according to the rites of the Roman Church. the last battle set in and continued long into the Then as night drew on Nature herdreary waning day. Beethoven to his weeping friends. over . scious.— Beethoven words passed his drops of sweat. June i. Hiller and Hiittenbrenner arrived and approached the bedside of the evidently j^. lips his brow was covered vdth great . " I will . Hummel instantly it produced hers. Asked if he would receive the last Sacraments." ^ On March 24th Schindler came and found Beethoven with a distorted face. indeed. 44 . At one time he could not find his Mme. I and wiped his face gently with at intervals. handkerchief. All through the day and night of the 25 th. sinking. Suddenly an awful crash of thunder roused The large sunken eyes opened even the dying man. Yes —with est. grim sarcasm serving him to the last the comedy was. shall never forget the look of gratitude in his dim and sunken eyes as he turned towards her.

worshippers and friends — — issued funeral the : following invitation — (a facsimile) — to the am (!Hffd« cor ^fm ^t^ottrnt^or* btr OrfrfaieiaPcittfeairga :i:fcTSafl«» ©re Jug bMJMli* 9«n ha na^ tqr ^«« P. following which. and its concerns were nothing for him the last breath had left the body of Beethoven. A post-mortem examination was made by Doctors Wagner and Wawruch. Nature's requiem finally gave place to a placid night..'iv^ 9*^ •n N«B«^t« »tr«Ikir«f1b^* (m 56. the world. a clenched fist was raised in the air. and when it fell the death agonies were over life... 45 . nUnortttn Hi 6fc ^a..«|.p.^^^^^^t!.— Death . As if in concert with the august life. 3ott« (Ma«« aim** ^^»v»9«»»^W.JSJr»»^v>^illk-. Breuning and Schindler had already gone to Wahring Cemetery to choose the spot for the inevitable interment and when they returned it was to face the mournful duty of laying out the corpse and settling all final affairs.


Which will take place on
The Meeting of Mourners
the 2gfh


at 1


will take place at the residence of the deceased, in the

Schwarzspanier House, No. 200, at the Glacis before the Schotten Gate.


cortfege will

proceed from there to the Trinity Church of the Minorites in
Alser Street.


irretrievable loss to the musical world of the celebrated tone-master took place on the 26th March, 1827, at 6 p.m. Beethoven died in consequence of dropsy,
in the s6th

year of his age, after having received the Holy Sacrament.

The day

of obsequies will be

made known by

VAN Beethoven's
Worshippers and Friends,

The news of the death spread like wild-fire over Europe. The Viennese were grief-stricken, knowing that to an extent they had failed to appreciate the manner of man who had been amongst them. Twenty thousand followed
the funeral cortege, which provided such a sight as had

never before been seen in the capital. The scene at church door was distracting, and soldiers had to force the way for the passing of the hearse. There were eight pall-bearers, the musicians Eybler, Hummel, Seyfried, Kreutzer, Weigl, Gyrowetz, Wiirfel and Gansbacher. A crowd of appreciative friends notables all mournfully carrying tapers, surrounded the coffin, the big form of Lablache towering over all the rest. Four performers on trombones rendered the dead master's own requiem the


priate music.

Funeral-Equale; and a male choir performed other approWith the service over the vast procession moved to the cemetery, where a funeral oration was

delivered by the actor Anschiitz.



honour was

As the mortal remains were lowered paid by Hummel. out of sight the famous pianist, with deep emotion, rested three laurel wreaths on the coffin of the illustrious dead aged fifty-six years and three months. The grave was a plain one, near by the spots where
Schubert, Clement the violinist, and Seyfried were subseIt was long neglected, but as recently as quently laid. 1863 the remains of both Beethoven and Schubert were exhumed and reburied. Over the former there now rests
All that this a slab of stone headed by an obelisk. memorial proclaims is expressed in one sufficing word





The Man.
— — —

Foremost Personality Physical Appearance Man and Mind Characteristics Fondness for Joking An undesirable Lodger Some of the Lodgings Troubles with Servants A Bohemian's Den As a Lover Female Attachments A Postilion cC Amour Temperament and Disposition Affection for his Nephew Good Traits Receives Schubert Opinions on fellowMusicians Beethoven and the Professors A Bad Man of Business Intellectuality in Musicians Beethoven maxims The "Letters" His Politics Dismisses Napoleon Rates Goethe Habits of Abstraction Portraits Masks, Busts and Monuments No Formal Religionist Purity of Life Worthy

— —

— — —

— —

— — — — — — — —



consideration of Beethoven personally furnishes an

The grand but uneven personality who had tasted the qualities of the extremes of obscurity and renown will ever provide genuine enquirers with a rare and absorbing subject as a man and fellow-being, apart from his attributes as a musician. Beethoven was one of those embodiments of the regular and irregular in human not nature which, marked by strong characteristics necessarily good ones go to make up the striking figures of history. He was equally at home in the tap-room of the "Swan" and at the table of the palace; and if
engrossing study.


Corpse Exhumed
he ever picked his teeth with the snuffers, this unenviable . notoriety could only have been obtained as the penalty of some gross wantonness or Foremost
studied offence to which, like his freaks of „ The he was not unaddicted. good and bad, indeed, could both be traced




outward attitude of the great musician, but unquestionably the good largely predominated. Nature had moulded Beethoven one of her noblest sons, yet was there not a little of the contradictory in From first to last his course was a plane his character. above the common roadway of life, and throughout a amid great anxieties and temptations struggling career born a foremost man, he he seldom stepped from it Throughout he played the part well, if inconsistently. was firmly impressed with the conviction that he could do everlasting work, and in more ordinary as he did


burdens, and carry the heaviest even of relationship, which weak This men make it their study to refuse and shirk. symptom of true greatness was perfectly natural. " Man is man and master of his fate,"^ and Beethoven was a He lived and worked not so great apostle of the creed.


everyday loads of



for himself as for others,

tively that

he should do


because he and moreover



that he was

designed for that end. When, on October 13th, 1863, the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde exhumed and reburied Schubert, the occasion (prompted by a certain inquisitiveness which is rampant everywhere), was used for disturbing Beethoven's bones, which lay three places higher up in the




Ortsfriedhof of

The skeleton of the Bonn Wahring. master proved him to be 5 ft. 5 in. high so that Uke
of the world's greatest men, he was below




There is a full-length sketch of Beethoven in line by Lyser that is splendidly characteristic of the master, and which beyond the fact of the hat being on one side of has been . the head instead of straight on rnystca pronounced by no less an authority than AppearBeethoven's friend Breuning to be a particu^^^^ It looks so. We larly accurate presentment. Seyfried see the thick-set, broad-shouldered little giant not quite prosaid he was the "image of strength" portionately formed, but with all the "cut" of a great



It sets

out too the extraordinary intellectual

features of Beethoven.

The head was large, with a grand forehead, great breadth of jaw, and somewhat protruding lips, the lower one more developed in his later years as the habit of serious reflection and set thought grew more intense. A profuse mass of black hair, cast upwards and backthe more striking with wards, left the full open face

As Beethoven grew older and bore the brunt of excessive troubles, his hair, as abundant as ever, turned white, but remained a great ornament behind his red but, as we are informed, from early youth pock-marked face.^ The eyes arched with luxuriant brows were, indeed, the mirror of his Large and jet-black, they were full of the fire soul. of genius, and on occasions of special joy or inspira tion were remarkably bright and peculiarly piercing

ruddy clean-shaven



Bernhard, Breuning, Seyfried and others.



Lyser's Sketch of Beethoven

beautifully white and regular were much laughing; happily, the careless man at least kept them brushed. Unlike his hands, Beethoven's feet were small and graceful. The former were ugly, thick, dumpy, with short untapering fingers, which could stretch little over an octave and afforded anything but the impression of grace or fluency over the piano keys. His voice varied. When quite himself it was light in tone, and singularly affecting; but when forced, as it so often was, on occasions of anger and temper, it became very rough and far from sympathetic. Inclined to be a handsome young man, as the miniature by Kiigelgen suggests, he did not improve in looks as the strain of musical storm and stress told its inevitable tale. Yet there were occasions when his smile was something to witness, when the rare soul and intellect of the master burst through the lines of the




and all who were fortunate enough were richer by an experience that could never be forgotten. It is to be regretted that there were not longer periods of this elasticity of mind; but
serious, earnest face,






the troubles




of them

of the com-

were more than he could manage to regard philosophically, while his temper and surroundings suffered accordingly. Unlike more than one of the great musicians he allowed no amount of patronage to influence his freedom of mode or thought. It might have been better had it been otherwise. If, like Haydn, he had been fated to appear in a court costume of official blue and silver though he hated the idea of being a salaried lackey, the ordeal might probably have brought good results. As it was the good beginnings



silk stockings, long boots, behind, double eyeglass and seal ring the whole amounting to a young man's most fashionable attire, ultimately gave way to a complete He now shaved carelessness as to outside appearances.


with his exterior

— the

sword, peruque with tag

himself irregularly and hacked his face terribly in the process, so that at times his beard, as when Czerny first met him, showed a seven days' growth. This, with his shocks of unkempt hair standing erect, ears j^ fl!« , a« filled with medicated wool, and clothes of

a hairy substance that might have suited a
hermit, contributed to a strange spectacle.

the Countess Gallenberg admirer, and his ideal could "He was not refrain from noticing his appearance.

His great

meanly dressed," she tells us, "very ugly to look at, but full of nobility and fine feeling and highly cultivated." Yes Beethoven's nobility of mien never left him to the last, and though as years passed he grew harsh in his features, neglected himself and got shockingly untidy, his grand face never wholly lost its rare expressiveness. With no other of the great masters was the clash of Boyhood, early manlife so keen and so sustained. hood, and middle age were each marked by consuming Much of troubles and toil, which death alone ended. the gloominess and abstractedness of Beethoven may be charitably set down to those periods of inward

working out of musical ideas, whether indoors or out. Then there was his early deafness which, while it in-

commoded him


every turn





caused him also perpetual mental reflection and misery. Add to this his general bad health, a suggestion of hereditary taint, and constant dependence upon medical



men more

him the sum of these considered and it is little surprising that he engendered a vile temper that gave him chronic dyspepsia, which,
eventually killed
in its turn, reflected itself in his features and taciturn and bearish moods. RockUtz has described him as a "genius brought up on a desert island, and dropped


or less skilful;


slowly wearing stomach

suddenly into civiUsation."

The riddle of humanity is more perplexing than ever we seek to solve it through the person of Beethoven. The wonder is that out of such an existence an existence compounded to some extent of self-inflicted torments and of miseries for which he may have been

but partially responsible, should have poured such floods music that will live to feed the souls of mortals as long as the sun shall shine. On his death-bed Beethoven read Scott for the first He threw " Kenilworth " down with the uttertime. ance, "the man only writes for money," and may, or
of pre-eminent music

have been propounding a solemn ^, In any case the real Beethoven was , istics speaking, albeit with his usual perverse inconsistency. No art-worker of any note was ever more infected probably with a life-long yearning for money than w^.s the Bonn master. Yet was this not for himself, but invariably for others, or in order that he might the better acquit obligations which were neither legally nor rightfully his own. Thus his expressed hope in one of his 1822 letters that he might "yet acquire pronot,




sperity "

had infinitely less to do with his own reputaand convenience than with the future comfort and safety of his rascal nephew. Throughout his life we



Beethoven playing the part of the great good man no mild fashion. The study of the personality difficult as it is, and

incongruous as


undoubtedly was,

affords a singularly

interesting feature in our Beethoviana.

knows much of Beethoven's music. understand the man, we must, as our great historian says in one of his Essays, "look beyond the individual man and his actions or interests, and view him in combination Here he stands out in bold relief. with his fellows."^ Varnhagen von Ense after an intimate acquaintance found Beethoven was the man in him stronger than the artist. as much a good citizen, a sterHng fellow, kind relation and The keynote of his friend, as he was a great musician.
whole character may be touched
in the

The world, happily, To know more, to




father died.

kept things together working with might and main to Then, his whole artistic preserve the humble home. life affords a grand model for every earnest student There never was plodding on towards some high aim. "The art of taking infinite a more genuine worker. His pains" was the real secret of his vast success. Sketch-books show this and indicate how every idea that occurred to him as being worth keeping was duly The.. manner noted and improved over and over again. in which he wove these threads of themes into vast musical constructions, his rigid correction and finish of every idea, and the extraordinary working and development which he threw into each one of his thousand


brave step he took gathered the reins and

movements, stamp him as one of the most consummate
toilers that the

world has ever praised or blamed.



Natural Temperament
a schoolboy Beethoven was reserved, having

of that boisterous element which characterises ninety-nine

out of every hundred lads. Caring little for boyish amusements, he was noticed to be invariably self-contained,



love of solitude

— which was marked throughout


preferred to be alone,



his life

gave him precious time to devote to his favourite pursuit that of forming music both on paper and the pianoforte. His marvellous capacity for work showed itself very early in life, for he began composing with a purpose before most children have done with their toys. The manner in which he early sought, or was prompted to seek for patronage in the highest quarters was also but the beginning of a ceaseless striving for reward and recognition which continued until he lay on his last bed. His musical industry generally, too, must have been astonishing indeed for him to have made the theoretical and technical advance in his art which contemporaries so in addition to which there was his general loudly acclaim education to be remembered, and this received no ungrudging share of his time and thought. It is manifestly clear that Beethoven, as a youth, was an exceptionally with all that seriousness which developed earnest toiler so mightily in the after man. That he was well conducted,

and had won the respect and affection of manner in which he kept his various appointments, and the efforts made by those in authority to advance his interests whenever, and wherever



evident from the

It is hardly necessary to further emphasise the fact that Beethoven's natural temperament was by no


means even

or pleasing.

which he

figures, while they

Indeed, some of the situations rob the chief actor of much

of that romantic halo which weaves itself so readily round a musician, particularly can only be a great master accounted for on the principle that musicians of a high

order must not be judged as mortals ordinary sphere of the unimaginative.


revolve in the

Beethoven, at any rate, both in his own words and through the testimony of others, has furnished ample proof of being no commonplace character

apart altogether from any consideration

Whatever he was inwardly and he was good at heart he had a brusque, inconsiderate, and sometimes downright rude and boorish bearing towards others, which often caused a pang to those who Spohr gives were devotedly concerned for his welfare. the following picture of their first meeting in 1815 '* We sat down at the same table, and Beethoven became very chatty, which much surprised the company, as he was generally taciturn, and sat gazing listlessly before him. But it was an unpleasant task to make him hear me, and I was obliged to speak so loud as to be heard Beethoven now came frequently in the third room off.


as a musician.


to these dining-rooms,


there soon

and visited me also at my house. became well acquainted. Beethoven was

but a truthful eye not to say uncouth At times his bushy eyebrows."^ wonderfully considerate for others, there were occasions when his behaviour was ill-advised, ungenerous and unNo one of the great masters of called-for to a degree. music was ever blessed with a finer intellect, or possessed keener mental perception or higher motive than Beethoven; yet, when regarding him as the man apart from the musician, it is impossible to leave the subject with a quite satisfactory

beamed from under


"Autobiography," page 184.


by a gradual and adroit modulation. or upon the inability of the accompanist to disconcert or " throw him Beethoven soon made a wager that out " when singing. suddenly landed the vocalist in a region in which he could not move nor do anything but leave off singing. bringing its reflections. was his fondness for joking. Choking with rage. One of the marked characteristics that showed itself very early in Beethoven's life. sheer horse-play. the champagne so moved Kuhlau that he extemporised a canon in honour of Beethoven. Beethoven. who acted on the audi alteram partem principle wise man and came to the conclusion that both were in the wrong. the singer complained to the Elector. When but a youth of fifteen j /. while the singer was warbling in the most approved fashion. and at one of the services in Passion week. With great glee the master escorted them to a neighbouring "Bier-Garten" and a The quantity and quality of jovial day was the result. * -^ -^ years (1785). The trick was almost too complete. but often developed into j^ . a practical shape. and remained ever afterwards. the — 57 . There and then Beethoven responded. more blame attached to the singer for his meanness in complaining of his antagonist after having himself been a party to the wager. Kuhlau and some kindred spirits set out for Baden where Beethoven then was.— A Joker impression that we have been in the company of a real hero among men. he was organist of the Electoral Chapel at Bonn. whereat was a coxcomb who was constantly pluming himself upon his singing abilities. but the morning. he would bring him to a standstill. We have Seyfried's testimony that one autumn day of 1825. while if there was any difference. which not only took .

" Beethoven nicknamed him. had married. What is married. p. m^: Kiihl ti=|: nicht lau nicht lau.-1?^Kuhl nicht -K lau. op. and has once more shown me that it rather confuses my wits than assists them . "Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Lump. Lord Falstaff. and sometime master for the viola. Kiihl nicht lau." ^ When Beethoven heard that his friend. 76. 28 : Schup * - pan - zigh ist ein Lump. must confess that the champagne got too much into head last night. and so referred Another piece of drollery referring to to him in writing. Wer 2. Kuhlau The note " I ran thus 3 September. for though it is usually easy enough for me to give an answer on the spot. -. I declare I do not in the least know what I wrote my last night. " Nor was he above a twit for his good-looking a family : ! ! friend " My attained most abundant proportions.— — Beethoven constant. : &C." Vol. self-criticising — sent composer changed Kuhlau a note with the following : his mind and W s ffi. he wrote " Schuppanzigh I hear that his wife is as fat as himself. -f^—-nicht lau. 58 . Schuppanzigh was scrawled by Beethoven on the fly-leaf who had of his Sonata. Lump.

Even love of the softer sex were not spared Beethoven's wanton frolic." ^ only just been signed. "Einen Trauerweiden oder Akazienbaum aufs Grabmeines His brother Carl's marriage certificate had Bruders. may have seized this occasion and method of expressing his feelings concerning the rite and the step which his brother had elected to take. and Beethoven. wer keunt ihn nicht ? Den dick - en Sau • ^a - ge • den ^^^mmm auf-ge blas-nen E • sels-kopf." 59 . yet this did not prevent him being the . especially to ladies Thus encouraged. O Lump. had the com- poser gratified a small percentage of such requests. The friend suggested a joke. is Schup-pan-zigh. to occasionally respond to them. which Beethoven's coarse grey hair closely resembled. induced a friend to solicit the precious relic. having given up probably all hopes of matrimony. who had long possessed a desire for a lock of his hair. the wife of a Viennese pianoforte player and composer. O What also looks like a joke the title in the Sketch- book to the slow movement of the Quartet in F. and the sending a lock of hair from a goat's beard. Shortly afterwards the lady w*is ! ^ " A weeping. recipient of fre- quent requests for locks of his hair indeed. His head was not an unusually tidy one.Ungallant Act keunt ihn. however.willow or acacia tree over the grave of my brother. He was known. he would soon have been bald.

He himself is " Generalissimus.." "Dinner Count." " Wretched invited guest. joke had never to be against Beethoven. The friend who had suggested the deception was warmly rated the composer upon his lack of gallantry." The A to Beethoven." with Schuppanzigh and Bolderini as "Sir &c. and when not in good " Ass of a taste are unquestionably exactly the reverse. most evident piece of pleasantry. the "fool." " not musical Count but gobbling Count. with him as the target." "the Captain. the composer. The Prince sat down to the pianoforte had and 60 . and for his pains. is let off with " Village of Sorrow " Dorf des Leides. Lobkowitz " he styles his good friend the prince . An indignant letter was written to this. — — who was Secretary Blessed." and so on." to him in his trials." "Supper Count. Beethoven informed of the trick." " Sublime tresses ! Commandant Pacha ! ! ! " Bernard is of various mouldering for" Bernardus non Sanctus " Holz he addresses as "lieber Holz von Kreuze Christi." "Asinus. shaft of wit. Zmeskall." Haslinger "Adjutant. begging him to listen to something he composed. as might be expected." and the like . The nick-names that he applies to his friends whether high-born or low are extraordinary." " Hauptmann. however. his brother Johann is stigmatized "Brain-eater. drew forth a full apology from the composer and one of his best locks that could be spared. or the or there was an eruption at once." Krumpholz. while Leidesdorf. One day Prince Lichnowsky came Falstaff. was resented furiously." so good in for constant — domestic banterings — " Carnival scamp. comes " Court and member of the Society of the Single "Confounded little quondam musical Count.

Beethoven rose up in a towering rage. His 6i . pouring forth and rounding off the music that filled his soul. music. then it was his landlady or fellow-lodgers who. rightly or Wholly lost in wrongly. As a or one lodger. it appears. and Ries had repeated to the Prince). Probably more troublesome occupant of rooms. and from that day forward played it He turned his back for no more in Ries's presence. the thought never entered his head of what an intolerable neighbour he distinctly was. those about him. of the "Waldstein" Sonata (which. together with over the head of an incompetent waiter his ideas of men and things as they were about him to his " Letters " — stories of his — generally. he was absolutely red-hot rage at Himmel. But everyone should go from his own pen the many and hear escapades with antics like that of emptying a tureen of stew servants. roundly abused the Prince. while rebuke. had been nettled by a remark as to when he was really "going to begin. slight than a well-deserved playing and extemporising. Before the talented amateur had progressed far. the composer had played to Ries. who could more successfully try the patience of If he was not at war with his landlord." Sometime afterwards Beethoven was apprised of the invention the of a lantern for the blind ! On with realising thrust. shut down the piano. there never was a Beethoven had few equals. ever also upon the clever musician Himmel for no greater Himmel. were engaging his execrations. and at all hours of the day and night he was at his pianoforte.Intolerable rolled off a part Neighbour of the famous Andante in F.

worse habit affected the owner more than the comthe fellow-lodgers ' madman A poser's fellow-lodgers. discord between owner and tenant was set going. For hours he would pace his room. and he struck and thumped harder and harder. or he would stand beating time to the music This soon put that was so vividly present to his mind. The music that racked his brain gave him no rest he became an inspired madman. It is easy to understand. so that on the whole there was a little of the 'undesirable' about Beethoven as a lodger. he would go out in the wettest of weathers. him into a terrible excitement.^. coverings and furniture. but he would him. which could only be allayed by a frequent recourse to the water jug. . Damaged and with complaints as to ceilings were the consequence these. — Then ' threatened to quit unless the went. He injured the furniture in terrible his Rather than lose customary walks.J. that as his deafness increased. not discontinue the practice. then come in dripping with rain and shake the water from his hat and clothes. too. preferring to pack up his 62 . the contents of which he poured over his head and bared arms until the floor was swimming with water. fashion. quite oblivious. and it J." as it has — been put . He had a habit of shaving at his window and passers-by could see and sometimes pelted Of course the landladies objected. seemingly. " howling and roaring. fl' never occurred to him that this laudable estra e industry might possibly prove trying to the ^ ^^^ nerves of others. Nor was this all. as it were into a complete orchestra.Beethoven tempestuous energy in playing converted the instrument . this did not tend towards the peaceful slumberings of those above and below him. that he was spoiling the carpets.

jumped up immediately. respecting his meanness. Beethoven had omitted to give his previous landlord notice. on account of any money that was involved the comgarret lodging after settling in Vienna was a Subseprinter's shop in Alservorstadt. what do those I boys want ? " roared out " Yes. one time paying the rent of four Moscheles vouches for the truth of the lodgings at once." As things a Lodger For this and similar lodgings. He also tried the Ungergasse near the Landstrasse gate. with the view of examining Naturally the Fidelio numbers which I had arranged. but soon fell out with the friend whose The quarrel was not family had been so good to him. — — rooms in the From 1804 to 1807 he had house of Baron Pasqualati on the Molker63 . and placed himself at the window looking out on the Schottenbastei just as he was. first An example or two will His over a shared with Breuning some rooms in the Rothe-haus. a crowd of boys collected under the window when he " Now. yes. are quite right. you laughed and pointed to his own figure. with the result that on this occasion again he had to face the paying of two rents simultaneously. and hastily put on a dressingreasons and seek he was fresh at : — . " When I came early in the morning following incident he happened to to Beethoven he was still lying in bed be in remarkably good spirits." he said. Beethoven's lodgingtroubles would be ^ o-fth^ Tq/- here. At another time he was in the low-lying " tiefen-Graben which he soon afterwards exchanged for a higher situated room in the Sailerstatte. quently he but because of some insinuations poser was above that There was yet another point. : gown ! To detail all house experiences and superfluous suffice.

whereupon the masterful man betook himself to the other side of Vienna for a couple of years. Pronay. day discovering Madame Grillparzer listening to his playing outside the door. and facing due north — A with the Countess Erdody occurred however. Then he would repair to Hetzendorf. a short walk out of Vienna . Thus in the autumn of 1800 he was at the Grillparzers' Unter Dobling. or one other of the environs and country places around Vienna. as he often did. who occupied a large house over the Schottengate. for no other reason than that the landlord. or he would go further afield to Modling or Baden. inasmuch as he was then face to face with his own servants and these he never could manage. DobUng. It was an uncomfortable abode on removed consequently from the sun's rays which were so necessary to a nature such as his. and reproducing them on his (Gelinek's) piano. In a similar fashion he suddenly left a habitation because he had detected Gelinek who lodged in the same house stealing his themes. would raise his hat whenever Beethoven crossed his path He could have fared little better when he had lodgings free at the theatre.— Beeth oven bastion in Vienna. break the fourth story. Not always were the changes thrust upon him. Doubtless he was anxious to be near his patrons the Lichnowskys and Erdodys. for which he had paid 400 florins in respect to advanced tenancy. On another occasion he resolved to quit a really comfortable lodging. That his landlords were considerate towards the man house but one — — — ! 64 . He at frequently was the objector and injured person. In the summer it was his wont to quit the city for the country. he became furious and offensive quitting the place forthwith.

It was originally a monastery of the BeneThe composer was lodged in the upper story. and even at open war with servants. He migrated there in the autumn of 1825. however. and the ease and affluence of fortunate aristocracy within the walls which he could see whenever he raised his poor head on his arm — off his sick-bed. alone" was his. is every indication. invariable reply. and from his bed could see the houses of Lichnowsky. Zmeskall. although the tenant forsook them as he did the apartments of the " Let them nobility for unconscionably long intervals. Erdody and Breuning. high the vagaries of the genius. which was all that he craved. dictines.A of genius there for instance. No tic one was more hel]. It was a fit place for the passing harmonist. and remained until the day of his death. "Beethoven is sure to come back. moreover he could contemplate the vast disparity between his own life-long struggle for art. Real Friend Baron Pasquaiati. and well-born Herr v. who never hesitated to render every assistance in his power whenever the badmanager-Beethoven was afflicted as he often was with household discords. He had sunshine. often had more trouble of this kind thrust upon him than most men would care for." The actual building in which the great musician was lodging when he died was the Black Spaniards' house the Schwarz-spanierhaus. One of Beethoven's earliest friends in Vienna. " My most excellent. he probably knew. of which we give an illustration. Zmeskall " Beethoven would address his friend.5ul to the composer in his domes- anxieties than was Zmeskall. like their. and then proceed to prefer whatever point re- — — £ 65 . would never allow Beethoven's lodgings on the Molker-bastion to be let over his head.

The money for his boots will be reckoned from the third month (in my service) and from that time at the rate of forty florins per one is such that I cannot keep him. therefore. I must have someone who knows how to cook. out for me. It is in the Klepperstall." annum.) "He was engaged on the 25th of April." " Herzog is to see you to-day. so on the 25th September he will have been five months with me. his livery also from the third month. I intend to engage him. with his wife obbligafa." "Supposing you have no other fault to find with the man (and if so. He intends to take the post of my man-servant . light and morning livery found.— Beethoven quired urgent treatment. Let me know. you may agree to give him thirty florins. It would be more to the purpose if my finances could be — . all of different dates. I shall always be ill." " About another servant as the conduct of my present (This is the servant who enjoys the reputation of scratching Beethoven's face." " A suitable lodging has just been found rp J J . I beg you will candidly mention it). I cannot employ my brother <^ because he only recommends what costs least money. — — — dressed. if we can go to^ gether to look at the house. April 17th. firing. are as amusing as they are characteristic: " I leave it entirely to you to do the best you can about my servant. and he received fifty florins on account. only henceforth the Countess Erdody must not attempt to exercise the smallest influence over him. or redressed. but I need someone to help me in the affair. for you know that it is no object with me to have my hair dressed. From the ^Letter. 66 . A sample or so of these. for if my food continues as bad as it now is. 1809.

steady conduct and character.Some very Servants first I resolved not to keep him. Her account-book alone cannot show you everything clearly. . . but delayed discharging him as I wished to get back the value of my florins. I wonder if Nany will behave rather better from the departure of her colleague? I doubt it. as time went on. September 5th. for I have no wish to pay *' You as much for one person as would serve for four. Strange things have come to pass in my house."^ "When you have a moment's leisure. 1816. we — ^ Letter. 67 . whereas his wife seems the more resolved to take root here. You know pretty well the servant I require. good. that I may feel my life to be safe. his letters to this admirable lady on this not pleasant subject " Nany is not strictly honest. (Baberl) yesterday. thirsty nature. for. and not of a blood." ^ Frau von Streicher was another who helped to lift the load of housekeeping troubles off the back of the harassed composer. It would be well if he understood a httle tailoring. but in that case I shall send her She is too uneducated packing without any ceremony. Such people must be managed not by love but by fear. December i6th. to see with your own eyes what — ! — : — actually have. 'Letter. I never dine at home now unless I have some friend as my guest." are aware that I discharged B. The man is off to the devil I am thankful to say. you must drop in unexpectedly at dinner-time. and an odiously stupid animal into the bargain. I now see this clearly. let me know the probable cost of a livery. 1816. like an avenging angel. without linen. he seemed to get deeper Here are extracts from into the slough of domestic ills. I cannot endure either of these vile creatures. but including hat and boots.

an idea of his domestic felicity may be formed by a glance at his diary of the year 1819 "January 31. even lower than the beasts. Among his favourite dishes was a bread soup." am rather better. March 22. February 15. 68 . but — work of it by throwing the heavy arm-chair bed at B. 1819. especially as he was a difficult man to please in the culinary department. it wonder that changes were as constant as they were probably necessary. Given 14 days' notice to the cook.^' And so on in the same short made beside my : — — — — key. All the devilry began yesterday morning. my complaining . prepared to make a precipitate retreat. Miser et pauper sum. well knowing what might occur.Beethoven for a housekeeper —indeed is quite a beast^ but the other. however. made in the manner of pap. Arrived at Modlin. though to-day I have again been obliged to endure a good deal from Nany. ten eggs were set before him." If more is wanted. a grand scene ensued." ^ " Nany yesterday took me to task in the vulgar manner usual with people of her low class about to you. I . May 12. Given notice to the housekeeper. but the moment she made her appearis little ' Letters. To compose this. The new housekeeper has come. but I shied halfa-dozen books at her head by way of a New Year's gift. the offending cook was summoned to the presence by a tremendous ejaculation. Indulging in this method of managing his domestics. and if it unfortunately happened that any of them were musty. in which he indulged every Thursday. The cook has come. in — "I spite of her pretty face. She. March 8.'s head. took care cautiously to stand on the threshold of the door. . which he tried before mixing them with the other ingredients.

flew about her ears. . yet little more than in embryo hard by. he constantly eulogised. and often weeks. here the residue „ of a cold luncheon there some full. notwithstanding all this confusion. since they constitute quite a feature of his history. . spread all over the floor. for whole hours. something mislaid was looked for. Letters from — friends.Matrimonial Lingerings bombs from their yellow ance the attack commenced. waiting to be returned. days. and in a few minutes all was forgotten. Between the windows a goodly Stracchino cheese on one side of it ample vestiges of a genuine Verona Salami ." Here we must go more fully into Beethoven's matrimonial lingerings. On the desk the hasty ^ sketch of a new quartet . That the servants had a trying time of it is palpable A more careless. untidy man never was. a proof-sheet. a noble symphony. half-emptied. like well-directed batteries. his own neatness and love of order When. But the servants knew the natural goodness of their master. however. and. "The most exquisite confusion reigned in his house. and white contents covering her with viscous streams. Books and music were . — till a similar occasion renewed the scene. they suffered him to rave. bottles. the scribbled hints for of breakfast. and on business. some enough. and all search had proved fruitless. in another corner the remains On the pianoforte. One who visited him says. : ! with Ciceronian eloquence. and the broken eggs. Beethoven's —a It is scarcely surprising that a nature like heart and soul and intellect ever qualifying 69 . then he changed his tone. and bitterly complained that everything was done to annoy him. — . scattered in all directions.

he was not proof against the ! pretty ways of cofifee-shop waitresses 1 and tailors' daughters. ing his views of the and remem- j- bering that his extraordinary musical power. Despite his exterior." says Ries. but thoroughly respectable * daughters. and send me 70 half a dozen needles. Beethoven. as seen. never married .Beethoven for soarings realms." "than when I lived in the house of a tailor. were betimes of a promiscuous order. perhaps. ** Beethoven never visited me more frequently. with three very handsome. romantic fully realise the wondrous its possibilities of Love. and striking. — should •• higher and higher in imaginative. considerstate. —an unaccountable wedded we have matter. Too truly. God let me at last find her who is destined to be mine. Whose Bounding within the Utmost extremes." In a letter to warning : " Do not be too much Ries (July 24. but withal he got no farther towards the married state. Beethoven gives this addicted to tailoring . 1804).^ Boker. remember me to the fairest of the fair. though honourable. though perpetually in love. circle graces the confines of space. personaUty attracted women to a not less degree than they magnetised men. and that his attachments." . as should know. While favouring women of rank. and who shall strengthen me in virtue. whether high-born or low. in Wegeler's "Biographical Notices. he was much encouraged by the other sex." was his lifelong cry . was his the mind adequately to appreciate That orbit of the restless soul. There is some reason to fear that he loved not wisely but too zealously. the principle of existence and all only end. " Oh."^ limits of its race Yet. though far from handsome.


Beethoven at the age of 3 .

' When little more than twenty years old he fell in love with Babette.His First Love a point which discounts his worth as a swain. since there is proof that he deserved it. and even if his vast genius. and though some can admire the great musician for his sympathy with the matrimonial estate. 71 . The tribulations showered on unfortunate housekeepers would have been terribly misplaced if heaped upon the head of a devoted wife.^ daughter of the proprietress of the coffeehouse where he took his meals. We find two score or more ladies immortalised in his dedications. to prove effective anywhere. possessed not the merest aptitude for dealing with matters of household management. for he positively astonishing. That in several respects marriage would have been advantageous to the master there is no doubt. ^ The true student of Beethoven prefers him as he remained. Beethoven's notions of love were still sufficiently exciting to arouse the least impressionable of his tender acquaintances and correspondents. and his protestations too profuse. Whether such a marriage would have suited a possible Mrs Beethoven is quite another question. His flights of romance were and would have done credit to the methods of the Middle Ages. At the age of twenty' * Subsequently the Countess Belderbusch. failed to touch every heart. a number which falls far short of those to whom he preferred his extravagant gallantries. through that most impressive and subtle medium of all art. the close enquirer into Beethoven's character finds him a queer being. who from early youth was never quite convalescent from a disease called Love. Few great men have proved less insensible to the charms of the fair sex. His loves were too many.

1793. that I may say that I possess something from the best and most admired young lady in Bonn. November 2nd.J ." concluding a * * Letter. and would probably have made him a good wife. — poser evidently did not possess. his famous love-letters were found in Beethoven's desk ^ * at his death. Countess Marie Erdody. Madame von Breuning or Frau von Streicher could not have made more of an only son.^ the Baroness Ertmann and Then entertained a sincere aflfection for him.* " My angel more and again most passionate protestation with the hot charge "Continue to love me. and are now supposed to have been written to Countess Therese von Brunswick and not to Countess Giucciardi. all ! — — my my second all self ! " he addresses her. like the charming Babette. — — . there was the Countess Giulietta Giucciardi. one more request it proceeds from my great love of all that comes from you and I may privately admit that a little vanity is connected with it namely. The highest ladies in Vienna society were drawn to him. " Dearest of beings. worked the most acceptable Angola waistcoats. and besides knitting him woollen comforters." ^ Though full of affection for this young lady. the young virtuoso adds: "I venture to make r 7 /f^ ^ Female At. we may be sure. This lady administered to his creature comforts. Nee Keglevics. but with some marriageable attractions which the comthree. 72 .— ! Beethoven Eleonora von Breuning was his human ideal. Such aristocratic beauties as the Prin- cess Odeschalchi. married another less talented. and the Princess Lichnowsky.^ the sisters of the Count of Brunswick. Three of This lady erected a temple in her park to the memory of Beethoven. she. Writing to her from Vienna.

faithful heart of ^ your lover Ever ever mine. indeed. ever each other's. what tears for for you for you my life my all Farewell Oh ! ! ! ! ! ! ! love me for ever." he writes to her. some blissful moments during the last two years. Unluckily. November 73 . mally. July 6th and 7th." Giulietta Giucciardi is one of those whom the composer would certainly have married could he have done so. i6th. It is pretty clear that a union with Countess Th^rbse von Brunswick only needed one step for its consummation. His experiences with Th^rese did not cool his ardour Now. ^ Letters. the head searchings for a wife After four years of waverings all this was broken off. fairest sweetheart. " My dearest friend. i8io. and " dearest girl." are a few of the declarations That serious of the family.Love Declarations you Yesterday. Beethoven had known her in 1794 as a girlpupil of fifteen. she is not in my rank of life. and this with the full knowledge and consent of her brother Franz. the Venus of this as a tempter of the affections. : and never doubt the thine." 2 complications did not arise from his is as remarkable as anything of this nature can be. 1800. * Letter to Wegeler. Adonis was the afore-mentioned Bettina Brentano. affected him astonishingly. at this moment I can marry no one. She " This change. and. though secretly engaged. and had even rapped her knuckles angrily In May 1806 master and pupil were forfor inefficiency. "has been wrought by a lovely fascinating girl who I have once more had loves me and whom I love." he writes. and it is the first time that I have felt that marriage could make me happy. to-day. my dearest. what longings for you.

Adieu ! shower. remains in doubt unless it was that year All that is said is to the Countess Th^rbse Brunswick. "What thoughts. if written testimony goes for anything. . Beethoven made marriage proposals. definite Musicians permit themselves great license. was soon the richer by the following epigram : " Ludwig van Beethoven Whom if you ever would. August 15th. Fraulein Roeckel. how I love you ! On two occasions. ." says the composer. " Some five years ago. Further reference that the affair had been "broken off. He met her at Toplitz and was struck with her amiable disHer album position and enchantingly beautiful voice. at least. had given her heart and promised her hand to another From a letter to Breuning in 1810. so dear one." writes — — Beethoven. his friend Hummel. in the case of one of which he had the chagrin of finding that the lady. iSio." to is made to this incident in a letter of Beethoven Giannastasio del Rio. " I made * the acquaintance of one. would also appear to have affected him considerably. the composer appears to have been contemplating wedlock but to whom. closer Letter. Forget you never should. " rushed into my mind when I first saw you in the observatory during a refresning fertilising May adieu ! to me also." — Beethoven — which he pours out of his passionate vocabulary. . who kept the school where his nephew Carl was placed. Heavens. Beethoven was acquainted with Bettina von Arnim. 74 .^ In 1811 the composer was smitten with Amalie Sebald." From a letter dated Toplitz. who. 181 2. August nth. Your letter lay all night next my heart and cheered me.

Princess von Kinsky. nor did others. March 8th. liebe. alas. Countess Wolf-Metternich Madame von breuning. . who. Countess Giucciardi. Countess Babette von Keglevics. Countess von Browne. I letter Such harmony to had never known before. dated Vienna. in Beethoven's attachments being always honourable. angel. Marie L. Countess is Lichnowsky. her Christian name as Liebe. 1816. Pachler-Koschak in Bettina von Arnim the imaginary Goethe's Bettina had the Fates acted otherwise. ." and ** Liebe. September i6th. occurs this passage: "My kind regards to your One alone I wished to possess. Princess Lichtenstein. I call her mine. 75 . with have been the highest love is happiness of ever.An relationship Impetuous Suitor whom would life. Countess von Erdody. There can be no doubt. 1816. Grafin " — — position composition after com. Dorothea Cacilia."^ but never shall Gratz. ready to construe an acquaintance into a more serious bond on the slenderest ground. did not marry the In the main. Werthe. Empress of Russia. Eleonora von Breuning can it be wondered at that Beethoven never married That those ladies he admired were able to decipher his epistles is marvellous — — ! * Letter. Countess von Clary. would have made Beethoven's earth a heaven. I. liebe. he calls Countess Erdody his " confessor." The lady here referred to was undoubtedly Mdlle. Countess Therbse von Brunswick. and without the slightest regard to the consequences on either The Baroness Ertmann is famiUarly addressed by side. wife. liebe. my My now as strong as a In Ferdinand Ries. authorities concur master. have none. that he was an impetuous suitor. dedicated to the Empress Maria Theresa. liebe. . however.

