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United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

0 6 a e f l l l ~ e ~ ~Hba14 lel l l ~ K O H O M ~ ~ ~KOMllCCAR


Sustainable development and biofuel use

as a way towards the Kyoto protocol implementation
and enhanced complex utilization of wood raw material and peat

Discussion Papers on
Sustainable Forest Management NO2

United Nations
New York, Geneva, 2005
This is a publication of the UNECE Trade Development and Timber Division project "Capacity building
to improve trade finance and investment prospects for the Russian timber sector". This project has been carried out
with the support from the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries and the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs (MATRA FuncUProgramme International Nature Management) of the Netherlands.



ISSN: 1020-9697
The views expressed and the designations employed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily
reflect the views of the United Nations Secretariat nor do they express any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat
concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its
frontiers or boundaries.

This Publication has been formatted with minor editorial changes, and has been reproduced in the'form in which it
was received by the Secretariat.

All material may be freely quoted or reprinted, but acknowledgement is requested, together with a copy of the
publication containing the quotation or reprint (to be sent to the following address: Director, Trade Development and Timber
Division, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Palais des Nations, Geneva 10,CH-1211 Switzerland).


npH 3TOM HYXHO AaBaTb COOTBeTCTBJQO~ee YBeAOMJleHHe, a TaKXe HNIpaBHTb 3K3eMllJlHp H3naHHH, ~0nepXa~Mfi UMTaTY M J l M
n e p e n e q a ~ b ~ ~ a eMaTepuan,
~ b ~ i i no cnenymueMy anpecy: Director, Trade Division, United Nations Economic Commission for
Europe, Palais des Nations, Geneva 10, CH- 1211 Switzerland.


The UNECE publication "Sustainable Development and Certification in the Russian Forest Sector" provides
information on the most recent developments in the area of sustainable forest management and certification in the forest
industry in the northwestern region of the Russian Federation.

Contributions to the publication were made by high-level experts from the federal and regional governmental
structures, forest enterprises, research institutes and universities, environmental non-governmental organizations, and
international organizations.
This publication is the first of a series of discussion papers on sustainable forest management published by the United
Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The series is a result of the workshops and expert meetings on
sustainable development that are taking place in the context of the UNECE Trade Division project "Capacity building to
improve trade finance and investment prospects for the Russian timber sector". The focus of this project is on sustainable
development of the forest sector at the regional level of the Russian Federation.

Since the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, many activities have been launched to improve sustainable forest
management. Many of these activities are undertaken in parallel and there is a clear need for coordination and exchange of
information. The UNECE project responds to this need and offers a platform for Russian and other experts to exchange
information on best practice.

The present publication contains the papers that were submitted for discussions held in St. Petersburg, Russian
Federation, in early 2001. These papers are a valuable contribution to an unbiased discussion on all aspects of the
sustainable development of the Russian forest sector.

There is a clear need for information on this important subject and by reaching a wider public through our
publications I am confident that this series will help to make the Russian forest sector better known.

Brigi ta Schmognerovii
Executive Secretary
United Nations
Organizers of the Conference

O6b~HHeHHbleHauHH ~ ~ ~ B H T ~ neHHHrpa~~K0ii
~ ~ c T B o C ~ H K T - ~ ~ T ~ P ~ Y ~ ~ C K
~FI o6nac~n ~ O C ~ ~ ~ ~ C T B ~ H H ~ I
m Eeponbl Government of the Leningrad ~ e x ~ o n o r n ~ lyHnBepcnTeT
United Nations Region PaCTHTenbHblX nOnHMepOB
Economic Commission Saint Petersburg State
for Europe Technological University of Plant

Government of the Leningrad Region

UN Economic Commission for Europe

Saint Petersburg State Technologcal University

of Plant Polymers

Scientific and Technical Council for the sub-

programme: <<ComplexUse of Wood Raw
Material,, (of the Federal special-purpose
scientific and technical programme for 1999-
2001) of the Ministry for Industry, Science, and
Technologes of the Russian Federation

Mnistry of Agriculture, Nature Management and

Fisheries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Section of Forest Sciences of the Russian
Academy of Natural Sciences
Saint Petersburg Forest Technical Academy

Section of Forestry Technologes of the Russian

Engneering Academy
Saint Petersburg Engineering Academy
Saint Petersburg Scientific and Technical
Society of Paper and Woodworking Indusby
Organizing Committee:

I. Grigoriev, Vice Governor of the
Leningrad Region
Deputy Chairmen:
E. Akim, M. Dedov, H. Jansen

Committee Members:
A. Benin (LEMO)
V. Goncharov (Government of the Leningrad
S. Myakov (Government of the Leningrad Region)
S. Naryshkin (Government of the Leningrad
V. Musinsky (Ministry of Industry, Science and
0 . Terentiev (SPb STUPP)
V. Suslov (SPb STUPP)
V. Onegin (SPb FTA)
B. Vorobeichik (NTO Bumprom)
Ycmoiiwsoe pmsumue u ucnonb3osa~ue Sustainable development and biofuel itse as a way townrds
6uomomusa - nymb K peanu3ayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u dze Kyoto protocol iinplernentation and enhanced complex
n o e b ~ ~ l eKoMnneKcHocmu
~u~) ucnonb3osa~mdpesecu~bru mopqba utilization of wood raw material and peat

O r n a s n e ~ 1~Table
e of Contents

Resolution of the International Scientific & Practical Conference

Sustainable Development and Biofuel Use as a Way towards
the Kyoto Protocol Implementation and Enhanced Complex Utilization
of Wood Raw Material and Peat...............................................................................................................

L.P. Sovershaeva
Vice Plenipotentiary of the President of the Russian Federation in the
North-Westem Federal Area in Economic Development, Fiscal Control
and Social Points .....................................................................................................................................

Dr. Carol Cosgrove-Sacks

The Sustainable Development of the Forest Sector through
International Cooperation ...................................................................................................................

I.N. Grigoriev
Energy Problems of the Leningrad Region .................................................................................. 11 -17

Ycmoziwsoe pa36umue u ucnonbsoeatiue Sustainable development and biqfuel use as a way towards
6uomomusa - nymb K peanmayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complrx
nO6blUleHUlO KO.~MWleKCHOCmUUCnOJlb308UHU11 dpe6ec~liblU mopqba utilization ofwood raw material and peat

M.A. a e ~ o ~
A c I I ~ K TyTIInII3aI@iII
~ ~ a pecypcoB B n e ~ ~ ~ r p a ~O ~c J~I ~oC iT............................................
a c n o n a 3 o ~ a necabIx iH

M.A. Dedov
Some Aspects of Wood Residue Utilization while solving the problems of
complex use of Forest resources in the Leningrad Region ....................................................

E.L. Akim
International and regional aspects of Biofuel use ......................................................................

The tapping of Biofuel In North West Russian Federation .....................................................

Top@- K ~ ~KI I O T O I I ~ I I B OH ero 3anaca1 ~a ce~epo-3ana,qePOCCIIII

C.M. I I I ~ C T ~ K O B
KoMIIJI~KcHo~ ~ c n o n b 3 o ~ necmIx
a ~ ~ e pecypcoB c VenbIo nonyYeHm Tenna H
~ J I ~ K T ~ O I~I H ~ ~~K ~T ~
~ ~H , ~~ JXI H ~ ~.............................................................................
PC ~K I ~ I X 65 - 72

npo~o~a s e .....................................................................................
o np o c c ~ i i c ~ neca 72 - 79

Victor K. Teplyakov
Kyoto Protocol and Russian forests ............................................................................ 72 - 79

Ycnzoiiwsoe passumue u ucnonb306a~ue Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towards
6uomonnusa - nymb K peanwayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
t'lO8blUleHUH)KOMFlJZeKCHOCmU UCnORb306aHW dpe6ecllHbl U m0p&l utilization of wood raw material andpeat

m . A . PYHA~II'HH,
K.A. TpHrOpbeB, B.E. C I C ~ ~ H ~A.n.
A.H. Ll[Hsane~
C X N T a H H e A p e B e C H b I X OTXOAOB C HCIIOJIb30BaHNeM BNXpeBbIX T ~ x H o J I o ~ H ~ ~ ................

Y a s s a ~ a n 3 eE.K., U ~ ~ M H KB.H,
N HMunnep B.H, K a p a n e ~ oA~. 3 ,
K O ~ O B KNnRII(eM CJIOe .....................

@ u a o ~ o aA.@., IIporco@rea H.H.

25 T/S p a 3 M e a e H m B r a 6 a p ~ ~ a
r x
s e i r ~K~oi m a ~ e - 2 5 - 1 4 nr p~H n e p e B o A e
I ' ~ ~ o M ~ ~ KOTeJIbHOfi
Y T H o ~H ~ a A p e B e C H b I e OTXOAbI ....................................................................

I l e p c n e ~ ~p~al s~mb m
~T K pacnmpeme
~ U ~cno~1~3osa~ns
HkI3KOCOPTHbIX BHAOB TOIIJINBa ..........................................................................................................

KOM~OH K O~M~M IY H ~ T ~ ~ H O - ~ ~ I T O
B ~ I X KaK ~ H O T O ~ ~ ~ B O ...............................................

ENDNOTES ................................................................................................................ 105 - 106

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Ycmoiiwsoe pmsumue u ucnonb30sa~ue Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towards
6uomomusa - nymb K peanusayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
nO8bZlUeHUK)KOMnJleKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306UHUX d p e ~ e ~U~m0p&l
~bl utilization of wood raw material and peat

Decision of the Conference

on Sustainable Development and Biofuel Use as a Way
towards the Kyoto Protocol Implementationand
Enhanced Complex Utilization of Wood Raw
Material and Peat
Solution of the global climate change issue is one of the
most sigmficant aspects of sustainable developmnt of
mankind. That is why the Kyoto Protocol among the most
important subjects of international top-level talks.
Prevention of global climate change is based on reducing
the use of fossil energy sources such as coal, petroleum and
(to a lesser degree) natural gas. At the same time, the use of
wood, a renewable raw material, as an energy source does
not give rise to the greenhouse effect because carbon
dioxide released when burning wood is reabsorbed back by
forests, i.e. is part of a global carbon cycle.

On 2-4 July, 2001 the International Scientific and Practical

Conference on Sustainable Development and Biofuel Use
as a Way towards the Kyoto Protocol Implementation and
Enhanced Complex Utilization of Wood Raw
Material and Peat was held in Saint Petersburg in
the House of the Government of the Leningrad

The Conference was organized by the United Nations

Economic Commission for Europe in collaboration with the
Government of the Leningrad Region, the Saint Petersburg
State Technological University of Plant Polymers and by a
number of other organizations. More than 100 foreign and
Russian experts representing leading universities, research
institutions, industry and business took part in the

The participants point out that the time has come to go from
individual pilot projects on the wide use of biofuel to a
common economically efficient strategic policy on the wide
use of renewable energy sowces such as wood and peat.
This will contribute considerably to the implementation of
the Kyoto Protocol on prevention of global climate change.
Y C I ~ I O Lpussirmue ~YL~~O u ucnonbsosa~ue
~ Sustainable develop~prnetztand biofuel use as a way towards
o'uon2onnlrsa- nymb K peanz43alpu K U O ~ C K npOmOKOna O~O u the Kyoto protocol inzplementation and enhanced con~plex
~ 0 6 b l U l ~ H 1 1 1KOJZlnJleKCHOCnlU
0 UCnOJlb306UHUII dpe6ecU~blU m0p$a utilization of wood raw material and peat

n e ~ ~ ~ r p a ~ 06nac~u
c ~ o i i M Ceuepo-3ana~~oro As to the Leningrad Region and the North-Western Fedeml
CDenepanb~orooKpyra B qenoM 6 u o ~ o n n ~He~ TonbKo
o Area as a whole, biofuel not only can become the most
MOXeT CTaTb BaXCHehefi ~TaTbefi 3KCnOpTa, H 0 M important export but also opens a new page in the
OTKpOeT HOBYIO CTpaHMuy B pa3BMTMA development of the Regional Forest-Industrial Complex.
neconpoMbiuIneHHoro KoMnneKca M necHoro x o 3 ~ f i c ~ s a
YS~CTHMKM CSMTaKIT qenecoo6pa3~oft pa3pa60~Ky The participants in consider it advisable to draw up a
perMo~anbH0fiK O M ~ ~ ~ K CnPOrpaMMb1
H O ~ ~ < < ~ ~ M o T o ~ J ~ M BMo Regional integrated Programme on 'Biofuel and
6M03~eprMm. Bioenergy".