" whispered the charming creature one day " he cannot hear and mil not be in the way. Herr von contrived to meet 76 . How ^ UAmour the p he tilled the role. and the thought occurred to him of beseeching the assistance " Despite of the soHtary man at the opposite table. me by way of excuse. and used rescue to add." relates Lowe. and one summer's day he discovered that ." This answered for a while when the parents forbade the actor the house. "Come a later hour when customers are gone and only Beethoven is here. " Life is too short and fairer notes would hardly from poverty " (punning upon the words fioten and well at notheri). Then the actor timidly asked Beethoven if he would take charge of a letter and give " Why not ? you mean what is right. I believe he is not unfriendly. actor Lowe . I have often caught a kind smile across his bold defiant face.." it to the girl. to paint letters or notes. "I beg your pardon. and pocketing the letter the musician walked on. Ludwig Lowe the actor was in love vs4th the . but conversation was n generally • mipossible m 1 u because at of r the 1 stern parents and the diners. Beethoven himself often joked about his almost illegible characters. landlord's daughter.Beethoven for he wrote an execrable hand. On more than one occasion the postal authorities refused to receive his letters until they were more distinctly addressed. Yet only for a few steps. him face to face in the gardens.. his serious reserve and churlishness." Watching the master. There was a recognition and an explanation of Lowe's absence from the dining-room. " How great was our despair. of postillofi d' amour may not be known. In 1811 he used to dine at the "Blue Star" Toplitz.

we are afraid. He drank wine admittedly . what was better. to the composer of Fidelio being of their fraternity. For some five or six weeks. me here at this time to-morrow. the Swan." said Beethoven. " not to have provided wine.Tavern Haunts " So." Lowe went on to say." in " Letters. you are henceforth excluded from all that concerns us. abstemious liver. Perhaps the vision of his father was a All the evidence points to his being a careful. Letter after letter to his friend Zmeskall fixes this tavern as a suitable haunt for meeting." From two others of these epistles we learn the ground of his patronage and also his reason for its withdrawal "I shall go now chiefly to the Swan. That he kept something more potent than Bohea at his rooms is clear also from one of his notes to Ries " It is really inexcusable in my brother. indeed as long as he remained in the town. Bohemian as he was. that is not all. Beethoven. so. even when he could afford to keep his own servant. "You are summoned to appear to-day at " Brunswick also comes." he writes. who took only what was really necessary for the sustenance of the body. " It Total abstainers can lay no claim. If you do not appear. and. and dependent to a great extent on taverns and coffee-houses for his meals. did the master carry the love-letters backwards and forwards for the pair." " Meet is the answer I want." the "Swan " in 1810 and for a year or ' ' 77 ." From his sufficient deterrent ! : — Vienna was his favourite house two after. not a breath of suspicion has ever been raised against him for over indulgence either in eating or drinking. as it is so beneficial and necessary to me. and they met.' " he writes to him." said the master. rejoiced when a friend would share a bottle or more with him.

coffee-house " Die Goldne Birne " in the Landstrasse. which position. The natural discussed. there is certainly no tended.! Beethoven he against intrusion. for themselves. so difficult was it for never know the real Beethoven anyone to make a very prolonged study of his fitful disWe have his " Letters " and music. 78 . slipping in at the back door. and that impressions formed of him varied according to the degree in which his good-will and sympathy were aroused and exIn one respect. however."^ I cannot defend m5^elf Later on we hear that Beethoven "You dines at home because he can get better wine. it was to come into personal conWhen all this information is sifted we tact with him. 1S12. — are still confronted with side much that is contradictory.'" Star" still enjoyed the privilege of his presence and Later on another favourite resort was the patronage. much by side. February 2nd. What a sight to witness the little genius seeking to evade the pryings and gazings of the inquisitive and writes. good or bad. shall have the wine gratis. positively negatives not a little that we would fain picture of the genius. but if we wish to know more we speak have to fall back upon the " impressions " of those whose fortune. "and of far better quality than what you get at the wretched When visiting Toplitz in 1812 the "Blue *Swan." he tells Zmeskall. The explanation is found probably in the fact that he was rarely caught in two moods aHke. He went every evening. "as in other taverns — obtrusive temperament of Beethoven has been much and all sorts of ideas have got abroad respecting Probably the world will the manner of man he was. which. placed * Letter.

1812 .Cast of Beethoven's living face.


Any disagreeable occurrence resulting from his betrayal of irritability. and not musical feeling.Personal Portrait uncertain note. ^ pas- opinion sionate. and this aspect of his fitful nature is the one. the Principalship of the Royal into personal who succeeded Crotch in Academy of Music. he manifested the utmost anxiety to remove. as it was ill-calcu79 . had attracted them. . probably. he discovered that a mere travelling curiosity. a reception which. He gives the following genuine facts respecting the giant " have imbibed the notion that Beethoven was by nature a morose and ill-tempered man. The late Cipriani Potter. Another cause for mistaking Beethoven's disposition arose from the circumstance of foreigners visiting Vienna. Opposed to these peculiarities in his temperament. was not scrupulous in exhibiting his displeasure in the most pointed and abrupt manner. is erroneous. This musician: — " Many persons. and of hearing him perform. that most interests his countless admirers. he was not at all disposed to accede to their selfish importunities. perfectly ^ ^ ^." says he. He was irritable. questions. by every possible acknowledgment of his indiscretion. feeling highly offended. and consequently. . . conscientious. — But when from their unmusical and heterodox remarks. who were ambitious of contemplating the greatest genius in that capital. he would interpret their visit into an intrusion and an impertinence. Absolute unanimity reigns as to his being a thoroughly good. and of a melancholy turn of mind all which affections arose from the deafness. kind-hearted man. he possessed a kind heart and most acute feelings. which in his latter days increased to an alarming extent. came contact with Beethoven.

the man at the core as that inward.Beethoven lated to leave an agreeable impression with those who were so unlucky as to expose themselves to the rebuke did not also fail in prompting them to represent his deportment unfavourably to the world. as those read them will allow. have caused many a grievous pang to the great-hearted man to behold this — tion unworthy prodigal descending to depths of degradafrom which it had been this uncle's object. sensibly comforted him. it is sincerely to be regretted that the precious seed did . bound by blood ties. for years. expressed his ideas was the Italian. the real. and he was exThe favourite medium by which he tremely loquacious. when it is Beethoven addresses to his nephew remembered that the periods of penning them were moments snatched from work which was to be immortal. tion then became highly animated. April 29th. Surely no parent ever possessed. and it must. a more solicitous concern for an only son. natural being — — afforded by his passionate. 1836. 80 . who ever became dependent upon him his nephew Carl. he perpetually It delighted in the society of one or two intimates. appeal. his pronunciation of that language being better than either his French or German. "1 No episode in Beethoven's remarkable career presents us with such a picture of his kindness of heart. or exercised. and at once dispelled the cloud His conversaof melancholy that hung over his spirit. indeed. are the words of advice. loving concern for the wellbeing of the only person. to raise who him far above. and admonition all so good and disinterested. which and. When his mind was perfectly free from his compositions. — — 1 Musical World. Pathetic to a degree.

for as yet I only suspect. It cannot be otherwise than becoming in a youth." — "I ? I fulfilled my obligations towards my own have been assured though as yet it is only a matter of conjecture.— Loving Admonition not dear boy." " If it is too hard a task for you to visit me. and on this score I do not dread appearing before the Highest of all Judges. as various things may occur to you in the morning which you could do for me. fall on "Continue less stony ground. By such conduct you will incur the hatred of all impartial persons. then. Am I doomed again to experience such detestable in! gratitude No if the tie is to be severed.. . in — . parents. my .j. . and upright. "if ever I cause you pain it is not from a wish to grieve you. God grant my suspicions may not prove true. to combine his duties towards his benefactor and foster-father with those of his education and I . so be it. — F 8i .^ -^ ." "Study assiduously and rise early. Follow the composer : to love me." "Be good and honest. give it up but if you can by any possibility do so. now in his nineteenth year. All I wish is that you should be loving. I shall rejoice in my desert home to have a feeling heart near me. my dear son. for to you it would be an incalculable misfortune. may treat the matter." pleads the poor man in his yearning for affection. God's name. ij j... industrious. I have done my part.. but for your eventual benefit. I resign you to His holy keeping. and perhaps your mother also. — progress. *^ ^ embrace you cordially. Do not be afraid to come to me to-morrow. If you find the pactum oppressive. with whatever levity my rascally brother.. that a clandestine intercourse has been renewed between your mother and yourself. Write to me.

. hoven interested himself much in the lad. be truthful and exact in the account of your expenses. at least." Can we longer be surprised at the nobility of Beethoven's music after such utterances? If more proof were wanting of Beethoven's warmth of heart we can instance his behaviour towards his pupil Ferdinand Ries. though without neglecting your temporal benefit. Follow the advice or your guide and father. though man frail. the Beethovens would have been sore pushed Years and years afterwards a son of for necessaries. would it be. What a frightful discord Be my dear son. who became his chief and favourite disciple. poor. be counselled by him whose exertions and aspirations have always been directed to your moral welfare. Ries. May God What confessions bless you.Beethoven . In 1787 the illness and funeral expenses of Beethoven's mother had greatly impoverished his exchequer." "Spend your money on good objects alone. faults precious . and but for the generosity of Franz Ries the violinist. and imitate is my do my still. have not forgotten the death of my mother. He gave him free pianoforte lessons. were you to prove false to me. induced Albrechtsberger to take — — ! 82 . but do not lay the foundation of misery by mistaken notions.. have worse defects than those of your sincere and fondly attached father. and give up the theatre for the present. as many persons maintain that you already are. and needing lessons. son." " Only observe moderation. Be my own virtues but not not." was the From that day Beetcharacteristic assurance returned. waited upon Beethoven "Tell your father that I with a letter of introduction. dear. Fortune crowns my efforts.

was taken aghast. of which Beethoven approved. besides giving him . ^ solicit from the master a cadenza for the first Beethoven declined. the correct execution of which appeared doubtful. but. "Arrived at the door of the house. and watched with feverish " Bravo " he cried as the excitement for the end pianist's hands left the keys. It was decided that another should be substituted. had been kindly turning over the leaves for the young debutant. brother to I said. missed one note of that passage I would never have given you another lesson. save one difficult passage. knowing Beethoven's strong aversion to strangers." writes Moscheles. In connection with these piano lessons there exists a story. I good ." The occasion of Moscheles' first visit to Beethoven turnishes a further instance of the great composer's thorough goodness of heart. One day Beethoven confided the manuscript of the C minor Concerto to Ferdinand Ries that he might practise it for his first appearance in public ^ It occurred to Ries to as Beethoven's pupil. and told him that he movement.' * What downstairs 83 . money unasked. who impulse to play the forbidden passage. and a burst of applause followed from the audience. He below. Ries could not resist a sudden Beethoven. Will you permit is me my 1 you. — ! ! — therefore told my brother to wait below. ' After greeting to introduce ! Beethoven." said Beethoven. "Yes but you were dis" If you had obedient and obstinate. "I had some misgivings. once before the public. . might write one for himself whereupon Ries shortly produced one.' Moscheles' Visit him as a pupil in composition secured him an appointment as pianist to Count Browne.

As Beethoven was too r. . Of course Beethoven examined them." It seems. deaf to hear. saying. * "Dictionary of Music and Musicians. too. p. with their dedication. 336. ' Am ' I afraid to come near me ? off. they came into contact in a characteristic fashion. and desired to dedicate them to him alone whom he "admired and worshipped. Schubert had composed his "Variations on a French Air. and received young Schubert with the abundant cordiality which he was able to extend when it pleased him to do so. that it was no more than a strange reserve which led up to another incident that has been much discussed namely the fact of Beethoven and Schubert being in Vienna for years without becoming acquainted with each other. iii." op." ^ Both were accustomed to dine at the same restaurant. the accustomed carpenter's n 7 7 pencil and sheet of paper were thrust into Schubert's hands that he might write what he had to say. and ere long came across a passage which made — — — ." An interview was arranged and Schubert accompanied by the publisher Diabelli (for he was too nervous to go alone) called on Beethoven." vol. In 1822. He was at home. seized hold of such a savage that you are He dragged him upstairs and showed great kindness to us. but never spoke probably because the younger musician and worshipper was afraid to approach the other. 10. . however. The composer of the Erl Kt?ig was a born Viennese Beethoven was not. This so unnerved the young man that he could not write a word but the " Variations " were produced.Beethoven and Beethoven immediately rushed my brother. 84 . as Sir George Grove puts it he was " as much a part of Vienna as St Stephen's Tower. although.

how to produce such " He. and learn. " There. there is the truth. I would go bareAs he lay on headed and kneel before his tomb. especiwe get more of the real No great composer ever had such enthusito bestow upon the members of his own spirit. Add ally to these another striking trait in his disposition. be said that to his dying hour he preserved The king of song always implored to be buried by his side. had sent him wherewith to wile away the long hours in the sick-room. the most admirable. " was the effects " greatest composer that ever lived. unequalled master of all masters Go. "is." said the dying man. " Cherubini. in my opinion." he once said. The narrow-minded and jealousies. little dreaming that the end was so near. and as he lay on his death-bed talked only of Beethoven in his it wanderings. his capacity for seeing talent in other musicians. suddenly lost all control. Handel was his ideal. To Schubert's credit let a complete affection for Beethoven. of all Moreover. was wholly absent in Beethoven's broad. praise and worth in others. Schubert instantly caught the expression of the face. and fearful of what he expected was coming.Craft Praise him frown. " Variations " and often played them. as the living composers." once exclaimed Beethoven." his death-bed Beethoven was of the same opinion still. astic craft. ! ! 8c . with few means. rushed from the room and But Beethoven kept the was in the street in a trice. with its train of petty spites which mars many a meaner musician even to-day. pointing to the folios of Handel's works which a generous friend. turn to him. " Handel is the honest mind. and Beethoven.

Weber began to learn too late . In Don Giovanni he still retained the complete Italian cut and style. and moreover the sacred art should never he first suffer itself to be degraded to the foolery of so scandalous a subject.^ . and said. it is there that the great man first saw the light. towards which I have promised my help I one ought always artists. this Zauberflote^^ Beethoven on . " He is a good fellow." His just criticism of Weber reads a trifle harsh . he had hung it up near his bed." for others Even on his death-bed this rare man had a thought more than for himself He was speaking to Hummel about Schindler. " C. getting sympathises most deeply with me. to hold out a helping hand to needy Of course Hummel consented. He is up a concert." he said. mean to profit can but once set about it.Beethoven regards his conception of the requiem. but Beethoven was nothing without his honest convictions. . my ideas are in ^ . the art had not time to develop itself. perfect accordance with his." "Mozart's occasion. 86 . ' if I . " This attention shown to me has made me as happy as a child. or other. another for " will ever remain his greatest work in showed himself the true German composer. I by the hints to be found in said that work. A short time before his death a drawing of Haydn's birthplace had been given to Beethoven . and some time P jj ." His early tussle with the "Father of Symphony" had long been forgotten." should be glad if you could appear instead of me. and his only and very perceptible effort was. to attain the reputation of geniality. See. "who . as he showed it to us. M.

to pursue his mdependent way and leave his ^ professional brethren to take care of themfate . A relationship few instances will suffice to with musicians with illustrate whom Haydn. up new he did not complain. . •* Rossini is a good scene-painter and nothing more. holding aloof like he kept away from and preventing anycamaraderie. and one cannot help feeling that throughout he was imbued with the conviction that he was writing for a public then unborn. and that whatever attended his compositions during his lifetime they were possessed of properties which would assure their acceptance and safety with an age and generation long He could. had to bear fiashion. but on the whole he preferred ^. as his as possible.A Man Beethoven his art Apart soul —while whole — does not appear have his to and body were in gone out of his way its to concern himself far greatly about professors. and the : u-J J jx K u„ ..» j^ personally. Beethoven's he came into in return for contact in professional practice.^ appreciate and acknowledge as fully as anyone all that was musically good around and about him whether the workers were known or unknown to him . He neither strove to win their admiration nor excite their envy. indeed. selves. and he. an abrupt bearing towards him. with other against the of the musicians then in Vienna. fellow-musicians. let the expression pass that to him. alter his course. as we have seen." 87 . or frame his music to suit any passing fancy. styled him ^ "The Great Even when the Rossini fever was at its height. however profitable this might have proved Beethoven did. thing a condition of professional Whether they approved of him or his music concerned him but httle. after he had passed away. however.

not hesitating to Steibelt jeer at him about his personal appearance. 88 . still less downright insult to raise his ire to an awful pitch. who was exceedingly sensitive on the point of sacredness of art. at least had pitted their pianoforte powers Beethoven had decidedly proved his superiority.— Beethoven Mogul. There was not a particle of jealousy on the part of Beethoven." Hummel. ii. however. and Gelinek against his. Czerny and Ries both commended themselves to Beethoven. Whether it was or was not strange and heretical music to his opponents although it is difficult to conceive why it should appeal so strongly to contemporary connoisseurs and not to professional musicians such treatment was surely most unjustifiable. and at times matters would reach such a pitch that fists were resorted to. Thayer^ quotes Kozeluch's authority as to his opponents having trampled on his music an act which would not be readily forgotten by its composer. Salieri and Weigl. io8. although and — — Gyrowetz. is no new thing and there is as much of it among small minds of this particular profession to-day as there was in Beethoven's time. poraries. but such a nature as his required little irritation. the antagonism did not cease. Lipawsky and Gelinek. nor can Beethoven be blamed for the unseemly manner in which he resented the behaviour. p. Professional jealousy. he knew how to gather about him helpful men and women outside the art. Beethoven was indifferent to his musical contemhowever. were openly opposed to him. who also esteemed the able theorists Eybler. Never before If »Vol. Steibelt. They taunted and irritated Beethoven in every possible manner. Woelfl.

and essentially as Beethoven viewed it. but the chief obligation as a rule. he became more indifferent than complain.^ Of course. was the providing of new music for the benefit of the circle interesting itself in his welfare. career he was of too noble a mould went along quite conscious of his own staying powers. than humble folk with and devotion. This was a weak point of Beethoven's character.His Indifference — or since has a composer . if not of affection. Not an artistic of jealousy ever worried Beethoven's for that. In placing themselves under the high protection of aristocratic patrons. iota . and the nobility. 89 . No money payment would buy Beethoven in this or any other direction. or could not raise himself to make the best. . and allowed things to develop as they would. and that their best energies were to be directed to the fostering and betterment of the music of the Court wherever they might be in service. * He There is in the matter of their dedications. he did not Rather. he His dedications are to crowned heads Schubert. in the nature of things. etc. rarely got farther despite their patience his inscriptions. this remark does not extend to the salary which his three noble patrons guaranteed him.all the shown such a more remarkable inasmuch list of dedications as they were the outcome. whom. of general musical esteem and regard on both sides. on the other hand. the most commercial use of all that was so possible. led to dedications of new works. musicians were aware that the greatest diligence was expected of them. usual. aristocratic friends a marked contrast between Beethoven and Schubert Beethoven was king among his often treated scornfully. He would not. and if others prospered while he suffered. This.

or." as it is called.— Beethoven but buried himself behind some little matter frequently a domestic trifle or something relating to his nephew Carl which quite shut him out for a while from prosecuting the vast professional possibilities which a more energetic. That he would not be " done. is amply demonstrated by many of his words and acts. and apprising the London publishers of the fraud which the inventor Societies 90 . If not this. while he did not omit to upbraid his domestics for recklessness or dishonesty in the case of a few thalers of the household money. however. to strike and demand anything like business bargains for his wares. if he did. he resorted to composition the writing of great works of which only he was capable with little further motive in their completion than the pleasure they might afford to his patron at whose palace they were to be performed. But the commanding of money further than a mere living wage by his compositions seems scarcely ever to have seriously entered his head at any rate not until the close of his career when he does appear to have made an effort to bargain with — — — and publishers. Bad as the times were through Napoleon's ambition and the unsettled state of — — — — European arising out affairs — especially matters relating to art of the Thirty Years' War. That he was not a man to be played with. The fact is he was no business man who. took no steps to trouble himself about publishers. Beethoven might have done immensely better than he did in placing his works upon the market. is seen in the active steps he took in suing Maelzel for appropriating his " Battle " music. too. business-like musician would have readily discovered were within his easy reach.

a few pounds being all he received for the largest work that ever lay on his desk. and terms which I neither could nor would fulfil. an old and real friend to Beethoven. but still no result. In 1822 the matter was " I have at heart. as : 91 . " the publication of I my collected should like to superintend it while I am alive. have been submitted to me." A more difficult person to transact business with it would be hard to imagine. Many proposals." Then came Artaria's project. just as it did when his cherished hope of many blame. I acknowledge." he wrote again in the master's mind. his indecision. In the year 1 8 1 6 a proposal was made him by Hoffmeister of Leipzig to bring out an edition of all his compositions for the pianoforte. and especially of works. No incident in his life illustrates more forcibly than does this Beethoven's utter want of resolution in practical matters. but it was never much. His reserved and suspicious manners. almost for nothing.Business Inaptitude of the metronome and mechanical trumpeter was perpetrating. but there were difficulties in the way which I could not remove. his songs he was the young virtuoso unrecognised by the and smaller pieces went . Andreas Streicher. He was years — the publication of a himself edited by — was collected edition of his works well-nigh being attained. for a mere song. but nothing resulted from it. it -' As he grew might be said. and his larger works. When publishers. So it was with Steiner's proposal. next wrote him in the following strain *' I have often thought on your position. „ older and was recognised he secured a little better price for his compositions. to Peters of Leipzig. A B Ml d For this Beethoven was largely to always " hard up. alway stood in his way.

and mention made in the advertisements that you intend to alter here and there and arrange extended pianoforte passages written before their introduction.Beethoven derive more benefit from your marvellous and now. whether it be that of a great or small musician. to interpret as they will — faithfully or capriciously. viz. how you might carried out. students and amateurs. It would be announced half a year in advance throughout Europe. even to those who may have your earlier works. actuated by a good honest feeling towards you.000 florins current coin or 25.000 Viennese. neither did after-negotiations with Schles- a friend inger off. and posterity. has been productive of concern as long as music-makers and their methods have been thought worthy For reasons which may or may not be exof discussion.: the pubUshing of an edition of all your works similar to those of Mozart. Accept what I have said as the sentiments for of greatest of six and thirty years' standing. Secondly. The labour it will occasion you is certainly not sufficient to justify you in disregarding a duty which you owe both to yourself. Death carried the great tone-poet and his works were left for musicians." to nothing. that you intend to add some unpubHshed works. this perceptive scrutiny has not profited the 92 . if properly talent . and Schott. The intellectual and purely educational literary aspects of the musical character. Haydn and Clementi. to purchase this edition. your nephew. a proposal which. might bring in at least 10. whose happiness would be to see you free from Even this friendly advice came trouble and anxiety. which may be an inducement. plainable. beg leave to submit to you the following for your careful consideration.

A perusal of his " Letters " ." In * a few words the imputation is that although the great musicians can make good music. tending to relax rather than to brace the springs of self-control. The keynote given forth is that music is "an emotional stimulant of intoxicating strength. and with an influence ^ upon conduct mainly negative and depressive. to possess the best qualities of a ^BlackwoocPs Magazine. July 1896. have no or semblance of an idea of what theory music how a symphony is built up. — — will show the master ' Letter. June 29. as reasonably reply to those people who seem in to is. 1800. to which we might r j^^ * // ... 93 . his grasp of things outside his art is as remarkable as it is convincing. It is not too much to assert that for a man whose whole life was centred in music. it is a situation that could be mainobviously open to dispute. but with little capacity for transmutation masters. " Can the great intellects who give us books and pictures and sculptures." — . p. 29. furnish us also with a few 'Choral' or 'Jupiter' Symphonies?" We need go no farther. but has discounted him in the eyes of his This has extended even to the great fellow-creatures. not only through their music.Intellectuality harmonist. . The great musicians have expressed the grandest sentiments. their "intellectuality" ends there. though that is tained into any other form of artistic energy. and they are good for nothing else . none stands out in bolder relief than Beethoven. but in the language of their mother tongue and among those who have thus spoken. who was often at work on three or four compositions at the same time which are facts the composer himself communicated to Wegeler^ for such a one. who scarcely finished one work ere another was begun.

speare and Goethe. or that most of us can see. which belong not to the ignoramus. as slender as is it was simply surprising what good use he made in after years of the Latin. is hardly such an ignoramus as we Above all. and the bidden by ability to respond to whatever tune was original." whether in the or through good or bad translations. French and Italian groundwork which Zambona was kind enough to add to The man who could express the neglected education.Beethoven correspondent. literature . with a great capacity for seeing more than was suspected of him. Beethoven was one who could take a broad view of the world. himself. Shakehave had a particularly vulgar passion of self-interest and mere money-massing. and not a little English. nor to the superficial mind. fancy and bold expression. when a but it child was. but distinctly and emphatically. in two or three languages outside his native tongue. No one with any real knowledge of the world can read Beethoven's "Letters. familiar or foe. A man who could delight in Homer and . a great grip of men and manners. could not while not a tithe of his narrow or unintellectual mind sayings about his art and things in general would qualify 94 . he cultivated a mind of his servants' that was superior to the aspects Plato. together with a fund of fun. with a thorough knowledge of his country's. not always perhaps in a polished way. are told our great musicians were. or to grapple with kaleidoscopic accounts. and though he was not wrangler or mathematician enough to control his private expenditures. however. without feeling that their author was gifted with no ordinary intellect. The actual schooling which this great master of music received irregular . indeed.

melody that converts the Spiritual part of a *' Is it ^ » ^ r r actual feelmg ? " Thorough bass and religious faith are subjects so confined within their own limits that they admit of no discussion. indeed He who is imbued with the ^ poem mto 1 Beethoven 0^7 M ' ! and he who is not so no such guide imbued does not benefit by it. for his range is less limited than mine." right spirit requires . 95 . how much closer is not this bond between true artists. and the true artist delights in the works of great minds. for he runs away from his orchestra in spite of the metronome." — » Maxims him as a musi" monster or melody-making dunce." " Art who can say that he fathoms ! it ? Who is there " capable of discussing the nature of this great goddess ? " True art endures for ever." " Art is a bond that unites all the world ." " It is art and science alone that reveal to us and give us the hope of a loftier life." describe a scene is the province of the painter. as in the universe. On the other hand my sphere extends to regions which to them are not easily accessible ! " To The " Liberty and progress are great conditions in the pire of music." emnot Melody is the sensuous part of poetry." " Metronome." " Art and science bind together the best and noblest of men. poet too has the same advantage over me ." " Music is a more lofty revelation than all wisdom and philosophy. : Hear the man anent his art " Music is the hnk between spiritual and sensual life.

They do not elevate and soothe to an extent as does his harmony. They are communications of an order which only really great men ever do. graphy and syntax are repeatedly faulty. With regard viz. and the mode of expression is generally more emphatic than elegant is —but with _. Surveyed broadly they show us the man himself better Rough diamonds than any word or painted portrait. so is the character the spirit of a composition. a T to all this the convincing feeling that a great intellect ff " was behind the pen that wrote them. these we which indicate the character of a composition of allegro." The " Letters " of the great musician abound in reflections of this kind. have the courage pen and disseminate..— Beethoven conventional marks of time are nothing but a for what could be more absurd than the term *' allegro " which means gay and lively. and those who would speak with the mighty genius should read these epistles the main feature of which lies in their being so thoroughly characteristic of the master. and presto. — lacking in literary pohsh. or can. fitful. allegro. they reflect the rugged. nevertheless they abound in themes that inspire. we willingly discard them. — cannot dispense with . as applied to a composition whose character is often the exact opposite barbaric relic : " The to the four principal movements. which moreover are not nearly as true and accurate as the four winds Not so the terms of heaven. Another of their striking features is the marked absence of any pettifogging rulings and didactic teachings about 96 . andante. adagio. nor until a new age and taste for better reading sets in can they become as well known as his music . for as the time is the body. yet The ortholarge-hearted nature of the sublime master.

As to the former. and reckless manner which now obtains. men and matters as he found them. viewed by the light of to-day. this can to some extent be accounted for from the fact that eight or ten decades back the trail of party opinion was not drawn along the street in the nauseous. tual quality of the outcome of Beethoven's readiness with the pen is a convincing negative to the proposition that the great musicians are nothing more than crotchet quaver hangers. consequently the Fourth Estate did infinitely less harm in distorting and warping the voice of public opinion than can unfortunately be charged to it All the same. There was less journalistic enterprise and cupidity. persistent. and can learn but concerning two features of interest in the careers of every man namely. Much. and while they frequently exhibit a rich play of fun and fancy. the intellecbecome the property of the world. his Politics and Amusements. had matters in this respect been to-day. naturally. to convey. but it is felt and known that a large number of notes still exist in various It is devoutly to be hoped that some day directions.Politics music and Amusements art respecting which he was entitled to They go right into the world and touch No. there no mistaking the point which their author desired is — an speak. little — O 97 . every collector will generously open his chests so that a thoroughly complete edition of these literary valuables may x\s it is. otherwise. and that they lack " intellectuality " ! and In Beethoven's case the world knows. Beethoven would have remained unafifected. Of course the collected editions of the Beethoven "Letters" far from represent a tithe of his correspondence. is destroyed and lost.

Nevertheless." This. Thiers has is — — — 98 .. natural convictions and sympathies towards a system and epoch which would terminate in a rule whereby Might would be crushed by Right. consumed by his own experiences . a noble individual." says a great writer. alive to conditions which kept him a perpetual slave while others enjoyed the good things of this life \ disappointed with everything and almost everybody. "is an attempt to draw a musical portrait of an historical character a great statesman. could have been at all beneficial to one situated as he was. .7 . and with the world's then central figure bent on dominating as many monarchies as did his prototype Alexander. to represent in music Beethoven's own language what M. Perhaps the finest piece of musical portraiture that exists Beethoven's longest symphony (save the "Choral") of the immortal nine. he nurtured his thoroughly genuine. was quite impossible in the unsettled state of Europe at the time.Beethoven By r. Still this was his nature. and he determined to hail this political sa\aour. a great general. nature he was a born Republican averse to everything that tended to make one man in any . — way more than another. Every music lover recognises under the title of the " Eroica. and he persisted in it to the last." it "The Eroica. yet he was ever lingering after some such ideal state as Plato foreshadowed in his " Republic. There was a good deal of the philosopher in Beethoven \ and although the conditions of society around and about him were the only ones that „ . The advent of Napoleon Buonaparte rejoiced his heart. if ever feasible. although of course such a method became perfectly impracticable at every step in real life.

musician were made of that sturdy stufif which could. man in and who at that time was the most prominent Europe.— Buonaparte It in words and Paul Delaroche in painting. and did defy the world . Beethoven began the work in 1802. j ^ strange that Beethoven should have desired in some way and he knew of no better course than through art his to honour one so characteristically akin to given is ^ . — — himself. and it is not kt j." anything but difficult to realise why Beethoven should Both the soldier and have admired the first Napoleon. . with the following title in : SlNFONT^ . and 1804 it was completed.

and never again spoke of him in connection with the symphony until he heard of his death in St Helena." evidently referring to the Funeral March in the symphony. From this time Beethoven abhorred Napoleon. he's nothing but an ordinary exclaimed mortal Here is a tyrant the more He will trample the rights of men under his feet " Saying which he rushed to his table. kind his letter to Bettina von Arnim Friend.Beethoven from his pupil Ries than he started up in a rage. When two persons like Goethe and myself meet. Decorations and orders possessed nothing beyond : ! ! ! their convertible value in his eyes." replied the composer. " I have already composed music for this calamity. we met the whole Imperial family . The true spirit oozes out. then. on our way home. Kings and princes can indeed create professors and privy-councillors. There their powers fail. " The fifty ducats. On one occasion the Prussian Ambassador fifty him the choice of — : — and this it is that forces them to respect us. at Vienna gave ducats or the cross of some order. He had no sympathy whatever with the pomp and glitter of a monarchical state or the trappings of an exalted aristocracy. when Goethe lOO . and " After all. and the sea-shore would have found as much shells of the favour with him for his breast as the grandest cross or star ever designed. in " My hiost dear. and confer titles and decorations but they cannot make great men spirits that soar above the base turmoil of this world. and tore the title-page completely off. Yesterday. Beethoven was not long in deciding. seized the copy of the score. too. these grandees cannot fail to perceive what such as we consider great. we saw them crossing some way off. But Beethoven's republican leanings do not end here. when he observed.

indeed. in order to stand aside. . He could brook no restraints nor barriers he must do as he willed." ^ task for this Dependent as he was upon the aristocracy of his day for almost every inch of recognition that fell to him . forbearing and generous as the nobility invariably were towards him whenever and however his rough methods . firmly on my head. I afterwards took him sharply to bowing profoundly.Resents Etiquette withdrew his arm from mine. and would not bend to the prescribed etiquette. lOI . One day he forced his way into the apartments of the Archduke. who stood aside with his hat off. and say what I would. These great ones of the earth know To my infinite amusement I saw the procession me. Letter. Yet he could not get over this ruck in his nature. Archduke Rudolph „ took ofif his hat. No. Toplitz. it might be thought. surprising that Beet- hoven for so long should have successfully maintained and exercised his supreme contempt for the upper classes. 1812. he would in turn make allowances.^ I made my way through the Princes and courtiers thickest portion of the crowd. and the Empress bowed to ^ me first. That he was their equal was a burning conviction within him. his patron. and in great rage declared he could not submit : * Vide the Lyser sketch. * August 15. I could not prevail on him to make I pressed down my hat more another step in advance. and. Thus he was constantly at loggerheads with the Court officials. crossing my hands behind me. albeit he would never permit himself to be encumbered by the doings of inferior folks for whom. buttoned up my great-coat. I gave him no quarter. asserted themselves. it is. formed a lane for me. defile past Goethe.

nervous system. Of Beethoven's amusements we hear nothing." shouted Beethoven. when he was occupied with any when he became so absorbed that his be- loved pursuit was. The on dits referring to Beethoven. J mto one of . Beethoven termed it. and ere book. especially great score. not for our knowledge of his utter carelessness in 102 . absolute meat and drink to him. we suppose. Another story were it is told of Beethoven and a horse which. TT . as 07i dits in general. its composer went ^ c -XT. so to speak. . r as . part. are — — as true. It was taken in good and orders were forthwith issued that he was not to be interfered with. and they are almost as numerous as the quavers in a symphony. As his correspondence emphasizes his whole life and soul were Mozart could rest his brain with billiards in his music.Beethoven to the biddings of the chamberlains. but Beethoven appears to have had no liking for the lighter relaxations of life. and often greatly neglected. If he wanted change he resorted to the lanes and meadows and found in Nature a sufficient set-off for extended periods of strain and mental trial that must have sorely tested his highly-strung. ^.-u the Vienna restaurants and After a while the waiter ordered dinner. the astonished kellner could say a word the musician placed upon the table the price of the dinner and disappeared. At about the time of the composition of the " splendid descriptive symphony the Sixth or " Pastoral — Habtts of J. came with the dinner. Among these ben trovato stories are several relating to the master's habit of abstraction.-j. but meanwhile the composer had become engrossed over " notes " for his sketch" I have dined.

happily. Henschel. noticing this. good deal with a harvest of jet-black hair. pocketing. he mounted the steed and took an airing round Vienna's suburbs. ^ Generally accepted at In the possession of Mr. G. it would be hard to believe. and the mouth. is particularly noticeable for its beauty of conformation. paid its forage bills. 103 . Though we are not dependent entirely upon these for a knowledge of the manner of man the composer was.^ showing Beethoven reflects a in his twenty-first year. there having been amongst us. and as a means of money-making used to let out the animal at a rate per hour to anyone who cared to hire it. adorned The whole p^^ *^^^*^ a strong indication of the future man . the proceeds The presentments of Beethoven provide an interesting among the chronicles of this master of music.! Presentments the affairs of everyday life. a sharp-witted man. and his servant. possession of several features — yet in the nature of things it cannot be else than gratifying in the extreme to be in less authentic records of the continue to be a subject of wonder and admiration as long as the world and our present methods and intelligence last. visage is A of dispute surrounds this portrait. To take these in order of age. decidedly good-looking well-formed face. very beautiful animal was presented to Beethoven by an admirer. of course. those who conversed feature with him face to face. Then it was quite neglected by Beethoven . which the burden of a battle with life was to make so firm and determined. took the horse. the miniature by Gerhard more or will of one who von Kiigelgen. and at first the new owner did what most A mortals would.

and while the main features are there — the strong head. of his active life.Beethoven as genuine. to say nothing of the ideal presentments. and is adjudged a This fanciful rather than true likeness of the composer. depicts Beethoven in his thirty-eighth year. age and in the in This portrait differs prime. so when doctors differ who shall Hornemann's miniature. Mahler in 1808. artistic career. with right hand exIt tended. lips a scarcely accurate nose. comparatively recently discovered at Freiburg. the breadth of face. showing the composer decide ? as he appeared in 1802. Another three-quarter sitting portrait. is one of the finest likenesses of Beethoven. F. It was painted when Beethoven was forty-five years of 181 5. fine large one time eyes. This was the portrait copies of which the composer often gave It shows the master in the second phase of his away. and according to Sir George Grove it is A copy of it is in the best portrait extant of Beethoven. in expression from the other accepted portraits. 104 . its authenticity is now doubted by both the Beethoven House Society of Bonn and the authority Dr T. the massive temples from which * his liberal hair rolled backwards. the Library of the Royal College of Music at Kensington.^ is among the best representations of the master. and the beautifully set which make the composer appear a really handsome fellow as a young man. Another is the drawing of head and shoulders which Louis Letronne made in chalk in 181 2 and which has been engraved by Hofel (18 14) and Riedel. Frimmel. The oil painting by J. the grandly outlined features —we get these and Now in the possession of Herr Victor von Gleichensteia. Mahler of Vienna. therefore. was painted by W. portrait shows the wonted luxuriance of hair.


^i^N- >f \l OJll cyiwW^n .

" All this the portrait fully a fitting introduction brilliant. as well as the touching sadness and gloom pervading his life. Vice-Presiendorses. is shown with bent head in the act ^ Musical Times y December 1892. fitful The frontispiece referred to is an engraving by H. which his devotion to Art alone brightened through many bitter trials and harassing cares. Adlard from a photograph of the original portrait in the possession of Dr Th. Lyser's full-length sketch showing Beethoven on the march. and in a hurry. out The lion's mane. are their own evidence to accuCertainly no one who has ever read or played racy. A chalk drawing the work of Augustus von Kloeber in the opinion of the present writer deserves to be ranked among the most satisfying portraits of the master. dent of the Imperial Academy of Science. There is yet another portrait by Mahler which shows Beethoven well on to in Lady Wallace's it life. his dressing-gown. 105 . Beethoven. strong obstinate nose and furrowed chin.' the noble brow."^ a line of Beethoven could desire a more satisfying presentment of the wondrous sound-shaper for all ages and all — : ' time. G." Writing of preface : the distinguished authoress says in her " The grand and thoughtful countenance forms to letters so truly depicting the genius of the sublime master. Vienna. and which serves as a frontispiece translation of Beethoven's " Letters.— Portraits something more in the shape of strong indications of the composer's known Dutch origin. As has been pointed " It is evidently a good likeness. handsome in Another likeness of the master is the idealized but portrait with the tree background. von Kara j an. is referred to elsewhere. expressive eyes.

what the use of the collar was keep me warm. It was painted by Stieler. then. Of an illustration given Numerous other portraits. eschewed this article of apparel . and the chalk dra\ving by Kloeber. exist. would probably best meet the popular conception of the sort of man the composer of Fidelio and " Choral " symphony This portrait. more or less reUable. and stuffed it under his waistcoat " it can only be surmised.that them had secured the composer when he one of his tidiest and conformable moods." One of these latter is a portrait in the possession of Count Wimpfifen." his favourite score. Of all the portraits this. Naumann in his "History of Music.Beethoven This is endorsed of writing on a roll of score paper. and has been engraved by Carl Mayer of Nuremberg the other shows the composer with a thin drawn face and well Curiously enough both these and advanced in years. others of the likenesses show Beethoven with a collar. showing in his forty-ninth year a work which Eichens — 106 .' he said to himself. Beethoven Schimon painted the master in 18 19." writes Miiller of him in 1820. \ Now he wilfully from his stock or neckcloth. No better presentment of the master could be desired. " Missa Solennis in D. " and he asked a friend. the year when the famous second Mass was completed. that to distinct ! ' ! : this extent the painters of was in some of the portraits are unauthentic or . who had made him some Ah to linen shirts. " he was not acquainted with the custom of wearing collars. Lastly. and shows Beethoven in 1822. original of Waldmiiller cast of Beethoven's face. is given by really was. with two others. Another portrait of the after the characteristic master has been this made by and the is Robert Krausse herewith.

" referred to in the characteristic letter which Beethoven's friend Stumpff wrote to the Musical World. and in order to fulfil a promise I made to Beethoven." the portrait in question has hardly a furrow indicated. instead of the powerfully severe countenance. venting his feeHngs in strong expressions of sorrow at my early departure (as he called it). in —Having seen my lithographic print of Beethoven.— StumpfF Picture a sadly weak production so far as the The nobility of character is concerned. rugged son of art and enormous worker whose mood was to "despise the world which does not understand that music is a more sublime revelation than all wisdom and This is the portrait probably that is all philosophy. A pause ensued his piercSir. wholly lacking . full of intelligence and purpose. It was on last parting from this extraordinary being. and alight at your house whenever I shall come to London. features It is are : of your spirited publication a notice beg leave to state that it was issued out of love to the art. I pointed We walked towards it. exclaimed. who shall ever remernber you. and seizing the other with a convulsive grasp. Beethoven earnestly talking. It resembles more a contented farmer than the powerful. I ^^ — 107 . to the vehicle that stood waiting. as a token of esteem : receive it of a friend. that he put a lithographic print of himself in my hand. and with all the traces of strong trial. Here is a transcript engraved. suffering. " Take this prints though a very bad one. The beating of my poor heart became visible . who seemed on that occasion very much agitated. and disappointment which at this time of life helped to make Beethoven look " ugly.

and he inclined his ear towards my Ups. and it . had to be removed. there are as the sculptor Franz Klein took masks of Beethoven's face. who. 1838. In 1 8 1 Of masks. to subscribe myself Your obedient August 44 ^th. was willing to take the impeding element away from chin and cheek. Stumpff. * . Great Portland Street. I then would publish a better print.2 " Beethoven ing eye perceived that I wished to speak. but demanded a ducat for his services. Danhauser sent for a barber. I : ! beg. " Es thilt einen ja wohl 'mal wieder einen menschen zu schauen." To " Fare thee well. thou noble and which I answered highly-gifted being. they. should ever I meet with an able artist. to whom I could communicate and convey that^ which had made such a deep impression on my mind." To which he replied (in an Austrian dialect). J. etching. On the authority of Dr " The J. A ducat was more than Danhauser and his friend Rauft possessed between them at that time. Danhauser came in ere the breath had been out of the body a few moments and took the model. Vogl an unforeseen obstacle presented itself beard of the deceased. servant. N. Sir. was from these that Hake made a good A cast was also made when the Busts and ^ j j ta u master lay dead. busts and monuments relating to Beethoven. many and more than even portraits. of course. Gott erhalte und schutze Dich Hoping that you will excuse my German English. A. had to send this unwilling Figaro away and j^ „ . ^ 1 : — 108 . when I said. therefore. " Sir. Portland Place. which had not been touched during all the period of his illness.

and is reputed to be the most faithful likeness of its kind. Dr. who were all personally acquainted with Beethoven. 1 "Musical Sketches" (Ella). No sooner had the coat of plaster gradually begun to thicken and affect his face than Beethoven became fetch his razor. He jumped up. vol. 10. hereby certify that it is a remarkable and speaking likeness of the great original signed . horrified and enraged. and rushed like a raving madman into the street with the plaster thick upon him. Freiherr von Mayenberg. however. F. Danhauser applied the soap. p. and the under- gentlemen. and showing the master in his fifty-sixth year. cursing the genial painter of tableaux de genre. was made from the masks already referred to.— Schaller Bust undertake the operation themselves. 109 . after which Danhauser began his work. Rauft hastened to and to sharpen the blade for the occasion. showing Beethoven in his forty-second year. and Rauft cut the bristly beard. The ness : following declaration is also associated with the like" The bust is in every way unique. i. the noted Viennese sculptor in 1826. there is the expressed satisfaction 'with the intimate friend of Beethoven for work of Carl Holz. The bust by Klein. Excellent as the upper part of the face undoubtedly is. As against this criticism."^ Years before Danhauser had inveigled Beethoven into submitting to a similar process. There is a famous bust modelled by Schaller. MoRiTz Graf zu Dietrichstein. the mouth might be objected to as being over forcible. J. Castelli. most liberally and unambiguously at every step he took. smashed the chair. an whom it was executed.

It is by the sculptor Zumbusch. Leopold von Sonnleithner. and occupies Of a fitting site in front of the Gymnastic Academy. Mayseder. the composer's countrymen many years to upraise this memento of his tremendous genius. in recognising the debt of their section of the globe to Beethoven. to Beethoven's honour. Dr. this one must be accounted among the truest and best. and has erected We — — * Musical Times^ December 15. and elsewhere. Cummings writes " The directors of the Philharmonic Society had a few casts made. dred pounds balance required. the Abbe that striking personality in musical history This pianoforte genius paid some twelve hunLiszt. one of which is always placed in front of the : — orchestra at the public concerts. O. Dr. the many monuments that have been erected in his own country." ^ look naturally to the birth-place of this renowned Strangely enough it took genius for the first monument. Another Beethoven monument of importance is in Vienna. no . J. 1892. New York has found its native artist. H. The Americans have not been behind. also.Beethoven Franz von Heinth. Mr W. and in 1846 the fine statue which now adorns Bonn was added to the assets the German of that great music-loving community nation. and it might not have been there to this day save for the munificence of a fellow-musician who made the condition that if he completed the funds for the monument he should have The musician was the right of choosing the sculptor. This bust was bequeathed to the Philharmonic Society of London by Frau Linzbauer.

1 8 12. Ill . August 15. no p^ rJ-^^ ^onis profession of faith."^ "If God spares me a few more years of life. saw the Deity in everything in nature. in his heart he accepted all as from above. in fact. In religion Beethoven was a Roman Catholic. * — ^ /. the Omni1 — He Letter. most dear friend. He was baptised in the faith of that Church. From some of his remarks he could be taken for a Pagan. devotional rule and practice. On the surface we must account him as belonging to no church one of that large percentage of men whose good lives are not measured by their servitude to religious procedure and method." he writes to Bettina von Arnim.His Religion in that city one of the most magnificent of the world's memorials to the work and genius of this truly great master of sound. He asks Varenna to beg the admirable Ursuline Convent sisters who administered to him in sickness "to include him in their pious orisons. in every stroke of good fortune. July 19. and its last rites were administered to him at the period of extremis. ' Letter. in art. and whether success or failure awaited him. God was about him everywhere not of the teach- — — ings of others. He had. but of his own innate convictions. This was not so he believed in God. no formal religion. I will thank the Omniscient." ^ " If I am spared for some years to come. We hear little or nothing of this either in his correspondence or from the testimony of others. and certainly his temperament was not that of one prone to . To what extent he was a strict and devout soldier of the Church has not transpired. my dear. in every trial. no established creed. "I must then see you once more. 181 2.

February lo. 112 . and correspondence abound in reUgious touches and meditative ejaculations which make us feel that wherever He did not wear he was there his God was with him. most unhappy of all mortals. but He above is. as I do for all others. Thou nothing is. There is a current deafness drove his goodness inwards. hear me. There were no undulations this mischievous doctrine. nobler life. and." Nature and but he was a God-fearing man for all that. : — — ! — — — ^ Letter. by the lake and the ocean set. and could not He salutes God in the woods an4 get away from it. 1811. my Rock. and he was no servile " saint. his career his aspirations were ever towards a better. God. weal and Here are woe. doctrine that men of poetical and artistic power will always be very much the creatures of imagination and sensibility.^ two extracts from his diary showing his trustful depend" Hard is thy situation at ence upon the Almighty present. or rather to this absence of But Beethoven was one who indisputably belies law. and without Him " God. seest my heart Thy unhappy. could have His note-books persevered more towards the high goal. in consequence. but with all this we do not learn much about his going to church. will be subject to alternain the most capricious tions of elevation or depression even their morals and religion being subject to forms these laws in their nature. He z>. at sunrise and sunvalleys." are his words to Bettina Brentano." Oh hear. placed as he was." He was bom a great and high-souled creature. and no man.Beethoven potent for the boon. his religion on his sleeve. oh. ever ineffable One. my Refuge. and certainly there was not a shadow All through of affectation of goodness about his nature.

" never to stand in any relations but those of friendship with another man's wife. are Hstening to his matchless tones them a sure and strong ladder up the heights where only his blessed harmonies can be excelled. honest character to carry out. Whining cant was no part or parcel of his constitution. king of the " fireworks " school had one day arranged some of the Fidelio numbers which he submitted to Beethoven for his approval. The great bravura pianist Moscheles as he often proved. he must be his own defender through his life — — H 113 . help thyin — — — — self. who. No. His code of morals required a strong.. for the world is ever ready to know of the foibles of its great men and especially of such a notable character as was Beethoven. — „ / ^^ ^ /y and he emerges from the ordeal with a fair fame which more and more will thrill the multitudes Every thread of his public and private life has probably now been closely scrutinized . Upon examination the composer discovered the words "By God's help" inscribed on When Moscheles received it back he found this the MS. addition the characteristic advice " O man. if it be urged that this great man so far as music is concerned the greatest the world will ever see would have figured better with some regard for precise pious formulae." tions with fair With all his attachments and his associaand noble women and the approval of woman single suggestion of liaison or scandal has been charged to Beethoven." " It is one of my first principles. Purity of Life his conception of morality and honour. is the very lever of music — —not a His escutcheon would not so long have remained untarnished had matters been otherwise ." he stated. hour to find in after hour.

It was only when I had myself as much as you have."^ 1 felt how to dear Come 1. good. noble Forgive me for distressing you . We find him ever ready to restore harmonious relations wherever there have been squabbles or strained friendAfter falling out with Stephen von Breuning and ships. and letters. I have suffered Stephen. making the resolve that the dissolution of the friendship should remain "firm and unchangeable. July 1804. it was passionate love for you and myself. arms once more as you used to do. dear Stephen. my Letter. letters show us the inner Beethoven better than all that has been written by way of biography. Who could I give it to with tended it for anyone else. must certainly have noticed in me has been sufficient My feeling towards you was not malice. may all that has so long gone on between us be for ever hidden. my warmest love so well as to you. 181 114 . true. The tone — — — you no longer with me that I first really you are and always will be to my heart.Beethoven Judging by the latter there was not much of his correspondence throughout is not priestthat of the high-minded. punishment."^ he seeks to His appealing mend matters in most pathetic terms. amiss. letter accompanied by a miniature painted by Hornemann in 1802 is well worth reading: "Beneath this portrait. I know how I For this the emotion that you have torn your heart. I need not tell you that I never intended for you. 2 Letter. thoughtful Christian When divested of their exuberances these ridden man. for people came between us who were My portrait has long been inunworthy of us both. but I doubted you dreadfully. No I should no longer be worthy of your friendship.

. being a foreigner. "5 . November 1805. : frequently in want of common necessaries. brother's life " less irksome. indeed. " In the early part of our acquaintance. honest man.. I once asked him. " Poor Ries.' was his reply. I had house My boot To his relations he was particuarrest." ^ larly good. and must moreover leave this in a few days.' Czerny Testimonial Beethoven always had a helping hand for others. 185. my scholar. ' Letter." he writes to Princess Kinsky. and with an ungrudging forgetfulness of self often gave even to strangers the means of comfort that he himself much " He was There is Spohr's testimony as to this needed. His brother Carl had been a cashier in Vienna and had a long illness throughout the whole of which the His wish was to make his musician provided for him. When the severity of the conscription forced Ries to the war and the youth wanted funds it was Beethoven who pleaded his cause with the Princess Lichtenstein. is These were his words forced by this unhappy war to shoulder a musket."''^ * ' — True Christianity.. which (not computing my own wants) has entirely exhausted my resources." " I am obliged. perfectly free from all that pettiness and : — * Autobiography. ' p. after he had absented himself for several days You were not ill. I send the poor youth to you in the hope of somewhat improving his circumstances. and is obliged to take a long journey. literally nothing. 1813. He has nothing."^ One has only to read such a document as the testimonial which he gave to Czerny to gauge the large-hearted. and as I have only one pair. was. I hope ? from the dining-rooms. " entirely to support an unfortunate sickly brother and his whole family." he writes. Letter.

. am glad to bear testimony ^° young Carl Czerny having made the most tk extraordinary progress on the pianoforte. far J : — beyond what might be expected at the age of consider him deserving of all possible assistance not only from what I have already referred to. "The best "has a thousand times recurred possessed you are you ever fade? Farewell. : 1 Letter. my warmhearted friend. I a man who lived an upright life is furnished in the lasting friendship of Pastor Amanda of Courland which he would hardly have undeservedly enjoyed. . ! . my good Amanda. 1805. just as I shall ever be your faithful Beethoven. the undersigned. Ludwig van Beethoven. how. and more especially from his parents having spent all their means in cultivating the talent of their promising son. to ! The composer loved woman. beloved." And again " My dear. December 7. and now the third. and noble friend Ever continue your love and friendship towards me. 116 . Write to me frequently your letters. best evidence of all that the great composer was fourteen.— Beethoven spirit It W rx of conscious excellence which mars lesser musicians. one of whom still lives. No you are one of those whom the soil of my fatherland is wont to bring forth. I know how to prize you. to what can I compare your fidelity and devotion to me Ah it is indeed delightful that you still continue to love me so well. but from his astonishing memory." he writes. How can my remembrance of . and to distinguish you from all others you are not like my Vienna friends. ! : — ! ! . my thoughts Two persons alone once my whole love. the pastor almost with the love of man I ever knew. ." ^ Yet. runs " I. good.

" He did well enough by his fellow-men. that lifted was. So he made. and that he walked humbly with his God there is little doubt. this great religionist. and such pictures as we have drawn. and to Him alone do being."^ me so I shall soon hope man was more a practical than formal was religious in the sense that Plato and Socrates were religious. But in his religion. He own '* I : I am that which is. No all mortal things man owe hath their my veil. am all that. he had a consciousness which lifted him above ordinary mortals. 1800. can his religion alone be found.— Strange Theology ever short. but he could put his finger on such Gospel texts as " Love one another. and that shall be." A very strange theology indeed Yet from this. "7 . He is not credited with an addiction to Bible reading. ! 1 Letters. as in other matters. He is alone by Himself. and kept under his daily observation a creed of his Thus. console and cheer to hear from you.

the musician. and Diction — Beethoven's — in *' Beethoven. or judged there is ii8 .— Beethoven — : The Musician. chamber . when all is said and done. whatever view he writer.Music Composer — Symphonist and Sonatist — Characteristics of Style Three Styles " — Followers. whether as a symphonist. From considered. is is a stupendous theme. Sublimity of Style and Expression— Student Application Head and Hand Worker Early Productiveness Clamourings for Free- — dom —Juvenile Compositions — The Musical Hour — Beethoven the Pianist — The Composer — As Conductor — First S)miphony —Mount of Olives—and Prometheus — Second Symphony "Kreutzer" Sonata "Eroica" Symphony — Concerto in G Fiddio — Fourth Symphony — C Minor Symphony— Sixth Symphony — Sees to Business — Seventh Symphony — Eighth Symphony — Political Outpourings — Ninth Symphony — Last Quartets —As a Sacred Music Composer— Mass in C — Mass D — Rise of the Orchestra — Orchestra as found by Beethoven — Orchestral Variety — Instrumental Influence — Wagner on Beethoven's Orchestration — Manns on Wagner — Wagner "additions" to Beethoven— Metaphysical Qualities of the Music — Humanity of his Music — Legitimacy of Style and Practice — Expansions of Forms — Painstaking Workmanship — As a Chamber.music composer. cally regarded. sacred harmonist and song merely by his solitary opera Fidelio^ but one conclusion that adequately meets the However musicase or distinguishes his exact location. Beethoven.

Beethoven is most conspicuous.y i / The title. never before such grandeur of conception and utterance. but these would rrq . was admirers think of such glorious and Eroica Symphonies. "ton-dichter" or poet-in-music. difficult to call to mind anything in the language of poetry. and more who have created periods. tone and expresattained again.z/. of music Haydn. Palestrina." Ton-dichter " Stands alone^ towering pre-eminently. sion characterising his compositions lift him above all other masters. nor is it difficult to account for its remarkable ascendancy over the minds of men. c. his more weaver. it is. Beethoven was a great artist and a tremendous worker. more vivid. indeed. and when surely never fitly applied to any tone- JliX'bt'CSStOH r- ^ paintings as the Pastoral That he was a born genius with wonderful wealth of ideas and creative faculties is admitted. ^ region of expressive tonal actuality like of which it which Beethoven preferred to J^"^ . a and possibility the seems hopeless to imagine will ever be The sublimity of idea. the pianoforte Sonata "Z^j Adieux^ V Absence et le Retour'^ and others. Mozart. Never was there such harmonious genius and intellect wedded. Gluck. and more true to nature than the creations of this king among tone-poets. while his whole life and soul were in his art. and had followers in the history of music's art. or in the painter's art which portrays images more beautiful. There is no inexplicable secret in the vast scope and character of Beethoven's muse. His works are invariably invested with attributes so lofty and contemplative that the merest listener is moved to reflection and awe. — Of the great ones He soars to a musical height never before reached. all others.

What an equipment for a musician asking for Uttle more than an aristocratic patronage Nor did he half learn his art. Coincidently with qualifying for his art it was as we have save for other full. and the classics of ancient Greece was as vivid to him as that of Klopstock or Schiller. instead of hazarding short cuts to perfection a system which too many students alas resort to only too hopelessly Beethoven laboured away at his studies as if heaven and earth depended upon his industry.J' . and so attuned his faculties that the language of Homer and Plutarch. while he was not only studying but labouring besides for he had to earn his own livelihood and that of others. or which sprung out of the brilliant. earnest student never breathed one who.! — Beethoven not have to the made him gifts the greatest of the great composers which he exercised and developed In discussing Beethoven the Musician we must get beyond the music and realise the rare personality who made it a man of great mind and views. while his mind was such that « . or still more. if betimes unsettled society life at Vienna during the many years that he moved in it. A more industrious. princesses found pleasure in talking to him A. This. — — ! — — — ! I20 . that of his friend and collaborateur Goethe. His grasp of men and things about him was so wide that he could as well converse with a prince as with a bandsman. too.' ^^ upon the wide and various themes that fringed the pursuit of his art.. though undoubtedly it cannot be said that he missed his vocation Beyond his naturally grand mind and intellect he harmonised himself with his contemporaries. painstaking. one who would have stood out among men wherever he walked in life.

He is credited with having written a Funeral Cantata to the memory of a friend of his family^ when he was little more than ten — rr » — * Cressener. ^r^ only to put pen to paper to make themselves the remarkable instances of humanity they indisputably are. remains. together with his marvellous capacity. as we know it to-day. Not only as a composer. these. properly and naturally developed. From small beginnings the great artist gradually emerged as magnificently as a huge edifice rears itself above a single foundation stone. as they do for their magnitude.— Strict Training seen imperative that he should provide his daily bread. then. His first noteworthy achievements were mainly with the pianoforte and thorough-bass . ordinarily high sense of life's mission seems more and more to have ennobled. and the accustomed methods of musical procedure were followed in his case as closely as would be adopted in that of any German student qualifying for music as a profession. that led up to that wondrous aggregation This genius. can have no equal so long as musical art. Nothing was taken as granted. but as a pianist and improvisor. It was a slowly unfolding genius. which an extraBeethoven the master. we repeat. I2X . in this instance particularly. with ^u i ^ ^u ^ ^ f the delusion that the great masters of music 1 • Away ^u • tt j j Head and were individuals born musicians who had . With one and all their capacity for hard work is simply amazing. His incomparable talent culminated in a trinity of highest excellence. in all good time were to develop amazingly. afiford the clue to his transcendent might as a musician one who. his achievements stand as momentous for their import and influence.

however. He 'wrote : " Illustrious Prince. to velop with years. .— Beethoven years old at composed some young amateur. and. especially in view of such an incident as that of his encountering the Imperial family on the road and refusing to make way for them. from the fact that when only eleven and a half years old. Beethoven's bearing in after life towards those on a higher social plane. the piano. suggesting a spirit of respect sufficient homage and admiration for exalted society which might have been expected to deIt stands in great contrast. Archbishop and Elector of Cologne. and honestly state of him that he could play the whole of Bach's Wohltemperirte Clavier. At the age of eleven years he approached Maximilian Frederick. we are to believe the title. B." wonderful little fellow. L. 122 . if : 1780. and may I hope that you will condescend to cast an encouraging and kindly glance on them?" This was undoubtedly a discreet and to rank. he must have been. Neefe could leave him to do duty in the Elector's chapel. By the way. the brusque > C Minor. — From my my fourth year music . respecting the dedication of a juvenile effort Three Sonatas for years. the "Van" prefixed to his name was once mistaken by the hand Placing his Austrian "Landrecht" as a mark of nobility. he certainly " Variations on a March.. as a boy. has ever been my favourite pursuit. V. first on his head and then on his heart. aged lo A — . May I now presume to lay the first-fruits of juvenile labours at the foot of your throne. The record runs " Composed by a ." ^ by Dressier this early age.

" songs. more especially. twenty-four Variations on Righini's " Vieni Amore. a pianoforte Concerto. this volcano did not. however. Beethoven's earnest enquiry into.Smouldenngs of Genius man. composed. environment generally throughout his early life illfree from all disfavoured the contemplative mood He had — traction for composition. etc. Symphony. he tire. and method of grap- — — pling with the principles of Art." Mozart's "La Finta Giardiniera" all composed ere fine opera their respective authors had reached the age of twentyThe explanation is not far off. a Rondo in A for the piano. howSomeone. pass unperceived. and another song. the industrious young man wrote two Preludes through all twelve major keys for pianoforte or organ. and "Midsummer Night's Dream" Overture. while between these and his coming . never to While carrying on his chapel and theatre duties. presage the great things that were to come. three Sonatas for is — ! „ piano solo (1781). and Minuet for piano in E flat. with his accustomed sturdiness. among other minor pieces. and some songs p ^ f The next year gave birth to three (1784). when Beethoven was 123 . were not yet at an end. his not been to Haydn . one years. 1787 was marked by a Trio in E flat. shouted.age.of . These productions need not be Neither in extent nor quality do they over-estimated. while. Smoulderings from within ever. "My nobility " and here here His early faculty for production was formed. while they fall far below the line of Mendelssohn's C minor . or " Tragic Symphony. Quartets for piano and strings. Schubert's C minor. and a Prelude (F minor) for piano.

124 . but they were neithei put together nor intended for publication by Beethoven. " published at Vienna in 1832 . this intention was not consummated until the " Ninth " Symphony came into the world It was now that Beethoven started his lessons under Haydn. and 42 only of which Haydn corrected. but. Beethoven's Studies Nottebohm. but had never learnt anything from him. while fortifying Beethoven. had found his inner compose Schiller's Freude^^ ! — — as "Papa" desired him to do. 1793. — "Biographische Notizen iiber Ludwig van Beethoven." Ries Wegeler. thumb science was ill-suited to what he.— Beethoven " He intends to mind. the first payment traceable being made on December 1 2th." but the profound pedant's lessons and scholastic vigour. 1792. " ^ Strangely. had the efifect also of convincing him that such a rigid rule-of- pupil — trary. " Grundliche Anweisung zur Composition. judging by the exercises some 250 which have come down to No wonder us. he is all for the grand and sublime." at which he worked with a will. January 26th.^ Under Albrechtsberger he made the acquaintance of that great theorist's text-book. as far as I know him. for. had to express. on the conpublished it abroad that he had got a few lessons from Haydn.* * 2 * Letter. in his soul. The text-book was Fux's " Gradus ad Parnassum.^ that Beethoven would not describe himself as Haydn's twenty-three. * There were over 260 of these exercises under Albrechtsberger issued in a posthumous work entitled ** Beethoven's Studies in Generalbasse. wrote a correspondent to the Wilhelm Tell^ sister of the author of Wallenstein and "and that verse by verse I expect something perfect.

many a sarcasm against and their precepts. thank Heaven. o- a more reasonable nature to occupy my time. upon them." we are told. that partakes of the nature of a riddle. parum may try my hand at it when I have nothing of ^. which he was He easily led by his ardent imagination to disregard. There is a chapter on Canon." Beethoven is from all this? lanae 1 Possibly I some of these days Multum clamoris. and seldom yield any compensation for the In former times. however. many disputes and endeavoured to correct. squabbles. In his enumeration of these varieties is mentioned "the numerical and enigmatic canons. was constantly. though the scholar never forgot the respect and esteem which he owed to his venerable instructor. which his teacher as constantly Hence. committing sins against accepted musical dogma. are easier to invent than to solve. like everything scribbling theorists . "These are the exercises which.Dogma Shackles It is easy to imagine this impetuous fellow forced to bend under the yoke of antiquated rules. therefore. people took a pride in racking their brains with such " What contrivances . but the world is grown wiser I " reported to have said. and carefully preserved the exercises wrought out under the eye of this master. which." publication but still it is interesting as showing the young musician's contempt for some of the tasks which " old squaretoes " imposed upon him. for instance. I am not in that predica- p^ i f' 125 . " were vamped up as a trading specuIt was a very improper lation in a posthumous work. time and trouble bestowed upon them. " can result good. At present. Beethoven completed his course. containing examples of this kind of composition in all its absurd and puzzling variations.

every theorist who has ever written on the subject. and at your wit's end. and would have it that there were no As he usually carried music paper in his fifths in it. greatly surprised at Bless me." In conversation with his musical friends. he would rub his hands. " when we were taking a walk together." " One day." — Beethoven ment. Fux. pocket. ments of them in his compositions. who has prohibited the use of fifths like these?' I He repeated it was at a loss how to take the question. seeing that I was right. / allow them To the end of ' ! ever — 126 . Still he insisted on very fundamental rules of harmony By Marpurg.' cried Beethoven. I suspect. in four parts. before I am. I spoke of two consecutive fifths in one of his first sets of (that in C minor). and it will be a pretty long time. 'Well. Beethoven took pleasure in ridiculing the strict precepts of the When anyone ventured to point out infringeschools. till at last I answered. several times. lect the passage. I said. Kirnberger. because you cannot find this in one of your treatises. " Oh yes. and wrote down the passage Beethoven. they may have forbidden them.' Well." says Ries. I asked him for a bit. yes you are quite astonished. he used to cavalierly cast aside the small scrupulosities of his would-be censors. they are forbidden by the his putting it. which produce a violin quartets Beethoven did not recolstriking and beautiful effect. said. knowing by whom. and exclaim. When in good humour on such occasions. laughing heartily. ' ! ' ' * ' but his Ufe Beethoven violated rules whenhe thought proper especially if the progress of an idea was likely to be interfered with by a slavish A reference to adherence to some law of harmony.

He must have been an indefatigable worker in his student days to have commanded the technical subtleties of his art in the manner which every bar of his music indicates. loi. the string Trios Rondos showing the future Beethoven in tone and atmosphere the great masters at a similar age. particularly. sigh while studying with these rigid adherents to law his art.— Juvenile Compositions the Finale of his Sonata in A. and two for pianoforte op. whether early or late. had somehear a good deal about that he learnt must always be borne in mind like them before breaking them. Men Haydn and Albrechts- berger were hardly likely to give the sturdy pupil much rest or license while he was in their hands. op. stand on end. as a fact. 51. 49. His strong musical habits and industrious charac ter began asserting themselves at this early stage. Beethoven pored. were the outcome of solid hard work. as — — . and all the results he attained. though he scattered laws aside it like ninepins. the two Sonatas op. but the results were not amazing. will show some consecutive fifths that would make many a pedant's hair But Beethoven. — infinitely superior compositions having emanated from several of The fact is. there exist some 500 Exercises over which young sure. Most of his juvenile compositions may here only be glanced at. his 127 . we may be principle. Beethoven was not precocious . thing to put in their place. and. Beethoven's " contempt " for rules in composition. but it We must be remembered. heaved many a and His own wish was to master every detail ot and a glance at any few inches of his music will show how thoroughly he did this. (not discovered until 1884) ops. A Cantata he wrote on the death of Joseph II. 3 and 9 . are valuable. Rather than composition. and.

2. ^^ Sonata in D op. 10. old 2 It will be noted that although these Trios were the at the published compositions. they were not the composer's writings." There violin. which furnish in their flavour. op. two Concertos in ^ B flat and C." finally grew into such enthusiasm concerning it as to draw from Beethoven the promise fellow." said Beethoven. These early pianohowever. reflected as. — — — of Symphony." of. 3. but I will like it. Beethoven was twenty-five years old time of their issue. first first it. and violoncello. would be quite natural — extemporizations.. comr-^ posed in 1795 . with pianoforte accompaniment. forte player is familiar with opus 2. like the three Trios ^ for pianoforte. despite the shabby treatment he seems to have received from the "Father . then. more than aught else at this time the rare order of his creative promise and temperament. then sang it. No. *' look at that. ^ is. I have just written it and don't There is hardly fire enough in the stove to bum it. rather than their workmanship. MS. The merest pianothe clue to the future composer. Adelaide} a Cantata for Soprano. composed in 1795 . *' And so the glorious Adelaida No. forte compositions. a visitor was —Before the notes were announced — Beethoven's : "Here. we will not burn was saved. 128 . We might write of some other works in almost a similar . and try. The three Trios. another point. Barth glanced through the composition. for piano and orchestra. three piano Sonatas op. putting a sheet of score paper in his hand. excellent though they are. strain. composed in September 1798 here again we have works. the Sonatas which Beethoven dedicated to Haydn.Beethoven pianoforte playing — especially his indeed. establish is one of the most Of the song Adelaida a good story told well dry on the original old friend Barth. ' . i.

does it by something as lively as it is These This gift is peculiar to him. and thus shows that variety is dependent on unity in the general effect of his created.. saw the light in 1799. on. 16. belongs to about the 1796-7 period. viz. and which the learned — in this composer. E flat. the unity of his plan. for pianoforte. Fetis. bassoon. to replace unexpected. op. Keglevics. Beethoven himself gave it. 4 in the Peters' edition. composition.^Pathetique' Sonata remarkable characteristics a quality which ran through spontaneity of his episodes his works almost to the end. and horn a work which could not have failed to have appreciably enhanced its composer's Though not published until 1801. But a still more important work was at hand to wit. this score worth. episodes." Before passing notice. 1 139 . though he named neither the so-called "Appassionata" or "Pastoral" Sonatas. 7. " Path^tique. " withdraws the interest he has already to : — marked critical acumen. The favourite Sonata. the French not fail analyst. and Beethoven knows how to re-connect them with off. a few other compositions need In October 1797 was published the Sonata in op. clarionet. with " By this means. — his Quintet in E flat." to notice translate Fdtis." ^ op. Beethoven. dedicated to the Countess Babette von will It stands No. when surprise gradually wears originality. 1 3. before then at Prince Carl von Lichnowsky's. moreover attract one's attention by their then. although Beethoven probably played it. and be remembered for its expressive Largo and remarkable Rondo. oboe. which were apparently contrary to his original inspirations. and may be com- — ^ The ground for this title is unknown.

op. C minor. when the burden of much detail is taken off the hands of artists and concert-givers by a merciful management. Beethoven pared with Mozart's and Haydn's latest chamber music After this. European under conditions totally different from anything in vogue to-day. B flat). G. completed in 1800.. fewer private houses were open to. then followed the B flat Concerto for pianoforte and orchestra. . D. Space precludes us from occupying the reader longer respecting Beethoven's early compositions. 130 . Ten or so decades ago the pursuit of music professionally often involved the greatest artists in immense labour and loss. after which he fairly set sail upon the vast sea of harmonious possibility and expression. or " academies. . against which there were few of the counteracting advan" There were then no " schools tages which now accrue. as well as discomfort. the musician and his art at almost every public TT and private society function . and long remained the busy practical musician and worker of which take their place in the Catalogue. i8. or needed the service of. A. but before proceeding with the consideration of his progress as a composer. pupils could be counted by units where they now exist in hundreds much fearful drudgery had to be undergone in the way of copying ere performers could have their respective parts «T7 . op. Beethoven started the with much interest. . the remainder In 1799 he wrote his First Symphony. we may well pause to view him as he soon assuredly was." giving employment to hundreds of profollowing his profession in the chief centre of life — — musical fessors of all ranks . and which he dedicated to Prince von Lobkowitz. 19. six string Quartets (F.

although they did not always succeed in accomplishing this. 1 for instance. and rendered magnificent returns for the little they received. would not be greatly missed. Imagine for a moment what the score of a new symphony or opera by Beethoven would fetch nowadays Impelled by their love of music for music's sake. Schubert. On one occasion during a rehearsal. The keynote ence for his art — of Beethoven's professional as ingenuity. who could think and do nothing concerning and involving his art that was not ?ioly. Lobkowitz. weightiest point of all. times than of the individuals. although the latter paid dearly for it. and Beethoven worked on content if they could pay their way and exist in peace. men like Bach.—— " ! Reverence for Music when they arrived. hazarded the little joke that a " third bassoon player. Patrons in those days certainly did yeoman service for the musicians. his patron. who had absented himself without permission.^ although this was more the fault of the But. the music had to be composed before it could be performed before patrons . per hour for lessons . the remuneration paid was scandalous considering the calibre of the musicians. however. and to this fortunate fact. No one man ever worshipped at Music's shrine more devoutly than did the Bonn master. whether such was the outcome of ignorance or —which. life was reverhe comprehended and expounded it. He could not endure the semblance of a slight to true music. was paid 8 groschen —g^d. were frequently faulty . as the "first" * Haydn. we owe nearly every one of Beethoven's compositions.

the — forthcoming he rose up. and shouted out. and play all manner of gambols at which he laughed heartily. it required pressing and reiterated Before he began entreaties to get him to the instrument. Joke or no joke. where Beethoven and Ries were engaged in yet during which one of the guests playing a duet — — started asperated Exhonour. draw his fingers along the key-board. glared at the pair. "was most brilliant and striking.— Beethoven and "second" bassoonists were already in their places. Beethoven rose up. He demanded absolute silence from conversation whenever he put his If this was not fingers upon the pianoforte keys to play. he knew how to pro- 13a . at others not." Czerny us. he used sportively to strike the keys with the palm of his hand. Once at the pianoforte and in a genial mood with his surroundings. he ran to the prince's residence and bellowed as loud as he could up the courtyard. " Ass of a Fool of a Lobkowitz " Lobkowitz ! ! At the pianoforte Beethoven seemed a god at times in humour to play. If he happened not to be in the humour. Beethoven was furious. his artistic — entreated by the company. in earnest. he would extemporise for one and two hours at a stretch amid the solemn silence of his listeners. from one end to the other. As soon as the rehearsal was over. and left the room. tells " His improvisation. although earnestly an animated conversation at such an affront to with a lady. This mode of resenting a nuisance one not yet extinct was once illustrated at Count Browne's. " I play no more for such hogs " nor would he touch another note or allow Ries to do so. in whatever company he might chance to be. publicly upbraided the offenders.

Beethoven's last Grand Piano. bv Graf. Vienna .


night-time as it was. had an extraordinary effect upon me. . the variety of treatment. — without the provoked Beethoven. —so slightest idea of its being carried into As some * satisfaction for the indignity offered ^ him. that he became quite enraged and obstinately refused a compliance which he considered would be an act of servility. the 236. Even the Abb6 Vogler's admirers were compelled to admit as much. xi. into loud sobs. to the next town."^ " No artist that I ever heard came at all Ries says near the height Beethoven attained in this branch of The wealth of ideas which force themselves playing. he was on one occasion so urgently pressed to perform before the stranger guests. He writes: "It was in 1798 when I was studying law. uttered. travelling post. the difficulties were inexhaustible. p. and thence. v. no doubt. ' : . lo. that giant among players came to Prague. while many would ^ . that. that Beethoven. A threat that he should be confined a prisoner to the house. for there was wonderful in his expression in p' t addition to the beauty and originality of his ideas and his spirited style of rendering them. hurried to Vienna. . xi.As duce such not an eye break out something Pianist an effect upon every hearer that frequently remained dry. v. he ran off. . felt so shaken that for several days I could not bring myself to touch the piano. on him. Thayer. ." During his summer residence at the seat of a Maecenas. Thayer. execution. His grand style of playing."^ Tomaschek was greatly impressed by Beethoven. the caprices to which he surrendered himself. and especially his bold imI provisation. upwards of three miles. p.

^ as there invariably was either smiled in derision or adopted a feigned uncon- — — Not infrequently sciousness of the expression of approval. p. but occasionally." tells us that his frequent enthusiastic expressions of — — — ^ The explanation of this sort of behaviour on the part of some is musicians here and there the late difficult to offer. bust of his patron became an expiatory sacrifice. who was a veritable genius on the organ and harmonium. the pedal largely and was most particular in the placing of the hands and the drift of the fingers upon the keys. All who knew well Augustus L. will remember that he suppUed quite a modern parallel to Beethoven in his eccentric reception of recognition and applause upon his really extraordinary performances. v. Such appreciation he pretended to regard as uncalled for. and especially when extemAt extreme porising. comment upon his admirers' wonder was this " We artists His manner was don't want tears. on such occasions he was right down rude to the grateful appreciative auditors whose emotions had been so moved by his impressive playing. xi. shattered into fragments. from the bookcase to the floor. When there was applause on the part of his listeners he generally made a grimace."^ commanding his to sit in a quiet way at the instrument feelings.Beethoven It fell. it was hard to maintain the pose. or he construed it Thayer into an indication of simplicity and weakness. 13. As a pianist. his playing of slow movements was full of the greatest He used expression an experience to be remembered. Tamplin. he was surnamed " Giant among players. moments he warmed into great passions so that it was impossible for him to hide from his listeners the sacred Czerny declares that fires that were raging within him. 2 Thayer. Mr . we want applause.

which. and Woelffl. v. but as Sir George Grove aptly says in speaking of Beethoven's tours de force in performance. in which it is well known that his strength did not lie. and teaching the theory of music. greatest repugnance for the exactions of tutorial work. or. Kockel says: "He had an aversion to the enforced performance of regular duties. but. especially in such profitable directions as the Lichnowskys. the Archduke Rudolph. and the remark. "it was no quality of this kind that got him the name. Not that he was cut out for the drudgery of teaching."^ That he was a good teacher when he cared to exert himself in this direction." Grove. all in vain She gave up with a sigh. 169. we know from the testimony and example of his pupil Ries." Do what she would. Time after time she rebuked and expostulated with him. for any irksome routine task. were of a truth great players.As Teacher and men like Vogler. . Madame Breuning could not prevail upon him to keep his teaching engagements necessary as the money for them was to him. This must often insensible to any fault of polish or have jeopardized his position with his pupils. but one and all gave way to him. Hummel. and others . and for which he had to prepare himself. but the his loftiness — and elevation of his style and his great power of expression in slow movements. and overlooked his uncertainty of temper and intractableness generally. fixed his hearers and made them mere mechanism. " He is again in his raptus'' That he was conscientious enough when imparting in- — — ! * " Dictionary of Music and Musicians. i. etc. indeed. transposing and playing at sight. when exercised on his own noble music. to which he only resorted to He had the provide himself with the necessaries of life. especially to giving lessons. p.

exaltmg. Giannastasio that he rapped the Archduke Rudolph's knuckles probably because he did not. — — — — signified it to the enthusiastic lover of his art. finger correctly. that is to say. however. Scarcely had the last morsel of his meal been swallowed. were budding. from the earliest dawn till dinner-time. or hailed.Beethoven struction. than a ramble an exercise that had a wonderful influence the fields — on ry . but it must be remembered that the master was double the age of the pupil. realised all that • was grand. the whole of Beethoven's morning. or the thermometer stood an whether Boreas blew a inch or two below freezing point or whether chilling blast from the Bohemian mountains. He ^^' could it. and forked lightnings played. as one entranced. or snowed. When composing. Whether it rained. he took his usual walk. ^ ^ u j and mspirmg. it was keep 136 . what the thunder roared. as if haunted by bailiffs. we may be sure . his ^1 inspiration. if the composer had no more distant excursion in view for the day. in whose genial mind. to his score-paper. he ran in double quick time. and indite themes his invariable habit to j x which are imperishable. alone with awful. r . twice round the town. the rest of the day was devoted to thought and the arrangement of his ideas. In such moods he would sit down under a tree. than. perhaps. When he was not at the pianoforte. commune • with Nature. or would not. Beethoven and. pupils must have had He himself told Fraulein a bad time of it with him. indeed. was employed in the mechanical work of writing . at the very moment when the elements were in fiercest conflict. the harmonious feelings of a in balmy spring ? Nothing suited Beethoven better.

Manner of Composing once Baden. and allowed to of his master-mind. as the interminable machinery interlocks its wools and cottons. Pastoral. this way and that." were exAn " idea " a primordial germ which tremely useful. remain. every is com- manner of writing a matter of peculiar interest. wenn ich am componiren bin. would be worked up into glade No pains were too great to a vast harmonial movement. and work as my thoughts guide The Eroka. und arbeite nach dem[I always have an ideal in my thoughts selben. 137 . as they occurred to him. extended it. Unlike Schubert. for the matter of that. who wrote on the spur of the moment on any scrap of paper at hand the back of a bill of fare would do so long as it enabled him to get his ideas out Beethoven adopted a deliberate and serious of himself method of transmitting to paper the glorious emanations What he wrote down. among many. iii. at the master's will. while rambling in the fields near Beethoven's poser's —and. ideas which. may have been gathered in the seclusion of some forest this. 343.] examples. was the result of a slow reasoning process and His stores of musical memoranda severe inward working. in his mind's eye a picture to which he worked." ^ when I am composing. p. an opus to add until at last it grew into a work of art — — — — — 1 Thayer. "Ich habe immer ein Gemalde in meinen Gedanken. of compositions which owe their character and titles to the custom mentioned. stock. The musical notes and were constantly requisitioned. He said to Neate. bestow upon the smallest idea culled from his pocket-book Then Beethoven thrashed it out. v. he regularly recorded and preserved in his " Sketch-books. weaved it over and under. and Battle Symphonies are me.

and Beethoven — — — 138 . and frequently touching and retouching. Beethoven differed from Mozart in this respect. we decide not. but he found it convenient to persistently clear the intellectual atmosphere to get his thoughts down on paper as quickly as — possible in order to make room for the new ideas. that he regularly carried these " Sketch-books. able. as it And what is most remarkwere. because no two minds think alike in these things. Great composers or for the matter of that composers generally do not make good conductors. or Mozart's more mental plan is the one for composers to follow. He was ever under the strain of severe musical argument. they both sprang from acute mental reasoning. to make.Beethoven more glory self to his immortal fame. perfection more perfect. and whether Beethoven's more material method. He set down his ideas or sub- always and worked them out then and there bestowing immense pains to express himself at his best. which so incessantly crowded upon his fertile imagination. The latter carried all his ideas in his and worked them out completely head before committing them to paper. Beethoven adopted another course. and are not really far separated after all." which he could thus develop. of wondrous variety and quality. so that he might never be at a loss for an idea if he wanted one. the longer he worked at his phrases. jects. It is not right to infer from this dissimilarity in working that Beethoven was less a mental engineer than Mozart. It was to provide him- with "subjects. — It is difficult to distinguish between the advantages of the processes. Though the methods of working of these two great composers appear so opposite." of which we shall say more. the more seemingly spontaneous did they become.