T a ~ a xnporpama AonxHa BwrmraTb: The Programme should incorporate the following:

development of a regional strategy for the
comprehensive use of forest resources and for
implementing the Kyoto Protocol principles on
preventing global climate change;
development of a biofuel use system for the
Leningrad Region and the North-Western
Federal Area on the basis of fuel preparation
centres and a block-and-modular set of unified
boilerhouses with the optimum use of imported
and domestic components;

expansion of international cooperation in the

field of bioenergy research and practical

the use of international and national grants and

special foreign programmes; working out for a
concept for biomass export from the North-
Western Region of the Russian Federation;

analysis of foreign experience in using biofuel;

generalization and analysis of the practical

experience in using wood fuel and peat in the
North-Western Region;

ensuring sustainable forest management in the

Leningrad Region and in the North-Western
Federal Area;
analysis of possible ways for using the wasve of
the Forest-Industrial Complex enterprise for
energy productions;
Ycmoijwtzoe pussumue u ucnonb306a~ue Sustainable development nrrd bi@elu.w as a w e rownrrh
o'uomonnu6a - nymb K pemu3utpu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol irrlplenwntatiorl urld erlllanced c.otrlp1e.v
KOfill'lJleKCHOCtlZUUCl'lOJlb306UHUII d p e 6 e c ~ ~ Ub lm0p&l
~06bILUeHZlK) utilization of'bvood row rtlaterial arid pent

working out and analysis of development

options for the Forest-Industrial Complex of
the Leningrad Region and the North-Westesn
Federal Area;
aHmM3 3KOnOTMYeCKMX M COukiaJlbHblXnpo6ne~ analysis of the environmental and social
n e ~ u ~ r p a ~ c ~oo6inia c ~ u I? Ce~epo-3ana~~oro problems of the Leningrad Region and the
Qenepanb~oroorcpyra; North-Western Federal Area;
scientific and personnel support to the
For working out the implementation of the Programme
and for its scientific support there is a need to establish an
Advisory Council on Biofuel and Bioenet-gy attached to
the Government of the Leningrad Region, which
could involve representatives of the Regional
legislative and executive authorities, of public
organizations, science and business.

L.P. Sovershaeva
Vice Plenipotentiary of the President of the Russian
Federation in the North-Western Federal Area in
Economic Development, Fiscal Control and Social
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Participants and Guests,
Pocc~fic~ Qenepaq~rr
a~ 06na&ae~ 25% MMposbrx 3anac0~ The Russian Federation has 25% of the global
neCa M ee MOXHO Ha3BaTb JerKMMM ~ B P O ~ ~ ~ ~ C K O - ~ ~ M ~TCK
standing O ~ Ovolume and it may be called the
KOHTMHeHTa. CeBep0-3ana~Hblfi @e&epmbHblfi OKpyr lungs of the Eurasian Continent. The
P o c c ~ f i c ~ o fQ
i e ~ e p a u o~6~n a ~ a e 6onburefi
~ YacTbm North-Western Federal Area possesses the largest
3anac0~ neca, pacnonoxemoro B e~ponefic~ofiracm portion of fosest reserves of European Russia. The
CTpaHbI. 3anacb1 neCa neHMHrpa&~Koft O ~ ~ ~ C T M standing timber volume of the Leningrad Region is
COCTaBnHKlT npMMepH0 600 MMJUlMOHOB K ~ ~ O M ~ T M~ O B as much as 600 million cubic metres; this is one of
HBnHmTCR OAHMM M3 OCHOBaHblX PeCypCOB, the main resources, and engines of growth of the
0 6 e c n e ~ w ~ a m qnoc7ynaTenbHoe
~x pammue ee X O ~ H A C T B ~ . regional economy. Market economy principles are
B ne~MHrpa~cK0fio 6 n a c ~ YCneWHO ~ HPMMeHHmTCH being successfully applied in the Leningsad Region
PbIHOYHble MeXaHM3MbI BeAeHMH ~ ~ c o I I ~ o M ~ I L L I ~ ~ H H o ~by ~ the forestry sector and active work is conducted
AeHTenbHOCTM M aKTMBHO IlPOBOAMTCH p a 6 0 ~ a no to transfer forests to a long lease. Thus, this makes
nepeAare necoB B Aonrocpowym apeHny, rawM 06pa30~, it possible to form a forest user that has long-term
@ o p ~ ~ p necononb3o~a~enn,
yn MMemqero ,qonrocporHbte interests and responsibility for concrete forest
necHoro @ o ~ ~ a .
Sustaitzable develop~nentand biofiiel use as a way towards
the Kyoto protocol inzplenzentation and enhanced conzplex
utilization (J'wood raw tnaterial and peat

The Government of the Russian Federation is

reforming the national Forestry Sector. This reform
has as its target to strengthen the market position of
the Forestry Complex economy, while
simultaneously enhancing the controlling role of
authorities and managerial bodies in the sustainable
use of forest resources in the interests of society.

For more effective forest management it is

necessary to conduct serious work on improving the
standards base of the Forest Industry. This concerns
the necessity of bringing legislation of the Russian
Federation and of its subjects into conformity with
international legal acts, to bring the legislation in
force into conformity with today's requirements,
and to draw up any necessary legislation which is
The standard creating process is rather active in the
Leningrad Region. The Government of the
Leningrad Region has set a number of tasks for
improving the existing standard base; these tasks
arise from the Message of the President of the
Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly of the
Russian Federation.
The tasks are as follows: to draft a forest
management and reforestation act for the Leningrad
Region; a regional act on the Economic Basis of
Nature Management on the Territory of the
Leningrad Region;" proposals for the description in
detail of points under the authority and scope of
powers of subjects of the Russian Federation as to
forest management and management of mineral
resources as applied to the Leningrad Region;
proposals for forest tax rates and rent rates for the
use of forest blocks for cultural and sanitary, tourist
and sports purposes; standard acts regulating tax
exemptions as well as any other benefits of the
enterprises which use biofuel as an energy source in
their heat and power systems; other legislation.
I think our foreign colleagues experienced in
working out of standard and legal acts in the field of
forestry, forest-based industries and environment
protection assist us in our work aimed at creation of
standard and legal base at the level of a subject of
the Russian Federation.
Ycmoikusoe pa3sumue u ucnonbsosa~ue Sustainable developnzent and biofuel use as a way towards
Guomonnusa - nymb K peanu3ayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol irnplenzentation and enhanced conzplex
L'OBblUleHUK)KOMt'lJleKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306aHU11t ) P e ~ e ~ UU~mop&
bl utilization of wood raw material and peat

The topic of this Conference, namely, the use of

renewable energy sources such as wood and peat,
coupled with the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol,
confirms the fact that we have begun to realize our
responsibility for the sustenance of environmental
quality and we are true to our obligations to present
and future generations.

The work on certification of forests, industrial

enterprises and products performed in the
North-Western Region answers this purpose and
confirms that Russia is striving for the certified
objects to be brought into conforming with the
requirements of the world community. This work
needs financial resources, which have to be found
both in Russia and in international financial
~ ~ H M H ~ ~ ~ co6nac~b
K ~ I H o 6 n m a e ~ ~ O ~ ~ L I . I M 3anaCOM
M The Leningrad Region has large reserves of biofuel,
6 ~ o ~ o n n ~KOTOpOe
~ a , MOXeT 6b1~bMCIlOnb30BaHO A n R which can be used for heat and power generation.
nOJlyWHMR Telln0~0fiM 3nerc~pMWX~ofi 3HeprMM. I?CXO,&I M3 Because of its advantageous geographical location,
BbIroAHoro reorpa@Imec~orononoxeHm o 6 n a c ~ ~oHa , the Region, can become both a source of
MOXeT CTaTb MCTOYHMKOM 3KOnOTMZIeCKM Y M C T O ~ ~ environmentally safe power industry and a source
3JleKTpO3Hepr€TMKM M UCTO'IHMKOM KBOT Ha ~ b 1 6 ~ 0 ~ C02.
bl of CO2 emission quotas. The use of biofuel on a
M c n o n b s o ~ a ~ 6~ ew o ~ o n n ~ B~ a6 0 n b w ~ x ~ a c w ~ a 6 a x large scale would also create suitable conditions for
T a m e 6 y n e ~CO3AaBaTb yCJlOBMR AnR pa3BMTMR O C H O B ~ ~ H H O ~ ~ the development of Russia's power industry based
Ha MCKOnaeMbrX 3HeprOHOCMTeJlRX p0CCMfic~ofi 6omruofi on fossil fuel, which will require quotas. This would
3HepXTMKM, KOTOPO~~ A n R =Or0 n o ~ p e 6 y m ~ KBOTbl, c~ help in saving the non-renewable fossil fuel
COXpaHeHMlO HeBOCnOnHMMbIX MCKOllaeMblX reserves, in increasing the export potential of the
s ~ e p r o ~ o c ~ ~ e nyBenM.ieHMm
efi, 3 ~ c n o p ~ ~ onoTeHUMana
ro country because of the planned growth in
CTPaHbl B CBR3M C IIJlaHMPYeMblM POCTOM n o ~ p e 6 n e ~ ~ ~consumption of traditional energy resources on the
TPaAMuMOHHblX ~ H ~ P ~ O H O C M T ~ J3anmHbIMM
I ~ ~ ~ PbIHKaMM. Western markets. To bring about large-scale
&R M ~ C W T ~ ~ nepec~pofi~ki
H O ~ ~ M Pa3BMTMR 06nac~~ofi restructuring and development of the regional
~~ 3HepTeTMKM H ~ O ~ X O A M M O municipal and industrial power generation systems,
OCy~eCTl3JleHMe K O M ~ ~ ~ ~ K CnPOrpaMMb1.
H O ~ ~ y HaUIMX a comprehensive programme should be
3anWHblX KOAJler MMeeTCR B03MOXHOCTb nPMHRTb YYaCTMe B ee implemented. Our Western colleagues have an
pGUlM3auMM He ToJlbKO Ha YPOBHe HWlOTHblX np0€!KKIB. opportunity to take part in its implementation not
only at the level of pilot projects.
National scientific organization and industry must
contribute to the implementation of this programme
through model up-to-date machinery and
technology. We should look at the experience of
neighboring countries, which have achieved great
success in the production of environmentally safe
engines and mechanisms, which eliminate the need
for hard manual labour in the Forestry Complex.
Sustainable develop~~zelltand biojuel use as a way towards
thr Kyoto protocol irrrplemerztation and etlllarzced (vmplex
utilization of wood raw material and peat

The available regional resources allow wood raw

material processing to be increased through the
creation of additional capacities for chemical and
chemico-mechanical processing of wood. The
prevalent conditions on this market seem to be
favorable for the expansion andor creation of these
capacities. This would require large-scale
investment. Both Russian and foreign capital should
be interested in carring out such promising projects.

Any solution of environmental problems through

sustainable forest management and the effective use
of wood raw material is closely associated with
higher level of production and for achieving it
certification is culture a key tool. For Russia to be
cinsidered an equal partner we must change our
mentality as to quality issues. We must bring up
people to hold manufactured products in respect.
Every country follows its own path towards
understanding of the necessity of this and every
country has its individual experience. We should
study this experience. If our foreign colleagues
want to see the Russian Federation as an equal
partner with an advanced developed economy,
transfer of their experience is one more area for
their activity.
X0Yy noXenaTb K O H Q ~ ~ ~~~ ~. J ~HO A~O M
P Hpa6mbr.
O~~ X0Yy I would like to wish the Conference fruitful work. I
OTMeTMTb, YTO n o ~ o 6 ~ a rpa6o~a
r no o 6 ~ e a yOnblTOM M want to note that such a work on sharing of
pacnpocrpaHeHMm 3 ~ a ~ ~3 af cin y ) ~ ~ s a eyB~~ U K ~ H M H M experience and dissemination of knowledge is most
FIO~epXKMM BbIPa3MTb 6nWo,L@pHOCTbee MHMUMaTOpaM . admirable and deserves support and I'd like to
express my gratitude to its sponsors.

Dr. Carol Cosgrove-Sacks

Director, Trade Division, UNECE

Sustainable development of the forest sector

through international cooperation
Distinguished guests,
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Mr. Chairman,
At the outset, I would like to thank the organisers of
the Conference, and in particular the Government of
the Leningrad region and the St. Petersburg State
Technological University of Plant Polymers, for the
excellent work that has been done to prepare this
event with the participation of so many high-level
Ycmoirwsoe passumue u ucnonb306a~ue Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towards
6uomonnusa - nymb K peanmayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
n013bllUeHUIO KOhtWleKCHOCmU UCnOflb308UHUIId p e 8 e c ~ ~Ub lm0p&l utilization of wood raw material and peat

It is my pleasure to describe in a few words the

broader context of today's conference and the
results that we would hope to achieve today and
tomorrow, but in particular in the longer term.

Today's conference is part of a long-term

cooperation between the Government of the
Leningrad region and the UN Economic
Commission for Europe's Trade Division, of which
I am the Director.
3 a ~ a r aO ~ ~ e Toprosnw
~~ Our concern in the UNECE Trade Division, which
KaK necH0fi KOMMT~T,AeRTenbHOCTb KOTOpOrO, includes both the Timber Committee, that many of
B 0 3 M O X H 0 , 3HaKOMa MHOrMM M 3 BaC, TaK M KOMBT~T no you may be familiar with, and the Committee on
Pa3BMTMK) TOprOBnM, KIPOMbIUIJIeHHOCTM M Trade, Industry and Enterprise Development, is to
npeAirpMHMMaTenbCTBa, COCTOMT B TOM, Y T O ~ M promote best practice in the sustainable
C ~ O C O ~ C T B O B ~ T ~ PaCnpOCTpaHeHMK) ~ a ~ n y ~ ~ e fmanagement
i of forests in our region.
npaKTHKM ~ C T O ~ ~ W ~ neCOnOnl30BaHMR
B O ~ O B HaUIeM
The UNECE region includes European countries,
the USA and Canada and covers more than 95% of
global temperate and boreal forests. Our focus is on
these forests, and on the wood and non-wood
products, which they produce.
The temperate and boreal forests of the UNECE
region constitute one of the most important
renewable resources for many of our member
States. The forests of countries such as Canada, the
USA, Russia, Sweden and Finland make very
significant contributions to the economies of these
countries. They provide substantial employment
and support the physical infrastructure of many
rural regions. Moreover, they account for
considerable export revenue derived from raw
materials and from value-added products from the
forests, plus increasingly important tourism income.

MHO~M M 3 ~ BXOARuMX B PerMOH rOCyAapCTB C Many of our Member States with economies in
nepexoflH0fi ~ K O H O M W K OCTNIKMBaWTCR
~~ C CePbe3HbIMM transition are confronted by major challenges in
TPyAHOCTIlMM B M3BJleYeHMM n p ~ 6 b 1 nM ~ 3 CBOMX JIeCHblX developing economic gains from their forest
PeCypCOB. B YaCTHOCTM, nepeA P o c c H ~ ~KOTOpaA ~, resources. Russia, in particular, hosting the world's
0 6 n a ~ a He ~~ M ~ O ~ ~ U I 3allaCaMM
M M M eCTeCTBeHHblX JeCHblX most extensive natural forests, faces particularly
peCypCOB, CTORT O C O ~ ~ H HCnOXHbIeO 3aAaYM 0 6 e c n e ~ e ~ m difficult problems in promoting the sustainable
~ C T O ~ ~ Y M B O ~pa3BMTMR
O TOrO, YTO nOTeHUMNIbH0 MOrJlO development of what potentially could be one of its
6b1 CTaTb OAHMM M 3 ee rJIaBHb1X BMAOB ~ K C ~ O P T M P Y ~ M O ~ ~principal renewable export products.
B O ~ O ~ H O B . J I R ~ MIlP
Sustainable development and biofirl use as a way towards
the Kyoto protocol bnplemenrarion and enhanced ~:otuPlex
utilization qf' wood raw nlaterial arld peat

Since February 1998, at the request of the Russian

Federation, the UNECE Trade Division has been
implementing the project "Capacity Building to
Improve Trade Finance and Investment Prospects
for the Russian Timber Sector". It is in the context
of this project that today's conference is held.

The project consists of a number of activities:

P sustainable management practices at the

enterprise level for the Russian Forest Sector;
P improved Trade procedures for the Timber
> innovative Trade finance techniques;
P timber Port Operations.
O~ npOeKT npMAaeT TOMY, YT06bi BCH The main emphasis of the project is to strengthen
~ e ~ ~ e n b ~necHoro
o c ~ b cewopa 6b1na HanpaBneHa Ha the sustainable development of the forest sector
BOnJlO~eHMe B X M 3 H b KOHuenuMM Y C T O ~ ~ Y M B O ~ O through all its activities.
The project has proved to be a successful
instrument for the participating enterprises and
forest Institutions in the core area where we work,
(that is the Leningrad Oblast and the Arkhangelsk
Oblast) in strengthening their work contacts with
Forest enterprises and institutions outside the
Russian Federation, mainly also because of the
long-term context that we can offer.
O ~ ~ B M OTBeTA ~ H Ha BOnpOC, ffOYeMy ~ c T o ~ ~ ~ M B o ~ It is clear why the sustainable development aspect is
pa3BMTMe RBnReTCH >KM3HeHHOBaXHbIM J&JlH P O C C M ~ ~ C K O ~ofO vital importance for the Russian Forest sector. In
neCHOr0 CeKTOpa. B HaY2UIe AeBHHOCTblX rOAOB the early 1990s, concern among major
O ~ ~ ~ O Y ~ H H O C T KPYnHblX
~ HenpaBMTenbCTBeHHbiX environmental non-governmental organizations
0praHM3auMh B OTHOUleHMM ( M ~ X ) ~ O C Y A ~ P C T B ~ H(ENGOs) H ~ I X regarding (inter) governmental efforts to
a e f i ~ ~ ~HanpaBneHHblX
~fi, Ha npeKpaueHMe B ~ I P Y ~ K MM stop deforestation and loss of old-growth forests led
norepH n e p e c ~ o f i ~ b ~necoB,
x npMsena K noHBneHMm to the emergence of market-oriented voluntary
A O ~ ~ O B O ~ ~ H O O P~ M~ ~, H T M P O B ~ H H O ~ ~Ha PblHOK, certification of forest management quality and
c e p r ~ @ M ~ a u ~ a~ r e c r ~ a n e c o n o n b 3 o ~ a ~ ~M~ labelling of forest products. It was realised that
MaPKMPOBKM necH0fi np0,QyKuMM. B O ~ H M K OC03HaHMe
~O trade could be made to work towards environmental
TOrO, YTO TOPTOBntO M O X H O 3aCTaBMTb p a 6 0 ~ a ~ H ba conservation if it is based on sustainable managed
coxpaHeHMe o ~ p y x a m q e i icpeAbi, ecnM oHa 6 a s ~ p y e ~ c ~ forests, and that certification and labelling could be
Ha y c ~ o f i r ~
~o necax, M YTO c e p r w @ ~ ~ a u m tools to influence industry and trade to contribute to
M MaPKMPOBKa MOrJlM 6b1 CTaTb TeMM MHCTPYMeHTaMM, sustainable forest management (SFM).
KOTOPble, B uenFIX C O A ~ ~ ~ C T B Mpa3BMTMIO
neCO~OJlb30BaHMF1, OKa3blB2UIM 6b1 BnMRHMe Ha
Ycmoiiweoe paseumue u ucnonb3oea~ue Sustainable developnzent and biufiel use as a way to~wrcls
6uomonnuea - nymb K pecutu.a~uuK U O ~ C K OnpomoKona
ZO u the Kyoto protocol iinplementatiotz and enhanc.ed c ~ o t r ~ p l e ~ ~
nO6blUleHUK) KOM~eKCHOCmUUCnOJlb306aHUX d p e e e c ~ ~ L4b lm0p&l utilization yf wood raw material arld peat

~ ~~H, HBO E ~ p o n e ,rpynnb1 no~yna~enefi, Particularly in Europe, Buyers' Groups have
HacTamamqMe Ha ocyuecmnewiu c e p ~ ~ @ ~ ~ a q ~emerged, u, which insist on certification as a proof of
KOTOPYK) OHM PaCCMaTPMBaIOT KaK AOKa3aTenbCTBO well managed sources for their supplies. Since
xopouro ynpasnReMbrx MCTOYHMKOB n o c ~ a ~ n ~ e MM ~oii 1993, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) has
npoAyKqaa. C 1993 roAa n m m n e c ~ o f Ii I o n e r ~ ~ e n b c ~ ~ f i provided the only label that is currently well
C O B ~ T 3aHMMUICH o n p e ~ e n e ~ ~ o f Mi ~ P K M P O B K O ~ ~ established in the marketplace; but this is changing
npOAyKuMM, KOTOPaR ~ e f i Y anpOzIHO
~ YKOpeHMnaCb Ha because of the emergence of the Pan-European
PbIHKe, OAHaKO CMTYalJMR M3MeHReTCH BCneACTBMe Forest Certification (PEFC) as well as national
BO3HMKHOBeHMR KaK I I ~ H - E B ~ o I I ~ ~CXeMbI ~ c K onec~0fi
~~ schemes in many countries. The field is still
(PEFC), TaK M Pa3nMYHbIX HaqMOHaJIbHbIX evolving and it is uncertain which schemes will
cxeM. 3 ~ o6nac~b
a Bce ewe ~ ~ ~ B M B ~ ~M T H Ce RHGHO,
, survive and what their relationships will be.
KaKMe CXeMbI c ~ ~ T M ~ M K BbIXWBYT,
~ I & ~ M M KaKOBO 6 y ~ y T

P o c c a f i c ~ anecHafi
~ npoAyKqm 6 y ~ uer p~a n Bce 6onee Russian forest products will play an increasingly
BaXHyK) POnb Ha Me~YHapOAHOMPbIHKe, R H ~ M ~ ~ ~ X H O , importantrole on the international market and
YTO Ha P O C C M ~ ~ C K M neCa
~ MeXAyHapOAHOe c o o 6 w e c ~ ~ o inevitably the attention of the international
6 y ~ 06pauaTb
e ~ AWe 6onee npMCTaJlbHOe BHMMaHMe. community will be focused even stronger on the
M AonmeH 6 y ~ e ~ Russian Forests. For that reason the introduction of
OCyueCTBnXTbCR C MaKCMMUIbHbIM YYeTOM ee BnMRHMR Ha "new" products will also have to be developed with
oKpyxamwym cpeAy. the utmost consideration of environmental
As you know, one of these new developments as a
result of our close cooperation in the "Timber
Project" is the sustainable use of biomass in the
Leningrad Oblast.
Biomass is largely defined as organic matter
available on a renewable basis, including forest
residues, wood and wood waste.

KMOTCKHA nPOTOKOn (1997 r.) KOHB~HUHMB PaMKaX The Kyoto Protocol (1997) to the UN framework
OOH no M3MeHeHMtO KnMMaTa (UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
Convention on Climate Change) coAepmi-r contains legally binding, quantified commitments
KOnMYeCTBeHHbIe 06R3aTenb~TBa AJlR npOMbIurJleHH0- for industrialized countsies to limit or reduce
pa3BMTblX CTpaH OTPaHMYMTb MnM CHM3MTb B ~ I ~ P O C ~ I Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
naPHMKOBblX Ta30B.

According to the Kyoto Protocol, the industrialized

countries have to reduce their emissions by at least
5% below 1990 levels within the commitment
period, 2008-2012. Fos the European Union, the
Protocol stipulates an 8% reduction in GHG
emission; for the Russian Federation this is 0%.
Ycrnoikusoe passumue u ucnonbsoea~ue Sustainable developpnretzt and bio@rl use as a way towards
6uornonnuaa - nymb K peantuayuu Kuomc~ozonpomotcona u the Kyoto protoc~olirliplerllerztationarld enhanced c'or~~plex
n06bllUeHUlO KOMnJleKCHOCmU UCnOnb306UHUR c ) p e @ e ~ U~ m0p&l
~bl utilizatiorz o,f wood raw rnaterial and peat

European countries can achieve the reduction of

COz emission by using sustainable and non-
polluting energies to replace current fuels. Fossil
fuel can be replaced by biomass, including forest
residues, wood and wood waste. The technology
required for this purpose already exists in Europe.

The Russian Federation, and notably the

Arkhangelsk Oblast and Leningrad Oblast have
large quantities of biomass in their forests. At
present, there is no coordinated approach to
developing the potential of this resource of
sustainable energy, but the project is contributing to
such a coordinated approach. Bearing in mind that
the Russian Federation can, in principle, cover all
required demands for woody biomass in Western
Europe, it is clear that the Forest sector can play an
important role in this aspect of climate
policymaking, provided the sustainable
development aspect is placed at the centre of the
In conclusion I would like to emphasize the need to
clearly identify our areas of cooperation and to
outline the follow-up this conference.

Today's conference will be followed by a "Forum

on Sustainable Forest Management" on 17 and 18
September in Rotterdam, Netherlands.
On 10 and 11 December we will evaluate the
progress that has been made in our cooperation and
decide on our workplan for next year.
We have to date achieved good and practical
results; our cooperation has taken the sustainable
use of Russian biomass to a practical level.

Much more needs to be done, however, and I would

therefore invite you to focus on a practical plan of
work for the next 6 months. In doing so, we will
keep the momentum that we have built and our
project will remain an important instrument for
international cooperation, for the benefit of the
Russian forests and all those who defend Russia's

Thank you.
Ycmoijwsoe pa3sumue u ucnonb3osa~ue Sustainable development and biojuel use a.v a way towards
6uomoiuru6a - nymb K peanu3ayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol itnplementatiorz arzd erlkarzced cwrrp1t.s
U mop&
n06bllUeHUK) KOM~JleKCHOCmUUCYlOJlb308aHw dpe8eC~~bl utilizatiotl of wood raw material arrd peal

I.N. Grigoriev

Vice-Governor of the Leningrad Region

Dear Participants and Guests,

My cordial congratulations on the opening of the

International Scientific and Practical Conference.
Recent global events, and the attention the world
community is giving to the implementation of the
Kyoto Protocol demonstrate once again the key role
the Fuel-and-Power Complex has been playing in
the world economy.
The Fuel-and-Power Complex forms the basis of
the Regional industry and is of great importance not
only for Russia's North-West but also for the
whole of Russia.
For example, the specific weight of industrial
products of the Fuel-and-Power Complex is as
much as 40% of the total volume of regional
production. The Leningrad Region produces 4% of
the electric power and 8% of the petroleum
products produced in Russia.
Gas supply should be singed out as the basis of the
Regional Fuel-and-Power Complex infrastructure.
The contribution of gas to total fuel consumption is
about 60% and we are planning to increase it further
in the Regional fuel balance structure. Enterprises at
the federal level, such as the Leningrad Atomic
Power Plant, the Kirishinefteorgsynthes, the Slantzy
Mill and the Leningradslanetz Mines, have been
operating for a long time on the territory of the
Leningrad Region. The Baltic pipeline system, a
petroleum refining mill, oil-loading and
coal-loading terminals are being constructed here.