The r d t him were obliged to expression required by the most violent gesticulations. When Beethoven's deafness increased. he looked of gigantic stature. when his hand should have been up. exacting and His whole body was utilised to effects extravagant. no part of him remained inactive. as if out of an abyss and when the full force of the united instruments broke upon the ear.As Conductor Unlike Mendelssohn. and. making himself smaller and smaller until when a pianissimo was reached. and at that passage in the opening Allegro where Buonaparte is being portrayed in thundering riot so lost himself and confused the players that he had to stop the work and start afresh from the opening. in loudness. . it was productive . * In 1804 he was conducting the Eroica Symphony. so did he gradually rise up.^ Thus. indicate the . and constantly laboured to depict the exact he desired. with both his arms floating about in undulating motion. who thought only of his own composition. and as deafness and quickness of temper overtook him he grew — more overbearing. seemed as if he would soar to the At a sforzando he suddenly tore his arms apart. raising himself on tiptoe. who was no exception to the rule. clouds. when the passage was loud he often beat time A downwards. and at a sudden forte gave out a great shout. and the entire man could only be compared to 2l perpetuum mobile. he seemed to slink As the sounds increased beneath the conductor's desk. could conduct and had the rare temper to win forces and Beethoven ruled and cominfuse them with his spirit manded his players as a drover does his herd. diminuendo he was in the habit of marking by contracting his person. performers under avoid being led astray by the impetuosity of the master. He was all motion.

soon corrected himself. his eye afforded him assistance. had followed with anxious eyes every motion of Beethoven. The tragi-comical incident took place at Beethoven's last " Beethoven concert at the Theatre " An der Wien " was playing a new Pianoforte Concerto of his. however. and was leading also in the notes When therefore the fatal sforzando of the piano part. but of the cases. they could now 140 . When pleased with the work of his orchestra he liked to give a thunder- most powerful ing " Bravi tutti.Beethoven ought to have descended. of frequent mischief. and springing up began to direct in his usual way." Spohr tells an amusing story of Beethoven as a conductor. accident would occur at the same passage. and Beethoven was so incensed at this disturbance. came he received from Beethoven's out-thrown right hand so smart a blow on the mouth that the poor boy let fall The other boy. the lights from terror. but forgot at the first tufti that he was a solo player. In many fortes he could make nothing. unable to restrain their laughter before. and by stooping suddenly at the eventful moment he If the public were avoided the slap on the mouth. that he made the orchestra cease playing and Seyfried. One of the boys innocently approached nearer. for he watched the movements of the bows. audience laughed. more cautious. fearing that a repetition of the begin anew. At the first sforzando : — he threw out his arms so wide asunder that he knocked The both the lights off the piano upon the ground. bade two boys of the chorus place themselves on either side of Beethoven and hold the lights in their hands. for his hand would go up when it He contrived to set himself right again most easily in the piano passages. and thus discovering what was going on.

We arrive now at something of a landmark the date (1800) from which Beethoven's works were composed in regular succession and when they can be considered. page 186."^ less. 1^ \ (88-. Every endeavour of the real lovers of music to restore calm and attention was for the moment fruitless. ^ — Autobiography. under the years to which they belong. ^ Adagio violto."^). therefore. that at the first chords of the solo half a dozen strings broke. 141 . From that fatal evening Beethoven would not give another concert. The " First "^ Symphony was first performed on April 2nd.' First ' Symphony and broke out into a regular bacchanalian Beethoven got into such a rage. much roar. The first Allegro of the Concerto was therefore lost to the pubUc.

^3 j=i=t^ I I ^S3S: -i-i. so that the time. ' Adagio. though such an impression fades away in face of the fact that Mozart Andante cantabilt con moto. 142 . its composer was in his thirtieth year at Towards the end of 1801 it was pubHshed/ and to those ordinary effort for a who have heard it. # ^i=:^==1: —livza: V -^- n^ &c. (120 — j'^). * (63 "5: V. m. . Leipzig. Menuetto.-i If f^^-r*^ I &c. :^ ^ By Hoffmeister & Kuhnel. (108 —C2). ^^ISEg^^^^g^ Finale. Allegro molto e vivace. it may appear an extraman of his years.I.Beethoven 1800.

2 2 Oboes Clarinets in C 2 2 2 Bassoons Horns in C Trumpets in C 2 2 in 1st Drums Violins . to be accentuated when than forty-five symphonies by the Nor is this aspect of the matter it is had composed fifteen years. op. If the evidence of several is to be trusted it was by (88 —d ). the present score will always command the admiration of the great body of musicians and amateurs who delight in the orchestral glories which the if master has prepared for them. is^i^i ^ The C Minor. Major. dedicated to the Philharmonic Society. C and G and 2nd Violas . and scored for the following instruments ^ C Flutes . 11. on no other grounds. dedicated to Baron van Swieten. sketches and exercises of 1795 Allegro molto e vivace. 21. his first remembered that Mendelssohn symphony ^ at the early age of As the first ^ of Beethoven's "immortal nine" Symphonies. .* First ' Symphony less Scoring had composed no time he was thirty-one. Violoncello e Contrabasso 143 . In op.

i^^^^Y^'l^ ^^^ OSaiS^aW/ fit ^ .

increased its speed. probably partly because of the inperformance. originality of ideas. space forbids us entering. indeed. and out of a mere dance tune produced a Sc/ierzo. but requires no access of style or spirit to become the equal of those great movements which form such remarkable features in his later symphonies. in as much as he " forsook the spirit of the minuet of his predecessors. Who. before him had possessed the temerity to hurl at artistic sense and reason an unprepared dominant 7th chord on C to open a composition in the key of C No wonder a wisehead dismissed the score as "a caricature of Haydn pushed to absurdity." ^ The autograph of this Sym- — ^ " Beethoven and his Nine Symphonies" (Grove) p. C Symphony. but one built up on those studied substantial lines on which Beethoven worked from the first. It or much suffice might be written of to say that tration. orchesmodulation and inner working it is essentially for Beethoven himself. Its Muiuet and Trio must have proved a revelation at any rate to the pedagogues. At its initial public production the work attracted favourable notice. into Beethoven's this several scores. 10." Yet of determined stuff was its composer made. broke through its formal and antiquated mould. must conception. and to this originality of thought and other fine aspects of his superlative genius the world owes the true Beethoven. and partly because the composer was " suspected " by the musical authorities. ^ 145 . either critically or analytically. which may need increased dimensions. Un! ! — happily.A little Revelation no means a spontaneous effort. But what a different blow he gave them on this occasion That he was bent on breaking the bonds of academical propriety was no longer in doubt on the sound of the very first chord of this symphony.

Called in England Engedi.. and highest examples in this form. op. 37.Beethoven phony ducats is unfortunately it the price at which lost. * Its first hearing in England was under Sir George Smart. . thus providing in this respect. the six Quartets already referred to. but to the story of David no better purpose. the original book. efifort. . when the Lenten Oratorio performances were taking place at Drury Lane Theatre. November 1804. op. viz.£io. and published by the Bureau des Arts et d'Industrie. stands The original German title of the Mount of Olives^ oratorio was "Christus am Oelberge. and Bassoon. Several English versions have appeared the best is that by the Rev. 85. though not in quality. a new libretto. Horn.* at a concert in the An „ ^ First played by Beethoven himself in 1800. Troutbeck. Its initial performance took place on April 5th. : 146 . Chorus and Orchestra.For Violin. just inadequately discussed was not the To it also belongs the C only composition of this year. 1814. the famous Septet for strings and wind. the Prometheus music. 20 —. Contrabass. Tenor. strangely." and. Bass. Clarinet. but the world has a record of was offered to the publisher. on February 25. Viola. it was Beethoven's first vocal production on a large scale. Vienna. Written for Soprano. The Symphony worthily ranks at the The Concerto^ is for among the head of works of its pianoforte and orchestra. Violoncello. minor Concerto. and other lesser works. the Mount of Olives oratorio. 3 First played at the composer's benefit concert in 1800. with in the wilderness replacing.^ a magnificent spontaneous order. a parallel to Fidelio in opera. 43. op. op. effort which Beethoven made in the oratorio form. 20 . J. at Vienna. while the Septet. is the only j^ ^. 1803. r -^ .

M7 . "a monstrous anomaly." ^ Sir George Grove introduces us to a pleasing story in connection with the first performance of the Prometheus music 1 "Dictionary of Music and Musicians. The Prometheus Ballet music." Ibid.Prometheus Music der Wien Theatre. and certainly can never rank among the great examples of that form mainly on account of the ex- — travagant character of the libretto. however. it barely deserves the name.^ vol. an overture. was reproduced three times by various concert-givers in the space of the twelve months following its first hearing." ^ When the Divinity is made to sing a trying solo. brought out at the Burg Theatre on March 28. the extremes of absurdity and blasphemy appear to be reached. Beethoven. i. introduction. In his article on " Beethoven. Considered as an oratorio. and sixteen numbers. By its long run of performances in 1801. Beethoven is supposed to have appreciably benefited his exchequer. The setting of this libretto is the only blot on Beethoven's musical character. 553. was at once acclaimed a success. ' p. we have learnt. 1800. inasmuch as at this time he took healthier and more expensive lodgings in the Sailerstatte. until one's feelings positively rebel. As music per se^ the Mount of Olives is entrancingly beautiful. possessing as it does all the freshness of Beethoven's first style. It is. 180. was not very orthodox in his religious procedure. vol. p. so much so that its composer set to work and issued it as a pianoforte solo. which seems to be should be most penitential. and in this work this is well reflected. and again in the following year. where it that the work commanded such notice. and join with others in an exhibition of unctuous it most humorous where thirds and sixths. as the late Mr Rockstro described it. ii.

" This unnecessary allusion seems to have startled the old man. with an Andante con Variazioni. and it pleased me much. "You are right. " Cranz. and after an instant's pause. and the Quintet in C.^ also that much of the romance that has gathered . 27. and meeting Beethoven the next day. and everyone acquainted with these works will be agreed that whatever was lacking here in quantity is more than atoned for in quality. said." page 72. Every pianoforte player knows them so well that It remarks concerning them would be supererogatory. These sonatas are the one in A flat. and I hardly think it ever will be. 27. ! — — — 1 " The Men of Prometheus " is the title The autograph score is lost. op. that it was published in March 1802.Beethoven Haydn had attended the concert. the two one in E flat. while op." 2 dedicated to Joseph Edlen von Sonnenfels.^ 1 80 1 brought to light four important works. 26. may not be out of place to observe in respect to the second of the sonatas forming op. "you are too good but it is no Creation by a long way. or "Moonlight" Sonata as it has come to be called . — 148 . 28.' was the reply. he said." " O lieber Papa'. the other the charming " Sonata quasi una Fantasia" in C sharp minor. 2 8 is the one in D the "Pastoral. the Pianoforte Sonatas ops. It Quite a is no Creation." case of diamond cut diamond It can be said oi Prometheus. and is dedicated to the Countess Giulietta Giucciardi. of the English editioiiv this Sonata. however^ that it was the only ballet that had ever been performed in the concert-room for the sake of the music alone. " I heard your new Ballet last night. and containing that majestic " Funeral march on the death of a Hero. the Hamburg publisher." dedicated to Prince Carl von Lichnowsky. 29. so named 5 See " Beethoven the Man.

and is as and free as any work that ever fell from the master's pen. while another ^ in | time- well illustrated in the Finale. namely. that of availing himself of every theoretical ingenuity. This quintet. being the chief outcome. There were causes which explain this. and when he was in that state of mental and physical depression that led him to The 2 No." dated Heiligenstadt. one part in say f time.— Second ' ' Symphony round the work is wholly fictitious. / ~" ^ &c. is entirely for strings. 2 The use of is mix jd measures -is i.- year 1802 was not very fruitful. i6. asserts itself constantly in this work. Another remarkable characteristic of op. iigliP^ 149 . 3 fresh. pour forth that almost heart-breaking epistle. Beethoven's. op. 30. It was at this time that Beethoven's deafness began to be really serious.e. a great favourite with Monday Popular Concert audiences. October 6th. Adagio molto. t :^^ A Fagotti. his so-called " Will. It probably derived its imaginary title from a critic ^ likening its first movement to a boating experience on the Lake of Lucerne by moonlight. striking. like and unlike op. mm ^ • Oboi. the Symphony and the Sonatas for Piano and Violin. This Second Symphony ^ belongs to the composer's 1 Rellstab. Most admirers of Beethoven's chamber music are familiar with the Quintet in C.

still ^ -^ education were when the restraints of bridling him neverthe. earlier productions. (92 Vni. P t=^^F-^_==-^f:=^ -o* \-0^ < &C. oo — «5l). 1-^^ Scherzo t=x i£3=i (icxD and Trio. fire of his imaginative genius.Beethoven ^j. ^^eee. it literally teems with the satisfactory as was the ( i state of his mind and body at Alleg7-o con brio. —d). Pf -SI—~ 15° . From first to last there is not a tinge of suffering reflected in its glowing pages. f^&c. Un- ^ ^ less. . . —J^). Allegro. tr lug &c. Larghetto.

36. ( 1 52 — of). ^mt^EESE^ /^/ tr w In % 2 2 &c. while in fancy and vigour the Scherzo and Trio would be difficult to beat even in Beethoven himself. it is more orthodox than some of his later writings. op. dedicated to Prince Carl Lichnowsky. -I :&:^ D Major.— ' Second ' Symphony Scoring is apparent throughout the and vivid a concepDistinctly a great tion as Beethoven ever perfected. Drums Violins in D A and 2nd Violas Violoncello e Contrabasso 151 . the opening bars of which are appended. score — not a vestige of this the whole effort being as fresh Allegro molto. and Flutes scored for the following instruments Oboes Clarinets in A Bassoons 2 2 2 2 2 1st Horns in D Trumpets in D and . both in extent and treatment. The work made its first appearance at the concert already alluded to when the Mount of Olives this time. Nothing could be more beautiful than its Larghetto in A major. advance upon the Symphony in C.

Beethoven appears to us as he has never shown himself No stronger landBeethoven the Ungoverned. the sonatas of Beethoven for the pianoforte and the " Kreutzer. more or less beyond comprehension. 3 of which is fairly familiar to English audiences. poetic import that it and is ensemble^ generally. C minor. it may be. violin. dedicated to Alexander Emperor of Not altogether henceforth. It was generally disliked. on the whole. and inferior to the Symphony in This is not the opinion to-day. is unanimously pronounced the finest. In this composition. though not perhaps the greatest of the set. wealth of beauty. a reservation which cannot be made regarding the three Sonatas in A. the most interesting. that is by the critics. and strength have won for it the reputation of being. before — mark stands out along the composer's this artistic I.out.Beethoven was produced. for pianoforte and violin." so called. fire. belonging to this year. and given us in these Sonatas a trinity of undisputable individualism. course than opus 30. and that it is the most effective is all Of 152 . the while. who found it to be too abstruse. but for Russia. Beethoven has parted company with Haydn and Mozart. convince the music from one who has penetrated That logical a new and hitherto unexplored sphere. Beethoven was still not quite Beethoven in this Symphony. and is so emphatic that opus 30 may surely be pointed at as the moment when Beethoven finally threw off the restraint of influence and became hearer his real self in composition.. wherein the working . development of every idea which forms such a remarkable feature in the pure Beethoven is strikingly apparent in these Sonatas. and G major. No. when its abounding C.

It was this probably that commended him to the composer. piano Sonatas. was so admired that there was an unanimous demand for an encore. Beethoven had originally intended to dedicate this work to Bridgetower. yet literally teem with Beethoven points and characteristics. and although Beethoven had to fill in the piano part as he went along. However. . who per^. if we are to credit the story. and E flat Nos.' Kreutzer ' Sonata This Sonata in A.u j^ » * posed specially for Bridgetower." as the violinist was nicknamed. 16. and rewarded the publisher with no more opportunities of publishing for — — him. with its blots and blurs. op. Bridgetower's name was erased from the title. That the "Abyssinian Prince. with Beethoven at the piano. the composer stormed and raved as only he could. on the 17th May 1803. belongs to the year 1803. must have been a puzzler. especially of the Andante. Vienna. D minor. 47. with three equally admitted. his playing. so that the composer could not have been very deaf at this time. 17. all went well. and the name substituted which it will now bear as long as music lasts. and protege ot George IV. formed it at a concert in the Augarten Hall. it was little more than an accident which has given Kreutzer his immortality. Naturally. 31. which. Nageli of Zurich was the original publisher who took upon himself to interpolate four bars into Beethoven's music in the G sonata. and so published it. There is little doubt that it was com. and * These are the Sonatas in G. Bridgetower played from the autograph. and 18 in the Peters' edition which if simple as works.^ Strangely enough. Before the sonata was finished. however. op. the black fiddler. the composer and violinist had a quarrel about a young lady. performed not indiiferently is also evident.

at was completed in August. t S-g-S^-g: / £gi^-4=-[- 5=fc:& :^^ &c. The " Eroica " ^ was Beethoven's Third Symphony. 57. £zz& -P— 54 . 53. With 1804 three of Beethoven's especially notable that from the first it spirited Fi?iak is works of now universal fame came to light. This risky experiment of " improving " upon the original happened to come off all right. Sonatas. once more. brilliancy. the "Waldstein" op. and " Appassionata " op. replete with beauty. " Once more. not. threw his arms round his neck. the "Eroica" Symphony. 1805.& " Beethoven He at least saved him from disgrace. the whole wrought out in Beethoven's best and most ingenious manner. Beethoven rushed up to Bridgetower. our one Suffice it to say volume limit renders this impossible. and first performed privately Herr von Wiirth's house in January 1805. and pubUcly It was at the An der Wien Theatre on April 7th. as we have seen. (60 — C2! ). unfortunately. and exclaimed. my dear fellow The general plan and character of this sonata deserve a careful thematic analysis. It works — — viz. on one occasion ! bar of its Adagio sosfenuto down to its a display of ever increasing interest. and animation. its composer's original intention to Allegro con brio. but. ventured to alter one passage in Beethoven's presence.

). :^r]=:q=ss. and scored for the following instruments : Flutes 2 Oboes Clarinets . 155 2 2 . In E flat. t^£: -jm^=^:^^^ ^: r i Scherzo ^ : and Trio : Allegro vivace. V.. Finale Allegro molto. I. dedicated to Prince Lobkowitz. ±XL-- m 5^w/r^ />P :f=t=t P —W =m—pz:r-y-n:p=a=zg -J—l-l (76-c)). —^^ ). 55. * If * * * * W -- CZZHEJ^ ^ :g * * ^ &c.— ' Eroica : ' Symphony (80 Marcia fuii^bre Adagio assai... (116 — CJ. :3Sa: &c.. op.

. symphony the . the Quartets.." he says." he said. inscribe it startling — Bassoons Horns Trumpets Drums Violins . the loftiest of his utterances "Beethoven's forms. where has he led us to ? Has he opened to us a region of art more beautiful than those previously known ? Does his Ninth Symphony really afford to us. which many take to be were jealously located by Mendelssohn. studied praise and narrow criticism on Mendelssohn's 156 . the master sat down to write a special work a work wherein its composer is undoubtedly on that new road^ which he declared to his friend Krumpholz in 1802 he intended for the future In every feature it is a great advance upon to take. *' never enters my head. his instrumentation is fuller . And." scant. Violoncello Basso Mendelssohn was not of opinion that Beethoven struck out any ** new road " " the idea of a new road. All this part. . as artists. Mass in D and Ninth Symphony. even where they endeavour to assume a cheerful tone .. . "are wider and broader.. he has gone a little farther on the road of his predecessors. energy of purpose. in if not a purer feast. a higher enjoyment than most of his other Symphonies ? As far as I am concerned.." On the whole. . the composer of the Elijah was disinclined to award too high tribute to Beethoven even the last period works.Beethoven Imbued as he ever was with a as we see it. but by no means struck out into a new path. I confess openly that I do not feel it.. and 2nd Viola . . 2 3 2 2 1st . but the same. It is a feast to me to listen to that ' — — — . to be candid.. his style is more polyphonic and artistic his ideas are more gloomy and melancholy... is is prepared for me in Symphony C minor.

Its first rendering drew forth anything one going as far as to describe but favourable criticisms it as "a daring. Its great length has . judging from his note of warning that it should be played " nearer the beginning than the end of a concert. its . in which year the Concerto in G." Its famous Marcia Funebre is probably the most wonderful example of its kind . and is generally allowed to be from beginning to end the composer's " impresj. wild fantasia of inordinate length and ^ — extreme difficulty. which the composer himself seems to have anticipated. op. and composition went on at the same rapid rate as — — 157 . op. astonishing transitions.Fidelio predecessors. or stems admiration for the grand themes. It was not always so regarded however. This was the year when the French occupied Vienna though that does not seem to have greatly concerned the composer. ! tremendous tours de force exquisite revelations in melody and much more that tends to make it a dangerous rival even of the " Ninth " itself. ^ ^ ^ always attracted attention. " I'd give a kreutzer if it would stop " But its length in no degree lessens its orchestral magnificence. and if one more feature may be mentioned it is the Scherzo the humorous jovial form which Beethoven evolved out of the Minuet and to which he gave perfect shape and character as well as a permanent place in the symphony." — We come now to Fidelio or Wedded Love. 72 the product of 1805. Few landmarks in musical history are more striking than the advance shown between the D Symphony and the " Eroica. 59 saw the light. ^-. op. „ „ sions " of Buonaparte." A wit of the day attending a performance of it was heard by Czerny to exclaim. 58 and three Quartets.

Beethoven was obliged to consent. as I had Having done. like me. and unluckily I told him that the time was too short for me to learn to play it really well. the Choral Fantasia. player like myself. and said. is to show the skill of the executant in concert with an orchestra. that he could not get it ready.^ which also I had played for the first time with great credit to myself. the Choral Fantasia — and this Concerto . and that I would rather he would allow ^ ^^^ me to undertake the Concerto in C minor . whom he Stein was a pianoforte generally could not endure. and the posthu- mous Rondo in B flat. but older. The Concerto is the fourth which Beethoven Designed as it wrote for the pianoforte and orchestra. the Pianoforte adaptation of the Concerto for violin. and is memorable as perhaps the most remarkable concert ever given the programme including the C minor and Pastoral Symphonies. thus no choice left. with the composer at the piano. : — * . found to accept the proposal at once. its composer experienced not a little trouble This was his pupil with his executant in this instance. 158 . that he might play the one in C minor. and went straight to young Stein. whirled himself off. and the day before the Concert he called on Beethoven to request. the Triple Concerto. 1808. bringing his Fourth Concerto under Next Saturday you must play this his arm. Upon this Beethoven broke into a rage.— ^ Beethoven before. Ries. though not without some risk. " One day Beetwho tells the following story hoven came to me. and he was clever enough But he. ^ Beethoven wrote nine works associating pianoforte and orchestra the five Concertos proper. and the whole under his direction. 2 The concert was on December 22. There were only five at the Karnthnerthor Theatre!' days left to practise it in.

on Wednesday. of which was party Rasoumowsky second. they were studied by the celebrated string quartet maintained by Count Rasoumowsky at his palace in Vienna. Weiss the the viola. who had made so much a question which gave me the greatest effect before orchestra. limits. whether it Presented fault it was the of the theatre. *I thought that you did not wish to play the G major Concerto. Space F. 159 . at Vienna. 8th. and 9th. 1805." Fidelio However. by their being dedicated to that cultured man. since residents who might have beaten. but Beethoven took it farther and invested it with a value which makes his examples in this form stand out from all others especially in the prominence he gives which at times assumes quite symphonic to the orchestra delight. » it had fled.^ known as the *' Rasoumowsky quartets. first violin. November 20. Fidelio^ or Leonore^ Schuppanzigh played F. while Linke was first represented in the Imperial Theatre. — said to me afterwards. when the composer withdrew it. at the 'cello. or the player. He — — importance. the that the Concerto Beethoven was very much vexed. preclude adequate notice of They were the three in minor and C. E Like much of Beethoven's other string music. A more unpropitious moment for introducing the work could hardly have been selected.'" Mozart greatly modified and improved the Concerto. and weatherFrenchmen were hardly likely to 7th. and had a run of two following days. the Quartets afore-mentioned. unfortunately. the more so because he was asked on all sides why he had not allowed Ries to play. certain is made no effect. if patronised victorious.

the work for a fresh performance. By way of accomplishing revision was a serious affair. this delicate matter. 160 . changes. its true and touching expression. such as the principal air in the part of Pizarro. ideal characteristics. 3. no singer could give * The libretto of Fidelio is based upon Bouilly's Leonore." This. all failed to insure success. as originally played. keeping his temper. and on the The composer had stage the work went. defended his music inch by inch. is Beethoven's only opera . he said.Beethoven sally forth to hear a ever. while the bandsmen " bungled " their music so much that Beethoven declared it " was done on —the purpose. howwas never to be deterred. Its the great beauties of Fidelio were not appreciated. in order to discuss the necessary He Beethoven at first would not yield a jot. reducing the three acts of the opera. bar by bar. Fidelio German opera Beethoven. to two as now. ! hearsals experienced frightful difficulties in the resingers complaining that the parts were simply unsingable. its noble form and pure style. when first performed. Roeckel and Meyer. better than might have been expected. he revised tone. its elevated and impressive In 1806. however. with the authors of the new libretto^ and two celebrated singers. to which. and This using the Overture. in place of No. he wrote no second because he could not succeed in finding a libretto ^ of a sufficiently elevating and moral nature to induce him to devote himself to another work for the Unhappily. But when Meyer gave his opinion that several entire pieces must be cut out. dramatic-lyric stage. to try over the opera at his house. as is well known. 2. his friend Prince Lichnowsky invited him. No.

for which he afterwards substituted the powerful comOnce brought position which now stands in the score. the composer burst into a passion and abused the His friends at last whole company most outrageously. and patted her on the cheek. to which it gave rise. forms a concert-piece unsurpassed in the whole range of orchestral music a work which stands out from its kind. when the prince ordered supper to be brought. into a complying mood. giving us a work which. lasted from seven o'clock till two in the morning. and of art in the resources results." are associated with Fidelio. for Mdlle. and promised her another opera. smiled. known as the Beethoven Leonora.* Leonora ' Overtures effect. Beethoven became tolerably tractable. the profundity of its " — — — — expression. Beethoven had the gratification of once hearing Fidelio This was when it was rendered to his satisfaction. and sat behind the conductor so enveloped in the folds of a thick cloak that only his After the performance flashing eyes could be seen. of these No. and this laborious night was concluded with great gaiety and good humour. succeeded in pacifying him. and he agreed to give up the air. There is no doubt that upon one wrote four of them. and the disputes satisfaction of all parties. and at length everything was settled to the This trial. a unique thing unique in the grandeur of its conception. apart from any consideration of the opera. he praised the young cantatrice. are utilised power with which the highest to work out the noblest 161 L . 3 in C Beethoven lavished all the wealth of his genius. in 1822. composer was present. Those deservedly famed Overtures. Schroder. The revived at Vienna.

— Beethoven The 1806. so widely different is it from the " Eroica " and C Minor. Fl (66—J). op." fortunate. it appears to have Adagio. far As 1 as its history can be traced. despite its artistic import and worth. 1806. L. inasmuch as no sketches of the parwork have yet been forthcoming. ~~ ^^^ AlUgro vivace. P"^h-r — r-ar rt:' —'to h-d 162 . and. {80 —Q). — revised Fidelio did not occupy Beethoven alone in There were other works the VioUn Concerto in D. 61. with the curious and not infrequent contraction of his — name : " This is Sinfonia 4ta. that but for this inscription ticular its place in the great series might be seriously questioned. The top of the front page of the Fourth original manuscript of this symphony is thus Symphony inscribed in the author's hand. and the Fourth Symphony ^ issued to the world. V. Bthvn.

( 100 —d ). in March Adagio. held at Prince Lobkowitz's. A llegro vivace. the fee The for which was to be 350 florins (. 7s.— ' Fourth ' Symphony been the which the composer entered Count von Oppersdorf for a symphony. *?^i-^#^^#<^^^^i^^^ l^g. -•^zr &c. *•2=s. 6d.)first hearing of the work was at a subscription concert for result of a contract into with Beethoven's benefit. ^ # -4i-^-- t: ^ i f^^^r — r- 163 . V. I. (84 J<).£^i8. :z£: i cantabile.

from to last its ease. grace. and spontaneity. op. The composer seems to be performing a simple task "off Allegro ma non troppo. Vienna. and was . ^ B flat Major. with other of his works and yet we are told that the Vienna public of the time were indifferent to good music. and : scored for the following instruments .^ The most first striking characteristic of this is Symphony. at which it is stated his three earlier symphonies were also performed. 60. ^ By In the Bureau des Arts et d'Industrie. published in 1809. dedicated to Count von Oppersdorf. It was played at a more public concert on the 15 th November following.— Beethoven 1807. (80 —<2 ).

Happy Mood
Whether this was so, and whether it was the which he cared to go in the shape of a symphony meet his contract with Oppersdorf, must that would remain a mystery. Or, there is another theory. It might have been in the composer's mind an undesirable undertaking to follow the " Eroica " with such another heavy work as the next the C Minor without a " steadier " between them. The work of the composer will always be more or
the reel."
limit to

less the mirror of his inner self;

find the state of Beethoven's

and unquestionably we mind reflected both in this

the Concerto in D. The fact is, Beethoven was fairly at ease. His friend Breuning had quitted Bonn and settled in Vienna. "To my great comfort," he writes to Pastor Amanda, " a person has arrived here with whom I can enjoy the pleasures of society and disinterested friendship one of the friends of my youth In a letter to Wegeler he (Stephen von Breuning)." observes, " Stephen Breuning is here, and we are together almost every day ; it does me so much good to revive old He has really become a capital good fellow, not feelings. devoid of talent, and his heart, like that of us all, is

Symphony and

the right place." Beethoven, therefore, Concerto to Breuning, and it, like the Symphony, shows him in one of his most cheerful, humorous, and vigorous moods. His song is a paean of real loveliness. No trace of hesitation or studied work marks the score from beginning to end, but the whole is one long exuberant expression of all that is graceful, beautiful, and exhilarating. Lighter and less profound than the " Eroica," it undoubtedly presents the same man and mind again, only both are in a changed, happier






mood. The working-out is still Beethoven's, and there no shadow of retrogression in style it is rather something more ideal, more tenderly classical that emphasizes itself and stamps this work particularly. For a while its mighty composer seems to have set aside his burden of passionate, pent-up emotion, and given us a tone-picture which makes every heart rejoice

to feel that the fires, apt to

burn so furiously within


breast were at remote

of will

moments quenched from a fount that enabled him to speak to us with all the vivacity, and enjoyment of some youthful mind.

Where, in the Adagio^ Beethoven is passionate, it is the not of sorrow, suffering, emotion of unbounded joy Indeed, he was happy or unrealizable aspiration. His love-letters of this year prove it.^ That Beethoven's intimate friends were gratified with the surprising beauty and gaiety of the work on its first unfolding, we may be Nevertheless there were malcontents, and none assured. more heated than Weber, sixteen years his junior then Ordinary more critic and conductor than composer.



to portray his horrible experiences



dream, from which, when the slumberer awakes, the dreadful alarm is lest he was " on the road to become either a great composer, or a lunatic." *

was as of a bad,


Of one



melodies Berlioz declared that "the being


wrote such a marvel of inspiration was not a man." ^ Beethoven was engaged to the Countess Th^rese, sister of his friend Count Franz von Brunswick, in May 1806. ' Rather a bad return this for the welcome Beethoven gave Weber on their first meeting, when the former said good-humouredly, "There " you are, my man you're a deuced clever fellow God rest with you
; ;





this with a


the work of composition went on,

which must seem startling nowadays when the announcement of any new score of promise from our musicians, even once in a decade, comes quite as an The Coriolan, op. 62 and Leo7wra^ No. i Overevent. to which latter reference will tures, and the Mass in C The following year was be made later belong to 1807. even more productive since it gave us the Fifth and Sixth Symphonies, the Trios for Pianoforte, VioUn and Violoncello in D and E flat, op. 70, and the Choral

Fa7itasia^ op. 80.


" Fifth "



verily a majestic



Allegro con brio.

— o!).

Andante con moto.







is it that one is tempted doubt that one hand and brain would be J ^•^ equal to the exposition of such a prodigious , -^ •^ ^ mental and physical enterprise. But, although the autograph of the work bears no date, we know this " the most splendid symphony ever written " to be true Every bar tells us so. To sit and Beethoven work.



indeed, so massive


listen to


some theme appears only to like the far-reaching arms of the giant trees, stretch out until we seem surrounded on all sides ^\dth a gorgeous covering of innumerable forms and colourings which can only be matched by Nature when found in all her autumnal loveliness and lavishness amid the solemn loneliness of some thickly wooded scene. Surely in all music there cannot be found a work more titanically noble, more inspiring, more impelling and convincing than this subyet, on its first hearing,^ it was lime tone revelation

with rapt attention,


like a transport to





— even



the orchestra laughed at the To-day, however, it is played more







* At Beethoven's concert in the *'An der Wien" Theatre, on Thursday, December 22nd, 1808, when the "Pastoral" was also produced,





Symphony Score

quently than
revels in


any other symphony every music lover and it is of itself capable of filling a concert work that the composer ever wrote reflects so

well the master as this,^ whether

we consider




(84— <^).


* ^fr^








^ In C Minor, op. 67, dedicated to Prince von Lobkowitz and Count von Rasoumowsky, and scored for the following instruments:


If it amazed its first peror emotional characteristics. formers by the novelty of its style, it still more amazes music-lovers of to-day by reason of its poetic grandeur and transcendent qualities in every direction.


MS. from

A flat

major Sonata, Op. 26.


Little wonder that so keen a judge as Berlioz saw in a subject for ecstasy " The Symphony in C minor," he writes, " seems to us to emanate directly and solely from the genius of Beethoven. It is his inmost thought


Love Wrench
he is going to develop in it; his secret griefs, his concentrated rages ; his reveries, full of such sad heaviness, his nocturnal visions, his bursts of enthusiasm, will furnish his subject; and the forms of the melody, harmony, rhythm and instrumentation will show themthat








with power and nobleness." Happily, too, all this intellectual force



The man Beethoven is understanding to-day. Hence understood, and so are his musical manners. it is that this work has triumphed gloriously and come to be the best loved of all the composer's vast orchestral undertakings. There is no need for the master to furnish a clue to his intentions in this symphony. It is the whole

of his


experiences, his




crushings, which were to culminate in a wrench which he

Yet a voice within warned hardly dared contemplate. that the Countess Therese was not destined to be What an his. Fate was against them, though engaged. index of the end is that ominous unison phrase of four









70 for Pianoforte. (50 —J). Violin and Violoncello which were composed in 1808. op.^_f- ^ -^ —* 1^-[[ 172 . the splendid Trios in D and E flat. Allegro ma non troppo. published — in April — - and August respectively." Here we are confronted with an — ^ The engagement was put an end to by Beethoven himself in 1810. and the Countess returned him his love-letters. as limits of space compel us to do. Beethoven answered. r:\ Andante molto inoto. (66 q'). i^S^ W 7-^ -^dn-iir^-zr zHWW^^^^^^^ 0> —M^ — -<»-»-* -^-if—m—m—^—^—m — m . Thus Fate knocks at the door " ^ And how the composer keeps Fate knockmg throughout '' ! this symphony Passing by.! — — Beethoven " What do they mean ? " the composer was once asked. and dedicated to Countess Marie von Erdody we come to the Sixth Symphony the " Pastoral.

Rockstro. -:^— :S "Dictionary of Music and Musicians. ^3=g^!E4 Allegro. 292. get drenched through and through <^ -^ -^ -^ with the storm. S. down alike to every sense of Poetry and Art. ^ W. sit beside the brook. 173 . iii." "The says a man who great listening the Sinfonia "cannot see the beautiful landscape. -r^— P— m (80— Q)." ^ Without a word of warning Beethoven forsakes humanity and strikes deep into the universe of Nature in this symphony."'' peasants. (1 08 q). and give thanks to God when the rainbow first gleams in the sky. Li J-. Bassi.— Sixth most to ' ' Symphony influential extraordinary and masterpiece. =|: IP &c. dance with the <:•-// . p. He had a very passion for the country Allegro." vol. must be dead writer. Pastorale.

and scored Piccolo Major. 68. op. dedicated to Prince von Lobkowitz and Count for the following instruments : 2 ." performed Allegretto. when this in the was announced collections of Country Life. 1 :e^: -jo t-' fe^F Flutes — : -xsli 32! In Rasoumowsky. All this brought to his strenuous life that change and retirement that he loved so well. Viola. and in the present score we get in no mean form the impressions which such rural experience afforded him.— Beethoven — F and its fields and lanes resonant with the matchless music of the feathered wildlings. &c. 1 » ^ ' \\ p I gJ= -<-^^-i-f I— | dolce. ^ m •m ^ Clar. ^ it Indeed. Symphony^ was first programme as " Redisplayed The panorama (60— J).

It furnishes us with one of those extremely rare occasions when Beethoven deigned to give any clue to his musical intent. Like all except to be on " all fours " with his his writings. Beethoven was above such commonplace craft but actual soul. the intent of which was invariably known only to the composer himself. the Pastoral Symphony * ' — although the world ' is slowly unravelling it all. and it may be that the most formidable item in the account refers to the 'Pastoral Symphony. " The world.'" Beethoven's contemporaries were not all admirers and adherents. Thus he prefaced this work with the warning that it was a record of impressions rather than a representation of facts. and it is unlikely that he would have done so critics. expression and emotion. with all of which scenes the illustrious musician was lovingly familiar. That he has here depicted them with unerring fideUty and in grandly complete colouring is attested by the unanimous voice of all civilised countries. (d) Scene by the brook (andante) . 175 . (d) Storm and Tempest (allegro) . (c) Merry gathering of the country people (allegro) . Blithe and thankful feelings after the tempest (allegretto) . in this instance is no mere word-painting.' Pastoral ' Symphony is (a) The awaking of cheerful feelings on arriving in the country (allegro) . to Beethoven the actual is not persevering a struggle imitate sounds and objects of Nature great but rather to inspire the feelings which a storm or tair landscape would evoke within us. In the in ' Pastoral ' therefore. "owes much to Beethoven." we have been told. so that he was ever cautious not to overreach nimself or lay himself open to the charge of attempting something that he did not fulfil. (e) Herdsmen's song . or illustration of concrete things.

colour. and treatment atmosphere. the unaffected and natural theme of the "cheerful imtotally How different this delightful pressions movement " : . the beating of hail.— — Beethoven This was exterior the legitimate relationship it of his art to things. theme work is from anything that preceded it is known to every lover of the master. Save the terror and amazement compelled by the Storm. are all vividly obvious. the discordant cries of terrified creatures.^-^1 ^— : 0- ^^^EL which affords here the opening of the movement the mental impression caused by the murmur of the brook : The third movement covers the grandest of all tem- pests recorded in music. Here is the entire symphony is sweet simplicity itself. the roll of thunder. The flash of lightning. Most striking. 176 . and beyond in Beethoven would not move.

es the and proper expression of gratitude and M .' Pastoral gradual ' Symphony of uproar after the tre- too. ^E^^ C7v • Pgg fit ^iS 177 y^<^^ then com. Charmingly is the idea their strident voices. hitherto silent. is the cessation mendous climax in which the trombones. lift up of a return to calm and sunshine brought home to Ob. -f:^— H^^^g pS^JM^-gk^gg^^ After a while the villagers can emerge from their places of shelter &c.

fc until the :i=45: work concludes in an ideal Heaven. Notwithstanding the extreme simplicity of the always excepting musical means employed throughout the Tempest scene despite the fact that there is no in the slow — — exertion after scholarship — and learned contrapuntal show all of which may be . and long aftenvards. especially movement. When Beethoven produced it on that memorable cold December day in albeit the way to present a sort of programme 178 . said to be the technical speciaHty of the " Pastoral " his composer had gone out of of the music this beautiful work at its first performance. stood. failed to arouse enthusiasm. It was even sneered at in Germany and a set — of parts exist containing extraordinary excisions. objected to — it met with tardy acknowledgment. — Beethoven thanksgiving for escape from the terrible possibiUties of such an outburst of Nature's power i -==^ :t5: :=l?5: 3^3f >*: &c. to show that its mutilation even was considered necessary before it could be fitly placed before the comprehension of an old-time London musichearing audience. This is to be particularly wondered at in the case of a brilliant work where an exception to the usual treatment meted out to the master's works on their Yet appearance might presumably have been expected. The " Pastoral " was neither appreciated nor underno.. The yet at popularity of this first Symphony is now boundless.

1820). there was one friendly auditor only. The year 1809 proved ^ . the most remarkable." Three years later it was performed in London ^ and subsequently (June 5. The battles of Aspern and second French occupation of Vienna. in his life: Business . he devoted such time and thought to business matters that an arrangement was come to with Messrs Breitkopf & Hartel henceforth to 1809 was a stormy Wagram had led up to the . the Quartet in E flat the tenth op. perhaps. and of the vast intellectual strides which have been made during this Victorian . — 179 . 74. One man at least was not dismayed. " be listened to by Yet enthusiasts without some feeling of impatience. so that the Austrians could make no further head against Napoleon. It is one more nineteenth century can well be thankful. the Philharmonic Society maimed and performed it. 78.• -^v ^ usmce he was not only active with his pen. Again it was condemned by The Harmonicon was then the critics and hearers alike. The Concerto fifth the — op. Hanover Square Rooms May 27. tions. year. 1 publish for him. what was rare with him. This was Beethoven. . the Pianoforte Sonata in F sharp. for Pianoforte and Orchestra in E flat 73. era — especially in the direction of music." " a series of repetithe Symphony. musical organ. op. but." We of the ending to-day every bar of it is appreciated. Count Vielhorsky. and ^ At Mrs Vaughan's Benefit concert." and "could only. instance of our improved times.— Fresh Publisher t8o8. 1811." forsooth. and its writers also long found fault with It was " too long.. in the scanty audience ! The master's grandly- rounded conception was " caviare to the general.