Further provision has been made for the

construction of new power lines, gas lines, and
petroleum product pipelines on the territory of the
Region. These will deliver fuel resources not only
to Russia's North-West but also to Western
European countries, contributing to their steady
Ycmotiweoe pa3sumue u ucnonb3osa~ue Sustaitzable development and biojkel use as a way toward.^
6uomonnuea - nymb K peanmayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol inzplemetztation and etzharzced coruplr-Y
n0661lUeHUIO KOMnneKCHOCmU UCnOJZb306UHUX dpe6ecUHbl U m0p&l utilization of wood raw material and peat

Ha ~ ~ O B O A H M H OaM~M K O H @ ~ ~ ~ H K~ M
M The Conference focuses primary attention on one
BbIAWIeH OAMH M 3 aCneKTOB, OAHO, H 0 OYeHb BaXHOe most important aspect, one line of work, which is
HanpaBneHkie pa60Tb1 H 0 IIOBbIIIIeHHW ~ @ @ ~ K T W B H O C T I ? related to increasing efficiency of the use of fuel
MCllOnb30BaHWH TOnnMBHO-3HepTeTHSeCKMX PeCypCOB, resources. This is linked to optimization of fuel
CBH3aHHOe C o ~ T H M M ~ CTPYKTyPbI ~ ~ M ~ ~ TOllnMBHOrO balance structure, namely, with the extended use of
Gana~ca,a MMeHHO, C UIMPOKMM IIpMMeHeHMeM MeCTHbIX local fuels (wood residue and peat) at heat
BMAOB TOnnMBa (OTXOAOB ApeBeCMHbI M TOP@^) Ha generating enterprises of the Leningrad Region.
~ e n n o n p o w s ~ o ~ l i q anpeAnpmTarrx
x JTe~a~rpa~c~oii
nepex0~1l K O C H O B H O ~ ~WCTH AOwIaAa, H ~ O ~ X O ~ M M O While coming to the main part of the paper, it is
OTMeTMTb, qTO B Gnlwcaiirueii nepCneKTMBb1 npeACTOMT necessary to note that we can expect a certain
nomrrremie qeH Ha ra3 (K 2003r. B 2,5 pma, a K 2005r. increase in prices for gas in the immediate future
e q e B 1,4 pa3a). Y A ~ ~ H H OMC eCTT ~~06bIWi ymH, (2.5 times - by 2002 and a further increase by the
COKpaqeHMe npOM3BOACTBa MiUyTa, BBMAY y m y 6 n e ~ ~ x factor of 1.4 - by 2005). Because of remoteness of
nepepa60TKM H ~ @ T M COXpaHMT
, BbICOKMMM UeHbI Ha 3TM the coalming areas and reduced fuel oil production
BMAM Tonnma Anrr J I e ~ a ~ r p a g c ~oo6i n
i ac~~. (because of extended oil refining), the prices for
these fuels remain high in the Leningrad Region.
IIO~TOMY ~ a ~ 6 0 n e e qenecoo6pa3~b1~ Anlr Because of this, orientation of the municipal power
ne~MHrpa~cK0ii o6nac~u HBnReTCH OpMeHTaqHH industry and of boilerhouses of industrial
K O M M Y H ~ J - I ~ H O ~ ~ 3HepreTMKM W KOTen b H bIX enterprises to local biofuel grades such as lump and
npOMbILUJleHHbIX npe,QlTp~HTkifi, Ha MeCTHbIe BWAbI milled peat, unmerchantable chips as well as forest
6tlo~onnkfsa: K Y C K O B O ~ ~W @pe3ep~b1iiTOP+; qeny ~3 residue and woodworking waste, sawdust, bark
HWIMKBMAHO~~ ApeBeCMHbI, a TaWe OTXOAbI from the available clumps with a storage life of no
n e c o 3 a r o ~ oM ~~~e~p e ~ o n e p e p a 6 0onMnKM;
~ ~ ~ ; ~ o p y~3 more than 5 years would be most appropriate for the
MMelouMXCH OTBmOB, CO CPOKOM XpaHeHMH He 6onee 5 Region.
0 rnop@e, o6yue d a ~ ~ b z e . Now about peat (general information).
B n e ~ k i ~ r p a ~ c ~o6nac~u
ofi MMeeTCH OKOnO 2300 There are about 2,300 peat beds whose total area
TOP@HHMX M ~ C T O P O W ~ H M o6uefi
~~ nnouaAm 6onee exceeds 10,000 sq. km. Fuel peat reserves are as
10000 KB. KM. 3anacb1 TO~nMBHOrO TOP@^ COCTaBJIH~T much as 1.3 billion tons. The Regional peat raw
OKOnO 1,3 MnpA. TOHH. Cb1pbe~aHT O P @ R H ~ H6a3a O ~ ~ ~ C T M material base could meet the demand for
cnoco6aa 06e~neWiTb ~ O T ~ ~ ~ H O CB T KOMMYHUIbHO-
M municipal-consumer peat fuel and for peat over a
~~ITOBOM TOP@HOM Tonnme M ~ o p @ Hae 500 ne-r npM period of 500 years at their annual consumption of
exeronHoM n o ~ p e 6 n e ~AOm 2-X MnH. TOHH. up to 2 million tons.
A H ~ I TM @ R H ~ I X PeCypCOB o 6 n a c ~nOKa3bIBaeT,
O P~ ~ rT0 It follows from analysis of the regional peat
OHM B COCTOHHMW 3HaqMTeJlbHO YMeHbWUTb reserves that they are capable of significantly
HanPRXeHHOCTb TOI1JlMBHOrO 6 a n a ~ c aB KOMMYHmbHO- weakening the fuel balance tension in the
O~ TOP@RHO~O municipal-consumer sector. The main advantages
TOnnMBa nepen KaMeHHbIM YrneM - CpaBHMTeJlbHO HM3KaH of peat fuel over coal are its comparatively low
er0 C ~ ~ ~ C T O M M ~O~CHT ~~ J, I U X ~ H H K O MeCTaM
CT~ cost, proximity to the places of consumption, and
:e high environmental properties such as low ash and
conepxawie sonbr M cepbl. sulphur content.
Peat extraction was initiated in the Region in 1798
at the Alexander-Nevsky Monastery and there for
the first time it was used as fuel.
Ycmoiilrusoe pa3sumue u ucnonbsosa~ue Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towards
6uomonnusa - nymb K peanu3ayuu Kuomc~ozonpomo~onau the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
~ O B ~ Z I U ~ HKo~nneKcHocmu
UH) ucno~b306a~ux
U mop& utilization of wood raw material and peat

B AOBOeHHble I'OAbl Ha TOP(&! B o 6 n a c ~pa6o~ano ~ In pre-war years several large water-power stations
HeCKOnbKO KPYnHbIX r P 3 C M T3I4 r P 3 C N25-111 TbIC. and power-and-heating plants such as
KBT, TP3C N28-310 T ~ I CKBT, . T 3 u N215, 6onbruoe water-power stations No.5 (111 thousand kW),
KOJlMYeCTBO KOMMYHanbHblX KOTenbHbIX. B TOnnUBHOM No.8 (310 thousand kW), the power-and-heating
6ana~ceo6nac~u 1960 rona TOP@ coc'raunm 24,3%, plant No.15 as well as a number of municipal
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c T B o B ~ 23
U I O ~0p+0npeflnpkiRTPf5l C II~o~KTHo~~ boilerhouses had operated on peat. In 1960 the
MOuHOCTbIO OKOnO 4 MnH. TH B rOA. B HaYWIe 70-X rOAOB contribution of peat to the Regional fuel balance
B 06nac~w~06b1~aJIocb no 2,0 - 2,3 MnH. T H TOnJlUBHOrO was as much as 24.3%; 23 peat enterprises of
~ o p @ aB. n a n b ~ e h e c~yeenuqeHkfeM
, o 6 a e ~ ~o6b1rw
o~ design capacity of about one million tons a year had
YfJlR, H@TM kf ra38, TOP@,KaK TOnnBBO He3aCnyXeHHO been functioning. Early in the 1970s, annual peat
CTaJl TepRTb CBOA n03MqMki B CTPYKTYPe TOnnMBHOrO output had been as high as 2.0-2.3 million tons.
6 m a ~ c a , ycTynaR Memo neperwneHHbIM mrue Subsequently, with increasing volumes of coal
3HeproHocwenaM. B HacToHuee BpeMH TOP@ B CTpymype mining, petroleum and gas production, the position
TOIlnWBHOrO 6 m a ~ c o6nac~ua COCTaBJIReT OT 1,7% A 0 2%. of peat as fuel had been falling unfairly in the fuel
balance structure, giving way to the energy
resources mentioned above. Presently the peat share
is 1.7 - 2% in the Regional fuel balance structure.
C~I'O~~HR, B CBR3M C A ~ @ M ~ U T O MHa3BaHHblX BblLUe Today, because of the deficit in these energy
3~epro~ocw~eneii M POCTOM qeH Ha HMX, ponb ~ o p + a Km
, resources and the increase in their prices, the role of
KOMMYHUlbHOrO TOllnMBa, CHOBa BO3paCTaeT. T ~ 6onee, M peat as a municipal fuel is increasing again.
YTO B IlOClIeAHee BpeMH, KpOMe TpaflRqMOHHbIX BMAOB Especially as in the last years, in addition to the
TOnnMBHOrO TOP@^ (KYCKOBO~~ TOP@ U +pe3ep~blfi),HaWUl usual fuel peat grades (lump and milled peat), so
OCyueCTBJlReTCR ~ ~ B O A C K BbInyCK O~~ TaK Ha3bIBaeMOrO called "composite fuel" is coming into industrial
~'KOM~O~M T o IT
I J IH ~ " ~ -OCMeCb TOP@ C IlpOAyKTaMM
M BO production (this is a mixture of peat with oil
~ e @ ~ e n e p e p a G oc~ oTxoaaMu
~u, cnaeqa, onMnoK M ~ p . refining products, shale waste, saw dust, etc.).
T ~ ~ J I o T B oC~~ H O C~OR~ H O CTaKOrO
T~ TOnnMBa- OT 4000 A 0 Calorific power of this fuel is in the range of 4,000
6000 ~ ~ a n /a ~qeaa r , 6onee reM B Ass pa3a MeHbrue yrnx to 6,000 kcallkg, and its price is half that of coal.
There are 14 peat enterprises in the Region now. In
recent years peat output varied through the range
from 60 thousand tons to 200 thousand tons. It is
TH. B 2001 rOAy 3annaHUpOBaHO 3arOTOBMTb OKOJIO 170 planned to store up about 170 thousand tons of fuel
TblC. T H TOnnkiBHOrO TOP@ flax 0 6 e c n e r e ~ w ~ peat in 2001 to meet the demand of municipal
I I o T ~ ~ ~ H o c TKOMMYHaJIbHblX
~ ~ ~ KOTenbHblX M KMPOBCKO~~boilerhouse and the Kirovskaya Water Power
TP3C-8. Station No. 8.
~ ~ ~ B M T ~ ~ ~ 0C6 Tn a
B cO~ ~B npeAWIaX CBOMX The Government of the Leningrad Region makes all
B O ~ M O X H O C T ~npMHMMaeT
~~ BCe Mepbl no nO,44epXKe possible efforts to support the peat enterprises.
T~p@~npe~flp~RTMfi. Haqw~artC 1995 rOAa ~POM3BOAMTCH Since 1995 advancies in fuel peat extraction have
aBaHCUpOBaHUe ~ 0 6 bMl TOnnMBHOrO ~ TOP^^, e X e r 0 ~ ~ b l h been made. The annual amount of financing has
o 6 a e ~@ M H ~ H C M ~ O B ~ H M HBblpOC C 2890 TblC. py6. B 1995 increased from 2,890 thousand Rubles in 1995 to
roAy no 9000 T ~ I C py6.
. B 2001 roAy. 9,000 thousand in 2001.

On the instructions of the Government of the

Region, the Institute of Peat (NIITP) has worked
out a scheme for developing peat-based industries
in the Region for the period up to 20 10.
Yctnoii~u60epa3sunzue u ucnonb306a~ue Sustainable development arid biofiel use as a way towards
a'lronlonf~usa- nymb K peanu3ayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol irnplenzentation and enhanced c o ~ n p k v
~06blU4eHZltOKOhlWleKCHOC~ZUUCnOJlb306aHU~dpe6ec~HblU mop& utilization c$, wood raw rnaterial and peat

The Government has developed a programme for

reconstructing municipal boilerhouses. The
programme aims at the maximum use of local
biofuel (fuel peat, wood residue), allowing a
decrease in consumption of coal delivered from
remote areas. The first boilerhouse is be
reconstructed in the MO Luzhsky District in 2001.
HaYMHaH C 2002 rOAa 6 y ~ e OCyIIJeCTBnRTbCH ~ Since 2002 Federal Programme "Energy-Efficient
m e n e p a n b ~ a ~ nporpaMMa " 3 ~ e p r o s @ @ e ~ ~ u ~Economy"
~a~ will be implemented. The subsection of
~KOHOMMK~". ~ o , Q P ~ ~ A ~ J ~ 3 M0 f i nPOrpaMMb1
o~ - this Programme "Efficient Energy Supply to
" ~ @ @ ~ K T M B H3~eproo6ecnere~ue
O~ PerMOHOB Ha OCHOBe Regions on the Basis of the Use of Local Fuels and
MCnOnb30BaHMH MeCTHblX BBAOB TOI-InMBa W while Applying Nontraditional Power Engineering
H ~ T P ~ ~ M ~ M O3HePXTMKM
H H O ~ ~ Ha 2002-2005 M A 0 2010 for the Period from 2002 to 2005 and until 2010"
rofla" - npeflyCMaTpMBaeTCH pa3BMTMe ~ 0 6 6 1 ~ ~provides for the increase in annual fuel peat output
TOnJlMBHOrO TOP@^ H 0 fleHMHrpa~cK0fi 06nac~1.1A 0 up to one million tons in the Leningrad Region. To
OAHOrO MMnnMOHa TOHH B rOA, AnH YerO B TOP@RHYI€I achieve this volume, about 620 million Rubles will
OTpaCnb o 6 n a c ~6 ~y ~ M e H~BeCTMpOBaHO OKOnO 620 MnH. be invested into the peat industry, including 260
py6nefi, B TOM wcne ~3 @ e ~ e p a n b ~ o6r m o g x e ~ a- 260 million from the federal budget.
MnH. py6nefi.
Apesec~bzeomodbl. Wood residue
n o AaHHbIM KOMMTeTa I T 0 neCOITpOMbIllrneHHOMy According to the data of the Committee of the
KOMllneKCy MMeeTCH OKOllO 6 MnH. nn0THbIX B rOn Forest-Industrial Complex, there are about 6
H ~ B O C T ~ ~ ~ O B ApeBeCMHbI,
~ H H O ~ ~ B TOM 'IMCne ApeBeCHbIX million solid m3 of unclaimed wood a year
OTXOnOB 6onee 3 M~H.~JI.M'). TO~~K flpeBeCHblMH
O including more than 3 million solid m3 of wood
BMAaMM ~ M o T o ~ ~ BM TB ~ Y. , OTXOAaMM, MOrYT 6b1~b residue available. Boilerhouses of a total thermal
06e~neYe~bl KOTenbHble C o6qefi Telln0~0fiMOqHOCTbkO capacity of 900 MW with delivery distances of no
6onee 900 MBT,C PaCCTOHHMeM AOCTaBKM He 6onee 50 more than 50 km can be provided solely with wood
KM. fuel including wood residue.
Much work was under way in the Region towards
the conversion of boilerhouses to biofuel burning.
For example, three coal-based boilerhouses were
converted to wood fuels in the settlements of
Pashozero, Eremina Gora of the Tikhvin District
and in the village of Vinnitzy of the Podporozhsky
District. Similar works are being performed at three
boilerhouses situated in the Priozersk District.
The conversion of these boilerhouses to biofuel has
resulted in an annual saving of 39.8 million Rubles.
It can be seen from the above list that these
energy-saving measures are not being implemented
sufficiently intensively. This is due to the lack of
the following services and offers in the Region with
a satisfactory price quality ratio:
Ycmotjweoe pa3sumue u ucnonb3osa~ue Sustainable developnzent and biofuel use as a way toward
Guontonrrusa - nymb K peanu3ayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol inzplementation and enhanced conzplex
nOBblUleHUI0 KOMnJZKCHOCmU UCtZO3lb30BUHUS dpesecuHb1 U mop$@ utilization of wood raw material and peat

Chipping of unclaimed wood, forest and

woodworking residues as well as bark from the
dumps with a storage life of no more than 5

Delivery of chips, sawdust, bark, lump and

milled peat to boilerhouses with special trucks
having tipping bodies of the volumes 30-100

Manufacture in the Leningrad Region and

delivery of the following modern equipment:
AJlH ~ B T O M ~ T M ~ M P O B ~ HIlO
O ~ ~ pa3nWYHbIX P for automated feeding of different wet
c~ecefiBnaxsoro 6wo~onnkisa(uenb~,onanoK, biofuel mixtures (chips, sawdust, bark,
KOPb1, Top(Pa) CO CKJlaAa TOnnMBa KOTeJlbHbIX A 0 peat) from a fuel storeroom of a boilerhouse
IlpeATOnKOB KOTIIOB. to primary furnaces of boilers.

yHBBepCaJlbHbIX IlpeATOnKOB M TOnOYHblX P for universal primary furnaces and furnaces

YCTPO~~CTB,AnH CXMTaHMH KaK B CYlIJeCTByIOUMX, for burning of the local wet biofuel grades
TaK W BHOBb YCTaHaBnMBaeMbIX KOTnaX and their mixtures both in the existing and
OTO~BTenbHbIXKOTenbHbIX, MeCTHOI'O BIIaXHOTO in newly installed boilers of no less than
6wo~onnkisapa3nnwbrx BHAOB M HX c~ecefi,C 85% efficiency.
KIIA He MeHee 85%.
The lack of necessary amounts of
special-purpose investments for organizing
large-scale conversion of boilerhouses to
biofuel and introduction of energy-saving
The conversion of boilerhouses to biofuel burning
could yield an annual economic effect of more than
700 million rubles due to difference in fuel prices,
increased boiler efficiency and reduced losses in
heating systems.
T ~M KMeH)TCR - 103 Ma3YTHble KOTenbHble, BCerO KOTAOB - For example, there are 103 fuel oil boilerhouses
45 1, B TOM wcne M O ~ H O C TAO MO0,5: MBT-80WT;0,5-1 where 451 boilers are installed including 80 boilers
MBT-151 LLIT; 1-2,5 MBT-8 2 ~6onee
~ ; 2,5 MBT-138 WT. of the capacity less than 0.5 MW, 151 boilers of the
198 YrOJlbHblX KOTeJlbHblX, BCerO KOTIIOB- 783, B TOM capacity in the range of 0.5 to 1 MW, 82 - in the
wcne MOqHOCTbm: AO 0,5 MBT--461 WT; OT O , ~ - ~ M B T -
range of 1 to 2.5 MW, and 138 boilers of the
2 2 7 ~OT~ 1-2,5
; MBT-2 5 ~ 16onee
~ ; 2,5 MBT-70 WT.
capacity more than 2.5 MW. There exist also 198
coal boilerhouses with 783 boilers including 461
boilers of the capacity less than 0.5 MW, 227
boilers of the capacity in the range of 0.5 to 1 MW,
25 boilers - in the range of 1 - 2.5 MW, and 70
boilers of the capacity of more than 2.5 MW.
Y c ~ ~ o t j ; w spassumue
oe u ucnonb306a~ue Sustainable development and biofiel use as a way towards
o'uo~lzonlru6u- nynrb K peanu3ayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol intplementation and enhanced cotnplrx
n06blUleHUK)KOhUUEKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306UHUII dpesecu~blU ??lop& utilization of wood raw material and peat

Cpea~Mk ~ ~ C Y ~ kT H C ~pO
IK OKynaeMOCTM, npM When converting the boilerhouses to biofuel
OAHOBPeMeHHOM eXerOAHOM nepeBOAe (H0 M O ~ H O C T M burning simultaneously and every year (as to their
50% Ma3YTHbIX M 50% Y T O ~ ~ H KOTenbHbIX ~IX) Ha capacity - 50% of fuel oil boilerhouses and 50% of
~ M O T O ~ ~ M B -2,2
O rOAa. O A H O B P ~ M ~3T0
O coal ones), the average period of recoupment is
n0nyY MTb M PRA AOnOnHMTenbHbIX IIOJlOXMTenbHbIX estimated to be 2.2 years. This would result in a
a a ~ ~ o p Bo uenoM
s no o6nac~w: number of complementary positive factors in the
whole Region:
Better environmental situation.

Delivery of unified equipment to boilerhouses

made by Regional enterprises on the basis of
up-to-date Russian and foreign
Reduction in thermal power rates by factors of
1.7-1.9 after return of investment and
expiration of a period of recoupment owing to
reduced fuel consumption for thermal power
generation as well as lesser losses in heating
Creation of new jobs in the Leningrad Region
in connection with:

re-equipment of vehicles for biofuel

collection and removal of wood residue,
unmerchantable wood cutting and chipping,
peat extraction, biofuel delivery to boiler-
manufacture of equipment, spares,
conversion of boilerhouses to biofuel
burning and reconstruction of heating
designing, mounting and adjustment of
equipment in the boilerhouses converted to
biofuel burning and simultaneous
implementation energy-saving measures.
To meet the Regional targets of biofuel use more
rapidly, it would be advisable to set up an
investment-industrial joint venture. This would
allow accumulation of large financial, material and
organizing potential within the frameworks of this
company as well as guaranteeing investment return
and "revolving" use.
Ycmoiiwsoe pa3sumue u ucnonb30sa~ue Sustairzable development and biofiel use as a way towards
o'uomomusa - nymb K peanmayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protoc.ol inzplementation and nlhanc.ed c.orrlyles
n06bllUeHUH)KOMRfleKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306aHUX d p e s e c ~ ~ Ub mop&
l utilizatior~of wood raw rnatrr-id and peat

Prior to the expiration of the period of recoupment

of the boilerhouse reconstruction, the investment
will be returned at the cost of:
P difference in prices for fuel purchasing before
and after the reconstruction;
> the monetary resources obtained from heat
energy consumers. The part of receipts due to
differences in the cost of heat energy supply
before and after the reconstruction is directed to
investment return or "revolving" use.
In conclusion, I want to express my firm belief that
all aspects of this problem will be reflected in the
reports that follow. I am fully confident that this
International Conference on Sustainable
Development and Biofuel Use as a Way towards
Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and Enhanced
Complex Utilization of Wood Raw Material and Fuel Peat
will become a milestone in the convelsion of heat
generating entepises to local fuels not only in the
Leningmd Region but in Russia's North-West as well. It
will allow the development of an energysaving st~ategyin
the regions, will contribute to progress and dynamic
development of the municipal power industry and to the
establishment of the heat energy tariffs, which will be
feasible for domestic budgets of population. The conference
will initiate the creation of international cooperation and
integration in this field, p m i t a significant decrease in
harmful atmosphesic emissions, in the creation of
favourable environmental conditions in the Region and will
contributeto improved ecological environment in the world.
Ycmoiivusoe pcusumue u ucnonb3o~a~ue Sustainable developnzent and biofiel use as a way towards
Guomonnusa - nymb K peantc3ayuu Kuomctzozo npomoKona U the Kyoto protocol inzpletnentatiotz and enhanced contplrx
n06bllUeHUIO KOM~JeKCHOCmMUCnOJlb308~H~ dpe8ecU~blU mop& utilization cf, wood raw rnaterial and peat

M.A. ,@AOB MA. Dedov

Chairman, Committee for Forest-Industrial

Complex of the Government of the Leningrad
Some aspects of wood residue utilization while
solving the problems of complex use of forest
resources in the Leningrad Region

Dear Ladies and Gentlemen!