Violin. in B flat. This Society bought the Overtures " Ruins of Athens. " Les Adieux. and Violoncello. First performed on February 9. op. so that the fruits of this year in" Seventh " and " Eighth " Symphonies. Overture and nine numbers." op. he journeyed a good deal. composiCarlsbad. and some small military pieces. — — 181 1 Beethoven spent the summer at Toplitz. when Mendelssohn. all belong to this year.^ the Quartet in F minor the eleventh In op. 84.Beethoven the lovely Sonata. and he was ordered the baths of Bohemia. ' for. and Linz. Words by Kotzebue. 1812 was again a busy year. First performed in England at the Philharmonic Society's Concert of July 8. had brought over MS. Withal. op. the " Ruins of Athens. X8l2. 97 . no traces of external discomfort mark any single bar. The following year brought forth the music to Goethe's tragedy oi Egmont^ op. who conducted. and will readily endorse our statement that whatever disturbing influences were at work in Vienna when Beethoven completed these delightful compositions. 181 2. Though Beethoven's health was bad. copies of the " Ruins of Athens " with him. 95 . on February 9. 8 1 a. Franzensbrunn. with some lesser works. 15s. tion ^ performed May 24. 117."^ op." and op.^78. and the Sonata for Pianoforte and Violin. and more. 1844." " King Stephen. TAbsence. Every admirer of Beethoven's music is familiar with them. et le Retour. the opening of the New Theatre at Pesth. visiting Toplitz. 96. op. First 2 "5. Produced at For Chorus and Orchestra. 113. the "King Stephen"^ music. 1810. 180 . clude the went on apace. and the world became the richer by the Trio for Pianoforte.

Hii^ f\ Vivace.-m- J- ^ ^ . -3. ^^f\ i :p--ti= Ob. the " Pastoral. (100— J).^ — \ J). Poco sostennto. ^ jfit :t:|=:t= tit :t t:tt: tt -1= :tr m p ift: -•- -i^-. . Fl.-•!-0.-•!.^ Seventh ' Symphony " Seventh " Symphony ^ is another of those matchmasterpieces which lend their brilliant dramatic qualities and beauty to make Beethoven's name immortal.-W-.-m." The less and ^ truly the effluxion of (63 time shows its traces here.-m.• -0. \ \ u it -•si- fV ^ X I -f//> &c. • -3. Some four years separate it from its predecessor.

Corni. an authority than Sir George Grove has already set down " It is not in any innovation on a similar reading of it. that the greatness of the 'Seventh' Symphony consists. but in the originality. Fag." says this great judge.- s^ -? I -T- ^^-i -- Bassi. no less Beethoven's " Romantic " Symphony. I F -^1-—^ i^m i I -«'- 1 182 . required an identifying title. in 8va. i^g^iffll^igli^ Vni Va: / \-.Beethoven Beethoven if it is in his Romantic mood. so that this creation. power. (Ii6— Q). PI P LJ ^v^ -^: 'f-f- Presto. Fl. form. " or on precedent of arrangement. (88—J^). :orni. might well be christened Indeed. and beauty Allegretto. vivacity.

. op." p. Contrabasso ^ ** . : 2 Oboes Clarinets in A Bassoons Horns in A Trumpets in . Drums Violins in A and E .. and in a certain new and romantic character of sudden and unexpected transition entitle its • which pervades it. I Til -^ '^i'^ i ff 1 r -•S^.. . 2 2 2 2 2 2 1st ' . dedicated to Count von Fries.. . 'i:... . 183 ... . (8o Q). D . as companions are to be called the Heroic and the it ' ' * ' Pastoral. 92. and scored for the following instruments Flutes .' " ^ Allegro con brio. and 2nd Viola Violoncello .. 240.. ..— — 7th Symphony Instrumentation of the thoughts and their treatment.ait In A Major. and which would as fairly to be called the Romantic Symphony. Beethoven and his Nine Symphonies.

his vast conception and understanding of Music's province had provided manifestations. at a charitable concert. his unexampled musical imagination and faculties had expressed the profoundest utterances . region — To express the every subtlety of the human breast. As was his custom. which would have satisfied mankind ! all this. 184 . that he could see even more yet such was the glorious this "Seventh" Symphony transports us into this new a region where Beethoven makes a fresh stand. and that intellect ony ^^ ^ point full where his great soul and have ripened to maturity. prising that a flight so daring and unparalleled made men then and since wonder.— Beethoven It -. is . his was little more to him while there lay before him such a modification of musical process as the expression of his most secret It is scarcely surmind and imaginative aspiration. which so gratified the The famous concert in aid of the wounded soldiers of Hanau. not a word escaped Beethoven during the composition of the The Viennese knew of it only when they "Seventh.^ And At last the Viennese aroused it ! of appreciation. Every experience of an life had been his . the most beautiful extremes of Nature's kingdom was not This master of masters would give the world mental personal. Material reflection December showed * 8th. objective and subjective. to bring before our very eyes the most awful as well as the enough. scope of his poetical And imaginative reason. Nowhere a work of tremendous import indeed has Beethoven given us more of himself intellectually ^even ymp artist's than in this score." University Hall of Vienna on first heard it in the psychological of moments kingdom. what enthusiasm signs 1813.

Weber averred that it fully quaUfied Beethoven for the madhouse musicians do love one another. and others who early heard it arrived at the conclusion that its first and last movements could only have been written by a dipsomaniac It certainly would be interesting to know what impressions were aroused in the minds of such acrimonious critics by the lovely Allegretto in A minor. 1814. To-day the A Symto the world.^ since More which time the Symphony has won the suffrages of musicians all over the universe. It the nineteenth century.Sublime Art letter of thanks to the press.Zeitung. ^ performances of the work were soon given. and the original. And. at the outset wholly escape dissentient criticism. " no human tongue can tell in words the meaning of the wonderful Allegretto (of the Symphony in A)." wrote one who has passed literature. phony is unanimously regarded as highly as any mortal man's work can be regarded not that its form differs from that of its predecessors. to the Eternal Habitations. in 185 . speaks to us in accents far stronger than words. * On London January 2nd and February 27th. of course. vigorous. First performed at the Philharmonic Society's concert of April 3rd. Minuet and Trio when they were new Tempora mutantur. No language can express the depth of thought enshrined in that awful episode in the deUcious Scherzo. and the ever-present fact that its absence from among the immortal nine could only be equalled by the disappearance of Hamlet or Macbeth in " We cannot tell. 1826. but on account of its ideal composer that he wrote a — ! — and spiritual qualities. universally recognised as the highest manifestation of the Sublime as yet afforded by the art-life of But we can understand it. It did not. in 1 Wietie7.

(69 Q )." Beethoven wrote to Salomon The " Eighth " ^ concerning the " Seventh " Symphony.I. V." vol. Rockstro. Y^ AlUgretto scherzando.— Beethoven communion with we could have gained through any amount of personal intercourse with him listening to it. ililfl^rifi 0^ VP ^Sim^^^^ 86 t-^ . " Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 292 S. p. 1 W. %ikgS3%i=| ^""G' ^~'J^ f f (88 —J^). iii." ^ " One of my best works. we are brought into closer the composer's inmost soul than during his lifetime. ^ Allegro vivace e con brio.

_ In F Major. 93. fE^r^^^mE Alleg>-o vivace. 3 ' 1 —^— . Without dedication. When it^ was first performtd it met with but little appreciation. pF^= ^ ^*=k i . 2 Clarinets in B . ^^^^^^^. ^ V ^ / ^/ sf sf sf sf V &c. 2 Oboes . Violoncello . 2 2 2 Bassoons Horns in F Trumpets in F 2 2 1st Drums Violins in F and C and 2nd Violas . I ' Eighth ' Symphony was not held in less esteem by its great composer.— . Contrabasso . 187 . Tejtipo di Mimutto. (126— J). h &c. •"^n-^ (84 —Q ). i^^tEJdE&Ei w—^ Vni. : op. Scored for the following instruments Flutes .r^s^ '.

a better explanation for the supposed inaccessibility of this wonderful " a little one.— Beethoven which. iii. which latter forced him to have frequent recourse to doctors and their methods. Nevertheless. however. Vienna. 273. Its hearing in England was at the Philharmonic Society's concert on 29th. separate the creation of the two works.^ The famous " Seventh " it at this performance. on February 27. had preceded .^ and it might be thought that the effect of this subUme work detracted from an adequate realisation of the present Symphony. better than the other." Beethoven modestly styled it ! may be found to in our stunted musical perception rather the composer's extravagance or his artistic paralysis." vol. not a shade of this external strain mars the prevailing colour and bearing of this work. 1814. p. and one which the ^ 2 first "Thayer. and rather than allow that the genius of the master operator „. which again is an utterance which stands out from all that he has hitherto spoken its —an expression of intense is significance (whatever intent and picture artistic Beethoven world could not now spare. 1826. It is true that critics of all musical centres have " budged " at the work. May 18S . It was composed at a time when Beethoven was much worried about his brother's wife and his own ill-health. Held in the Redouten Saal. had not subsequent audiences shown a decided preferOnly four months ence for the " A " Symphony." he is credited with replying. did not " That's because it is so much apparently alarm Beethoven. and when performed in England there has always been variance among those who alone knew). n^ Aony ymp work than — had fluctuated. .

The 189 personal. though this is counteracted at times with terrible fury We shall be safe in concluding that it is all even war. In his wonted mysterious procedure Beethoven. and it not of it may be that Beethoven. is — before thing is — One certain. its purport. at others in of his remembrances —though they caricature the cud of reflection tell — committing himself to a complete resignation to One who alone could bless him with that solace that he now needed in this world more than aught else. at others there is the sweet peace distinguishes light of a resurrection morning it. that all admirers of the master are the more moved to fathom. or as the spirit moved him. though it is difficult to fix with certainty the exact episodes But men ruminate and chew in the life that led up to it. bitterly. who had passed through many of the severest life-fires. in this score. leaving its solution to us with the prerogative of accepting his work. As .— Remembrances ought to know as to the tempo and reading of each movement. is in this work pouring out the vials sometimes seriously. the Many atmospheres pervade it better off we shall be. if That Beethoven had an aim in possible. such a masterly . and frequently than women think. — more keenly. and the person reflected tenour of the Symphony is Beethoven. hurled a gigantic musical problem at mankind. composing it (he never wrote listlessly. sometimes it is as black as night. as we say) there is no doubt. as or rejecting Its is makes himself evident features are its we choose. acute fervour of experience that we have here reflected . command — . what its philosophy is. humour and fury yet there beauty in the — such an pervading all extraordinary reality and unmistakable purpose. and the sooner we exploit what it all means. That Beethoven Symphony is never in doubt.

was not many years ago when Beethoven's Symphony in C minor was pronounced. * The composer expressed his satisfaction in his famous " Battle of Vittoria " piece (sometimes named the "Battle" Symphony). — ^ " Beethoven and his Nine Sjmaphonies. if serious and pretentious. here in England. 280. of Wellingp J'. unscrupulous — — soldier. when the "Seventh" Symphony broke upon the world. the news came to Vienna (July 27th. At present there is a mystery here. were not altogether happy. and the incidents to which it relates.^ Beethoven's political experiences. 18 1 3) from the North of Spain. but increased light upon the man and his music will surely provide us some day with a complete Sir : so much elucidation of everything.J ton's fortunate victory over King Joseph ^ ^ Buonaparte and his Marshal Jourdan. ** an absurd piece of non' sense ! igo . in honour of June 21st. and while Beethoven had been spending the summer of 1813 at his beloved Baden. and the composer who was fond of declaring that if he knew as much about war as he did about music he would lower Napoleon's colours had an avenging Nemesis in hand for the audacious. It formed one of the pieces at that charitable concert on December 8th. but retribution came at length." ^ What we have to decipher is the connection between this music." Beethoven George Grove says " The hearer has before him not a piece of music as a person." It p. Political events had been going on apace. 18 13. so admirably reahstic and authoritative in its quaUties.. of which performance first . The early Buonaparte fiasco was no doubt galling. 181 3.

the value of this work is great. Nevertheless. flavoured with such national melodies as "Rule Britannia. He is no good. ICnown to English readers as the "Battle" Symphony. originality of invention. ^ 191 . if grandeur of effect. but it arouses little artistic interest nowadays as people know so little about it. and energetic passages." "Malbrouk. ha ha he could not keep I was not at all pleased with him time . was always coming in too late. and I had to Ha ha ha I daresay he was put scold him well out." " Wellington's Victory. can accomplish when he is determined." ^ is an " orchestral piece in two parts illustrative of the " Battle The music throughout is of an and the "Victory. first performed in London at Drury Lane Theatre on February loth." unaware of the fact that it is the national tune of at least one other European power.^ Battle ' Symphony ! tells a good story relating to Meyerbeer." ! ! Tomaschek . and only a man of real genius. 91." Indeed." and "God Save the King. martial. He has not pluck enough to keep time. especially as a sample of programme music. and dedicated to the Prince Regent of England. or the Battle of Vittoria. are to be considered as necessary constituents of that musical compound an instrumental piece it is not probable that any other work of the same length can vie with this specimen of what a man of genius. In the midst of all the seeming confusion which the title of this piece would lead us to expect in the performance of it. impetuous. " Ha and narrated by Beethoven himself. ! ! ! ! — aggressive. there is — — and Op. it was in this connection that he wrote his famous words that the English could not be too sensible of the treasure they possessed in " God Save the King. Musically. yet very effective character. 181 5.

136. trifling in itself. a Cantata of six numbers for S.B. Beethoven set to work on the Der glorreiche It is Augenblick^ ("The Glorious Moment"). and . Yet another political event of of Sovereigns in 1814 importance — the Congress and — moved Beethoven. from the way it is introduced. he claimed the authorship of the composition. obliges him to play it in the minor key sorrowfully. — — — Professor Lobkowitz. they fall numbers under the British army. we fonia. and this led to one of the law suits which marred the later years of Beethoven's life the other "wig and gown " experiences bringing him into conflict with Count Kinsky's heirs.A. are morally certain that the in enemy is giving way." Dedicated to the Sovereigns of Austria. Chorus and Hanau had both been fought.. but which. his brother (Carl's) widow. Russia. op. and only one fifer is heard attempting to keep up the fast-fleeting valour of his countrymen by playing " Malbrouk " but the fatigue he has undergone. shows the master-hand as fully as the most allude to the elaborate symphony could possibly do. air of " Malbrouk.Beethoven one passage. and there was 1 Known in England as the " Praise of Music. It was this piece which Maelzel barrelled for his Panharmonicon bringing it to England. and Prussia. the whole band are dispersed. 192 ." which is at the beginning of the Sin- We understood as the national march played by the French army in advancing. Vittoria in view the Hence the assemblage apparent termination of the war. and the parching thirst he endures. but as the horrid " confusion worse confounded " proceeds gradually to accumulate. Unfortunately.T. occasion. and making a lot of money. For the of Sovereigns and exalted persons at Vienna.

op. teristic it Beethoven work what was looming in his immediate future. as with several does not rank with his happiest work. 115.^ the Cantata. with words by Goethe. Dorothea Ertmann. op." —saying that ^ ' * Dedicated to Count Moritz von Lichnowsky. 112. with a turgid libretto ^ by Weissenbach." seems to have been Beethoven's watchword henceforward. * Known as the "Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage" for S. There is some truly characpieces (Toccasion^ in this score. and his arrangements of The Liederkreis we owe to 18 16. 1816. Whether or no.* the Meerstille ^ music.B.^ op. in the following year Beethoven set to work upon the Amid many worries this was carried 'Ninth' Symphony. but. He re-wrote Fidelio. February i8th.Splendid Activity Orchestra. 1815 brought the Pianoforte Sonata in A. Overture in C. 90 . when. Dedicated to Prince Radziwil. and Orchestra. over 181 7. "Work while it is day. as he entered the darkest period Perchance he presaged of a not too felicitous career. Beethoven commenced the grand ^ Beethoven revolted against it. he applied himself to composition with astonishing energy. pursuing his wonted habit of working upon two or three works at the same time. and presented it again on May 23rd. loi *. while other notable new compositions were the Grand the Pianoforte Sonata in E minor. and was produced on November 29th. Der glorreiche Augenblick just mentioned and some Tournament music.A. the Sonatas for Pianoforte and Violin in C and D. —a Cantata N 193 . the effort was an " heroic one. 102. Dedicated to Baroness First performed. 1 814. and Scotch songs. and was continued through i8i8 . but faced the setting. . op. * Dedicated to Countess von Erdody. op.T.

* Allegro via non troppo^ un poco maestoso. In 1822 Beethoven was at Baden. the Overture ^ in C.^ Meanwhile the Ninth Symphony was not being neglected. op. 1823 the year to which the "33 — — — — ' * — Variations on a Waltz. and completed the D Mass. at Baden.^ and in 1 8 2 1 followed it with another that in A flat." op. is The 'Ninth' ^ or "Choral" Symphony^ the last of Dedicated to Fraulein Maximiliana Brentano. 194 . though several matters tended to delay it. no. op." Written for the opening of the Josephstadt Theatre. op. 120. (88 —J . op. All progress was for a season neglected in consequence of the Rossini madness . 109. also belong. with whom he had been estranged since 181 5. in. and the Mass in D. Galitzin. op. and dedicated to Prince N. This latter work was proceeding during 1820. 2 "Weihe des Hauses. This year he wrote his last Pianoforte Sonata the C minor. At length the famous Symphony was finished. io6. and there were interminable worries over a new opera which Beethoven wished to compose. T24. on September 5th. 2 On March 19th.Beethoven Sonata in B flat. where there took place the happy and too long deferred reconciliation with Stephen Breuning. in which year the composer gave the world the Pianoforte Sonata in E.

\ "- ^ En^g^gQzkzrht:^ Fag. ^ I *-*» ^/ VP &c. -•- . ^ rr ^ .? -•- 523^ ^rI :=1- V. jg^^g^j Adagio molto e ^ ). ^•rir-^—^zipg- :tt^^ izr . r z^=p: 195 ^^^ P^=^ ' I &C. cantabih. Ob. ( 1 1 —o! I ).6 ' Ninth ' Symphony the great chain of instrumental masterpieces in the highest form of orchestral manifestation that Beethoven gave to Molto vivace. (60 —J Clar. J ^ ^ r r . I 2.

(96— Q ). Clar Corni. as gigantic as the world. the completed work.J. sketches for which — it is sublime. P :E=i! tzn: Bassf.-^ Timp. is of the Scherzo Presto. ^^^S. iE£ &C. r^F -f^- ^#^ trEzp---. Fag. Tv^^Tn (80 ^3=? Allegro assai. Fl. r — r-r t=t Recitativ.Ob.^-^-t3- 1===^? - O Freun de. Cz ). ^a &c.^g.— Beethoven This creation. nicht die se T6-ne ! 196 .

CL ^m^^^^^m JI J J . and for the use of which MS. 125. ^ In D minor. I Coini Bassi pizz. J . : P Freude. -! —^— ' :^ Fieu I - de. Freude. copy of the Symphony is in the possession of the Philharmonic Society of London inscribed to it. f^^--^ :szi l&^i 3 t 1^ I . (80 —c) i „Qb. It is for eighteen months the Society paid £'^0 scored for the following instruments: Flutes — to Beethoven. . J . Dedicated to the King of Prussia. Ob. Solo. although a MS. op. 2 Oboes 2 . great musician's the crowning glory of the the accomplishment of which becomes Allegro assai. in 8va. .Crowning Glory and First Movement life._ Fag. Freude schOner Gotter - fankeu &c. J ' ' 11 I . for example It ^ is — are met with as far back as 1813 and 181 6. dolce Freude.

2 . — And thus it was the great composer not only made sure his footing on the height he had attained. uninteresting to notice the ' introduced Schiller's H>Tnn I of Joy ' into the fourth way in which Beethoven movement of the his side." says of this the .' have it!' * Let read these words have it. where I us sing the immortal Schiller's song the Hymn of Joy. rose into the empyrean. symphony. ." We ' are told that in the penultimate ' movement of the last Ninth Symphony. in his *' Life of the " Choral " Symphony. composition all that time. when entered the room. For this reason it is sometimes called Schindler. . but. he called out to me. Ninth is the only one containing choral ^ ^ -^ ^ parts. Clarinets in . instrumental music spoke her B . . by the addition of the human voice. therefore closely observe his struggles with the the highly interesting sketches I difiiculties and materials ' of which I possess. holding out to me his sketch book. ' ' : *' It may not be At .— Beethoven more wonderful when we remember that for some Of all twenty years its author had been utterly deaf. the symphonies written by Beethoven. was seldom from and could of his for this. the ^. bear witness to these difficulties. Beethoven. I One I : day.

sublimity This Symphony has that infinite and dramatic power. that sympathy with humanity which make it the most wonderful musical revelation that could be desired. is the longest as it is the grandest of world." says Wagner. must build up its own conclusions respecting the tonal phraseology and language. It must be heard and understood and it was not under- — stood long after it came into this country ere the imagination can fully perceive what the giant mind has put before us in this creation. No programme of the music ever escaped its composer. therefore. to obtain full expression of his ideas. and magnificence allied to the gorgeous colour. higher. added a chorus to the movement. and infinite detail. talked no more of this work than of any other. not from Beethoven. making them practically inexhaustible to the critical analyst. or that is ever likely to be devised.'* Monstrous Madness " There could be nothing better. others hope to understand and appreciate — closest . Some call it a " monstrous madness " some. beyond stating that he was engaged upon it. It possesses all the solemnity. and workmanship that invest the works of Beethoven with such value and import. words will always fail to convey an adequate representation. The 199 . "Any attempt further. **is but to progress backward." Beethoven possible word. breadth. and capable as he was of keeping his own counsel. at least. What it was all intended to convey the world knows not. he. final a profound result. the elevated ideas and wondrous melodies. Of its intrinsic excellence. nothing nothing beyond. " the last flickers of an expiring genius". and it some day. recognising this fact. It the series. and we can but admit that the master has produced himself. resources.

1824. Vienna. Schiller's that it symphony on Ode. 200 . composition in the whole realm of instrumental is It hardly necessary to state. to say it Habeneck rehearsed for three years before producing in Paris on March 27. when a tremendous corded to Beethoven —the . and still more enhanced the scope of . performed.^ the Karnthnerthor ovation was acViennese seemingly having awakened to the manner of man he was. therefore. So great was the applause that the police were called in to quell an enthusiasm that was feared would end in a disturbance. and that is not a only in the it is Finale that the poet's words have been employed for choral treatment. 1825 on which latter occasion most of those who listened to it were unable either to understand or appreciate it such was the low ebb of musical education and discrimination in England three-quarters of a century Theatre. first The Symphony was rehearsals. — back.Beethoven combinations. the Symphony. spiritually poetic art. Beethoven had carried the springs of emotion until he could carry them no farther he took Speech. There lived is every evidence to show that had Beethoven the treasures of music would enriched by yet ^ another it Symphony —a shortly have been Tenth. 1831. It was a wretched performance. as also was the careless and ignorant rendering which it received when first produced by the Philharmonic Society of London on March 2 1 St. at after but two on May 7th. which force in this ' culminate ' with Ninth well Symphony the — such the dignity and most tragic world-picture as as most perhaps.

and dedicated N. op. hover like the music of a requiem over the glorious reign which they shrouded. and 15th to Prince respectively. his attention ^ The 1 2th. those in B flat. for two violins. Now either — was the end near nearer than was supposed by the great entity himself or by those about him so accustomed were they to his spells of ill-health and Fortunately the close of the illustrious — repeated rallyings. viola. that indefatigable analyst of Beethoven. 127. Besides this. full of heavenly beauty as they are. The master mentioned it on his death-bed. 13th. in impaired health. 130. These were the Quartets which. remembering how fully Beethoven planned these vast works out in his head before committing them to score paper. sorely tried composer. and with so much dignity. Nottebohm. has traced several sketches for it in the Sketch-books . to 1825 . and A minor. The Quartet in E flat. career was crowned by yet more treasures to swell the precious bequest which the genius had to lay at the feet Orchestral work was laid aside. In rapid succession came superlative examples of a form of art in which he excelled not less unequivocally and wondrously than he did in the Symphony. Galitzin. op. 201 . 132. and stays not * ' ' ' for excuses. but with his mental capacity as brilliant and logical as ever. while the of mankind. turned once more to the domain of Chamber Music. and 'cello. op.Last Quartets nothing of other compositions. This Tenth was clearly intended for the Philharmonic Society of London. and Schindler and Moscheles both knew of it. it is almost beyond doubt that we only just missed another of these sublime compositions by the untimely advent of that Reaper whose approach brooks no delay. and.^ belongs to the year 1S24. so aptly.

Having received no reminding him of his engagement. finished the quartets. of an The Triumph of Faith^ and of an opera written by Grillparzer. of severe his prince.^ and the last in F. answer. offering him 125 ducats.^ belong to 1826. 135. op. on the frontiers of Persia. ambassador at St Petersburgh. he at last wrote to the prince. and sent them to the prince. In 1824 Beethoven was engaged in the ^^ composition of his Tenth Symphony. and the sacrifices he had made on nephew's account. also interfered. the Austrian was paid to them. 202 . " I>edicated to his friend Johann Wolfmayer. op. and M. to In the face of the Philharmonic Society of London. 131. forgetting his debt. on condition that they should not be Beethoven's property till a year after the prince had got them. trouble himself about the matter. He did not but did not receive the stipulated price. Isisgritz. much straitened in his circumstances. never supposing that But. but no attention M. through Mr Moscheles. the The generous banker. dedicated to Baron von Stutterheim. he made two farther applications.Beethoven that in C sharp minor. all this. The following circumstances respecting three of these remarkable Quartets require to be known. the name of Prince Galitzin stands on the titlepage of these three quartets. in consequence illness. driven to extremity. It had set out for the army was then that Beethoven. being a Russian prince could break his word. Beethoven laid aside the works he had oratorio called (Quartets begun. but in vain. when Prince Galitzin requested him very urgently to compose three quartets for him. applied. de Lebelteren. Beethoven having dedicated ^ The 14th .

that Beethoven was ''driven to extremity" when he wrote to Mr Moscheles .Sacred Music them to him. in the receipt He had thus the of a pension of about ^^o a year. op. that he was possessed of a considerable sum of money. and at once "Adelaide" was put on and sung by Franz Wild to Beethoven's accompaniment. however. whose mind was ever impressed and controlled by the sense of an Omnipotent Unseen on and in Whom His simple. and when we consider his high and independent spirit. 130. On 20th April 181 6 this was repeated. It was comthese Quartets His posed four months before the composer's death. according to his abstemious and retired habits . for it was found after his death. when he died. notwithstanding the mean conduct of this It cannot be maintained. and this occasion was Beethoven's actual last appearance. wherewithal to live. we can only ascribe the dread of want which appears to have embittered his latter days. and which is published in its original form is the Finale of one of that in B flat. earnest he placed his whole dependence. Quite unexpectedly he presented himself. 203 . and was. faith found vent in many a letter and many an utterance. and his application to the Philharmonic Society. — That Beethoven excelled as a composer of Sacred It could hardly have music requires no demonstration. been otherwise with a musical genius of such exalted order. last professional appearance was when he appeared as an accompanist at a festival-concert on the birthday of the Emperor of Russia in 181 5. to the influence of disease in breaking down his once independent spirit. pretended patron of genius. Actually the last composition Beethoven wrote.

God is nearer to me in my art than others commune with Him without fear. ^ ." said he one day to a friend.I Beethoven flected but nowhere is his sincerity and chaste mind better rethan throughout his music whether the sacred — or secular. When Haydn and Mozart wrote their masses they spoke the deep religious sentiment and conviction within Lovely and pleasant. he is that "law unto himself" which was thing for pious arose with their — — . eschews conventional church garb and practice. — so celestial that. too. and writes what he himself submits to be mass His religious mood is no blind service to music." Mention has already been made of that masterly work the " Mount of OUves. ecclesiastical tone. nor are his ^ He 304 . and the Missa So/ennis in D. . Beethoven came to mark an epoch in Catholic Church music in his two Masses the one in C .. they are nevertheless entrancingly beautiful at times.As d Here again . we seem to hear the very angels sing. " I well know." "that with its — majestic " Hallelujah " Chorus —the only thing of its kind that has ever approached Handel's glorious " Hallelujah " and now Beethoven's two famous Masses — call for remark. eighteenth century be by a strong family likeness. and it was a merciful Catholics when Haydn and Mozart wealth of sanctuary music music to which one cannot well listen and not believe. treasures belonging to the Church which these composers Marked though most of these Masses of the reverenced. „ a marked characteristic of his personality. ending on wo^d-painting. are the stores of musical them. Their predecessors of the Palestrina and Scarlatti schools were of a severe and gloomy character.

The atmosphere marking Beethoven's music is an exalted one of his own formation and church colourings. these Masses are couched in such impressive language that they appeal to the reverent mind irrespective of emotional bearings which a religious might have had if such had been Both Beethoven's Masses upon Beethoven. genius soars far away from priestly rite and human leaving "temples made with hands" for that teaching inexpressible sphere where all. — — . after all. . while his reading nobler. healthier. unconventional and independent as it was. Thus Beethoven stands apart by himself as to his setting of He follows no school or model. lifted worship out of the Church into his broader that everywhere' wherein God and Religion were region any ethical or system. where reigns that One before Whom and after Whom there was at any rate in Beethoven's religion. — or ritual. and without aiming at churchiness is as awe-inspiring as he is 205 . Like the rest of Beethoven's music. It was a daring deviation from the flowery path of Roman service music that had long obtained before His ecclesiastical colour was totally new his advent. is Unknown . and more bracing of the mass text.— A ' Deviation pasture Agnuses ' reminiscent of the and sheepfold. and sacerdotal appendage and practice do not affect or The composer puts his own influence him in the least. rites. with intense force his own interpretation of the text. nothing. reading on the text and sets it according to the ethics of his own finding. — * to him as ever present as in the cloister or cell. but expresses the Mass. possible must be regarded as expressing the master's own conception of religion and the awful profoundness of the In them the great vast mystery which they concern.

however.T. ^ _ .A. Z6. n ' — Alkgro con brio.---s-^^-r-t- . most dramatic emotional movements known to the world Masses has the composer however much he may have infused his works with a dramatic force hitherto foreign to church music. From an inciting church music point of view. Beethoven theoretically astonishing. . Chorus and Orchestra.. nor struck a but in neither the C D new ecclesiastical-musical ideal.B. Originally dedicated to Prince Nicholas Esterhazy de Galantha. The Mass ^ in C^ belongs to the year 1807. Kyrie. and altered in the published copy to Prince Kinsky. The first Op. For S. — Andante con moto assai vivace — e - Ky - ri • e le i - son. Gloria. he has not improved upon Haydn and Mozart or their predecessors Pergolesi and The Agnus Dei of the D Mass is one of the JomeUi.

^ Mass in C performance of it took place in Prince Esterhazy's private chapel at Eisenstadt. Sanctus.— ^^a^'^ u —— sane - tus. BenedictUS. It came like a on September 8th of the same year. where Hummel was Capellmeister. sane- &c. — Allegretto via non troppo.) Be - ne - die f« - tus qui ve - nit in no - tni-ne 8zc. (Soli. • EF " 207 S is . £=c ^^3 &c. — Allegro con brio. Credo. ^ Fag VV do.

education has gone on apace. —long inured to Haydn's close-fitting style.Beethoven thunderbolt upon the prince precise." it has been aptly pointed out. soul-stirring compositions that adorns the rich ritual of the Roman Church. As in the case of everyone of Beethoven's scores. but the princely patron did not relish " What have you been up in to Beethoven. "consists in showing how far sacred music may be Agnus 'Dei. The it first model it. the presence now ? " he enquired of of Hummel. and vocal perplexities. 208 . sudden transitions. Now we hear nothing of its aural surprises. and narrowness of thought and pedantic servitude are lost for ever in a wider spirit of comprehension and appreciation which has permanently " The chief importbroadened the vista of musical art. Beethoven flew into a terrible passion and left the place. its abrupt modulations. ance of this remarkable Mass. the the disfavour that first Mass it. Jfass in C of a new style of choral music undoubtedly was. There was no reply.—-Po(^o andante. remote harWhy ? Because musical monies. who smiled. in C has outlived it all greeted and to-day is freely accepted as one of the most precious.

Mass in D (Messe Solennelle). 123. Ten. . to the Arch- Kyrie.: Ife Chor.i. dedicated duke Rudolph.^A..P ^'>v ^^ in ex-cel sis De GJo / ri-a in ex-cel-sis mm 209 &c. .'I W I Ky mr i I T" ^ o ^ Chor. Gloria. 1824.'' writes Schindler. .J Mlssa freed from formulas Solennis and placed under the dominion of imagination. Solo. Alt. (?^o ^^ vi-a Ten. would affect Beethoven's serious '^ D — ^ Op. — Assai sostemUo." " I never saw Beethoven in such a state of absolute detachment from the terrestrial world as when he composed the Mis sa So/en fits. I ^ZTTSClar. and we can well imagine how the composiMass in tion of such a work one that is the ambition of all conductors. First performed on May 7th. iia &c. I Ky - ^Se^ Ten. y — Allegro vivace.

e3E! tzczb: Kit^-^: I 1^. pia non troppo. — Allegro. 'Sane S=l r 1 Sane Ten. u-n um de Sopr. - in iinum. &c. • - ?^=P tiis. | .—^^«^i<7. S^. ma non troppo. £s: e Chor. the composer of Les Deux Journees never Credo. V^^ Alt.^$-_f^^.^_-_ 210 . Soli. ±: . Beethoven addressed a letter to Cherubini relative to this Mass. ^ S Praeludium. — Sostenuto. ^-^ ^^T^'- fe Ten. On March 15.Beethoven temperament. J i ^. _ i ^^-^r-h J ] piB^ Sanctus. i' ^p|3=^isgS Bass.. iSa^Jc - r-^zT' _ - um tus. 1823. ^S'a'/ic ppj - tus.Bass.^l. however. which letter.

Bene :±:i^=3=£=E z£EE£ Flauti. m^^^^ . as it is not my intention to publish I have therefore asked the King of France. -•:§-• r^-^.. : in D " I recently completed a grand It ran solemn Mass.— Adagio. i nioito cantabik. . — Andante Viol. ^ — J. it at present. 1)^1.-^ -j^-^: :*: ^ J. I I . to subscribe to this work. Solo. ^ . B=^ qui P cresc.Mass received. die - - tus I Be - ne - «&c. through the French Embassy here. BenedictUS.*-* -«» • ~^- ^^ ^ N . and have resolved to offer it to the various European Courts. m^Agnus -m -^ V <L..

emotion which carries the mind over the composer's — — is ever hardly warmth. the length alone of these compositions forces them into to the the concert-room rather than the cathedral. for the necessities of life. and Cherubini's magnificent Requiem Mass in D minor. subscription. as my wont upon . But Beethoven brooked no 212 restrictions. Like Bach's B minor. at your recom- mendation. that the public was indifferent to Beethoven and It was still open to him his Mass too. and strong emotional yearnings. There is another restricting feature about all these eighteenth-century masters' Masses. fix it majesty would. tion that runs into hours in performance likely A composi- to find a very frequent at least we hope so hearing at a service intended for the purpose of worship. situation demands is my eyes upon Heaven. grand and masterly in the extreme though — — such art be. here below. Beethoven and I feel certain that his so. have already me fix them of also earth. while their dramatic energy. woefully detract from their value as helpful church music. and this he did. — this As a sacred composition this Mass is still less suited Church than the Mass in C. Such was the Rossini furore^ however. whether Protestant or Roman Every churchman welcomes music that will help him in his devotions not art that carries the mind away from the church into the world. other than those of his Art. on the contrary. for the moment. particularly BeetThey have a suggestiveness of theme and hoven's. agree to do that I should not solely My critical would have (p. excessive secular compositions." We seen 29) the result which must have disappointed him even used to rebuffs as he was.. to sell it outright. when he wrote sacred or .

Netherlands. extending its separate movements and divisions. think what we any other music. but united to thought and drift more beautiful. than had before patterns. of it for church service or ecclesiastical function. and Beethoven no story of so identified himself with the orchestra that his life would be complete without proper regard to this aspect.. though It might have beautifully adjusted classical structure. however. and ornate. The Venetian. expressive. which took their names from existing vocal forms. built upon existing structural forms of sacred and secular contrapuntal art. Haydn face particularly put a new orchestral as well as formal on the symphony. lude. . as the great link it between the old and new and after him needed only Emmanuel Bach and Haydn to lay down the sonata and symphony where Beethoven took them up. but Beethoven appeared to achieve yet greater things by his Instrumental music had yet to fulfil its highest genius. The psychological and mission both in form and spirit. and developing the thematic treatment of but despite his one hundred the musical idea or motive and eighteen examples. existed. seemed. 213 . sonata. n j t this slow evolution. Thus we got the primitive shapes of the preand symphony somewhat antiquated — which were to be replaced by nobler ones. Early German and EngHsh schools all aided in — r>- r . he left it an unromantic. will After vocal came instrumental music. that he had exhausted the subject . It was in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries that composers seriously occupied themselves with purely instrumental pieces.Orchestralist It is Beethoven. Sebastian Bach stands . suite. then.

A comparison of the orchestral scores of Haydn and Mozart with those of Wagner and Verdi today will reveal the fact that nearly all the instruments now Such a in vogue were then within reach and were used. the composer's method of using them differed were not . used 671 masse to anything like the extent they r J are now.7 jj employed the whole especially the later ones orchestra. save in the case of one or two instruments where convenience rather than effect would be served. His was a manner that was quite new in his Haydn and Mozart rarely if ever employ four day. the harpsichord a power in old-time orchestras. ment. is an instrument which. scant room being left for improvement. save those later introductions the bass clarinet and tuba. Though the instruments employed — — — — — are similar. intensity. trombones were sparingly used.^ the predecessor of the pianoforte place. the oboe constantly had place where the clarinet would now displace ^ . has been banished probably for ever. Chiefly. 214 .— Beethoven mathematical conditions of theoretical music were to be coupled wedded and made amazingly convincing. Then modern instrumentation was in its infancy. Haydn being To-day it has reached its full developthe establisher. considerably. horn parts. instruments — ^ The flute. it may be stated for instance. while the invention of new In the first instruments seems out of the question. so since Beethoven's day. The orchestra in Beethoven's day say a hundred years ago was a very different thing from what it is now. nor as Beethoven in his works . scrutiny will at once bring home where the difference in the two bodies exists. has greatly gained in that the power and composer could not have heard his flute effects as we hear them to-day.

In his variety of colouring i. in one irresistible phalanx. the oboe parts being modified to make room for the clarinets. ^ while the less wood wind instruments generally performed important duties. as occasion often required..— Colourist it . It was a grand move for orchestral art . it provided it with that homogeneity which enabled Beethoven. It is such radical modifications as these that only the genius can detect and carry out. and developed orchestration in a manner akin to his great genius so much so that he must be credited as the maker of to-day's orchestra. making up for this by a consistent handling of his forces in solid groups or. How wonderfully he has raised the majesty of art extended and enlarged it materially and theoretically No instrumental pigmies will evermore pose where giants only may tread. and were less efifectively combined than was the case under Beethoven and later orchestral comBeethoven. to give practical shape to conceptions demanding colossal sound forces. remedied all this. the power of judiciously blending the several instruments so as to bring out their qualities to the greatest advantage Beethoven is supreme. — — ! — ^ Mozart's C minor Symphony originally had no clarinet parts. These were subsequently added by the master. particularly. He gave it considerably less to do in solo or in twos and threes. although he began cautiously. Mozart was a great colourist. This new orchestral method constitutes one of the most important among the many vast achievements which Beethoven accomplished for music outside his labours as a composer. it gave the orchestra a unity and compactness that it did not before possess .e. but even his rich treasures posers. 21 q . which alone could convey the tremendous pronouncements he had to hurl at the intelligence of the newly opening century.• .

rich unbounded admiration fancy. or that we are being treated to mere " padding.Beethoven are surpassed by the boundless wealth of harmonious com- bination which Beethoven summons in his orchestral re- O y at hp . crowd to hear Beethoven are enthralled by the momentous manifestations which compel rapt attention from one end to the other of his every score. or such as natural phenomena has been untouched. year after year. until at times we are face to face with the fact that scarcely a shade of feeling by which the human breast is capable induce. The emotional element is ever changing. In consequence of this extraordinary power of introducing variety everywhere. He repeats phrase after phrase for a purpose. restless spirit seems never to tire in the desire to present an idea in yet one more new light. and by Beethoven each touch of his pen in the direction of instrumental manipulation. persistent zeal in every detail. The active. thus escape those truly exquisite passages of which every instrument has a share under Beethoven's rule thus the multitudinous listeners who." Nor in all this does he trust to mere technical orchestral device or ingenuity. nothing in Beethoven's music ever seems stale. with a voice and right to speak at the opportune moment. Each instrument is regarded as an identity. of being agitated. manifested . We need to go particularly to his last works those which belong to the period between 1815 and 1820 to reap the full experience of his psycholeft — — 216 . t I s°^^^^^fire ^ close study of this subject will the student with ^ at the marvellous faculties. yet seldom tiring us or inducing the feeling that we have heard an old thing over again. Thus come his contrasts and tonal chiaro-oscuro . He never reflects himself in a way to suggest an exhaustion of his powers.