n03~0nbTeBbIpa3MTb npM3HaTenbHOCTb MHHqHaTOpaM M Allow me to express my thanks to the sponsors and

o p r a ~ m a ~ o p a~ ~o ~ a e p e ~ q 3a
n a npeAocTaaneHHym organizers of the Conference for the opportunity to
BO3MOXHOCTb YWCTBOBaTb B 3TOM MePOllPMRTliIM7 take part in this event, which will be an important
KoTopoe nsaTcR ~ a x ~ osexofi f i B npoqecce opra~maqwa milestone in the process of implementation of the
KOMnneKCHOrO MCllOnb30BaHMH ApeBeCMHbI H TOP@^. comprehensive use of wood and peat.
In the first part of my paper I would like to dwell
very briefly on characterisation of the Forestry
Complex of the Leningrad Region.
Ha TeppMTOpkiH 06nac-TM @ ~ H K L [ R O H W P ~ O ~KT OnO 200 There are about 200 large- and middle-size logging
KPYnHblX M CpeAHMX neCO3arOTOBMTenbHbIX M and woodworking enterprises on the territory of the
~epeaoo6pa6a~b1saro~q~x n p e ~ n p u ~ ~B~ iTOM i , wcne Leningrad Region including those for chemico-
npeanpMHTMII: no X M M M K O - M ~ X ~ H M Z ~ ~ CnKeOp~e~p a 6 0 ~ ~ e mechanical processing of wood. The majority of
ApeBeCMHbI. Hau6onbruee KOnMWCTBO npenlIpM~Tlifi them are dealing with logging. These are as a rule
~ ~ H H T O B caepe n e c o 3 a r o ~ o ~ ~ kKi . ~ Knpamno TO small structures (as to the number of staff) which
~e6onbrukfe (AO 100 q e n o s e ~ ) no wcneHHocTw perform seasonal logging works. Upon
CTPYKTyPbl, ocyqec~snam~ipie C ~ ~ O bIe
H H disintegration of the logging industry that was going
neCO3arOTOBMTenbHbIe pa60~b1. n0cne PaCnaAa on most actively in the nineties, many small logging
~ ~ C O ~ ~ ~ O T O B MOTpaCnM, T ~ ~ ~ H KOTOpaH O ~ ~ ~a~6onee structures and teams have appeared in the Region.
aKTMBH0 npOMCXOAMna B HaYaJle 90-X rOAOB, B O ~ ~ ~ C T M They have been formed on a territorial basis and
nOHBMnOCb MHOrO MenKMX 3aTOTOBMTenbHbIX CTPYKTYP, have affected the regional economy in no way. Over
6 p ~ r aKOTOPbIe
~, @ O P M M P O B ~ J I H C no
~ TeppMTOpMaJIbHOMy time, and especially once a long lease of forest
npM3HaKy M He OKa3bIBaJIH KaKOrO n ~ 6 0Cepbe3HOrO blocks has been legitimated, larger structures
BnMHHHH Ha 3KOHOMHKy o 6 n a c ~ C ~ .TeqeHMeM BpeMeHM M equipped with machinery and appliances were
O C O ~ ~ H H nocne
O Toro KaK 6b1na y 3 a ~ o ~ enepenara ~a coming into being. They were working on a firm
yracTKoB necHoro + o ~ ~B Aonrocpowym a apeeAy, B basis and making not only periodic harvesting but
o 6 n a c ~CTaflM
~ CO3AaBaTbCH 6onee KpynHbIe, TeXHMYeCKM also a whole complex of works in connection with
OCHaqeHHbIe CTPYKTYPbI, pa60~aloqkie Ha ~ ~ O C T O ~ I H H O ~ ~ reforestation, construction of haulage and hay roads
OCHOBe M OCYU&2CTBJIRfOqMe He TOnbKO Ce30HHYm as well as transporting timber and more frequently
3arOTOBKy, H 0 M BeAyil(Me BeCb KOMnneKC p a 6 o ~no processing the harvested wood.
M ~ ~ C O X O ~ H ~ C T B ~ H AOPOr,
~ p a ~ c n o p ~ ~ bn re ep e s o 3 ~ ~M Bce 6onee r a q e
n e p e p a 6 a ~ b l ~ a m sqa~reo ~ o s n e ~ ~ApeBecmy.
Ycmoikusoe pa3sumue u ucnonb3osa~ue Sustaitzable developpnzent and Diofiel use as a way rowcrrd.~
Guomomusa - nymb K peantwayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol irrzpler~~entatiorl
and erd~arlcmicwnrp1c.s
n06blUleHUH)KOMflWKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306UHUII dpe6ecu~blU mop& utilization ofnwod raw material and peat

YXe B 1999 rOAy Ha TePPMTOPHM 06na~~1.1 6b1no In 1999 alone, the felling volume on the territory of
s a r o ~ o s n e ~ApeBecmbI
o 6onee qeM 1990 roAy. 0 6 ~ e ~ the Region was as much as 6 million 730 thousand
3aTOTOBKM COCTaBMn 6 ~nH.730TbIC. K Y ~ . M ~ T PBOMB ~. C T ~ cubic meters, which is more than in 1990. At the
C TeM, CJIeAyeT OTMeTMTb, YTO pe3epBbI MMeI-OTCR,TaK KaK same time, it should be noted that certain reserves
~ HOPMaM eXCero~Hb1fi are available because an annual felling that is
o 6 ~ nOnb30BaHMX
e ~ COCTaBJIXeT 12.3 MnH. ~ y 6MeTPOB.
. allowable according to the forestry regulations in
force is equal to 12.3 million cubic meters.
The mechanical processing of wood is progsessing
rather intensively in the Region. During the year
2000 regional enterprises have processed more than
600 thousand cubic meters of sawlog. Besides
private small-sized rural stock gangs were estimated
to process about 200 thousand cubic meters of
sawlog in the last year. However, the products these
enterprises manufactured were of poor quality.

The Pulp and Paper Industry exhibits the most

dynamic development. It is represented by ten mills
of varying capacity which manufacture different
ranges of products. The Pulp and Paper Industry is
the leading industry of the Forest-Industrial
Complex not only in the Leningrad Region but also
in Russia.
In 2000 the contribution of pulp output of the
Leningrad Region to the whole output of pulp in
Russia was 9% and as to a share of regional output
of paper and board, it was 10.3%.
A o ~ ~ ~ ~ p y mnonoxewie
qee B oTpacnM npononxaer One of the largest pulp and paper mills in Russia,
3aHMMaTb OAHO M 3 KpynHefiLUMx ~ e n n k O n 0 3 ~ 0 - 6 y ~ a X ~ b l ~the OAO Svetogorsk Mill, continues to be a leader
n p e ~ n p a a ~ ~ fPocc~w
i - OAO " C ~ e ~ o r o p c ~ " , of the industry. Its share in regional pulp, paper and
n p o u 3 ~ 0 ~ 1 ~76%
e e uennmnom, 60% 6 y ~ a rM ~23% board output comprises respectively 76%, 60% and
KapToHa J I e ~ ~ ~ r p a ~o c6 ~
n ao ci ~i ~ . 23%.
The significant growth in output at the level of 60%
was achieved at the Saint Petersburg Board and
Polygraphic Mill, the largest in the North-Western
Region board mill. Output of products at the OAO
Syassky Pulp and Paper Mill and the Vyborgskaya
Cellulose Mill continues to grow. The ZAO Assi
Doman Packaging increased 2.3 times its output of

According to the available data, in a pesiod from

1998 till 2000 there was a growth in output of pulp
by 71.1%, paper by 51.5% and board 2.5 times at
enterprises of the Leningrad Region. Three
enterprises in the Region process pulpwood. Their
total capacity is above 2 million cubic meters.
Ycrnoiiwsoe pmsumue u ucnonbsosa~ue Sustainable development and biofiel use as a way towards
Guomonnusa - nymb K peanzuayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced cotnplrx
nOBblUlt?HUIOKOMnJleKCHOCmU UCnOnb306UHUII d p e e e ~ ~ U~mop&l
bl utilization of wood raw material and peat

According to 2000 statistics, enterprises of the

regional Forest-Industrial Complex occupy the
second place as to their total output of products
ranking only below the Fuel Industry. They
manufactured the products to the amount of 12.7
billion rubles, which is equal to 23% of the total
industrial output of the Leningrad Region (in terms
of value). The Forest-Industrial Complex occupies
also the second place as to growth rates of volume
of production (12.4% in 2000 compared to 1999)
ranking below the Food Industry whose growth was
due to putting into operation new enterprises.
Large- and middle-size enterprises provided the
prevailing share of the output growth where it was
as high as 23.2%.
In the current year the growth rates of volume of
production are also within 23% as compared to a
similar period last year.
Despite this optimistic picture on the whole, one
cannot but say about the intricate economic
situation arisen by the end of the last year at logging
and woodworlung enterprises. The whole complex
of unfavourable factors such as:

P increased railway tariffs;

> increased cost of electric power, combustible
materials and lubricants;
> stumpage excited in the Region by federal

P OqeHb nnoxoe COOTHOLLIeHMe EBPO-nonnap; very bad EuroIDollar relationship;

customs duties, etc;.
npmenu ~ H ~ Y M T ~ ~ ~ rpynny
H Y W n p e ~ n p m ~ ~ Kf i caused the fact that a large group of enterprises was
npeAKPM3MCHOMy COCTOHHMW. brought into a pre-crisis.
Mepbr IlpeAnpMHMMaeMbIe MeHeAXMeHTOM n p e ~ n p c l ~ ~ ~ f i The measures taken by management of the
B nepBytO oqepeab HanpaBnem Ha coKpaueHMe enterprise are primarily directed towards reduction
C ~ ~ ~ C T O M M O CnpOAyK4MM
TM M 6e3 COMHeHMR Ha IlOnHOe, in product cost and undoubtedly towards complete
100% MCnOnb30BaHMe M peaJlM3auMW He TOnbKO B C ~ G 100% use and sale of not only finished products but
~ H 0 TaKXe M OTXOAOB HPOM3BOACTBa. also industrial waste. In strict market economy
XeCTKMX YCJlOBMHX PbIHOYHblX OTHOUI~HME conditions, it is not enough to talk about
H Y X H O He TOnbKO AYMaTb M rOBOPMTb 0 KOMnneKCHOM comprehensive use of forest resources, one must
MCnOnb30BaHMM neCHblX PeCypCOB, H 0 M Ha Acne also act.
Ycmoijrlu60epassumue u ucnonb306a~ue Sustainable developnzent and biofuel use as a way towards
6uomonnusa - nymb K peanu3ayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol irnplernentationand enhanced complex
n06bllUeHUK)KOMnJleKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306aHUX dpe6ecU~blU mop& utilization of wood raw material andpeat

While operating with the concept of complex use of

forest resources and touching upon only one of its
aspects such as utilization of wood residue, one
must be aware that Russia's Power Complex is an
integral part of the global power market.

Russia occupies one of the leading positions in the

world in exports of petroleum and petroleum
products as well as taking the first place in inter-
state trade by pipeline natural gas. The promising
global energy situation on the whole gives every
reason to forecast a maintaining as a minimum or
most likely a rise in export demand for Russia's
energy resources while taking into account Russia's
entering the energy markets of the Atlantic and
Pacific Region. Petroleum and natural gas will
continue to be the basic exported energy resources.
The world energy market will most probably take
the path where demand for the Russian energy
resources will increase.

B CooTBeTCTBMM CO <<C~pa~erMefi pa3BHTMR T ~ K U N e ~ ~ p a In accordance with "The Strategy of Evolution of

C ~ p a ~ e r m e c ~p a 3xp a 6 0 ~ 0 ~B , UenRx A H B ~ ~ C M @ M K ~ ~ I . I M the Heat-and-Power Complex" drawn up by the
CTPYKTyPbl TOnJIMBHO-3HepreTMW3CKOrO Gana~ca, Center of Strategic Developments, for
0 6 e c n e s e ~ a ~ 6e30nac~oc~a H ~CTO~~=IHBOCTR diversification of a structure of heat-and-power
~ H ~ ~ ~ o c H ~ ~ x ~ HH M ~ OR~ X O A H M O JlMKBMAHpOBaTb balance and provision of a high degree of safety and
aMcnponopr_ruti Memy qeHam Ha pasn~raare stability in power supply, it is necessary to remove
3HePrOHOCMTeJlM M npMBeCTM MX B COOTBeTCTBMe C the disproportion between prices for different
no~pe6w~enbcKMM~ $ @ ~ K T O M OT MX UCnOnb30BaHMR energy resources and to bring them into agreement
( ~ w r m r axonormecmie
~ T~~~OB~C H OHOHT)H. O U ~ H ~ ? with ~ a consumer effect due to their use (including
yrOnb-ra3-Ma3yT Ha BHYTPeHHeM PbIHKe CTPaHbI B environmental requirements). Presently the "coal -
HacToxuee s p e m B nepecreTe Ha ycnomoe Tonnmo - gas - fuel oil" relationship is l:O.6: 1.5 (on a fuel
1:0.6:1.5. B nepMOA 2000-2006 rOAOB COOTHOWeHMe equivalent basis) on the domestic market. It is
senecoo6pa3~0AosecTM no 1-1.2-1.5, a B nocneAcTBm: advisable to bring this relationship to 1:1.2: 1.5 in a
1-1.6-1.7. 3 ~ 03HaYaeT
0 OAHO ~ ~ b ~ e h L I M POC fTi UeH Ha period from 2000 till 2006 and then - to 1:1.6:1.7.
3HePTMk0, TOHnMBO, rCM. M KaK CneACTBMe ~OBbIUeHMe This means that further growth in prices for energy,
~X fuel, combustible materials and lubricants and as a
s a r p a ~u s a ~ p aHa~ npuo6pe~ae~b1e ycnyru, B nepBym result rise in production costs at an enterprise and in
OYepeAb, TpaHCnOpTHble. costs for the purchased services such as
transportation will first of all take place.
I paid much attention to the situation in connection
with such energy resources as fossil fuel because I
would like to draw your attention to the available
alternative. This alternative is local renewable fuel
such as wood and peat.
Ycnzoiivusoe passumue U ucnonb3osa~ue Sustainable development and biofiel use as a way towards
o'zromonnu6a - nyntb K peanusayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u tfw Kyoto protocol implementation and e~zhancedcompk?x
nO6blU4eHUK)KOAiErfeKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306aHUFt& X ? ~ ~ C U H U~ Zmop& utilizatiotz of wood raw material atzd peat

~ O C K O ~ ~ RK YnpeAcTasnrrm n n K , 6 y ~ y~ O B O P M T ~o Because I am a representative of the Forest

ApeBeCMHe. K ~ ynOMMHa.JIOCb
K PaHee B ~ ~ H M H T ~ ~ A c K o ~Industrial
~ Complex I'll talk about wood. As
o 6 n a c ~ exeroAHa2
~ pacyeTHaR necoceKa cocTasnxeT mentioned above, an annual cut in the Leningrad
npMMepH0 12,3 MMnnMOHa K Y ~ O M ~ T k13 B . 06'be~a
P O3TOT0 Region is as much as 12.3 million cubic meters.
pacqeTHaR necoceKa no ocme, KoTopax npaKTwrecKM He More than 500 thousand cubic meters of this
HaXOAMT ~ 6 b 1 ~ a COCTaBJIReT
, 6onee 500 TbICRY volume fall on aspen which finds little or no sale.
K ~ ~ O M ~ T P BO BrOA. B CBR3M C OTCYTCTBMeM CnpOCa Ha Because of the lack of demand for aspen raw
OCMHOBOe Cblpbe B P O C C M ~ ~ C@enepaqMM KO~~ M, B material in the Russian Federation and in the
qaCTHOCTM, B neHMHTpaflcK0fi o 6 n a c ~ ~O ,H 0 OCTaeTCR Leningrad Region in particular, it remains
H ~ B O C T ~ ~ ~ O B ~ HM H ee 06~3aTenb~a5l3arOTOBKa Ha
~ I M unclaimed and compulsory logging of aspen yields
C ~ ~ O A H F I W H AeHb
M~~ HPMHOCMT Y ~ ~ I T Kn M o ~. p e 6 n e ~ ~ e losses to date. Consumption of 42 thousand cubic
OB CbIpbSI meters of aspen raw material per year by the
B roA M ~ e 3 ~ a ~ ~ e nn ob~ ~ p eo 6en e ~ee~ HaceneHweM
e B Syassky Pulp and Paper Mill and its minor
KaYeCTBe ApOB o61.4efi KaPTMHbI He MeHRfOT. consumption as firewood by population do not
change the general picture.
Hap~fly C YKa3aHHblM O ~ L ~ M O MOCMHOBOTO CblpbH, Along with the volume of aspen raw material
o6nac~b PaCnOJlaraeT 10 MMnnMOHaMM K Y ~ O M ~ T P O B mentioned above, the Region has 10 million cubic
cep0fi M ~epH0fiOnbXM, T.e. He MeHee 400 TbICR9aMM meters of speckled and black alder, i.e. no less than
K Y ~ O M ~ T P O BB rOA, OKOnO 1.1 MMnnMOHa K Y ~ O M ~ T P O B 400 thousand cubic meters a year, about 1.l million
H M ~ K O C O P T H O ~ApeBeCMHbI
~ OT 3arOTOBOK 6epe3b1 M cubic meters of low-grade wood as resulted from
X B O ~ ~ H ~nopo&
IX OT P Y ~ O KYXOAa M pas6opa rOpenbHMKOB birch and coniferous tree harvesting, from cleaning
M BeTpoBanoB, a T a w e npM p a c ~ e ~ ~necoceKe oii B 12.3 cuttings and sorting out of scorched forests and
MMnnMOHa K Y ~ O M ~ T P OBB TOA - He MeHee 4 MMnnMOHaMM windblown trees as well as no less than 4 million
K Y ~ O M ~ T P OKPOHbl,
B KOPbl M )JpeBeCMHbI n ~ e f Mi KopHefi. cubic meters of crown, bark and wood of stumps
RPM Y K ~ ~ ~ H H OpaHee M o6-be~eneconMneHm O T X O A ~ I and roots, considering that annual cut is 12.3
COCTaBJlRFOT He MeHee 300 TblCRq K Y ~ O M ~ T CmAa P O B . He million cubic meters. While having the volume of
BXOART 06-be~bl ApeBeCMHbl OT P Y ~ O K YXOAa B lumbering indicated above, lumber waste is as
MonoAHRKax, a T a m e ApeBecMHa c nonoc OTYyxAeHm much as 300 thousand cubic meters. This figure
Aopor, n ~ ~ s ~n e f~ ~i p o n e p e ~ raar 3, o n p o ~ o ~ oC~ m
. ~a does not include the volume of wood of young
T a m e He BXOART 0 6 L e ~ b 1IlepMOflMYeCKM H ~ ~ H K B M A H O ~ ~ growth tending as well as wood from leave strips
ApeBecMHbr, T.e. ~ o f i ,KoTopacl s a r o ~ a ~ n ~ s Ba eqemx ~c~ near roads, power lines, gas pipelines. Volumes of
3KCnOpTa, H 0 H e B O C T ~ ~ ~ O~ B~ ~P HY ~ ~ X H PbIHKaMM.
~ I M M periodically unmarketable wood which was
harvested for export but unclaimed by foreign
markets is not incorporated into this figure either.
Thus, the total annual volume of wood residue and
low-liquid and non-liquid wood that the Leningrad
Region could have at its disposal approximates 6
million cubic meters.

O A H ~ KCneAyeT
O MMeTb B BMA)', 9 T O PeUIbHO A O C T Y ~ H ~ I ~ ~ However, it is well to bear in mind that the volume
AnR MCnOJlb30BaHMR 0 6 - b e ~ ApeBeCHblX OTXOAOB, of wood residue, low-liquid and non-liquid wood
O~~ M H ~ ~ M K B M ApeBeCMHbl
~ H O ~ ~ that could be available is more limited because the
MeHbUle, IlOCKOnbKy PaCYeTHaR neCOCeKa OCBaMBaeTCR He annual cut is not fully mastered. About 250
IlOnHOCTbW, OKOnO 250 TbICRY K Y ~ O M ~ T P O BKOPbl C thousand cubic meters of bark from the raw
Ilepepa6a~blBaeM0r0 CblPbR MMemT B03MOXHOCTb material to be processed can be utilized by the mills
YTMnM3HPOBaTb CaMM UGK, 0npe~eneHHblfio 6 a e ~KOPbl themselves, a certain volume of bark is exported
YXOflMT C ~peBecMH0fiHa 3KCnOpT, YaCTb J I ~ C O ~ ~ ~ O ~ H together ~ I X with wood. There is no way to transport a
OCTaTKOB HeB03MOXHO BblBe3TM C AeJlRHOK M3-3a portion of felling waste from logging blocks
OTCYTCTBMR ~ p e 6 y e ~ b M r xaWMH M MeXaHM3MOB, KaKMe-TO because of the lack of machines and mechanisms
06-be~b1 n e c o p y 6 0 ~ ~ bOCTaTKOB
lx ~ 0 0 6 w eHenb3H required and certain volumes of felling waste
Ycmofiw~oepa3sumue u ucnonb3o~a~ue Sustainable development and biojkel use as a way towards
6uomomusa - nymb ~peanu3ayuuKuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
nOGbllUeHU/O KOMWleKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306aHUII dpe8ecuHbl U mop&l utilization of wood raw material and peat

cannot be removed at all from the logging blocks

for forestry reasons as every forest is fertilized by
noTpe614Tenb OCUHbI - C I I C ~ C K QEK
M ~a yXe YnOMLlHWl- The Syassky Pulp and Paper Mill, a consumer of
3T0 42 TbICRYI? K Y ~ O M ~ T P OOCMHbI
B B rOA. B IIepCneKTMBe aspen wood, uses 42 thousand cubic meters of
HaMeYaIoTCR K nyCKy yXe nOCTpOeHHbIe MOuHOCTkI - aspen raw material a year. Two mills which have
3aBOA no nPOM3BOACTBY nnkIT MA@ OAO just been constructed are scheduled for putting into
~ I ~ C ~ ~ M T M(no~pe6neHkie
H B ~ C T Dno400 m c a r ~3 B roa), operation. They are as follows: OAO Lesplitinvest,
3aBOA no llPOkI3BOACTBY APeBeCHO-CTPYXerHbIX nnHT a medium-density fiberboard mill (raw material
3 A 0 < < P a c c ~ e( ~n >
o~> p e 6 n e ~ anoe 2 10 T ~ I C I I Y~3 OCMHM B consumption up to 400 thousand m' a year); ZAO
wl), a Tame PaCCMaTPMBaIOTCR B03MOXHOCTM Rassvet, a particle board mill (raw material
CTpOMTenbCTBa HOBbIX M O ~ H O C T ~-~ 3 a ~ 0 ~ no a consumption - 450 thousand m' of aspen wood a
~ P O M ~ B O A C T B Y 6ene~oii uennmno3b1 Ha OAO year). If these mills reach a design output, the
< < C B ~ T O ~ O( n~oC~Kp > e 6>n e ~ a450
e TbIC. M3 OCBHbI B ~ o A ) . unclaimed volume of wood will be reduced but not,
Ecnw 3TM nPOM3BOACTBa ~ Y A Y TnOCTpOeHb1 I3 Bb16nyT Ha however, in full measure. In the case of proper
nJIaHMpyeMyl0 MOUHOCTb, H ~ B O C T ~ ~ ~ O B 0~ 6H aHe ~~ I ~ financing of cleaning cuttings in middle-aged and
ApeBeCkiHbI 6 y ~ eCOKpaueH, ~ HO, TeM He MeHee, ripening stands for reaching maximum economic
~ e ~ o c ~ p e 6nonHocTbmo~a~ a B cnyrae HaAnemauero and environmental effects while performing
@ U H ~ H C M P O B ~ H MPRY ~ O K yXOAa B CpeAHeBO3paCTHbIX M principal felling operations, the unclaimed volume
npMcnesamuMx necax B uemx nonyYeHMa of wood can rise significantly and the problem of
MaKCAMWlbHOrO 3KOHOMMYeCKOTO M 3KOJIOTMYeCKOrO the complex use of raw material will remain. It
3 @ @ e ~npM ~ a p y 6 ~ a x mamoro nonbso~a~nrr,o 6 a e ~ should be noted that in Sweden the use of low-grade
H ~ B O C T ~ ~ ~ O B ~ ApeBeCMHbI
H H O ~ ~ MOXeT 3HaYMTeJIbHO wood of cleaning cutting in boiler-houses is a
yBenHWiTbCR M n p o 6 n e ~ aKOMnJleKCHOrO MCnOnb3OBaHMR source for financing these cuttings.
H M ~ K O T O B ~ P H O ApeBeCkiHbI
~~ OT p y 6 o ~ yXOAa Ha
p y 6 0 ~yxona.
Apesecw~a OTHOCMTCR K H M ~ K O K W ~ O P M ~ ~BHMA ~ aIM
M Wood is a low-calorie fuel. Effective heat content
Tonnma. ~ ~ ~ ~ K T MTennoconepmaHue
B H O ~ ApeeecwHbI of wood of natural moisture is 8.5 GJ/t or 2.4
H O ~ ~ - 8.5 ~ & K /M
TnM 2.4 M B T ~ T . MWhIt. If we have 6 million cubic meters of wood
O ~ H ~eCnMK O BCe-TaKM B3RTb 6 MMnnMOHOB K Y ~ O M ~ T P O B ,this is equal to 4,800,000 tons of wood of natural
TO 3T0 4,800 000 TOHH ApeBeCMHbI ~ C T ~ C T B ~ H H O ~ ~moisture. This amount of wood is sufficient for a
BnaXHOCTM. T a ~ o r oKOnMYeCTBa ApeBeCMHbI AOCTaTOYHO boilerhouse of capacity 1315 MW with a direct
AJIH 0 6 e c n e s e ~ ~TOnnMBOM
n ~0TeJlbH0fi C llpOueCCOM burning process to be provided with fuel. This
HpRMOrO CXMraHMR MOuHOCTbm 1315 MBT. 4800 000 amount of wood is approximately the equivalent of
TOHH ApeBeCMHbl - 3TO nPMMePHO 1,5 MnH. TOHH YIlTIR M nM 1.5 million tons of coal or 1 million tons of fuel oil.
1 MnH TOHH Ma3yTa. XOYy nOAYepKHyTb, YTO 3T0 I want to emphasize that this is a potential.
Prospects for the use of wood residue in the heat-
and-power industry of the Leningrad Region are
very high. Realization of a programme for their
sound use is determined by a number of factors. As
to ecology, here this means reducing greenhouse
gas and particulate emissions, solution of the
problem of wood residue utilization. In the
economic and social sectors, this suggests the
following: decreased financial appropriations for
purchasing traditional energy carriers, maintenance
of budgetary funds within the Region, higher
Yctnoiiwsoe pa3sumue u ucnonbsosa~ue Sustainable development and biqfiel use as a way towards
6uomonnusa - nymb K peanu3ayuu I(uomc~ozonpomortona u the Kyoto protocol it?zplenzentatiunand enharzcud c o q ~ l e x
Ko.mneKcHocmu U C ~ O ~ ~ ~ O B dpetzecu~bl
~ H U I Z U mop$a utilization of wood raw rnaterial and peat