217 . Literature. as if the composer. accomplished much with his exquisite ear and artistic sensibility to advance instrumental art and usage. saw Religion seems all heaven unfolding before his eyes. The latter. but. and the Drama were the acknowledged channels through which the greatest messages were brought home to whatever intelligence was possessed But a fresh force was at hand. though it was left to Beethoven to bring it The great symphonist enlarged everywhere to perfection. and put all the material and spiritual alike on a more expansive and broadened basis. willing to cease battling with a stormy world. there is more they are full of the mystic and heavenly. above and beneath. Painting. It was what Beethoven had to say and transmit — — — . under his treatment. Force These works literally burst with beauty. Beethoven at the time.New logical invasions. and has certainly never been equalled since. Until Beethoven's day. shrouds us around. Without doubt. Beethoven in his instrumentation is indebted to Mozart. standing between Haydn and Beethoven. Withal. that has constituted it such a new and wondrous element among the world's processes and resources. every instrument partakes of more reality and is fuller with life and action than it ever was before he worked. strangely different to anything else in the whole realm of musical art. and an atmosphere mystical and full of import. mingled with music. through orchestral media. and richness of tone-colourings . however. variety. It would need a volume at least to do justice to Beethoven's instrumental influence. We have stated broadly where he improved the orchestra while every amateur and musician knows that his employment of the various instruments proved such as had not been known before.

and no glass darkly. It would be a labour to enumerate even the most striking instances of his deft handling of each instrument. by means the through discerning are permitted to realize. 218 . Wood or Percussion families of • instruments will show that in every instance j . to .! Beethoven furnished of which this a new medium and a new way. Mozart had nobly employed the as trombones Haydn used the bassoon an instrument With the Eroica that the Bonn orchestra possessed. Symphony. ^ j It grew mto more importance and received greater prominence under Beethoven's remarkable manipulation. Beethoven contented himself with much the same orchestra Mozart used. however. Up and including the " Second " — ' ' labours in this direction. Symphony. And how altered horn music from that day became There is not an instrument of the orchestra that His Beethoven did not lift into greater importance. . though such a process would involve one so constant is the flow in a very ocean of examples — of his wondrous instrumental variety and invention. This was a new musical dispensation of which men know not yet the possibilities. r n Influence ^ . Beethoven broke away. study of any member of the String. indeed. and his method of working out and employment of the instruments underwent an unmistakable change. the profoundest truths subtleties of and extremest humanity and nature alike. A single exHe freed the horns from their tradiample must suffice. are so extraordinary that whole books might be devoted to J this special feature of him " as a musician. tional restrictions and established the record of being the first composer to demand three horn parts in a symphony. A .

' and other noteworthy instances of its use are to be found in the Benedictus particularly those mysterious trombone of the Mass in D chords " pianissimo " also in the Finale of the Ninth Symphony. 1806. such fresh detail and technique. prior to it had possessed such broad expressive passages. This conviction forces itself upon us wherever we look whether towards his symphonies or compositions for solo instruments. The Concerto^ which he specially wrote for Franz Clement is the greatest In the same way the violin music of all violin concertos. such warmth and emotion. too. Take the Violin for example. — — — If we turn to the old-time call Trombone to - we find his employment perfection.Equate mind that fine inspiration the trombones performed at the composer's own funeral and frequently since at burial notably services in Westminster Abbey and elsewhere with long abiding effect when William Ewart Gladstone was laid to his last sleep in the Valhalla of Britain's great The first appearance of trombones in the symones. detailed results which have indisputably workings have led up to proclaimed Beethoven to be the greatest wonder among masters of the orchestra that the world has ever seen. of this instrument to be simply Everyone will Funeral. '^ 219 . throughout Beethoven's symphonies is of an order that No violin music was unknown until it. phonies occurs in the C Minor. sometimes almost miraculous. In the case of the Clarinet. Formerly known as the Sackbut. * Preserved in the Imperial Library at Vienna and first played on December 23rd.Trombone Music The whole matter can well be left summed up in the grand orchestral results which he has attained results which his splendid. appeared. there is hardly a for four — ' — ' ' .

case the master added to its functions and worth in the orchestra. dominant. The Drum was as patient as a tortoise until Beethoven infused new life into it. the Eighth Symphony the drums are probably for the Magnificent first time in musical history tuned in octaves. He was the first composer to alter the accepted drum tunings to other notes than the tonic and First Symphony. and this as early as in his in the Andante of which is a striking passage for them quite rhythmically independent of the other instruments. Of course the Bachs. it abound where Beethoven is dealing with orchestra. where it has solo passages of extreme effect. when the original tonic (B flat) drum is Fifth Pianoforte Concerto. in the the first Tno of the movement of the Eighth Symphony ' —the Pastoral Symand in latter difficult clarinet music indeed.— . and this artistically but it was Beethoven who made it something more than Unlike Berlioz. 220 . the and especially in the Fourth Symphony. * ' ' ' ' ' use is made of the instrument in the Violin Concerto. who used a noise-producing instrument. sixteen drums in his Requiem. notwithstanding his evident partiality for the — passages for a full it Striking upper over the lower notes of the instrument. and produced some of his most remarkable effects by its use. Beethoven nowhere employs more than two. Beethoven score in which Beethoven does not call upon it as a In ever)' glance through his list of works will show. while especially favoured opportunities ' for occur in the Larghetto ' of the ' * Second ' phony. Haydn and Mozart employed it. Eroica Symphony the drum is frequently emIn the In the Finale of ployed in a truly remarkable manner. The enharmonic change in the first movement of this Symphony.

Another of the principal members of the numerous family of brass instruments Beethoven certainly did not that instrument which This was the Horn forget. Symphony is music for three horns. particularly at tuiti points. and this was one of the earliest appearances of that number of Corni in the orchestra . The Trumpet was not a favourite with Beethoven. Almost every one of Beethoven's orchestral pieces nishes * fur' many such ' points — particularly so the ' Seventh and Eighth Symphonies. and the Leonora Overtures while an even greater effect is raised from a prolonged F sharp for the trumpets through no less than seventeen bars of the Eighth Symphony. ' ' — ' ' ' ' ! Glorious passages for this weird and unassertive instru- ment will Trio. wherein there is a wonderful passage for trumpets and drums. great Beethoven. although its high pitch and briUiant tone have served the composer on many occasions to enhance the gorgeousness of his greatest effects. He engages it almost everywhere that it can be advantageously introduced notably in the C Minor — ' ' 221 . and where he needed to declare himself with fullest emphasis. the Agnus Dei movement of the Mass in D. the The other be found in the Fourth.Bassoon Music unexpectedly employed as A snarp. while in the Ninth there are no less than four . lends such romantic air wherever it is judiciously introEroica In the duced and blended in an orchestra. again illustrates the wonderful ••esources of this king of orchestralists. to wit.' the Eroica its Seventh and the Ninth Symphonies. Bassoon was yet another instrument that Beethoven ' ' ' — ' ' * ' Although employed largely by Handel among masters of music in their orchestras. no composer has used it with such imposing effect as has exalted.

have only been rendered apparent. inasmuch as it is absurd to imagine that the genius would have left any known open door for improvement upon his masterly operations. if all were Ninth ' Symphony. We must leave. a field so fruitful that any attempt at recapitulating. Not infrequently he reinforces double bassoon or contra-fagotto as. becomes a matter of simple impossibility. reluctantly. where it is very humorous. in the symphonies just mentioned. by the later light of advanced technical renderings and instrumental development and treatment . for instance. we apprehend. in no portable volume would hold the story. so that when conductors are ready to " improve " upon Beethoven. But. There is some fine music for the first and second bassoons in the and Choral ' ' it with the — ' movement of the First Symphony the Second Symphony opens with bassoons in unison with the bass slow ' * ' . Wagner heads the Hst of the few who see defects in Beethoven's instrumentation. ' ' ' able passages for ' it are well known in the Finale of the So one might go on. under staccato treatment. One of Beethoven's greatest points of strength was his anticipation of coming musical possibilities and necessities. ad infinitum^ instancing example after example of Beethoven's admirably full and yet judicious employment of every instrument that the orchestra then contained. defects which.Beethoven Symphonies. and also in the Minuet \ while some remarkstrings. it is fairly safe for 222 . said that might be said of the master's achievements this direction. An unusual yet excellent employment of it. where they exist. it is perfectly " alive " in the first movement of the Eighth Symphony. occurs in the Adagio of the * Fourth Symphony . much less closely analysing its treasures.

however exalted the presuming teacher may be. To take one example attracted 1 the Choral Symphony is a work which the criticism of the erudite Bayreuth master. 19. later years of his life Beethoven was not — Wagner on always sure of the effects of his instrumentation is a mischievous one to propagate . than by tampering with it in the light of any new doctrine.^ ' ' — A reference to a Breitkopf &: Hartel's edition of the Choral Symphony.— Wagner them to will often Revisions heed the warning that the " letter " of the master prove better then any amendments or revisions The teaching that in the Wagnerian or otherwise. content Beethoven's Orchestration with the gospel of Beethoven as he left it. probably. p. and we shall be far better off. ^ 223 . as carried out in the following passage : Flutes and Hautboys. will show the reader the purport and value of Wagner's suggested emendation.

might be simplified all excellent advice in its way. but adopted by that great band who call themselves if " improvers. that the instrumentation could be revised. be noted. 1878.^ This question of Beethoven's instrumentation and tempo was well summarised in the Monthly Musical Record for May I. was more indebted to Beethoven's works " I am doubtful. and January i. let it than was Wagner. continue to express his surprise. except a small minority." Heinrich Dorn \^Tites in 1832. however. as the most perfect monuments of musical art — : ' in existence." ^ No one. At any rate he must forego the pleasure of hearing Wagner's Beethoven at the Crystal Palace as long as the direction of the musical department is confided to myself. ** whether there ever was a young musician more familiar with the works of Beethoven than Wagner at eighteen. a cadenza in B major for the four principal vocalists. 1874. A. and as no less a champion than Mr August Manns stepped into the arena on this occasion. and I trust that all who may follow me may at least agree with me in this.— Beethoven Not only are we told by him that marks of expression could be improved. the discussion is well worth the study How the famous of those interested in the subject. that Beethoven's works require no such alterations as are suggested by Herr Wagner. but that phrases could be bettei written. B. may be gathered from his castigation of a captious critic " C. and that the difficult vocal part. conductor wound up the whole matter." where shall we stop ? Better far to leave Beethoven to live or die through his works as he left them.' must. I fear. considered as they are by all. notably a trying passage." 224 .

Wagner ^ . I must decline to acknowledge his infallibility. whenever a composer's his donkey into the bargain." originally contributed to Musikalisches Wochenblatt^ which. Tempo di Menuetto in P 225 . and lost directions as to ' own judgment.Manns "I will v. I have received from his keen and able criticism on orchestral performances. because it is only on the strength of such self-criticism that he can avoid placing himself in the position of the man with the donkey in ^sop's Fables. in reference to the tempos in ^ of other people's music. or that of any other man. 8). as might be expected. is a very able plea for 'improving' Beethoven's instrumental masterpiece." jealously loyal to the great ones. Whether such " improvements " will ever come about now that Wagner is dead cannot be determined. Bravo August Manns.^ * only add that while fully alive to the great genius of Wagner. a conductor his must ultimately confide personal time and general reading cannot be ascertained. displeased all. though he charm us ever so wisely with the assurance that as much can be done with ings" ^ Beethoven's This had reference particularly to the Symphony in F (No. in common with others. and ever instinctively true tv^ the highest traditions of orchestral harmony. Though anxious to learn from any quarter.' who in trying to please everybody. and grateful for the many benefits which. whose creations he ! has wrought so indefatigably and successfully to interpret. but it is devoutly to be wished that the day is far off when the man will be found with the temerity to tamper with Beethoven. In the ninth volume of Wagner's " Collected Writis an article entitled "Zum Vortrag der neunten Symphonic Beethoven's.

. losing much of their effect because of the inadequacy of the means conveying the 226 . The same cannot be said of Beethoven. good workman that he was. who had something grander in conception than had either of his predecessors.— Beethoven Beethoven as Mozart. were scored for an Beethoven's orchestra of much Mozart's that and Haydn's at Beethoven's same numerical strength as undeniably true as it also is conceptions were far beyond the the . . The Bayreuth master conceived that all he could discern in Beethoven's intent was not reached to the full owing to the conditions through which Beethoven conveyed his mind to us. though. reasonable and practical musician. though we may reject. however much he was Beethoven content the forced control ^^ Add't' stands in his scores. his pro- „ . Both Haydn's and Mozart's ideas exactly accorded with the strength of the orchestras that performed them. posals respecting Beethoven's orchestration. he did his best to make his utterances felt through the material provided. Incontrovertible as it is that symphonies. by dint of additional accompaniments. None the less it would be a great injustice *° Wagner's genius and sincerity in art to really he un-edited will always disparage. did for Handel. It is here that Wagner wanted to improve Beethoven. Beethoven gave the old slender orchestra infinitely more to do notably in the " Eroica " than it had before. etc. and it is little wonder that such a scrutiny as Wagner's left him ' ' — with the conviction that many of the Bonn master's effects came out hazy. and that the grand truths and intentions were only partially driven home. resources hand as to give to effect to his them mind.

emotional side of music was practi- an undiscovered region until Beethoven opened it and by his bold traversings took mankind into a new world with all the wondrous possibilities of that art which had been engaging men. in in — Wonderful and unrivalled as Beethoven's achievements the creative and instrumental departments of music in indubitably are.New idea." many of the passages Beethoven's scores with wonderful advantage. All of this soul 227 . his influence upon the formal retical art is. expanded and improved everywhere. at least for ten or twelve centuries. could have "touched. the formal side of music by his vast industry and super- Beethoven's Watch lative original gifts. cally The spiritual. not less far-reaching He and astonishing. whether we apply this to his colossal their entirety — to their tional single properties or to a idea or episode constituting a part of some move- — works in emo- If. too. he impressed ment. tion. it the process had gone no further). face of theo- certainly. especially the direction of increased sonority a quaUty which Beethoven ever had before him. (if Region Wagner. how much more is to be accounted to him for his achievements in the aesthetics of that more exalted sphere of art influence — music. if not from the earth's foundaup. may be conceded.

. C. -^ . J. having tones speaking letters." which Beethoven specially wrote foi ^ It later him. or any other litterateur has left us in words. and to those who understand music thoroughly there is as much of the divine and human. the spiritual and material.Beethoven may not even yet be fully understood. " Ars longa. Homer. more than the masterful musician. they were to the ear harmoniously unpleasant. ^ . or little." [Communicated to the writer by his niece. .^ It is not too much to say that the Romantic style in Music owes its existence to what Beethoven accomplished in the symphony. Smart. — was the late Sir George Smart's opinion that ''although the works of Beethoven may have been theoretically correct. Miss A. To do justice to Beethoven to solve his music and to participate much. those sufficiently acquainted with the scientific or technical side of music can adequately estimate this he was yet more. indeed. sonata. 228 . Music is. the language of a great mind. However and dexterous he was in his theoretical expression and inventiveness and only original — ^ /. Beethoven was the exponent of Everything he says musically has a hidden meaning to it . but it is its mental and spiritual characteristics which so possess the attentive mind. and overture. . It is not alone the technical or material aspect of Beethoven's music that is so overwhelming wonderful. as it is . — or should be. Milton. in its spirit and teachings it is necessary to bear in mind that he was something of music — — ^. told us by Beethoven in his special language as Shakespeare. vita brevis. If our poets and philosophers have unfolded to us in verse and prose great truths from an for its this tongue. who owns the Canon. but it will be some day.

and what do the rest of the wiseacres who find fault with my works. Beethoven is far from being done with when the listener experiences grand harmonies. Who can propound." Here is where he — so distinctly anticipated stalling the very Wagner and 229 his mission. almost from the first and certainly at the — — is ripe with psychological issues. or the spirit of an author behind his typed pages. the slow movement of the Concerto in G. Beethoven's soul and emotionally is ever behind. fore- essence of Wagner's gospel. ' ' capable of higher musical aspirations and realisations than had hitherto ever summoned it. to be able to follow me. The mental image. Beethoven has our senses mightier things in music stored up though they be. and Beethoven's last Sonatas and Quartets? It was man's soul that he made music for. His music. who had trudged all the way from Breslau in Silesia to Vienna to see him " What does a blockhead Hke you. which was to ." the Seventh Symphony. unearth-like air pervading the Trio of the " Eroica.— Music unknown placed before s Soul world of imaginative fancy. know about them? You have not the energy. unless to a comparatively few for an age when everyone will see the mental side of such music as readily as they now comprehend the subject of a painting beneath the pigment. and which it appeared to him was last. for example. rapturous tune and gorgeous orchestration in what is before him. the bold wing of the eagle. the all that he was worth mentally picture. Adverting to the question of the strangeness of the last symphonies. the full meaning of the romanticism permeating the Leonora Overtures. or furnish the key to the mysterious. he one day told Freudenberg.

and understandable Whatever name we accord to this quality. the purity and sublimity of the knee. is one of the strongest grounds of It was not understood or its universal acceptance to-day. better. though it was undoubtedly there in — nothing nobler. a language of those it. such as no other composer cast over the art. grand things which overflowed his heart.Beethoven make men drama by the aid of a free musical This aesthetical tendency. the earliest compositions. his expression. like Wagner. strengthening and strengthening towards that full maturity which is characteristic of his ripest works . this emotional element is more remarkable in Beethoven than in any other composer. Putting its ethical drift and meaning aside for the moment. freer else. so that every phrase that he has a sense. he wished to bring home to his fellow-creatures. and meaning in art. The nature of his thoughts. but to his thinking they were simply impel one to bow — — — but as a visitor at the entrance-gate of a far-reaching 230 . In some cases the subjects which form the text of his music are abrupt and in others they are individual beyond all precedent in both insteeped in heavenly beauty and feeling stances because they are the representatives of corresponding emotions. Mere " music " and " harmony " were He required i7io?nent nothing to the mind of Beethoven. it is incontestably the secret of Beethoven's superiority over all composers of music. His admiration of the works of Haydn and Mozart has been surpassed by no man. appreciated at first. if we can but discover uttered has a purport Music must be a language. but to-day much is clear enough to trained. willing minds. this philosophic purpose which permeates Beethoven's music and invests it with a wondrous halo. and which.

Art Apostle They did not tell of that vast sphere of art kingdom. And the world must know that Beethoven did accomHe fulfilled all that was possible in the plish more. prose. he was inspired to accomplish still mightier things from his art. surpassing everything that had been achieved before. Great as had been the achievements of his two famous predecessors. His music is not the vulgar stuff which the sugar-coated composers. Admirable as is the spiritual intent of poetry." and not vainly the finest feelings within us. and 231 . to —the He strikes the springs of use a homely phrase. was to prove potent enough to emancipate Germany intellectually and give the people an ideal existence here on earth. pure. and which in so remarkable a degree he felt it to be his mission to bring before the understandings of mankind. ' ' painting. domain of absolute music. Beethoven while being so lofty also so human that the lowest can The properties of understand and be touched by him. which he so keenly realised. even to the popular mind. uncommercial heart. according to his gospel. that the masses. chorus merely. where Speech is joined to Tone. but that culmination of art elements to which Wagner only asked to add the Dance to form that perfect elixir which. Everything that Beethoven wrote sprang from a large. his music appeal so forcibly and unerringly. who write for their banking accaunt. he invokes — best sentiments of every heart. thrust before our intelligence and force into our ears. and music^ up it is only when the artist touches the heart-chord of everyday experience that a world of vibrations are set in every is sympathetic breast. In the Ninth Symphony. the limitations of actual music Here we have not a symphony with a seem to be set. "like it. whenever they hear it.

' 'Pastoral' distinct ^ and 'Ninth' portrayals ^^. utterances in As Shakespeare has so has said the grandest things in Literature. in the handling of this or that form of instrument. or. so evil and served its little day. The i^AOiz?. whether in the conception of advanced tonal ideas. it is none the less the humanity of the Music — Beethoven expressed the sufficient for A rr Humamty '. these — — is no doubt that — 232 . to his mind. man that is making are itself heard. it led the composer to be more precise. composer's works can with difficulty be other than a mirror of his inner self. since this principle of expressiveness was the key-note of his life's work. together with his extraordinary emotional power and daring freedom. too. given his genius. and lofty as Beethoven's flights invariably are. it will live when tons of has worked its cursed it deserves a worse name rubbish Beethoven is so pure. loftiest every intellect and all time. There especially his everyone of Beethoven's compositions more serious works has a tale to tell.. was worth a This vast mastery of place in his memoranda books. although all his have not yet found a solution. it is ever fresh like newly plucked flowers . 'Fifth. in a lessei degree. Nothing in the shape of technical resource was divorced from his work on its account indeed. despite his many readers and interpreters. this is — — all — that of making the listeners better men and women. Symphonies tone ^^^^ intentions bringing out this humanity. lofty. unparalleled in the case of any master before or after him. more prone to exact the very utmost from the least idea that. and why.Beethoven why. detail in working. that he furnishes food for the child and the philoHis work can have only one effect upon sopher alike.

in which alone his extraordinary powers seem to be at all at a tension. against Music's forms. ^ of The seeker after some new thing in music may find straws to catch at here and there in Beethoven s scores that may seem to art. . ^ J d „ ^• advance some pet theory of his own. His great emotional flights. and knocked over accepted artmethods and traditions like skittles. or majestic complete organisms like the symphonies. What whether this be his newelse followed was inevitable born melody. his scientific modulation and abstruse workings have all been Beethoven attained upon wonderfully legitimate lines. it is simply amazing how naturally and logically his early instrumental forms tack on to those of his two great immediate predecessors. . 01 many technical forms. his originality of invention. considering the extraordinary development which subsequently took place. models. Not so Beethoven. but on the whole Beethoven's compositions are wonderfully consistent in their adhesion to the strictest canons. but said infinitely more through them than anyone He broke no images j else before or since. He accepts all that they employed. Indeed. And all this vast intellectual philosophy the paramount be it remembered has been feature of Beethoven's music imparted with scarcely a single slight. harmony that already translates us to the eternal spheres. and seem to be the natural —the only continuation of things musical. much less offence or Wagner broke the barriers crime. in order to set up something revolutionary — — — . logical formations.Legitimate Style sum up the main artistic conditions of Beethoven's wondrously powerful and original musical mind. but the results of working between 233 . He kept the old methods and was no iconoclast.

As we have seen from our necessarily brief survey of Beethoven's works. . For inas. former. concerto. like his musical workings and expression. soon proved to be grander and broader than the world had known before. with a great deal to say of an original order . to the height of could explain it to a thinker well versed in abstract conceptions.'^ — " Beethoven. And the upon relation of the great Beethoven to the this alone. he chose this the most symmetrical and elastic vehicle through which to express thoughts which. which accounts. because "the outline of the sonata-form was the veil-like tissue through which he gazed into the realm of sounds.^ The old lines — — — ^ Wagner correctly describes Beethoven as a composer of sonatas. in the minds of the them stand horn. In these we find Beethoven not merely the vast musician. 234 German nation p. overture and sonata. that its had been degraded diverting art. the psychological moment in Music's fullest expansion was from Creation's morn deferred until it manifested itself so openly in Beethoven. is based . ." by Richard Wagner. and though such possibilities as Beethoven has expressed existed. but also the logician and the rhetorician. it may be. much to a merely sublime calling. perhaps.Beethoven in comparison like Snowdon and the MatterBeethoven takes up where Mozart and Haydn laid down. for his winning the reputation of being an art With the sonata form prepared before him innovator. 41. his genius led him to favour especially the cultivation and development of such great instrumental forms as the symphony. he has led us to understand the nature of that art from which the world explains itself to every consciousness as distinctly as the most profound philosophy as he again raised music. and of these his greatness was particularly employed if such a distinction need be made on the symphony and sonata.

Beethoven was not one who created any such distinct forms as Bach did in his Passion-Music settings. op. he expanded art as no man else has ever widened it. as he broadened out. but created music which soon set the instrument makers as well as the performers at work. when he found that the materiel of music was inadequate even the pianoforte was too short for him he stayed not." His inexhaustible imagination and power of conception. while Wagner as an instrumental musician has far from rivalled the composer of the Choral Symphony. to invest the structure with ample body and texture. 235 . and. Even a slight acquaintance with their respective works will bring the conviction that Beethoven has all the vivacity pose.' than is anywhere noticeable in the " Father of Symphony.Expansions which had served his predecessors answered all his purhe found that to adequately express himself he must enlarge and modify them. * ' and conciseness of Haydn added to a greater and grander breadth of style. 3. with infinitely more working out. but he accomplished tremendous things in carrying the art on from where he received it from Mozart and Haydn. „ % x'ortns ot •' Great even as Bach was as a master of musical technique. He worked not only on the external but the internal phases of music. and which has ^ xltXt^dTlSlOftS been promoted by no one as by Beethoven. lo. No. his ' ^ See such works as the Sonatas. 7. Then. and the Coda of the Finale to the " Second " Symphony.^ until — — : -r. he was overshadowed by Beethoven. not omitting. Hence his vast hence his mighty achievements in the great tonal flights school of instrumentation which Bach and other lights of Northern Germany founded. Musical thought was to him more than it had been to any of his predecessors.

the strongest element in which is that inimitable metaphysical quality already touched upon. would probably never have obtained. but these lesser properties must be in face of our broad reference to his grand general manner. so universally acceptThere are other able and so convincing as true art. and that both are equally we have 236 . His technique was fresh and exciting indeed. discover (despite Beethoven's mechanism being influenced by the eighteenth-century schools) how those of the two older masters fall far short of that emotional intent and variety of techpique which lift Beethoven's above anything — of their kind. This lavish expenditure of imaginative emotion to which alluded. that factions of classicists and romanticists have grown around such an exemplar. but it is the soul. But for Beethoven. whether in its simple or most abstruse instances. the verve of Beethoven's style which has made his music. that raises him to so high a pinnacle among the masters of creative art. quaUties attaching to it. the romantic style in art. has left him the great prophet of Romanticism in music. which comparatively early characterised Beethoven's writings.Beethoven fine sentiment so full of solemn emotion (the first real sentiment of great quality ever imparted to music) comall this raised upon the bined with this minute working Haydn-Mozart lines have made modern music what it is. notably that left irresistible force especially noticeable in the Finales of his symphonies. Most readers are familiar with the pianoforte sonatas of They have only to be compared to these three masters. in which case a great element would be missing Little wonder from our art surroundings and divinings. as we know it. It is Beethoven's own independent style.

Beethoven's Father .


. to us. men can be realised from his commendable patience in the matter of the Leonora tures no less than four of which he wrote to easily ' ^ — ' Oversatisfy this ^ Sec Riehl's "The Two Beethovens" for an exposition of matter. scarcely a bar of his music which he did not improve over and over again. and his scores become we can realise the sort of „ feeling which must frequently have overt k' ^ * . Striking indeed must have been As his works the patience of this remarkable man. until some bars have been written His choicest themes as many as ten or a score of times. That he desired to make taken Beethoven. that his glorious pre-eminent position easier of access.. whether we gauge this by the ears of the mind noble. Painstaker the exact eager to claim him as theirs that they profess and desire in art. but by repeated touching and re-touching they are brought to their present beautiful and eternal shape.^ — embodiment of all Attention has already been drawn to the painstaking No trouble was too great nature of Beethoven's work.. and instruct his fellow- became more familiar . — more and — comfortable critic auditor or by the acute analysis of the to think specialist. what it is. Nothing of the kind. It is all the There is effect of enormous care and infinite labour. . are apt to appear at first in what might seem to be a mere commonplace form. Some might be tempted was the result of some sort of Muck' or of some sudden impulse or impromptu effort. himself friendly with.. . the expression of his august that could make his music more truly refined or that could add It was no accident that made his music to its beauty.

" when he has found the proper vehicle for his thought. but Beethoven has surpassed even their splendid results. as has been well said.— Beethoven the taste of a tyrannous public. In this department. a culminating point of absolute perfection is reached in the works of his later years many of them treasures which no time or frequency of performance will ever mar. To him the string quartet afforded a channel for the expression of many of his grandest thoughts. — was Mozart — not music greatly 238 . although so worked upon. who would thus strive to bring his music within the demands of his critics? The same attention was shown every- where and changes in everything. for instance. and with less genius than Beethoven. Who is there at the present day. careful. And. and even English masters accomplished wonders in this direction. Growing more and more upon him. in Beethoven's 'Sketch-books' are the best memorials of his industry and manner of working. — ' ' music seems to consist of a continued reiteration of a few elegant ideas. it comes before us as a perfectly spontaneous effort. to one before him was so mark the intended pace or the the minutest nuances^ or to No of expression. Haydn and to travel so far as the Italian. he is never weary of repeating it. see that his publications were correctly printed. From them we see how insatiable he was in touching up and polishing his work until it assumed the shape in which he wished to give it to the world when. until as in the Pastoral Symphony." the Chamber music — that is all that great class of peculiarly adapted for performance in a room enriched by Beethoven.

but all is weighed and adjusted with the nicety of an apothecary's balance. all musical exercise and knows of them and cherishes them beyond The chaste domain of the quartet supplies measure. His practice. but every real student the union music. Nor is it the terse part writing alone that is so surpassing.Chamber Music indeed. bear the palm for grandeur. 59. unsurpassable. . perfect. Beethoven is unequalled. as these famous quartets show. Irre- proachable adjustment four part writing and the most delicate throughout are among the conditions deBeethoven could rise supreme manded. wont to say that of these — 239 . of this. In no other similar compositions are the parts distributed with such exquisite delicacy. and nowhere else. ^ here. are The Rasoumowsky to generally allowed and Mendelssohn was set of three. is Such a thing as a principal part ^ ^ out of the question. The clear design. op. the most enjoyable of the exact area for the adduction of convincing evidence of Beethoven's powers as a faultless harmonist. can be traced such splendid evolutions of counterpoint. Wher„. familiar as their predecessors. the profuse and rich ideas and innumerable manifestations of profoundest thought and originality stamp these examples with an imprimatur which will never be erased nor imperilled while minds and instruments remain to expound such absolute — masterpieces. ^ ever search is made it will be to discover -^ that his four part writing therein is simply . of three instruments in the whole range of sixteen Quartets for Strings eclipse all The last four may not be so similar compositions. certainly. matchThe Trios furnish the most perfect example of less.

Any one of them would not inaptly pourtray a period or more in the composer's own life All of life sions of ^ This is the one which B. huge following So. op. and how adequately the distinction applies to him as a Symphonist realistic ! Who has before or after his him has approached his sublimity or of idea. Haydn. too. On another occasion he took Spohr seriously to task relative to one of the in 1804 six. no music painter has given to the world such stupendous or original and momentous tone actualities as he. and which so moved him when Holz took him to hear it that he got into such a state of excitement that his friends grew alarmed. op. however. No. The world has had no Sonatist like Beethoven. aspirations towards undreamt-of who his almost super-human workings. of admirers. 31.2 8. it would have been enough to have given him a place above every instrumental composer. but all lie low by the side of Beethoven. op. 18. 95 were the most in Beethovenish of the composer's works. If he had written nothing but the C Minor. 59. has the one in C sharp minor. the ground and trampling — — 240 . expression.^ and the all F minor. op. them are unsurpassably beautiful expresand nature as Beethoven experienced and regarded these. As it is. whether these are of the epic or the dramatic order. Romberg is credited with throwing to upon as unplayable. Beethoven the F. 2 The music which Schubert last heard.. asking him how on earth he could play such stuff. Schubert and Schumann are great indeed as symphonists. has a The one E minor. bequeathed us the splendid culminations which compel our admiration and wonder when his Godgiven powers have been expended on one of his mighty symphonic creatigns ? Mozart.

They furnish the Alpha and Omega of musical art. daily bread — * Naumann. Preludes and Fugues in the Wohltemperirte Clavier and the Beethoven Sonatas on his desk. it for the wide world. from which Beethoven knew he must some day emerge <^ taken together. works have been aptly styled the " Old and New Testaments of all serious musicians. — all - their . No pianist who has Bach's " Forty-Eight tire of them. form the mainstay of the best orchestral concerts. requires more. for therein lies the sum of all music. and These the pedant and the dilettante. meeting the tastes satisfying — and capacities of youth and old age. to take the Sonata out of the sphere of precise formalism and infuse into it the warmth of human emotion. and to its cold formal basis added such a superstructure of expression of every degree as to amaze mankind of his own day and all who have followed This great step constitutes him the maker of them.7 ^ -^ battlings and gloomy chequerings. . . they delineate in no triumphantly victorious feeble or uncertain colours the vicissitous life that fell to They are played more than ever to-day. no listener. Hitherto Beethoven shaped it had appealed only to polite circles. their passionate 0. tliese majestic tone poems with comedy and tragedy. and his lot."^ Certainly they are as alike and closest tie to all thinking musicians whether amateur or professional and it will be a long day in the world's history before they are superseded by Beethoven was the first works more staple or sustaining. has ever been found to alike. and can grapple with them.— " Sonatist or. Beethoven's Pianoforte Sonatas are the food of the greatest executants and humblest students and amateurs No player. Q 241 .

" —unquestionably a — its neighbour in C sharp minor — the "tone poem of The grand. No pianoforte player can fail to be particularly impressed. op. with its grand " Funeral March " and " Variations " in which Beethoven — A so richly excelled . to all who can fathom them. reflecting — Where all are such beautiful compositions it is all but heresy to single one out from another particularly as admirers can be found for each one of them. — His Sonatas are complete perfect organisms and conveying. the universally admired " Appassionata'" in F minor. Nottebohra's Mr J. ii. 582. The " Waldstein " in C major. the charmingly serene work in F major. in the numerous published editions. op. mysterious nature of the minor Sonata. element." vol. op. has caused ject much unnecessary confusion. however. these are all works which D — ^ The varying numberings has been touched upon by of Beethoven's works. most potent messages and secrets of one great heart and soul to the minds of all others." op. 53. wherein Beethoven seems to pour forth his fiercest soul fires . 57. or "Moonlight. 27 entrancing merit. 26. op. 54 . The sub- A. p.^ which work Beethoven told Schindler was suggested by Shakespeare's Tempest \ and the fantastic vigour and exuberance of its associate the E flat major Sonata. 31.— Beethoven intellectual. op. which has been well said to contain as much intensity "as would suffice for a Symphony". with the flat major Sonata. No 3 render them great favourites. FuUer-Maitland in the "Dictionary of Music and Musicians. modern music that art work which raised music into an human. as they are the richest and most perfect works of their order. 242 . Catalogue numbering has been followed in the present work. Thus these pianoforte compositions become and remain the grandest. No 5. as distinct from a purely mathematical.

lay the counterpane of his matchless. . absolutely pecuhar individual emotional tone and expression. for instance. wherein also as in the A major. It would be impossible to make this understood by those who have. 1 01. is one wherein Beethoven's influence upon this form is particularly noticeable . op. more clearly. also by investing his subjects. of Sonatas for the clavier. cites Liszt as Wagner say. iii (the two great Sonatas in B flat and C minor) played by Liszt in a friendly circle. Mendelssohn's style distinctive and works — is clearly anticipated. one must be able to produce with him. rigid form This he gave it practically a wholly new character. op. in order to reproduce Beethoven. when once introduced. and goes on to an ideal player of Beethoven's piano-music have ascertained beyond a doubt. heard nothing but the ordinary preformances and Into the growth and renderings by virtuosi of Beethoven's work. and in respectively. and what they learned of them on these I prefer not to offend I ask.Pianoforte Sonatas stand out even from among Beethoven's glorious catalogue The Sonata in E minor. 90. with intense minor — . that. what they previously knew of those creations. 106 or op. A flat major. and C the last Sonata. illustrating Grand most emphatically " — Beethoven's master hand. 109. ** I essence of such renderings I have in the course of time gained so sad an insight that anybody by expressing myself on the other hand. Over all contrapuntal treatment and therefore interest. elasticity which he imparted to its early stiff. no. 243 . all who have heard. especially in the " Variations are the three Sonatas in E major. Beethoven's op. Beethoven's impress upon the Sonata form consisted The principally in the varied interest he threw into it. in all their life. ops. brought about mainly by a profuse exercise of ingenuity by varying his themes when in working out his subjects repeating them.^ this Beethoven's method of working * is interesting enough. and thus avoiding monotony .

^ ii." ^ with which talented and industrious experts have familiarised us. . . he went off by himself. Thayer are especially They contain own ideas. he did not write of his method of working. and there. His own notes turn were worth 'making note of. J ^ J ornamental passages arose from his being -. but Bach. Thus. to merely exhibit the skill of the performer. the " Sketch-books. not merely of his — proved to be germs Equipped with such of many of his grandest works. Some of these are to be found in the British Museum and Berlin Royal Libraries. reminders. ^. note by note. . — Beethoven He began from the first making notes and memoranda of everything that might prove useful or that appertained to his art. in this development of idea he mtelligible to anyone but himself — have (now that the scores themselves are published) the — — ." vol. Character/ r ^ ^ ^ the his but to draw out ^u ripest expression of ur •' The florid and highly words and subject. • • . Haydn all in those of others.' frequently the most scanty memoranda and almost unscraps. 244 ... If this was reproduction. like Nottebohm and valuable. then surely it was worth a more than all the Sonatas reproducing Beethoven which are "produced" by our pianoforte composers in imitation of "Dictionary of Music and those imperfectly comprehended works. ^ & r & Diction ^ able to see so many possible ways of viewing an idea. . its most prominent characteristic character of his music was the outcome next to its sublime feeling and bearing Like Bach. built up the vast structures which arouse the wonder of every generation of The close and detailed musicians as it comes and goes. but generally to the fields and secluded country spots. Mozart. p. 147. Handel. occasions ? great deal Musicians. sometimes to his lodgings. Indeed.

He toys with a figure until it seems impossible that he can. -»45 . Too numerous to mention almost are other characteristics of Beethoven's style and workmanship. never . his captivating use of the mordent and * ' ' ' ' ' *pralltriller 'graces.^ Never has there been a master who. In consequence of his habit of writing everything himself and leaving ^ It is this anxiety to arrive at the fullest possible artistic expression difficulties of which leads to the execution in his music. and eccentric displacings of beats. play with his when he turns round and makes the mouse longer figure serve as an accompaniment to some new phrase. his part writing is as pure as . His methods of modulation are as new as they are surprising and arresting . has. happy ideas like the substitution of the interrupted cadence for the perfect .— Workmanship eclipses every composer. — crystal palls. Schumann approaches Beethoven in this direction. syncopated passages. fi"om such slender materials. but no one has equalled him in his humorous rhythms. his use of the crescendo^ constant as it is. cat-like. The manifold instances throughout his works of the use of varying and specially strong rhythms leave him with no equal as an exponent of the power of rhythm in composition. Then there are his novel expedients with syncopation effects. by sheer patient handling and delicate manipulation. " architoniker " such was his wonderfully scientific art of building up his themes and movements. or' morendo' and 'smorzando' effects all of which tend to make his music the delight of the student and the charm of the listener. because the results obtained are invariably admirable in the extreme. raised such colossal monuments of art oui Happily has he been styled an of apparently nothing.

whether vocal or instrumental. Whether ornamented or not. they stand unique are his in musical art say one in the Finale of the C Minor Symphony. beyond its profundity and beauty. him.Beethoven nothing to the whim of the performer. introducing episodes in the working out.^ In several respects Beethoven modified the formal face of music. especially in his fugatoSy is particularly alluring. two if Beethoven did not greatly re-model the Rondo. Bach accomplished for the Chorale Beethoven did ! ! — for the limits. or such grand Never was effects in Recitative as in " Ah. Then. for instance. ' Variation ' form. in the Prelude of " Das 246 . therewith. he studded it with such delicate. perfido " there work which. and What extending the key varieties of the movements. his music teems with the most delicate ornaments and marks of expression. affords such constant instances of superlative effects altogether unknown until Beethoven beautified his music What wonderful Pedal points. Not less so are the melody and harmony. especially the later ones. Thus he extended and gave considerably greater prominence to the " Introduction " of the symphony. The piquant grace of his science. and count the number of expression marks. either improving existing forms or providing new ones. taking a very free view of in its and they have had no successors particular branches of music. appended no doubt from the composer's anxiety to secure that propria e proposto effetto which was ever so dear to Nor can other splendid features escape notice. fragile embellishments as to improve its these * Wagner's famous Pedal note of 136 bars Rheingold " comes to mind here. It is a fine study to examine his works.

Beethoven's Mother .


and ingenuity of 247 his it Chamber-Music. if not this. just as it is the great in — — — — beauty. In numerous other ways did his genius impress art. It was not any serious alteration in the form of his Symphonies and Sonatas so much as the detail. no one except Beethoven found the true Scherzo. at others obtaining Accent throwing back or. before in old Italian masters in the shape of jest-like movements. Instead of remaining a matter-of-course tail to a composition. purity.Impress on Music character and enhance The Scherzo we ledge. sometimes anticipating. beauty almost out of knowentirely to Beethoven. the first hearing falls to the good His marvellous variety fortune of the solo instrument. obtaining it by syncopation all this is Beethoven's. that strict-form. 4) instrument and orchestra are better served and better pleased. Under Beethoven the solo instrument gets more prominence than formerly. and work which he put into them that lifts these works so high above everything of their class. He gave it that permanent place which it occupies in the Whatever may have existed sonata and symphony. for instance. with a bearing upon what had preceded it. Coda assumed importance. its owe There solo are. piquantly humorous. movement which affords such welcome diversion wherever In Beethoven's hands also the it appears in his works. Beethoven made it a part of the aesthetical plan of the work. and universal admiration. and instead of the orchestra opening with a tutti. temper. not any new shape which wins for . whatever Haydn and Mozart may have done to animate the Minuet. his improvements parts of the Concerto —a in the tutti and notable example is the whereby both solo Pianoforte Concerto in G (No.

and his Liederkreis stand out from anything of their kind. Beethoven's part in its expansion will always require to be remembered." " Molly's Abschied. and it would be dangerous to maintain that he was gifted with an instinct for the stage equal to that of Mozart and Wagner.Beethoven He put a new face on the Overture. need declaiming rather than singing. It was a great step which Beethoven took in Fidelio^ however. invented the Song Cycle. Jeitteles. and from Mozart's model led us up to such glorious conceptions as the Prometheus^ Coriolan^ Egmont^ and Leonora ^ Overtures. As a sample of the attainment of dramatic truth. towards the advancement of opera as required to meet modern ideas. it indicates what was possible even in this direction . 2. The Liederkreis is a cycle. the series formor set of songs. 75 and 83 tings as those to Goethe's words In George Thomson's collection of national matchless. and nearly thirty — — — ^ Nos. combined with masterly construction and a rare grasp of human interest." etc. 98. and Fidelia in E. such as " An einen Saugling. having the same subject ing a complete work. 248 . I. 3 in C. songs he arranged some forty Scotch airs. however. This was a poor thing until Beethoven handled it. There is a solitary example only whereby to judge of Beethoven as an operatic composer. a set of six songs with words by A. His early songs. but Beethoven's genius was more symphonic than operatic. works wherein perfect workmanship and dramatic expression reach their highest accUvity. but such fine lyric setare ops. so that in any consideration of the development of that form of art. He In the world of Song he accomplished much.. Beethoven's op. appears to have first introduced the Liederkreis in name and form.

^Vhat is meant by the " three styles " is the varying character of Beethoven's music. His great enterprises as astonishing in their wondrous detail as they are in their colossal dimensions may be ranked with the deeds of the world's chief men of action and phony.' — ' Three : Styles Welsh melodies. "An die Hoffnung" he wrote specially for Franz Wild he also set " The Last Rose o( Summer. as say in the opening Allegro of the " Fifth " — — progress. and writing as Haydn and 249 . adopt this classification. will be noticed a work. 1803. Schindler and Fetis. ** Beethoven which goes fully into a question subsequently much debated of the composer's so-called In the Bibliography et ses trois Styles. however." More than all. for example. and in which Beethoven is clearly under the influence of. Neither before him nor —one who — notes since has there been such an exponent of thematic music giving full vent to his thematic play could movement out of merely an " idea " of four build a gigantic SymHis vast achievements as a tone-architect place him on a footing with the world's foremost men the leader in the department in which he worked. and list the three periods into which his long either resolve themselves." — — three styles. does Beethoven stand out as the master highest ideal — the in whom instrumental music all fulfilled its composer who of others vindicated the true spirituality of music. To the First Period belong these works which were composed before the 'Eroica' Symphony. but a brief explanation of the subject here may not be undesirable. or of compositions may be allocated at the will of the critic and musical analyst.

darkest years of Beethoven's life." " perversely extravagant. i. come under the Second Period. Fortunately. deeper coloured. Fidelio^ the Egmont music. These were the outc/ . They have been pronounced " obscure. while . the Mass in D. These maturest works are admittedly extreme in their diction and meaning. when he is striking out a path for himself and expressing his ideas after his own fashion and genius. and his mind had become disarranged with long-continued worry and disappointment." "abstruse. two Sextets. Mass in C.e. when more than one cruel disease had made sad havoc with his body. and more beautiful work than preceded it. and if his physical powers were on the wane. "Variations for the Pianoforte.Beethoven Mozart wrote. "^ ' ' 250 ." " meaningless " and " aimless. but they are surely something more than the well-intentioned efforts of a constitution broken down physically and mentally. . — being tinctured with a peculiar mysticism and unearthly sentiment." etc. to 1813. The works of the next ten years. Beethoven's impaired health had not impaired his muse. we have proof here that his spiritual capacity was growing more magnificent. To the Third Period belong the scores of The works of the last thirteen years of Beethoven's life. the last " %h Quartets and Sonatas. almost a century of years has broadened men's minds and comprehension in matters of musical this closing period./ " ^ pourings of the saddest. and include the „ ^^ Ninth Symphony. This was the time of his most finished. if not most momentous work. stronger." "capricious. broader." " difficult to play and to understand. and includes the A major Symphony. are the profoundest that came from his pen." all of which epithets are as undeserved as they are reckless and misleading.

— Technically. cepted that however deep and seemingly inexplicable these works are. but these are never twice alike. Schopenhauer everything else. he thoroughly compre- perfectly . What a world of enquiries yet remains unfathomed. would at the same time have produced This is what Beeta philosophy explaining the world. nor are they identical in any two individuals and the question arises. in each one of his thousands of subjects and episodes Beyond doubt Beethoven saw in music a constitution and nature entirely different from that of poetic or plastic opening a path for Schopenhauer's spirit and reasonart ing. as in those who have devoted themselves warded by an almost universal acceptance of the master's It is now pretty generally acevery thought and idea. whether there is not still more in Beethoven than we have dreamed of in all Here and there Beethoven named a our philosophy.^ hoven realized. therefore. . so that to-day the efforts of to the elucidating and familiarizing of Beethoven's later writings have been reart. This lies chiefly in their psychological import and emotional intent. they yet abound in more than the average intellect can wholly perceive and bring out. work.. performed and receive impressions. the works can be rendered almost them ! — ^ Die Welt ah Wille und Vorstcllung. but these instances are very rare. than Beethoven ever heard but the best performances always leave something to be desired. certainly. therefore. and this is the full poetic justice as intended We may hear a Beethoven symphony by Beethoven. far better. The philosopher determined it imperative to recognise in music itself an idea of the worlds since whoever could completely elucidate music. or rather translate it into rational concepts. Like Wagner.

" Not a few passages in Schubert's music show the notable instance being the slow movement of the Duet for the Pianoforte in C. beyond doubt. Raff. Brahms. Httle of his " style. Schumann. Spohr. one at least Mendelssohn stands. would be almost startling. indebted. nor has any one of his successors said anything so good and fresh as he said it. opera. Among the prominent men. he would ever have written the Eine Faust „ . which Wagner claimed for the realisation of his dreams of a national Weber.. and it is extremely doubtful whether. — . Lachner. but for being inspired on hearing the Ninth Symphony. since his system of orwhile he is inconchestration is based upon Beethoven's testably under obligation to the Bonn master for not a ceived. It was the high ideal of Beethoven's music. That the whole world of music makers and music lovers has benefited mightily by Beethoven will be readily con- To fully discover how many composers have been influenced by him. Overture or other orchestral works. 352 . too. op. and a host of others have followed and exercised over * ' him —a strong influence which Beethoven imitated Beethoven. too. Wagner would never have been Wagner without 40. Rubinstein. Beethoven.— Beethoven hended the proper position of music with reference to the other fine arts. yet all their combined efforts have not resulted in the extension or improvement of the forms of music as he left them.

and then to do as the glorious Bonn master has done with the view to surpass him surely for such a labour seven life-times are needed. even if Nature has not closed the womb that gave us the Cyclops and On this account. other. just as it is impracticable to determine that he can ever be dethroned from his high musical state. letters. The study of music as it is found in Beethoven supplies us in itself with a life-long task to accomplish this.Appendix A BIBLIOGRAPHY The Beethoven bibliography as might be supposed is most voluminous comprising books of biography. catalogues and more or less extensive articles on every possible aspect of the man and his works the whole amounting to a literature which for extent is equalled in the case of no other composer and is only approached in the instance of Wagner. No other great tone-poet has provided so fertile a subject for the pens of those who delight to narrate the lives and distinguish the artistic characteristics and mannerisms of these saviours of our somewhat defective race. otherwise. And men and women will go on writing and pondering about this sun of the musical firmament down to It is impossible to conceive that it can be the end of time. critical and — deductions. if on no the giants of intellect and art. Not a history of music has been written since Beethoven's day without a large share of the space being devoted to him. as has Beethoven and his environment. it may safely be predicted that for many and many an age to come every littirateur touching music with his pen will find in the scores and personality of Beethoven an absorbinganalytical — : — 253 .

new one however. in this respect. Another remarkable work emanates strangely enough from the pen of a Russian Lenz. to his invaluable notes and annotations in the Crystal Palace Concert programmes for so many years past but it would. unquestionably. to the " Life " of the master by A. The Oulibicheff' s Beethoven. Thayer an American who sedulously applied himself to the task of giving the world an adequate account of the great composer's The work was written in English. but a German career. . unhappily. W. the untimely death of the author prevented the completion of the work. extends to three volumes bringing the " Life " down to the year 1816. so that eleven years of Beethoven's career remain untold therein. Here it is just and right to refer to Sir George Grove's Space forbids reference in detail writings on Beethoven.' and this was the work referred to. and appears to have hastened Anyhow he died the year after his Oulibicheff's death. but. and Lenz's reasonings are. former author in lauding Beethoven went out of his way to blame the latter for his inability to appreciate Beethoven's Only a volume would do to hurl at the head perfected style. who wrote Beethoven et ses trois styles. ses critiques et ses glossateurs. — — — . Most musical critics and analysts have a passion for divisioning whichever master and his music they undertake to expatiate upon. edition under the title Ludwig van Beethoven^s Leben was It issued in Berlin in order to court German criticism. The effort of * Bruin. The following list contains the more important of the biographical and critical writings relating to Beethoven. Of this collection the place of precedence must be assigned. no more than an elaboration of an idea that was first essayed by Fetis in his Biographie Universelle article namely Lenz's work brought a rejoinder on Beethoven.— Beethoven inexhaustible subject which will command a ready interest cultivated sufficiently to understand it for almost everyone of whatever age it may be the good fortune of these labourers of the pen to serve and instruct. proved too much. however. volume had left the press. lover of music A great deal is said concerning the division of the composiThe idea was not a tions of Beethoven into three periods.

25s . reminiscences and " Beethoven depicted by his contemporaries anecdotes. data. in the same compass. we believe. Another important book is Wagner's Beethoven^ translated This was a contribution to the by Edward Dannreuther. supplied us with an equally authoritative. in the case of no other native writer." Appendix A indeed. detailed. trace Beethoven's career from the cradle to the grave. Among his literary remains published in nine volumes (Leipsic. be difficult to say too much. value the volume teems with notes. This has been trans(Ludwig Nohl) is a notable book. or to praise too highly his admirable article on Beethoven appearing in the initial volume of the " Dictionary of Music and Musicians." are analysed and a vast amount of erroneous editorial garble which had got attached to them has been Apart from its great critical sliced away. and it can be safely said of it that. and second to no one in his admiration of the master. Fortified with a thorough knowledge of the Beethoven music and literature. we trust. celebration of the Centenary of Beethoven's birth. the distinguished author was enabled to bring to bear upon the article an appreciative power and influence possible. Moscheles' " Life " is little more than a translation of Schindler's work . lated from the German by Emily Hill . Nor. With the errata (which still needs some few additions) to be found in the Appendix to the work this article is altogether admirable. One of the best short sketches of Beethoven's career. Wagner has written extensively upon Beethoven." Until the appearance of that article there was nothing in the English language which. step by step life of the master. " as great in their own line as Shakespeare's plays. next to Sir George Grove's writings. but the other writings cited in this bibliographical sketch are all more or less valuable and essential to any worker desiring a thorough acquaintance with Beethoven. Teetgen's high sounding work is more startling than valuable. no other work exists from which so clear an idea of In it we can Beethoven's personality can be obtained. 1 871) much valuable material will be found relating to Beethoven. among leading books must be omitted the same writer's "Beethoven and his Nine Symphonies" —in which these wonderful works. for ever.

A. 2 8vo Berlin. 2 vols. L.Beethoven our own language. vols. van Beethoven von L. H. 256 . in Work Biographische Notizen liber ) Biographic L. 1882. Becthoveniana 1855 . 1870 reuther. Brussels. 1880) Wagner (translated Beethoven by Dann- Leipzig. vols. V. 1872. 3 | •! 8vo Skizzenbuchs von Beethoven Nottebohm Leipzig. i vol. Beethoven Life of Beethoven | ! Moscheles 8vo London. literature of the genius is the article on Thayer^s Beethoven published in Francis Hueffer's " Musical Studies.f Nohl (translated by derungen seiner Zeitgen-^ ossen \ n 8vo „ 1877. 1880) Beethoven's critically Symphonies Teetgen and sympatheti1 London. Rudall's biography in the "Great Musicians" series is Another valuable contribution to the also a goorl sketch. 8vo 2nd Series . 1880. 1841.1863. ses critiques ses glossateurs Beethoven nach den Schil. 8vo Paris.1887.1844 8 vols.."^ The dates of the books show the order of their production. 8vo Leipzig. J Author Datb Wegeler-Ries Coblentz. Beethoven's Leben Thayer 1866-72-79. Black. Beethoven. 8vo St Petersburg. 1838. 8vo Schindler Miinster. is the article in Chambers' Encyclopasdta. 1857. 1879 cally discussed Messrs A & C. van\ 1840. 1852. Beethoven Studien 1 Beethoven (" Biographic Fetis Universelle des Musiciens" / Beethoven et ses trois styles „ 1875-1879 Lenz Oulibicheff 1835 . 8vo Hill.

2 vols. R. 4 vols. 1865 . 8vo 1866. Sa Vie et ses \ Barbedette OEuvres J Berlin. 1888. /London.i879/^^° The Two Beethovens Beethoven : Riehl. 8vo Chronologisches VerzeichThayer niss der Werke L. 1892 und Schaffen / Marx / \ Berlin. 1888. 1 87 1871 Stuttgart. Bericht liber die Auffiihrung \ der neunten Symphonic f von Beethoven im Tahre ( Wagner Frimmel Rieter-Bi- Leipzig. 8vo Elterlein- Leipzig. 3 vols „ 1870 . van Beethoven : Graeme Wasielewski 8vo 1870 Berlin.1890 Zweite Beethoveniana : < \ j dermann „ 1887 Beethoven Some Thoughts ^ on the Man and his > Bennett Genius ) L. 1879-89.\ Wagner hoven / Beethoven Barnard Briefe Beethovens Nohl Beethoven (Article in "Dictionary of Music and Grove Musicians ") "Letters" (from the ColWallace lections of Dr L. 8vo Beethoven and his Nine \ Grove Symphonies / Beethoven ("Lexikon ") Mendel Eine Pilgerfahrt zu Beet. 2 vols. 1865 „ \ \ TLondon. Leben ) London. and Kochel). 1856).1826 J 50 " Beethoven Pianoforte Sonatas explained for the^ the lovers of Musical Art Leipzig. 1863. 1790. van Beethoven. 5 vols. Pamphlets < ein Kunst-studie Lenz Cassel. 1855-60. Nohl. o„- Hill London. W. 1867.. 1896.11 Appendix Work Author A Date London. 1 87 1846 Neue Beethoveniana ) Vienna. 2 vols. Beethoven a Memoir L. van Beethoven's Nohl Beethoven's Leben Beethoven.

Beethoven Work .

Appendix Work A .

— Beethoven so valuable and many-sided that no apology is needed for supplying a list of them from the start of the paper up to the present time — : Work .

. Cantata) J a Humorist Sonatas. J and Marie Bigot Pianoforte „ Sonatas Beethoveniana . . Appendix Work Beethoven's Sketchbooksby ^ A Author GustavNotte..... and Sym- ) phonies .. . his works his . a New \ Edition of / Pianoforte Variations for Sonatas Violin and Piano and Cramer . A New position Comof J \ I (Lobkowitz j „ . As . Pianoforte Sonatas „ Some remarks regarding the performance of by.V bohm ...

1836. have unhappily been unable to survive the change of fashion and burden of increased competition which have stepped in upon periodical literature this last half of the Victorian era : Musical Times. 1873. 1858. Argosy. Bentley's Miscellany. if it does not threaten his hfe. is a fit place to lay before the reader a few extracts from contemporary journalism bearing upon the closfresh light ing scenes in Beethoven's life. it is always well to know how the press of his period have regarded his decease. 1827 :— Case of Beethoven. and in this instance Beethoven in particular. British Quarterly Review. Harmonicon. Colbum's New Monthly Mag- azine. Tait's Boston Quarterly Review. 1876. 62. the dropsy. vol. Journal of Speculative Philosophy. vol. 1866. 1823. 1827. Fortnightly Review. The melancholy situation of this highly esteemed composer was scarcely known in London. Macmillan's Magazine.1882. 1870. Edinburgh Review. may for a long time check the exertions of his active mind. Musical World. and was reproduced in the Times of April 5th. which. 1 839. Here. M. Poor Beethoven has now been these four months under a very tedious and painful disorder. Westminster Review. to afford for 262 . 32. but in the case of any great man.1833. 1863. The following extract appeared in the Austrian Observer of March 22nd. vol. 53. Moschelles {sic) hastened to lay the case before the Philharmonic Society. 1872. Contemporary Review. 1892. Orchestra. vol. perhaps. March suflfering 21st. North American Review. namely. "Vienna. vol. 1840. 1847. when one of his warmest friends and admirers.— Beethoven the-bye. which unanimously resolved at a very numerous meeting.i87l. 138. 1 84 1. Appleton's Journal. Beethoven Number. 1870. 1 840. 1868. 34. 1858. These admittedly throw little upon our subject. Edinburgh Magazine. 1841. Atlantic Monthly.

not only for the moment but in future. the 26th ult. A little more attention to him on the part of the owners. The persons who are the most constantly about him are his early friend. mention that the celebrated composer." The following are further extracts from the same journal at the time "The German papers which arrived last night.. May Heaven be pleased long to preserve to us and the musical world in general this unequalled composer. could have allowed this accomplished veteran to be lingering in misery at Vienna. without affording every possible assistance and comfort to . at six o'clock in the evening. they would have felt themselves amply recompensed for their considerate liberality.'"— 7>'/. and enable him to resume his exertion in the cultivation of his art. died at Vienna on the 27th ult. " Vienna. would have been more to the purpose. It is difficult to describe the deep emotion with which Beethoven received the information of this generous action and if his worthy friends in London could have been witnesses of it. through the house of Rothschild. at a quarter before six in the him. : ' ' : — ' iZth. while living. Beethoven. with the intimation to spare nothing that might contribute to restore him to his health. was said to be endless. all the assistance of which he might stand in need. April 2. Von Bremming {sic) (? Breuning) and Mr von Schindler. at Vienna. the Society transmitted to Mr Beethoven. the sum of looo florins (convention money).. who has been for many years his tried and constant friend." " Philharmonic " in a letter to the Editor remarks I cannot help feeling much surprise that the Emperor of Austria. and will be heard with universal Times^ April ()tk. and who regards no personal inconvenience when he can be of service to him. April "The file 263 . regret. 1827." Times^ April i()tk. who professes to be such a patron of music. In consequence of this resolution. The loss to the musical world is irreparable. of carriages at the funeral of Beethoven. Beethoven terminated his earthly career on Tuesday. 1827. Beethoven is in the best hands. leader of the band. With respect to medical advice.— — — Appendix A him. 1827. the Imperial Aulic Counsellor.?^j.

and some surprise has been expressed that Beethoven. — : .— Beethoven A violent thunderstorm. the Archduke Rodolph. his property. is about . Those intimately acquainted with him. that his warmest thanks should be conveyed to the Philharmonic Society. 1827. subject. which was so liberally sent him. that he himself was sensible that his sufferings were rapidly approaching their termination. and the princes Lobkowitz and Kinsky. of Vienna and of Austria.i^iooo sterling. and to the whole English nation for the attention shown him during his life. . however. however. They could not otherwise have conducted his interment in a manner suitable to so distinguished a man without disposing of one of the seven bank actions which constitute the whole of The value of the actions here mentioned. On the morning of the 24th. which are of the bank at Vienna. when the feebleness increased to such a degree. The Philharmonic Society has already had information respecting the donation of . will be again at the disposition of its members. new Westphalian Court of Jerome Buonaparte. being in possession of so large a sum. April 2otk. had an instrument drawn up." evening. should have appealed to the sympathy of a foreign nation. and his property devolves upon his nephew and sole heir. are of opinion that the fact had entirely escaped his recollection. This reference was made in the Annual Register ior 1827 he was induced in 1809 to accept an offer from the ". and more especially towards its close.!^ 100. of the situation Fortunately. however. but which. and who know his habitual indifference and neglect of money matters. where his remains repose near those of the lamented Lord Ingestre. and hail. induced him to rescind his In the most delicate manner those princes determination. accompanied by lightning occurred during the time he was breathing his last. appropriate it in some noble manner worthy of The executors have defrayed his funeral the English nation. he requested when he should be no more. to repayment. who will. expenses out of the above sum. 264 . a village situated a short distance from Vienna. Beethoven was never married. for the honour of Maestro di Capella. by which they settled upon Ti?nes. no doubt. His place of interment is at Wahring. not being required for the service of the deceased.

his remains were honoured with a splendid and ostentatious funeral. etc. Although Beethoven was allowed to languish and expire in poverty. Homer and Plutarch were his great classical education . the and latter period of Beethoven's life was passed in penury early in the present year a subscription was raised for his Beethoven had received a regular benefit in this country. than that. 265 . more abstruse subjects. unless by the express consent of his patrons. with no other condition. he must reside at Vienna. such as Kant's Philosophy. as long as he should enjoy it. or in some other part of the Austrian dominions. .Appendix A Beethoven an annuity of 4000 florins. Notwithstanding this income. not being allowed to visit foreign countries. and of the native poets favourites among the ancients Schiller and Goethe (who was his personal friend)." . he preFor a considerable time he applied to ferred to all others.

a. .Beethoven X CD w < a.

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Beethoven .

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Appendix B A.pril later later later ) .

Beethoven .

First visited Vienna. in Latin. . Was soon afterwards. 1784. and played at various private houses. Presented to the Emperor 1787. 1 781. February. 1779. issued by the Elector Max „ Franz.Appendix C Principal Incidents in the Life of Beethoven 1770. December 16. June 27. however. Italian.) The Beethoven family first lived. Beethoven's name appears as second organist at a salary of £1^ per annum (150 florins). etc. (He was baptised on the 17th December. with practically the responsibility of conducting the band. with his mother. and subsequently at 7 or 8 on the Dreieck. February. April 26. 287 . Commenced his studies under the tenor singer Pfeiffer and at the same time took lessons of Zambona. 1786. French. but did not meet with success. 1774.] In the list of his band. secular music. whilst at Bonn. 1775. Debated date of his birth. appointed Second Court organist. Became a pupil of Neefe. The Beethovens removed to 934 Rheingasse. [The Beethovens were now residing at 476 Wenzelgasse. at No. who succeeded Van den Eeden as Court organist. and Beethoven received the post of " Cembalist " in the orchestra. at Bonn on the Rhine. He began to learn music. Studied violin under Franz Ries (Ferdinand's father). but did not receive any salary. In the winter made a visit to Holland. Neefe appointed Director of both the sacred and 1783. 515 Bonngasse. Applied for payment of a salary.

National Theatre instituted by the Elector. "in tiefen this concert. C. and saw Mozart (from lessons). Left Bonn for Vienna. February. the horn- player.) First met Czerny. composed for (Living at this time at 241. Introduced to Bemadotte. and at „ the Singakademie. (First lodged at a printer's in the Alservorstadt). with the Concerto in 1795. Death of first his mother of consumption. March 29. Haydn went to England." third floor. 1793. singing and buzzing in the 1800. in a sonata for horn and pianoforte. 1792. Again played his sonata for horn and pianoforte. His father died. December 18. 1796. at a concert for the benefit of the wounded in the Changed his lodgbattle of Hohenlinden. Played at Court. to Visited by Haydn and Salomon on their journey London. still retaining his appointment as second organist. Graben. Beethoven 788. whom he received some 17. and Schuppanzigh useful advice also from Salieri and Aloys Forster. April 18. He and Haydn First ears. 1787. 1798. „ 1789-1790. July In this year he 1 became acquainted with the Von Breuning family. Gave 2. his first concert for his own benefit in Vienna. Had studied with counterpoint). both appeared at a second concert on January 10. t88 . First appeared before the public. April „ Again appeared at concert given by Punto. played second viola in both the chapel and the opera.Beethoven Joseph. January 30. this date. with 1 80 1. difficulty in hearing. and also Count Waldstein. 1794. at the Annual Concert for the Widows' Fund of the Artists' Society. January 19. Visited Prague and Berlin. November. Punto. „ and took lessons of Haydn and Schenk. Went with Haydn to Eisenstadt. and Beethoven (for Albrechtsberger (violin). then French Ambassador. Met Himmel at Berlin. where he permanently settled. at the Burg Theatre. Again visited by Haydn on his return from London.

Brunswick . „ In the summer went to the country residence of Count 1806. April 5. In his residence at the Theatre with his brother Caspar. offer from King Jerome Bonaparte of the post of Maestro di Capella at Cassel. Shortly after he was reconciled to Breuning. : T 289 . Received an 1808. May 1 8 10. When he returned he took up his residence with Baron Pasqualati on the Molker-Bastion. Count von Braun. and in October to that of Prince Lichnowsky near Troppau. First made the acquaintance of Bettina Brentano. and thence to Ober-dobling. Hetzendorf and Baden for the summer and autumn. Again at Heiligenstadt for the summer. 1805. Met Cherubini in Vienna also Vogler. 1809. 1812." On returning to Vienna he removed from the Sailer-statte to the Peters Platz. June. and went off by night to Vienna." and Beethoven set out for Baden. Quarrelled with the Prince. Was the guest of the Countess Erdody. the summer went to Baden. and the Princes Lobkowitz and Kinsky entered into a guarantee to pay him an annual sum of 4000 paper florins { = £216). and was ordered by his physician Malfatti to take a course of the baths in Bohemia. In consequence of this offer the Archduke Rodolph 1809. Went rupture. Had very bad health. October.Appendix C Took rooms for ings and went to the Sailer-statte. and 1 50 ducats for travelling expenses. at a salary of 600 gold ducats (^300 per annum). March i. July. year his deafness became serious. where. Took up 1803. He here wrote the sad letter to his brothers (dated 6th October) known as "Beethoven's Will. "The Mount of Olives" produced. and Beethoven went to live with They had a Stephen Breuning— the " Rothe Haus. The Theatre was transferred from Schikaneder to 1804. Journey to Hetzendorf again. On the advice of his doctor (Schmidt) he removed to Heiligenstadt and remained there till October. but they never lived together again. Towards the end of the the summer at Hetzendorf. on his arrival he in his fury smashed to pieces a bust of the Prince. 1802 (early in). Silesia.

Had a scene with the Archduke Rodolph. April 20. At MMHng for the summer. Franzensbrunn. 1 ^i. February. and on his return re-occupied his 1813. „ Dispute with Maelzel and Kinsky law-suit. May. Obliged to commence the use of an ear-trumpet.^iio. Went to Baden. ' I -orS:"nc. As a result of his intense dislike of Caspar's widow „ (whom he called the "Queen of Night") he obtained an order to take his ward Carl out of her control. 1814-15. Death of Prince Lichnovvsky. and also Amalie Sebald. „ Mr Thomas Broadwood presented him with a grand 1817. and subsequently Beethoven appealed against this latter decree and gained his object (in January 1820). December 27. he separated for some years. and to place him in a school in Vienna.) Death of his brother Caspar Carl Beethoven.^. Beethoven's pension reduced to about . (Reconciliation in 1822.^-. and Toplitz again.uZrhis 'Ml At Baden. 1 8 16. April 15. Actual last public appearance. rooms in Pasqualati's house. and then to his brother Johann at Linz. „ November 15.'^^^ overture " Weihe des 290 . The Municipal Council conferred on him the Freedom of the City (Ehrenbiirgerthum).Beethoven Prague) to Toplitz. May. f During this period Beethoven was engaged . Carlsbad. At Toplitz he met Goethe. Prince Lobkowitz died. „ pianoforte. then between eight and nine years of age. 1814. Last appearance in chamber music. The widow entered an appeal. Second quarrel with Stephen Breuning. and obtained an order for the restoration of the boy to herself. December. December 16.8:8. from whom 181 5. who „ imposed on him the burden of the maintenance of his son Carl. ('vii .

Beethoven 1827. „ Attempted. MS. to conduct " Fidelio. Sym- phony (No. At Baden from May 2 till October 15. . Completed a fresh Finale to the Quartet in B[j {his last work). At Johann's house at Gneixendorf. making his nephew Carl his sole heir. November. Spent the summer at Baden. literature for trade but was again ploughed attempted to shoot himself. and his pupil young Benedict. . declares his nephew Carl to be his sole heir and commits him to Bach's special protection. left suddenly for Baden. sequently entered the army. Visited at Baden by Weber. 1824. C for Philharmonic Society offered him /50 9).Appendix 1822. Returned at the end of October to lodgings in the Ungergasse. notwithstanding his extreme deafness. Commenced the summer at Hetzendorf. . March 26. March 24. but without any power over the capital of the property. The Sacraments of the Roman Church administered „ to him. 1823. but was ordered to leave Vienna. His death at quarter to six in the evening. March 23.!^ioo on „ account of a future concert. October 5. . „ 1825. forfeiting a deposit of 400 florins which he had paid. . his advocate. but conceiving a dislike to his landlord. during a „ thunderstorm. March i. 1826. October. His nephew Carl entered the University to study was plucked gave up philology tried for his degree endeavoured to pass the Polytechnic. January 3." but was obliged to leave the orchestra. In a letter to Jx Bach. „ „ 291 . and subfailed in that . The Philharmonic Society sent Beethoven . Assisted by Breuning he added in his own writing a „ codicil to his will.

"Three Sonatas. 1846. hoven counterpoint. Anders. London. d. was made good to him. Founded the d. to the composer resulted." Appendix D Beethoven Personalia and Memoranda Adlard (H. 292 . Kinsky. German writer and composer. A famous actor who delivered the oration at the Anschiitz. b. who taught Beet1809. 1500. Alexander L. portrait which serves as frontispiece to the two volumes of " Letters translated by Lady Wallace. and led to a law suit proceedings. To whom op." for pianoforte and violin. 3. An intimate friend at Courland. . Rudolph. is dedicated. Archduke Charles. 1779 Beethoven Quartette Society.' 1809. Adlersburg (Dr). from which a compromise favourable Later on Lobkowitz died. Albrechtsberger (Johann Georg). Harley Street. however. 1800. 30. . This was granted on March i. funeral. Engraver of the Mahler (Karajan). Connected with Beethoven's legal affairs.). Princes Annuity. Feb. all forth his violent disapprovals. 1736. Victor of Aspern. Alsager (Thomas Massa). and Beethoven's income was further affected. calling Eventually. Emperor of Russia. By Kinsky's untimely death his share ceased. Amanda (Pastor). A devotee in Paris. March 7. but a depreciation in and 700 florins respectively Austrian currency reduced this considerably. and Lobkowitz subscribed 1800. b.

1893). Austria. 1831. The spelling of the composer's name is variously rendered Betthoven. etc. 27. Rudolph. Feb. the nephew adopted by Beethoven. Biethoffen. Bennett (Joseph). Italian. 1842. b. etc. The last relics added were the ear trumpets made for Beethoven by MaelzeL These were 181 5 (. b. Bietthoven. To whom op. 24. Sculptor of the Beethoven monument at New York. Swedish poet. Benedict (Sir Julius). Beethoven Birth House. and has described his appearance in Beckenkamp (Kaspar . d. daughter of the proprietress of the Zehrgarten at Bonn. Bonn. 1823. . Nov. Who painted pictures of the composei^s parents. Beethoven. " Der glorreiche Augenblick. 1804 d. who founded the noted music publishing house at Vienna. Private Secretary to the Archduke Barth. Babette Koch. Nov. Beethoven critic Ti?nes. Sister.. 1774 . November Second brother. Bethoven. Dr). Musical Times^ 1892. Who knew Beethoven. who knew Beet- hoven in 1 8 19. — acquired in 1890. 1777 .Appendix . and father of Carl. 1830. Barry (Charles Ainslie). b. b. Writer on Beethoven. Beethoven (Maria Margaretha von). Barer (Henry). {Daily Telegraph . Musical b. and first sang Adelaida. — Bethof. Belderbusch (Countess). 1787. 1885. June 5. Benedict). 1786 d.?). Editor of the Har7nonicon one of the founders of the . b. Who is reputed to have saved. Barbedette (Henry). Baumeister (Herr von). b. Atterborn (Daniel Amadeus). 1825. 1775 d. d. Russia. Philharmonic Society severe critic of Beethoven. Writer on Beethoven. Beethoven (Caspar Anton 15. 136. D Artaria (Dommico). May 1858. . 293 . and Prussia (The Sovereigns of). 515 Bonngasse now the Beethoven Museum. April 7." is dedicated. Ayrton (William. May 4. Carl). b. 25.

1820. d. op. Bernhard (Frau von). Berlioz (Hector). and the Sonata. who bought Beethoven's compositions. Bohm. is dedicated. in one movement. Breuet (Michel)." Braun (Baroness von). Braunthal (Braun von). op. whom Beethoven nicknamed "Sir Bolderini. Founder of the Circulating Musical Library. " Stoffeln " of Beethoven's correspondence. Bigot. and to whom the Pianoforte Sonata in E major. 109. On Beethoven's own authority he was born in the year 1772. op. was to baptize on the day following birth thus the i6th has been confounded with the natal day. Brentano (Clemens).) Brentano (Bettina). Who knew and has described Beethoven as he appeared in 1 826. Sweden. 1882. The custom Birth. Authorities disagree as to the birth date. b. Dec. 11. To whom Two Sonatas for Piano. One of his female friends. Brother of Bettina Brentano. Brentano (Maximiliana). circa 1740. 1786. Said to have suggested the title of the " Eroica" Concerned with Beethoven's legal Symphony. 1869. Acquaintance. For whom Beethoven wrote a Trio in B[j. French composer and author of Etudes sur Beethoven. 14. Beethoven. Breuning (Christoph von). Who assisted at the first performance of the " Ninth " . Writer on Beethoven's symphonies. 17. London music publisher. French General and King of Bernadotte. d. matters in 1815.Beethoven Bentheim (Colonel Count). At whose house Beethoven visited. nee Kiene (Marie). d. Falstaff. 1803 . have played the " Appassionata Sonata " at first sight from the autograph copy. b. A distinguished Is reputed to pia7iiste known to Beethoven in Vienna.18 19. 1844. Birchall (Robert). March 8. Symphony. Bemhard (Herr). b. Dramatic poet. Viennese physician who refused to attend Braunhofer. {Historie de la Sy7Jiphonie. 1764. are dedicated. 294 .

8. who in 1808 offered Beethoven the post of Court Chapel-Master at Cassel. A . Billow (Hans Guido von). One of the Breuning family living at Bonn. 12. 1781 1776 Margaretha Josepha. op. A learned authority in Munich on Beethoven's " Letters" (1864). Officer in the Russian service.— Appendix D Breuning (Eleanora von). 1830 . Buonaparte (Jerome). b. 1784 d." Played the " Kreutzer" Sonata with Beethoven. Ludwig Maria. Caspar Anton Carl. Oct. 1786 . both for each other. d. nicknamed "the Abyssinian Prince. April i. 9. . in whose album Beethoven wrote the following epigram : Truth for the wise. d. A friend. Carri^re (Professor Moritz). Breuning (Lenz von). 10. Browne (Countess von). who knew Beethoven. April 7. Maria I. 1845. 1780. To whom the Three Pianoforte Sonatas. and other works are dedicated. May 5. . Bursy (Dr Karl von). Browne (Count von). 16. 1769 . 1774 Nikolaus Johann. b. Translator of Billow's "Notes on Beethoven's Sonatas. great exponent of Beethoven's pianoforte music. June 24. Buonaparte (Napoleon). and to whom in 1793 Beethoven was greatly attached. and other works are dedicated. One of the youthful friends of Beet- Bridgetower (George Augustus Polgreen). an esteemed correspondent. . " Unsterbliche Geliebte. Broadhouse (John). op. To whom the so-called 'Appassionata' Sonata." Pupil of Beethoven's (1794) and afterwards las fiancee. 1894. b. d. i860. African violinist. hoven. Beauty for a feeling heart. S7) 'S dedicated. b. August Franz Georg. Brunswick (Count Francis von)." Brothers and Sisters' birthdays. Jan. 1769 . 295 . 1821. And Breuning (Stephen von). Jan. Consul and Emperor. and a girl who died in four days from birth. May 4. Brother of Napoleon and King of Westphalia. Brunswick (Countess Ther^se von). to whom Three Trios. to whom the " Eroica" Symphony was originally dedicated. Feb. op.

1792.). 1781. von). Death of father. b. Dietrichstein (Count von). Dannreuther (Edward). Bankers in connexion with the negotiations for and dispatch to England of the MSS. 63. and writer. D'Abrantes (Madam). Death of Beethoven's mother. 1784 . " Scena ed Aria Ah. July 1876. the Schaller bust. F. who signed the declaration of the accuracy of the Schaller bust. 1857. W. Austrian music publisher. b. loo. March 24. Coutts (Messrs). 1844.). Musical historian.). la Restauration. An acquaintance of the composer's. July 17. Dec. May 28. b. 62. Viennese painter and sculptor. who bought several of Diabelli.Beethoven (Dr J. who assisted Beethoven's family financially. 1813 d. b. Overture to " Coriolan. Austrian composer. 1787. A Dorffel (Alfred). 1845. J. 1798 d. Domanowecz (Baron Zmeskall at Vienna. Clary (Countess von). Writer on Beethoven. Austrian violinist and composer. 1885. 18. Cibbini (Madam). pianist. Dessauer (Joseph). Castelli : perfido " is dedicated. and to whom op. good 296 . to whom op. of " Wellington's Battle Symphony " and " Victory at Vittoria. English Charge d^Affaires at Bonn. d. Czerny (Karl). 5. de). Bohemian composer and collector of Beethoveniana. Owner of Beethoven's watch. b. " Duet. who attested to the accuracy of . {Mdmoires sur Danhauser (F. Voluminous commentator on Beethoven. Collin (H. 1791 . ! d. Clement (Franz). Beethoven's compositions and his Broadwood Grand piano at the sale of effects in Vienna in 1827." Cressener (Mr). Court secretary and poet. Dietrichstein (Moritz Graf zu). who submitted the libretto oiBradamante to Beethoven in 1808 . d. to whom op." is dedicated. . Royal Court secretary violoncello player. d." is dedicated. 1842. and an early friend. who took a cast of Beethoven's face immediately after death. Oct.) Writer on Beethoven. Davison (James William). Davy (G. Pupil of Beethoven.

and grey hair. "Two . Frank. at whose town Droszdick (Baroness). to whom op. Vienna. To whom opus 124. 87. who prescribed for Beethoven. with a wild distracted appearance. Droz (Gustave). Officer in the Vogelsang Regiment. who ordered a quintet from Beethoven and to whom op. Freudenberg (Gottlieb). Afterwards George IV. and to whom he dedicated his first work. — . Esterhazy (Prince Nicholas). — Erdody (Countess). "Overture Weihe Galitzin (Prince N. 1859." are dedicated. Frimmel (Dr Theodore). Patron of Beethoven." M. Austrian d. 5. July 16. The " Ther^se " of Beethoven's correspondence. Eybler (Josef Edeler von). von). 1765 composer. b." which were never acknowledged. des Hauses. whom Beethoven sent a copy of the " Battle Symphony " and " Wellington's Battle of Vittoria. Frederick William II. He ordered Fries (Count . whom Beethoven met at Toplitz in 181 1. three Quartets of Beethoven." are dedicated. to England (Prince Regent of). who received him very He described Beethoven in 1825 as " in person cordially. Fichte. and country residences Beethoven was welcomed. Authority on the works of Beethoven. Grand Sonatas. Ense (Vamhagen von).Appendix D A wealthy friend. 86. op. 23. the Court Theatre. Erdody (Count Ferdinand von). To whom the Mass in C. (King of Prussia). One of the Austrian royal family who maintained an opera and orchestra in Vienna." and other works. Authority on portraits of Beethoven. Vienna.). Galantha (Prince Nicholas Esterhazy de). One of the pall-bearers. 1846. are dedicated. 297 . Admirer of Beethoven and his music. who walked from Breslau in Silesia to Vienna to see Beethoven. " Grand Trio. Director of the General Hospital. June 8. b. Amateur and controller of Theatre An der Wien. and op. rather small. Elector of Cologne (Prince Frederick Maximilian Archbishop). Philosopher Barytone of Forti (Anton). " Two Sonatas. 1790 d." is dedicated.

is dedicated. Music who forced the " Eroica " upon the French people. b. Abb^). Goethe (Johann Wolfgang von). He wrote Beethoven's funeral oration. Frankfort. (Elliot). 1825." published in 1870. German Graeme whose "Egmont" and lyrics were set to music by Beethoven. b. 1825. A bidder at the Beethoven effects sale. Oct. 1848. 1796 Glaser (M. Giannastasio del Rio. 1827. d. b. b. n^e Giulietta Giucciardi). Who etched a portrait of Beethoven from masks. d. 69. b. Countess). 1787 d. . Graham (G. GlSgfgl. d. April i. 1831. 1832. . Habeneck (Frangois Antoine)." . July 23. d. op. Hake (M. de).Beethoven Gallenberg (Countess. F. Sculptor of the statue of Beethoven at Bonn. Head of a Viennese family in which Beethoven lodged. 27.). March 27. 1749. and conducted the "Ninth" Symphony on its first performance at Paris Conservatoire Concert. Bohemian composer. July 13. 22. Encyclopcedia Britannica^ 8th ed. 1763 . Guhr (Herr). German composer and conductor one of the pall-bearers. May 8. 1820. a Memoir. To whom the " Moonlight Sonata. Austrian publisher and acquaintance. one of the pall-bearers. 8. Giucciardi (Giulietta. is dedicated. Hahnel. English writer. Feb. Jan. Conductor of the Paris Acaddmie Royale de 1849.). 1850. Gyrowetz (Adalbert). " My Friend. d. March 22. Gerardi (Mdlle. Author of article on Beethoven in the Grillparzer. To whom one of Beethoven's letters is addressed. 1844. Giuliani (Mauro). 178 1 d. Italian guitarist. poet. b. 1778. b. i757. Who first conducted the "Ninth" Symphony out of Austria.. Gleichenstein (Baron von). Principal of the Vienna school in which Beethoven placed Carl.). A promoter of Beethoven's compositions. " Grand Sonata." to whom op. Bohemian composer . and with whom the composei corresponded respecting his love affairs (1816). Gansbacher (Johann Baptist). and pianist. Gelinek (Josef. and author of " Beethoven. 298 .

Prussian Ambassador at Vienna to Beethoven wrote as to the "Ninth" Symphony. some of whose songs. 1885. Hummel (Johann Nepomuk). instance. whom Schaller bust. Haydn. " Canon. Oct. Viennese collector of Beethoven's scores. Feb. 24. 299 . Hoffmeister (Franz Anton). German barytone vocalist. Hofel. Intimate friend. to whom op. b. d.). 1809. b. to whom "Variations" were dedicated. Who vouched for the truth of the Hatzfeld (Prince von). 1794 . 1754. Kapellmeister at Leipzig. 1812. 12. composer and pianist. 1850. conductor. b. Possessor of the Kiigelgen miniature of Beethoven. 181 1 . Beethoven's man-servant. March 31. b. The "Adjutant" and "Adjutant-General" of Beethoven's correspondence. the Leiderkreis for Jeitteles (A. Heinth (Dr Franz von). . 1868. 219. 13. b. Hungarian HUttenbrenner (Anselm). The singer at the Electoral Chapel whom Beethoven disconcerted. 1732 . Henschel (George). b. 1800. 1870. June 5. 1837. Herzog. who engraved Letronne's portrait of Beethoven. 18. d." Poet. Holz (Carl). Hatzfeld (Countess of). Haslinger (Tobias). 1813 Author of article on Beethoven's works in " Grenzboten. Haslinger (Herr Carl). 1783 d. teresting facts relating to Beethoven. d. b. b. Hogarth (George). D A renowned Orientalist Hauschka. May 31. d.Appendix Hammer. d. May 10. Author— "History of the Philharmonic Society." containing inHeller. Founder of the musical publishing firm of Haslinger (now Schlesinger). and writer on Beethoven. at Beethoven's deathbed-side. German composer. Beethoven set to music. Hiller (Ferdinand). who wrote for Beethoven. Oct. Hungarian composer Jahn (Otto). German composer and writer. 1869. d. in Vienna (1787-1842). . Feb. composer. 1778 . German composer and publisher of cheap editions of the masters. and conductor." is dedicated.Purgstall (Freiherr von).

Viennese collector of Beethoven relics. who made the chalk drawing of Beethoven in his 48th year. The person to whom Beethoven dedicated the " Kreutzer" Sonata. Married Dr Pachler. V. d." Kotzebue. " Oh God grant that in virtue." is Kanka (Dr Johann). Kreutzer (Rudolph). e della : 300 . Klein (Franz). dedicated. I may at last find her who can strengthen me whom I can legitimately call my own. d. Kreutzer Sonata Dedication " Sonata per il Pianoforte ed un Violin obligato. 7. German violinist and composer. and owner of a Mahler. 1812. Kreutzer. Koschak (Mdlle. M. Kren (Michael). Nov. Membro del Conservatoire di Musica in Parigi. b. Beheved by Schindler to be the lady to whom Beethoven wrote the letter with the words. One of the pallbearers. 47. b. the dispensing chemist. 94. * Kinsky (Princess). Kinsky (Prince Ferdinand Johann Nepomuk Joseph). Princess Odeschalchi). op. op. Primo Violino dell' Academia delle Arti. Marie). Beethoven collector. Vice-President of the Imperial Karajan (Dr H. Vienna. Dec. Dec. 1831. Kessler (Herr). G. 3. scritta in uno stilo molto concertante. Kreutzer (Conradin). An excellent violoncellist with whom Beethoven played at Prince Lichnowsky's. 1782 . to the Annuity. 1849. Beethoven dedicated the Sonata in E flat.! Beethoven Doctor of Laws in Prague. 14. Kloeber (Augustus von). German composer and conductor. to her. "An die Hoffnung. who made casts of Beethoven's face. a lawyer at Gratz. 1766. Composta e dedicata al sur amico R. Legal agent for the Kinsky estates. Noble amateur musician. Keglevics (Countess Babette von. b." Kraft (Anton). Kattendyke (Baron J. to whom op. Author of the " Ruins of Athens. Huyssen van). Nov. 1781 and great admirer of Beethoven's music. Academy of Science. quasi come d'un Concerto. d. 22.). portrait of Beethoven. patron 4. Beethoven's advocate and friend. Gave 1800 florins . His servant while on the visit to his brother Johann.

1790. b. Linley (G. Kuhlau (Friedrich Daniel Rudolph). 6. Linke. Countess of Brunswick. Appendix D Opera 47. Violoncello 5 player in the Rasoumowsky Quartet party. Bohemian harpist and composer. 1786. to whom Beethoven addressed love letters. "C Minor" Letronne (Louis). 13. 1795 d. Oct. van Beethoven. Dec. Aug. Performed also on the mandoline. 3. (Professor). 1837. b. Lesueur (Jean Francois). Painter of Beethoven's favourite portrait. d. Lampi (J. d. Ritter von). Sept. and several other works are inscribed. Lenz (Wilhelm von). Jan. 15. Patron to whom the Sonata Pathetique^ op. Painter of the picture of Therese. 1858. B. Bonn chez K. Writer on Beethoven {Allg. b.). 10. 17. To whom is dedicated the Sonata. 1883. for which instrument Beethoven wrote a composition. Musikzeitung^ d. 1894). d. 1794. No. b. Kiigelgen (Gerhard von). Simrock. 1760. Feb. Prince Carl Lichnowsky. English composer who prepared the "Ninth" Symphony for performance in London. July 20. 1800 now Peters. Lichnowsky (Count Moritz). 1852-3. b. Music publisher at Vienna. 1809. French musician who gave judgment on the Symphony. per L. who painted a miniature of Beet- hoven Kuhac in his 2 1st year. 422. Lichtenstein (Princess). Exeter Hall. Brother of Beethoven's patron. Leipsic. Lichnowsky (Prince Carl von). 6. pianist German and composer.. 27. op. d." A Knimpholz (Johann Baptist). Lablache (Luigi). who was singing in Vienna at the time of Beethoven's death. Wife of Prince Carl Lichnowsky. Russian writer on Beethoven and his compositions. Leidesdorf. Jan. 301 . Italian bass vocalist. 1832. Camera Imperiale. 23. Lichnowsky (Princess Christiane). 1745.). Partner in the firm of Hofmeister and Kiihnel : Kuhnel (K. I. b. 1865.

1866. 46 is dedicated. b. 25. b. to Beethoven. 181 1 composer. Lyser. 24. Liszt (Franz). author. Mar. German writer and composer. talented amateur. Matthison. and supporter of the Lobkowitz concerts. 1 816. A friend. b. Celebrated physician in Vienna. hoven. 22. Malchus. Dec. 1772 . who. b. d. 23. 1838. 1886." Baroness Gleichenstein). Hungarian d. Marx (Adolphe Bemhard). 7. Author of the " Adelaide" poem. Mathilde (" M. He contributed 700 florins to the Annuity for Beethoven. Maelzel (Johann Nepomuk). published in Germany by Schlesinger. 1772 Co-concert musician and inventor of the Metronome. and to whom op. Malibran (Maria Felicita). b. 302 . German d. An esteemed friend poet. Actor whom Beethoven met at Toplitz in 1811. 1799 d. Patron to whom Beethoven dedicated his three first . b. July 31. 1795 d. The famous Spanish cantatrice who went in convulsions and was carried from the room. 1810. in the revival of Fidelio — Marschner (Heinrich). A Talented pianist and composer who listened to three performances of the "Eroica" Symphony in one evening. i8o8 d. Marconi (Madame). Sept. Lowe (Ludwig). giver with Beethoven. Lorchen. who made the capital full-length sketch in line of the master. b.Beethoven Lipawsky (Josef). Malfatti. Maximilian Friedrich (Archbishop and Elector of Cologne). Louis Ferdinand of Prussia (Prince). 1836. on first hearing the C — . Lobkowitz (Prince Franz Joseph Maximilian). erected the monument to Beethoven at Bonn. German composer and conductor. Westphalian Minister of Finance. and Abbe. d. minor Symphony. Bohemian composer. and medical man . mainly at his own cost. . pianist. Dec. Prima donna 1806. generous patron of Beet1772. . Oct. 1861.

15. 303 .— . who attested to the likeness of the Schaller bust. Dec. A Viennese publisher of Beethoven's music. daughter of a cook. 27. 1870. and D Maximilian Joseph (King of Bavaria). Mayer (Carl). 1756 d. Director of the Philharmonic Society. Austrian violinist and composer. Mother's maiden name. Mozart (Wolfgang Amadeus). Feb. 1787. who attested to the accuracy of the Schaller bust. b. 1791 First met Beethoven in Vienna. including his Correspondence with his friends" [Schindler]. 26. 21. Bohemian composer and pianist. Nov. — 1817. 3. Mayenberg (Freiherr von). Jan. Miiller (Dr W. 1863. — the E flat F minor. the "Ninth" Symphony 11. Husband Josepha. and its conductor. Motte-Fouqu^ (Baron de la). 4. who knew Beethoven in 1820. Milder (Mdlle. A Nuremberg engraver of a portrait of Beethoven in the possession of Count Wimpffen. 1794 d. Owner of the "Wolanek" letter. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy (Ludwig Felix). 5. . 1806. Moscheles (Ignaz). Music publisher." is dedicated. Translated " The life of Beethoven. Keverich. 1789 . To whom op. Mayseder (Joseph). at the Gewandhaus Concerts. who played Leonore in Fidelio. Intimate friend of Mendelssohn. 1847. Settled in London 1826-46. 80. b.). d. dated Meinert (Carl). Mosel (Hofrath von). Conductor of the first performance of . He sang of Mozart's eldest sister-in-law the part of Pizarro at the first performance of Fidelio. 1802. 1832. . Nov. Mahler (W. Mollo. with whom Beethoven corresponded as to the value of Maelzel's invention the metronome. b. February 1836. Oct.). Director of the Berlin Opera. 1809 d. 1845. C). D major. Meyer (Herr). F. who painted Beethoven as he appeared in his 38th year. "Fantasia. Nageli (Johann Georg). b. Dec. Appendix pianoforte sonatas major.

to whom the " Fourth " Symphony is dedicated. Odeschalchi (Princess). 21. 19. Oxenford (John). Pasqualati (Baron). Pfeiffer. April 28th. Obermeyer (Therese). Oliva (Herr von). Noble Russian amateur who fell foul of Beethoven and his works. 304 . 1877. English composer and b. : Contemporaries 1880. Niklsberg (Charles Nikl Noble de). Oct. German edition. d. b. Lady friend of Johann Beethoven." Beethoven depicted by his Stuttgart 8vo. 1835-6. English dramatist who translated the "Ninth" Symphony for performance in London. One of Beethoven's admirers. 1748 d. Tenor singer in Bonn Opera. Peters (Carl Friedrich). 3. 1819. " translated by E. 1877. d. Oppersdorf (Count Franz von). Neefe (Christian Gottlob). Italian composer and great admirer of Beethoven's works. Niecks (Friedrich). 1885. Who kept rooms for Beethoven's use. . musical amateur. 1882. Feb. 181 2 d. Founded the well-known firm at Leipzig about 18 14. Pohl (Carl Ferdinand). and bandmaster in a Bavarian regiment. Writer on Beethoven's works. . German organist and composer. 1867. b. Hill. Dec. 6. Copyist and counter . London. Author of " Neue Briefe Beethoven's nebst einigen ungedruckten Gelegenheite compositionem. Sept. 1877. 1831 German writer. b. to whom op. 19. Pacini (Giovanni). . 8vo. 1798. Neate (Charles). b.Beethoven d. 31. pianist. 1867. 1845. whom he afterwards married. Feb. Feb. . d. 1815. 1817 d. Royal Academy of Music. . 12. Nohl (Carl Friedrich Ludwig). Connected with Beethoven's legal matters. German music publisher. b. 1887. 6. Nottebohm (Martin Gustav). . " Concerto. Aug. b. 1858." is dedicated d. German writer on Beethoven and his works.bass in the Electoral Orchestra. b. 1795. b. Nov. 1796. Paraquin. 1784 Introducer of Beethoven's music into England. Oulibicheff (Count Alexander von). 12.

Preindl (Joseph). Reissig. 1758 . Writer on Beethoven. 19. also jointly with Prince Lobkowitz op. . Met Beethoven when studying under Forster in Vienna.Appendix D August d. Rasoumowsky (Prince Andreas Kyrillovitsch). b. Polledro (Giovanni Baptiste). d. 13. described. Potter (Philip Cipriani Hambly). German critic and composer. E minor. Oct. three Quartets in F. to whom op. who knew. "The Ruins of Athens. Wife of Vamhagen von Ense. 59. Horn player. 1792 pianist 15. b. who issued some of Probst. Mus. . b. " To the Absent Lover. Maker of Beethoven's watch. amateur and violinist. Beethoven's compositions. 20. 1814. Reimann (Dr Heinrich). Rellstab. Prussia (King of)." set by Beethoven. German composer. i860. Mar." is dedicated. Violinist and chapel master. Recke (Countess von der). whom Beethoven met at Tophtz in 181 1. 1776. Pronay. Rabies (Dr Ferdinand). enthusiast. 1853. 1752." is dedicated. Radzivil (Prince). To him Beethoven dedicated op. Music publisher at Leipzig. "Twenty-five Scotch Songs. who wrote the words of the song. English and composer. Doc). Rahel. 1812 d. Writer on Beethoven {Allg. Musikzeitung^ Oct. A Berlin lady whom Beethoven met at Toplitz in 181 1. and has in 1825. 67-68 the Symphonies 5 and 6. and C . 6. Punto. b. {Die Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde^ Vienna. 1823. 1871). 113. solos in the " Ninth " Symphony. b. Prior (George). d. 1871. 1836. One of Beethoven's landlords. Writer in the Musical Worlds May 26. d. the appearance ot Beethoven u 305 . Basso profondo who was to have sung the bass Preisinger. 1893). to whom op. Russian noble. Beethoven critic and Pole (William. 108. b. 23. 1878.

96." in which the classic and romantic aspects of Beethoven's Works are treated. singer in the revival of Fidelio. to whom opus 89. Oct. d. who with Beethoven's pupil. Beethoven's Annuity. 8. Saal. 1788 d. 1805 . as a youth of sixteen. 4. 16. the Archduke Rudolf. Archduke of Austria. b. b. Paris. July 24. F. Nov." is Russell dedicated. on January . 12. 20. March 23. d. hoven's concerts. composer. 1862.) Beethoven in 1820. Stadtarchivar of Baden. A. op. Dec. Feb. Violinist who played with Beethoven in Vienna. . " The Two Beethovens. who as a boy saw Beethoven in the street with his hat slung behind his back. Aug. and wrote the " Biographische Notizen uber Ludwig van Beethoven. Riehl (W. (Dr Hermann). and conductor." an 8vo work published at Coblentz in 1838. English musician and writer on Beethoven's music in the "Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Ries (Ferdinand). b. b. 1732 . Rochlitz (Friedrich Johann). Sabatier-Unger (Caroline). German engraver of Letronne's portrait of Beethoven. 1772. 26. Feb. Rudolph (Johann Joseph Rainer). Rockel (Herr). d. and which was translated into French by M. met Beethoven at Baden in 1822. circa 1870. 1842. Author of "Travels in Germany. A 306 . " Polonaise. Writer on Beethoven {Fiir Freunde der Tonkunst). 1819 d. Author of the pamphlet." Rode (Pierre Joseph). Tenor singer at the Theatre "An der Wien. 1769. Subscribed 1500 florins to Rollet . July 2. 16. b. who. Rockstro (William Smyth). b. 1784. 1 83 1. H. first played the Sonata for Piano and Violin in G." who knew (J. Studied under Beethoven.Beethoven Riedel (John Anthony)." who sang Florestan's part in Fidelio in 1806.). Russia (Empress of). b. 1813. Hungarian contralto vocalist who sang at Beet1877. d. and wrote of him Who in Fiir Freunde der Tonkunst. 28. Legentil. Jan. 1830. 1838. Rochlitz. 1774. d. 1830 d. 1895. German pianist. b. studied under Beethoven.

38. b. Schaller (F. 1753 . Bavarian Soldiers' Benefit Concert. The original is in the possession of the Philharmonic Society of London. {Harmonic et Aug. Conductor at the Gewandhaus Concerts.Appendix Saint-Sa^s (Charles Camille). Austrian composer who instructed Beethoven in harmony. b. sister of Clemens and Bettina. May 28. 19. D Oct. recipient of the touching letter . b. The physician who attended Beethoven for his deafness. d." and " Beethoven in Paris. German composer and conductor. 1750. 1823. 1753 . Italian Played the drums and cannonades at the composer. Beethoven French 1835. 1800 . 1788 d. and was the announcing the death of the musician's mother. 1745. i860." . May 12. Schicht (Johann Gottfried). 1836. 11. Author of "The World as Will and Idea. b. 1796. Nov. Schindler (Anton). Schlemmer. composer and writer on Melodic). Schmidt (Professor A. b." is J. nic Brentano. German pessimistic philosopher. Schenck (Johann). German publisher of Beethoven's scores. 1865.) Viennese sculptor. 1805. d. Salieri (Antonio). b. Feb. who made a bust of Beethoven as he was in 1826. Schlbsser (Ludwig). circa i860." Schaden (Dr). 16. d. Schlesinger (Moritz Adolpb). to whom op. Author of the Ode d. German Impresario in London who conductor and composer. 9. Oct. d. Savigny (Frau von). b.). Feb. 1759 German poet. 1825. Jan. Schopenhauer (Arthur). who painted Beethoven's portrait in 18 19. d. negotiated for Beethoven's scores. Austrian writer. 16. 181 5. 307 . Salomon (John Peter). Schimon. "Trio. Schiller (Johann Christoph Friedrich von). b. Sept. who wrote a bold German pamphlet on Beethoven. 1864. For many years copyist for Beethoven. Assisted Beethoven financially. b. 30. d. 29. b. May 9. Author of " Biographie von Ludwig van Beethoven. d. dedicated. 1798 . An Die Frende (1785) set in the "Ninth" Symphony.

Smart (Sir George Thomas). 10." is Schweiger (Joseph Freiherr von). 1780 . Schweitzer (Baron). to whom op. 28. 1839. Nov. and friend of Beethoven. b. May 10. Schuppanzigh (Ignaz). He fell in love with Amalie. 29. in London. d. 1797 d. b. Founder of the German music publishing house. 1828. composer and Shedlock (J. and associated with the production of his music S. Sebald (Mdme. b. b. Singer.c^^ca 1820. Mar. Jan." Siboni (Giuseppe). Postmaster in Cassel. Ritter von). Seyfried (Ignaz Xaver. Chamberlain of the Archduke Rudolph. English conductor and teacher known to Beet1867. & Schwarzenberg dedicated. Chamberlain of the Archduke Anton. May 11. (Prince). 1755 . Austrian violinist and composer. b. Beethoven. Schubert (Franz Peter). director. Auguste). Serofif (Alexander Nikolavitch). i. Established the Rasoumowsky Quartet." op. and friend of Beethoven. at Toplitz in 181 1. Simrock (Nicolas). 308 . 19. Smetana. 1818 d. in " The Pianoforte Sonata. 16." . Who dedicated the "Variations on a French air. Feb. Sonnenfels (Joseph Edlen von). German musical publishers who issued some of Beethoven's compositions. b. ^. Sclowonowitsch. Feb. 31. 1776 . Second violinist in the Rasoumowsky Quartet party. 1776." is dedicated. d. b. Austrian . Writer on Beethoven — . Jan. to whom op. 23. and for some time instructed Beethoven. d.Beethoven Schott Co. Sina. A musical family from Berlin which Beethoven met Sebald. 1776 d. "Grand Sonata. hoven. 1841. Schubert was twenty years the junior of to Beethoven. Italian tenor vocalist at the Vienna Opera. Russian composer and critic of Beethoven's music. Viennese surgeon who performed a successful operation on Beethoven's nephew Carl (1816). 1830. " My Lord Falstaff" of the composer's " Letters.). 27. 187 1. "Grand Quintet.

Appendix D Sonnleithner (Dr Leopold von). d. b. Thayer (Alexander Wheelock). nee Stein). Spieker (Dr). at the last to attend Beethoven. 1755. who has described Beethoven as he was in 1826. Aug.. Concerned in the dedication of the "Ninth" Symphony. and son of a celebrated physician. Irish composer and conductor. Nov. Austrian composer and conductor . Celebrated physician in Vienna who refused Staudenheim. b. Beethoven critic. in A A 1795- Son of the medical adviser of the Swieten (Baron van). American writer. 1766 . Thomson (George). 1866-79. April 25. Sept. A. Sussmayer (Franz Xaver). Official at the Natural History Museum. Scottish collector and editor. 4. Stadler (Abbe Maximilian). etc. 16. 1748 d. 1859. d. 309 . 1833. London harp-maker and admirer who preStumpff (J. 1759. b. . 1852. Spiller. Stieler. servants. sented Beethoven with Handel's works in forty volumes. 30. b. Steindacnner (Dr). assisted by Beethoven. Austrian organist. Vienna. d. 18 17. Empress Maria Theresa. Mus. b. who has spoken on the subject of the birds in the " Pastoral " Steiner (S.8 . painter of the 1822 portrait of Beethoven with " Symphony. A. Feb. b. 1784. who signed the declaration as to the likeness of the Schaller bust. d. Oct.). An unfortunate poet. 11. The " Lieutenof Beethoven's correspondence. b. Viennese lady who helped the composer with his domestic troubles. Stanford (Charles Villiers.). German composer and violinist. for whom Beethoven wrote song settings and accompaniments. Steibelt (Daniel). 8. 1 1 6. friend and companion of Mozart conductor of the Karnthnerthor Court Theatre. Doc). 1823. German pianist and composer. 1803. Spohr (Louis). composer and critic. Streicher (Frau von. Author of Beethoven's "Life. 1851. Vienna." Berlin. Music publisher the tree background. March 4. ant-General The at Vienna. StoU.

October 28. Countess of Brunswick. b. Troyer (Count Ferdinand). Treitschke. at theKamthnerthor Theatre. Author of a chronological list of Beethoven's works in the "Musical Directory. 1 840. d. Dramatic author who wrote Fidelio. Halle Musical Society Director who practised various omissions when conducting the Beethoven Symphonies. " Poet whom Beethoven met at Toplitz set to music. "Grand Trio. 1774 d. Waldstein (Count). 1836. 1781 d. whose To Hope" Beethoven Tomaschek (Wenzel Johann). with whom Beethoven corresponded concerning the welfare of his nephew. 1883. b. . b. Aug. 1813. April 17. b. 1756. Tfirk (Daniel Gottlieb). Umlauf (Michael). Vering. of Beethoven. 1768. August 10. (William). d. (John). 1805 . May 22." Varnhagen (von Ense). Whom Beethoven met at Toplitz in 181 1. German composer and writer. Austrian composer and co-conductor with Beethoven. See " Rahel " and " Ense. 1813. Varena. An army surgeon who attended Beethoven. Towers English conductor and writer. d. November 19. Vielhorsky (Count). April 3. Tschischka (Herr). to dedicated. whom op. b. March 23. m ." is Tiedge. Court tenor who sang at the revival of Fidelio. b. Beethoven's "Immortal Beloved. February 13. Unger (Caroline). d. Present at the first performance of the " Ninth " Symphony on May 7. b. A Z> and Choral Symphony." 1871. Wagner (Richard). Aug. ii. A Russian friend." Unger Van in Beethoven's name shows his Dutch origin. 1811. Vogl (John Michael). 1842. 26. 1824. Bohemian composer and pianist acquaintance 1850.Beethoven Thiin (Countess von). great singer who came into contact with Beethoven in studying the soprano and contralto parts of his Mass in — . German composer and writer on Beethoven. Young noble amateur musician. Eight 310 . Vienna. who etched the picture of Thdr^se. 1877. 10. One of the Archduke Rudolph's chamberlains.

A 1815. b. Weber (Friedrich Dionys). One of the . 1786 . 1778 . Weigl (Joseph).. December 18. Weinraiiller. conceited. panying." Wimpffen (Count). 1776 d. Wallace (Lady Maxwell). 1826. Weiss of "Der glorreiche Augenblick" set by Beethoven. "Stupid. sang the part of Rocco in the revival of 25. Bohemian teacher and critic. who wrote the poetry (Franz). friend. 1814.Appendix D years Beethoven's senior. bitter critic of Beethoven's A S>Tnphonies. June 5. asinine fellow. who Fidelia. pall-bearers. 1791 . d." 1790. d. February 3. Woelfl (Joseph).. Viennese physician who attended Beethoven in his last illness. b. 1771 . and to whom the sonata op. 135 311 . Wegeler (Dr) of Vienna. circa 1810 .). Sang in 181 5 Adelaide. d. the composer accom- Rasoumowsky Quartet party. Composer of Der Freischiitz^ etc. London. December 31. Wilder (M. 1772 . 53 is dedicated. Weissenbach (Dr Alois). Wolfmayer (Johann). b." to whom op. Dec." Wolf (Dr). 1878. March 28. Friend to whom Beethoven wrote frequently. b. b. Connected with Beethoven's legal matters. Author of " Beethoven : Sa Vie et ses CEuvres. d. Austrian composer and b. Hungarian composer and chapel-master. 1846. Weber (Carl Maria von). endorsing one of his letters with the phrase. Violist in the January 18. i860. Wild (Franz). Translated Beethoven's " Letters. 1842. January 1830. 2 vols. d.1826. German tenor singer. 26. b. pianist Wolanek (Ferdinand). "His "Quartet" is dedicated. d. copyist whom Beethoven rated very severely. Owner of the Beethoven portrait engraved by Mayer. who visited Beethoven in 1823. 1866. Wawruch.

Zulehner (Carl). Wiirfel. friend of Goethe. b. Royal Court Secretary and violoncello player. Sculptor of the statue of Beethoven at Vienna. d. 31a . May 15. one of the pall-bearers. A Mayence engraver who pirated Beethoven's works. German chapel-master . Zumbusch. 1758. German composer and writer. December ii. 1832. Zelter (Carl Friedrich). An early Viennese friend with whom Beethoven corresponded. A Viennese banker at whose house the " Eroica " Symphony was rehearsed.Beethoven Wranitzky. Musical conductor at Beethoven's first concert. Zmeskall von Domanowecz (Baron). Advised the composer in his domestic affairs. Wurth (Herr von). and depreciator of Beethoven.

257-262 Case of Beethoven. 102 Beethoven and his three styles. 8 . 128 story con- cerning. 9 Amanda. 19. 109 Klein. 153. 75 Buonaparte.^ of Beet- hoven : Bonn statue. 179 Brentano. 27 Browne. Bettina von. Albrechtsberger. Carl. 154 Broadwood. Appendix A. 75 Brunswick. 72. I — Bonn statue. Fraulein Maximiliana. reconciliation with. 4 Second Court Organist. stories of his. Pastor. 41 Danhauser. 6. song. no C. Bettina. 112 Artaria. 73 Brentano. 100. — Index Abstraction. 15. 9. 194 Breuning. loi. 116 Amusements of Beethoven. Stephen von. 292-312 Appointments — Deputy Organist of Elector of Cologne's Chapel. 262-265 B. 249-250 Beethoven. Eleonora von. Jerome. 262 Birth and Parentage. Lenz. Thomas. 4 Offered post of Court ChapelMaster at Cassel. Appendix A. 72. 18 Busts y statues^ ^c. 257- 46 Appearance. 4. 51 Appendices A. Countess. Dr. Personalia and Memoranda. Adelaida. 44. last in public. id. opinion of Beethoven. 8. 203 Appearance. 194 Bridgetower.: : . personal. List of Works. no Bach. III. 18 Amim. Franz. 71 Bibliography. 91 Breuning family. 114. Principal Incidents in Life of Beethoven. 266-286 Anschiitz. 262-265 Beethoven's "Will" (so-called). his of. 14 Belderbusch. 73. becomes a pupil leaves him. 102 . 7 . 75. 3 Deputy Conductor of the Opera Band. 108 313 . 21. 50. 114 Breuning. Countess von. 287-291 Breitkopf & Hartel. Countess Th6rese von. Case of. 74. 108 Holz. 75 D. Bibliographical.

on Beethoven as a pianist. on Beethoven's Wagner. 85 Clary. 223 playing. Carl. committed to the care of Dr Bach. adopted " 156 Musical World. with 250 Manns. 133 Rockstro. on the Pianoforte Sonatas. 135 Wagner. 64 Cressener family. 136. 25 . 139. Countess von. 79 Naumann. Carl. 225. August. —continued— statue. on 8th symphony. Sir George. 170. 11 3M . expulsion from the University and attempted suicide. 4 Criticisms Berlioz. 135 Lenz. his last. disposition. 109 statue. on Wagner. 8 Rellstab. 140 Country resorts." 249. 223 Wagner. as a. playing. 198 Smart. as Kockel. i). ^c. 23 . 81. 224 Mendelssohn. matters reach a climax. 226 Wagner. on Beethoven's instrumentation. "Beethoven styles. 262-265 Cherubini." 237 Ries. on Beethoven's Schindler. on Beethoven's later works. 190. describes Beethoven as a " Composer of Sonatas. 243 his acquaintance Beethoven's Works. 23 his nephew. 137." 147 on the "Choral" symphony. becomes his pupil. Sir George. 26. Criticisms —contintted— New York Vienna no Schaller. 149 Riehl's ' Two Beethovens. 41 . 129 Grove. his manner of. on ist symphony. 37 . teacher.: Beethoven Busts. 22 Conductor. et ses trois Wagner. on Beethoven a on Liszt's rendering of Beethoven's Sonatas." 234 Wagner on Beethoven's instrumentation. letter to. 24 . his thanklessness and his uncle's grief. on Beethoven's style. on "The Mount of Olives. 225 224 Czerny. his favourite. — „ 171 on 4th symphony. 133 20. no Manns. 82 Case of Beethoven. on the "Moonlight" Sonata. on the 9th symphony. 203 Concert for benefit of the wounded at Hanau. his brother. Appendix A. 75 Composing." thoven's on Beetemperament and by Beethoven. 166 on 5th symphony. on the "Choral " symphony. 138 Composition. 241 Pianoforte Trios." 199. the 3 (op. 228 Tomaschek. 14s . death of. F^tis. 36.

loi. 57-61 some of Beethoven's. 82 Droszdick. 24 his nephew. failing. Carl. Princess von. 129 Fidelio. 58 . 72. Baroness. Appendix C. first symptoms of. Thomas. 75. 73. 72. 211. pupil of. Arnim. 46 Krumpholz. 131 Health. 75. 109 Death. pecuniary. 194. Bettina von. 203 Letters Count von. Max Franz. gloomy. 57 Keglevics. 75. Incidents in his life. 45. Fraulein. 156 Kuhlau. van den. joke on. : Index Deafness. 224 26. 33. 4 death of. 72 Stephen von. 1 14 Broadwood. 33. 165 74. 85 Haydn. 193 Esterhazy. 20 315 . his. 45 Dorn. 42. Galitzin. 15. 74 Breuning. Beethoven and. he forsakes playing and conducting. 31. 8 Giannastasio. 46 Gelinek. 129 Kinsky. 22. Aloys. 75. 13 ^5. his pay for Haydn. reference to in his "will. Prince. 224 Dropsy sets in. pupil of. Pastor. 81. Heinrich. 34. 7 lessons. 3 Elector. his. 9. 135 Kreutzer. Embarrassments. 47 Amanda.31 Erdody. 91 Holz. 18. 41 Hiller. 44. Forebodings. 112 64 Gyrowetz. Countess Giulietta. 41 Hummel. Countess von. Baroness. Last appearance in public. 203 Last composition. 160. Prince Nicholas 206 Eybler. Countess Marie. 72. Ertmann. 44. 206 death of. 23 Kinsky. 44 Early compositions. III. 21. 46. 14. 183 his. Beethoven's. 136 Giucciardi. 116. 9 Freudenberg. 15 . 193 Jokes. 161 Fondness for joking. Handel. loi Grave. 148 Goethe. — Funeral. 27 Carl. 287-291 Instrumentation. 13. 123-128 Early training. Bettina.. meeting with. 202 Gansbacher. 75. 40. 46 Hiittenbrenner. family." 149 pitiful references to. 32. 201.. 43 Hoffmeister. 46 Beethoven to Cherubini. 229 Fries. 213. 12 . id. Eleonora von. 2 Eeden. 212 Brentano. 46 F^Tis. pupil of. 100. 33 Forster. 47 Grillparzer. . 115 Kockel. Prince. his brother.

151 Prince. his brother. 95 Symphony. 149 Symphony. nephew Carl. 5 Schott. 86). 209-213. J. 203 Mozart. . 201. 70. 287. 86 Musician. 3 ("Eroica") Symphony. 38 Nottebohn. 212. 123) 209. 130. 4 166 (op. No. 34. August. 67 — — Mayseder. 165 Zmeskall. Dr von. 67). to his Lichnowsky. 154-157 (op. No. 22 Malfatti. 113 List of works. 60 . 153 Neate. 37 quarre Appendix C. Frau von. with his brother Carl's 25 . 72 Kinsley. 17. 70-77 Lowe. 113. Princess. No. 10. Beethoven the. 156 Messe Solennelle. 78 Lichnowsky. 65. 291 Life. 26 wife. 206 Mass in D (op. 75. 266. 9. concerning art and music. 141. 224. 123) 209-211 Symphony. 292-312 Mendelssohn. 74 Schaden. iii Wegeler. 21). Maxims.— . 77. No. Meyer. 22. 77 131. 36. 202. 3 35. 76. 35 Streicher. 169 Mass in D (op. Countess. principal incidents in his. No. 193 Lichnowsky. 72 Oppersdorf. 149 Moscheles. 64 Love affairs. 172-179 16 . his Lichtenstein. 75 Rio. 115 Lichtenstein. 21. 96. Prince. Appendix B. 75 9. Beethoven Letters continued Generally. pupil of. 129. 60). 244 Odeschalchi. 225 Symphony. 9. 8. 107. 242. 20. Princess. 163 Orchestra. with Johann. 137 Neefe. his purity of. 41^ 83. 142 Symphony. 5. 169. 115 Life.. 61. 1625 (op. Princess. Nick -names applied by him friends. 60. Count von. 167- Maelzel. Giannastasio del. Dr. Orchestration — Lobko%vitz. 213. 36). 26 Lodger. concerning Prince Lobkowitz's allowance to him. 2 (op. 55). i (op. Princess. 97 Giucciardi. 201. Varenna." 36 Beet- hoven visits him respecting . 115 Ries. 10 "Moonlight" Sonata. 18. Nikolaus Johann. 286 Litigation. 148. 67. 6 (" Pastoral ") (op. 22 Memoranda and Personalia Appendix D. of. No. 174 death Mass in C (op. 68). Beethoven as a. 66. 118 Nageli. Ludwig. 155. Beethoven and the. Princess. 41 Manns. A. Count Moritz von. 30. 73. 160 Stumpff. 35 "land proprietor.

132 Pianist. 160 (op. 147 9 Schaden. i Rudolph. 34 Schroder... 93) 186") Symphony. No.133. 191 Streicher. Dr von. Schwarz-spanierhaus." 129 . 103 . 159 Symphony. 202. 108 . Baron. 22 Rossini. pupil of. 183 Religious views. 84 Schuppanzigh. Kloeber. 134 Pianoforte. Krausse. 74 Servants. 136. troubles w^ith. 74 Rockstro. 3 Philharmonic Society. — . 49 Pfeiffer. 67 Potter. 104 . Amalie. 209 Russia. loi. 107 . 22. 113 Radziwil. 241 Spohr. " Pathetique. 194-197 Symphony(so called) (•'Battle") Romberg. 7 Jokes on. 4 163 . ApSailerstatte. Letronne. 105 Kiigelgen. price paid for. 28. Fraulein. 31 his. 147 Roeckel. Sonatas. 32. 82. 9. 104 . the. 10 Purity of life. Schimon. 18 169. Hofel. 6. 65 Sebald. Mdlle. 201. 174 Reicha. 21. StumpfF. 8 187 Symphony. No. 5 Schenk. his. i . 133. Baron von. 18. Cipriani. 8 Schindler. 58-59 Beethoven as. 202 Swieten. 4. pianoforte. Beethoven at the. 158 Steiner. 27. 152 Russia. . 86. 4. no. 140 Stein. Pianoforte sonatas. 104 . 106 . Emperor Alexander I. Empress of. price paid for. his. Archduke. 41 Stutterheim. 4 Reichardt. 292-313 Personality. pupil of. 33. 92) 180(op. pupil of. embarrassments. 28.75. 9 (" Choral Rio. 132. 193 Rasoumowsky.Index Orchestration — continued— 7 (op. 317 . Pecuniary 26. Frau von. Stumpfif. pendix D. 74. 135. first. Count von.." 129 106. 146 Symphony No. 112 Ries. 6. 161 Schubert. Waldmuller. 200. 104 . No. Giannastasio del. 125). ill. 209 Schott. 287-291 Public appearance. 29 190 Parents. Hornemann. 46 Sonata " Appassionata. life. 66-69 Seyfried. 98-101 Portraits of Beethoven Hake. 104 Mahler. Riedel. Beethoven's. 106. 41. 158. 75 Personalia and Memoranda. 241 Politics. 115. 79 Principal incidents in his Ap- pendix C. 106 Stieler. Prince. 203 the. Salieri. 143 Symphony No. 83.

135 Temperament and characteristics. 113). 95). 179 In F minor (op. Dr. 21. 129 (op. 33." his so-called. 203 Works." 161 "Leonora" (No. 179 Works in ** : Masses —continiud— 194 (op. 33. 19). for Violin (op. 43). 167 Concertos — — major. I57-IS9. 127). Choral Fantasia [o^. 201 In F (op. 133 "Fidelio" (op. 202 In A minor (op. 244 Prometheus" 147. 201 — *• Der Glorreiche Augen- blick. 160 "Egmont" ** Wagner. Operas — 28. 123 In C 124). 146 In G (op. 146 3»8 . Thayer. 62)." or the Battle of Vittoria. as a. 194 In Bb (op. 115). 146. 14. 201 In Bb (op. Johann. 29). 191 Overtures "Coriolan" (op. Countess. 83. 148 Tomaschek. 167 InC(op. 130 In C minor (op. Waldstein. 85). 72). 193 "Weihe des Hauses" (op. 157. 162 In Eb. his last. 135). 117). 179 Cantatas — Quartets 6 String (op. 9 159." 193. 266286 Mount of Olives" (op. 132). 28). 75 Work. Count. 180 Ruins ofAthens" (op. 74). 226 6. 10 Pianoforte. 146 Three (op. D. as a." 192. 58). 46 "Will. 61). 239 In Eb (op. 190. 33. 206 — In In Eb C (op. Weber. 248 Masses in C.Beethoven Teacher. 59). Appendix B. 112). 18). 13 1). Wawruch. 146 Orchestral Pieces — "Wellington's Victory. i). 40 9 (op. 80). 19 Septets—io^. 180 In E[j (op. 202 Wolf-Mettemich. for Piano and Orchestra (op. 130. 34. List of. 86 225. Virtuoso. 37). 157-159 In D. 202 Quintets — Funeral Equaled 46. Missa Solennis. 167 "Leonora. 130). 84). 180 "King Stephen" Oratorios— *' (op. 6. 148 for Piano. &c. Works :— Arrangements of Scotch Songs. 51-56.) (op. 180 Weigl. 47 '*Liederkreis. 16). 193 In CJi minor (op. 123 Rondos— In A. 193 **Meerstille" (Calm Sea. 149 Wolfmayer. 73).

60). 31). 9 (op. 130 F# (op. loi). Trios — Piano (3). 65. 1787). 120). 8 In E[> (compd. (op. 149 No. 109). a March by Dressier (compd. 7). 172-179 153 "Waldstein" No. 3 (op. 149. 152 3 Piano (op. 54). 125) (''Choral"). 8ia). 193 In A (op. 162-166 No. 47). 148. 4 (op. 78 Zmeskall. 30). 194 In A (op. 66. 57). 68) ("Pastoral"). 194 In C minor (op. 193. 152. 180 In E minor (op. 154. 8 No. 67). 2 (op. 5 (op. 167. 129 Piano (ops. 33. 129 " Pathetique " (op. 55) ("Eroica"). 98. I. 36). 28). 180-186 (op. 93). 242 **Kreutzer" (op. I. 99. 7 No. 200 190. 46 of. 13). "Battle" 191 Symphony. 29. 90). 153. in). 242 " Appassionata " 154. 193 In B[j (op. No. 193 Piano and violin in C and (op. pupil 3 77. violin and cello (op. 167-169 No. 194 In E (op. op. 123 Piano. 194 — Zambona. — — Works Symphonies — continued— : No. 106). 6 (op. (op. 19. 186-190 (op. 78). 154-157 242 Piano and violin (op. 26. 102).Inde: Works : continued Sonatas In E|. no). (op. 70). 1780). 194 Symphonies No. 92). 179 "Les adieux" (op. 242 In 16. 122 a Waltz (op. 180 D VaricUions — On On Wiirfel. 6*j^ 319 . 27. 29.




Beethoven O 298794 . B4 *C95 Crowest. With illustrations and portra ML 410 . Frederick James..927.81 B39c MUSIC 3 5002 00010 5838 Crowest. Frederick James Beethoven. 1850-1927.