nOBbIUleHMe YPOBHR 3aHHTOCTM, CO3AaHMe HOBbIX employment level, creation of new jobs and
p a 6 o ~ ~ x MecT M yBenmeme n o ~ y n a ~ e n a ~ o f i increase in buying power of population, higher
C ~ O C O ~ H O C T M HaCeneHRH, B03MOXHOCTM OCBOeHMII potential for mastering of new products in the
BblnyCKa HOBbIX BMAOB nPOAYKuMM B MaUIMHOCTPOeHkiM, machine industry, expansion of existing enterprises
PaCuIMpeHMe MMeIOuMXCH M CTpOMTenbCTBO HOBbIX and construction of new ones such as greenhouse
nPOM3BOACTB, TaKMX KaK IlapHMKOBbIe X O ~ R ~ ~ C Tl.I B ~ and drying systems at sawmills, rise in an export
~ IlpeAnpMHTkiIIX, potential of the Forest-Industrial Complex, creation
IlOBbIUleHMeM 3KCnOPTHOTO nOTeHuMaA nnK, CO3AaHMe of the conditions which would allow to eliminate
ycn0~Mfi AJIH MCMIOYeHMH Ce30HHOCTM p a 6 0 ~B JIeCy, seasonal work in forests, higher productivity and
nOBbl WeHMIO nPOAYKTMBHOCTM M KaSeCTBa neCOB, quality of forests, creation of facilities for electric
IlOBbILUeHMiO ~ ~ H T ~ ~ W ~ H~ ~OCCO TX M O ~ R ~ ~ C T B M~ H H O ~power
~ generation at the sites which are suitable for
J ~ ~ c o ~ ~ o M ~ I U ~AeHTeJlbHOCTM,
J I ~ H H O ~ ~ C03AaHMK) O ~ % ~ K T O B location of production capacities, weaker
npo~3~om ~ ce ~~ ~~ ap o s ~ Be MecTax,
p r ~ ~ YAO~H~IX dependence of a demand level on the foreign
p a 3 ~ e t q e ~ ~ nPOM3BOACTBeHHblX
~ MOUJHOCT~~~, market of certain forest-based products.
o c n a 6 n e ~ ~3aB
onpeAeneHHbrx BMAOB neconponyKuMM.
Wood fuel is not a competitor to such traditional
energy sources as for example coal. If the Kyoto
Protocol mechanism is put into effect a system of
trade in quotas will be introduced. In this case
development of the large Russia' S coal-based power
industry will require buying quotas and the small
power industry based on wood residue will be able
to help significantly in this matter. It is no
coincidence that a concept of "concerted
implementation" exists in connection with the
Kyoto Protocol, that is, when a developed country
wishes to earn the quotas it can carry out
environmentally safe energy projects in other
countries and it takes the quotas caused by
operation of the installations built in the course of
implementation of these projects. This mechanism
is not yet worked through but it should be kept in
E C TAM~ nPMMePbl UlMPOKOrO MCnOJlb30BaHMH ApeBeCHbIX Are there any examples of wide use of wood
OTXOAOB B KOMMyHUIbHOM X O ~ R ~ ~ C T B M~ residue in municipal facilities and in industry? Yes,
~ ~ O M ~ I U ~ J ~ ~Aa. HHO TOC TU MB ?~ ~ M- HH ~ C O M H ~ H H ~ I ~ ~there are. This is Sweden which is undoubtedly a
JlMAep B MCnOnb30BaHMM ~ W O T O ~ ~ M LBU~B. ~ A C K ~ H leader in the use of biofuel. The Swedish energy
3 ~ e p r e ~ ~ M~ 3e ~co~n ao ~r ~ r e cnonMTMKa
~a~ HanpaBneHa and environmental policy is directed towards
Ha CO3,QaHMe ycJl0~MfiAJlH ~ @ @ ~ K T M B H O TMCnOnb30BaHMH
O creation of conditions for the efficient use of
3~epni1.1, yAemeBneHMe ee C ~ ~ ~ C T O M M O C T MnpM energy, reduction in its cost along with decrease in
OAHOBpeMeHHOM COKpaueHMM ~ e 6 J I a r o n p ~ H ~ ~ b l x unfavorable environmental impacts. In 1997 in
M ~ ~ CpeAy. B 1997 rOAy B Sweden a complex energy program has been
~ B ~ U M HaYUIOCb
M OCyueCTBneHMe K O M I - I J ~ ~ K C H O ~ ~ initiated. It was oriented to development of
nPOrpaMMb1 B O ~ J - I ~ C T M3~epreTMYec~ofinOJlMTMKM, processes based on biofuel. As early as 1991, a part
KOTOpaH OpMeHTMpOBaHa Ha pa3BMTMe T ~ X H O ~ O H~a M ~ ~ of usual taxes has been changed in the country by a
OCHOBe ~ M O T O ~Ewe ~ M BB 1991
~ . rOAy B CTPaHe YaCTb tax on carbon dioxide emissions and, for the use of
~ ~I JXI O ~ O 6b1na
O ~ ~ I Y H H B 3 a ~ e ~ He ~~ ~a O ~HaO ~b16pocb1
M certain fuels, a tax on sulphur emissions has also
ABYOKMCM YmepOAa, a 3a COOTBeTCTBytO~Me BMAbl been imposed. More recently, a tax on emissions of
TOnJlMBa 6b1n BBeAeH HaJIOr <<3a B ~ ~ ~ P OCepbl>>. C nitrogen oxides has also been imposed.
H ~ C K O ~nO3AHee ~ K O 6b1n BBeAeH HUIOr Ha B ~ I ~ P O C
o ~ ~ c ea3o~a.
Ycmoikusoe pmsumue u ucnonb3osa~ue Sustainable developnzerzt atzd biojuel use as a way rowanis
Guomonnusa- nymb K peanu3ayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol irrlplernentationatzd enhatzced c.orryde.~
n06bllUeHUK)KOMnJleKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306UHUII dpe6ecuHbl ll m0p&l utilization of wood raw rrzater-ial and peat

B HacToxwee BpeMrr B L U ~ e q m70% ~ e n n o ~ o3~ep1-MM fi Presently 70% of heat energy is being generated in
Bb1pa6a~b1Bae~CR TennOCTaH~MRMM Ha ApeBeCHbIX Sweden by thermal power stations which operate
oTxoAax. B HaceneHHoM nyHKTe H o p p ~ e n a ~p ra 6 o ~ a e ~ with wood residue. There is a boilerhouse of 375
KOTenbHaR MOuHOCTbIO 375 MeraBaTT, MX KOTOPbIX 250 MW power in the settlement of Norrcheping, with
Bb1pa6aTbl~aeT~R M 3 ApeBeCHOrO TOnnMBa, B TOM YMCne M 3 250 MW being generated on the basis of wood fuel
CTPOMTenbHbIX H ~ ~ I T O B ~ApeBeCHblX ~ X OTXOAOB including construction and domestic wood waste of
~ B ~ o I I ~ ~ ~ c KCTpaH.
M x 3 ~ 0 ,KOHeYHO, OYeHb 60nb~uoe European countries. Of course, this is a very large
X O ~ X ~ ~ COTABH OO . B ~ ~ MHa~ HCKnaAaX
HO 3 ~ 0 f iK~TenbH~fi facility. Up to 180 thousand cubic meters of wood
6b1BaeT A 0 180 TbICR9 K Y ~ O M B T P O B B BMAe KpyrnOrO neCa raw material such as round wood and chips can be
M qenbI. stores simultaneously at storehouses of this
The boilerhouse which operates in the settlement of
Jonchoping has the capacity 80 MW as to heat
energy and 20 MW as to electric energy.

In December 2000 the heat-and-power plant has

been put into operation in the town of Eskilstuna.
Its total capacity is equal to 137.8 MW including
37.8 MW of electric energy and 100 MW of heat
energy. Its electric generator is unique; it generates
voltage 136 kV.
There are hundreds of boilerhouses in the country
which operate with chips from logging residue and
lumber waste as well as with bark and wood pellets.
What is available in the Leningrad Region?
B C nOMOubF0 CTEM nOCTaBneHb1 KOTenbHbIe B JIMCMHO- With the assistance of CTEM, boilerhouses are
Kopnyce M K ~ ~ C H 60py O M T O C H ~ H C Kpa60Ha. O~O B installed in Lisino-Corpus and in Krasny Bor of the
Tkixsu~e OCy~eCTBJIReTCH ronnaH~CKM6 npOeKT no Tosnensky District. A Dutch project is being can-ied
YCTaHOBKe KoTenbHofi An2 XKX, H 0 KOTenbHaR 6 y ~ e ~ out in Tikhvin; here a boilerhouse for public
O ~ C ~ ~ X H B ~ T nPOMb1lllneHHbIM
~ C H npeanpMRTMeM. B utilities is being installed. However, it will be
nocenKe I I e ~ p o ~ c ~ o el l p ~ o 3 e p c ~ o r o p a 6 o ~ a serviced by an industrial enterprise. A number of
OCy~eCTBnReTCR A ~ T C K M ~npOeKT ~ no YCTaHOBKe regional enterprises of the Forest-Industrial
KoTenbHofi. Ha pRAe IlpeflnpMR~MfiJIHK o 6 n a c ~T ~a m e Complex also have the boilerhouses, which operate
MMetOTCR KOTenbHble, p a 6 o ~ a m ~ H ~ae ApeBeCHbIX with wood residue (chips). These are the
oTxoAax (uene): POLIJMHCKM~~ AOM, @MPO-0, hop^ Roschinsky Dom, Firo-0, Nord Timber, the
T M M ~B~O, ~ O C O B C K necxo3,
M ~ ~ ~ ~ M C M H C K Mnecxo3-~ Volosovsky Leskhoz, the Lisinsky Leskhoz-
TeXHMKYM ( ~ ~ O M ~ B O A C T nnO~anKa B ~ H H ~ R B rOpOAe Secondary Technical School (its production site is
T o c ~ o )l.l p ~ o 6 p e n oKoTnoarperaT Ha uene npennpmTMe in the town of Tosno). The Elite1 Les enterprise has
3 n ~ ~ enec. n H p e n n p ~ n ~ l r ea e n a ~ ycTaHosMno TPM puschased a boiler unit. The Delak enterprise has
IlpeATOnKa MHOCTPaHHOrO nPOM3BOACTBa K KOTnaM installed three primary furnaces of foreign
OTeYeCTBeHHOrO npOM3BOACTBa. K o H ~ <~<~n eH~ 0BeAeT >> manufacture for home-made boi less. The Lemo
p a 6 o ~ y no PeKOHCTPYKuMW K O T ~ J I ~ H O B~ ~ HOC. Concern is performing the work on reconstructing
Kpa~~003epHoe lIp~o3epc~o1-op a i i o ~ a M noc. boilerhouses in the settlement of Kranoozesnoe of
~ ~ ~ H ~ K ~ O~ TB~ HO H C K O Tpaiio~a. O E C T ~M APYrMe the Priozersk District and in the settlement of
O ~ L ~ Kpa6oramuue
T~I, Ha 6wo~onnkise. Shpankovo of the Gatchina District. These are other
installations operating with biofuel.
There is a reasonable question - What we must do?
We can replace the energy sources such as coal,
petroleum products and natural gas by biofuel.
Ycmoiivueoe pmsumue u ucnonb3osa~ue Sustainable developtnent and biqhel use as a way towards
6uomonnusa - nymb K peanu3ayuu K U O ~ C K OnpomoKona
ZO u the Kyoto protocol implemenlalion and enhanced conzplex
n06bllUeHUIO KOMnneKCHOCmU UCnO~b306UHUIIdpef3e~UHblU m0p@l utilization of wood raw material and peat

It is known that there are three ways for solving the

problems of the Russian Power Industry: power-
saving, upgrading and reconstruction of the existing
enterprises and construction of new ones.
Power-saving is the subject-matter of another
As to upgrading and reconstruction, on 27 June the
meeting of the Working Group will be held. The
Group members are representatives of Committees
of the Government of the Leningrad Region, of
research and public organizations. The Group will
begin to work out a programme for the
comprehensive use of wood raw material in the
Leningrad Region. The programme will be assumed
to contain also the section "Heat and Electric Power
Generation at Boilerhouses of Regional Public
Utilities and Industrial Enterprises".
%CTMSHO MOXHO PaCCSHTbIBaTb Ha C3KOHOMJIeHHbIe Any upgrading and reconstruction requires funds.
CpeACTBa OT 3aMeHbI TPaMuMOHHbIX 3 ~ e p r 0 ~ 0 ~ H ~ eHa
JIefi One can count partly on the funds saved owing to
uerry. 0cTUIbHYI-O WCTb CpeACTB HaAO MCKaTb B replacing the traditional energy sources by chips.
~ O C C M ~ ~ C K HMX MHOCTPaHHbIX G ~ H K ~3X
KO,nOTMYeCKMX The remainder of funds should be looked for in
@0HflaX,3aMHTepeCOBaHHbIX B TO# AeRTenbHOCTM. Russian and foreign banks, environmental
foundations interested in this activity.
Guarantees given for investors are as follows: the
stable socio-political and economic situation in
Russia and in the Leningrad Region in particular,
the availability of laws of the Russian Federation
and of its subjects, which protect and encourage
investment activities especially where the
environment is concerned.

E. L. Akim
Professor, Head of Department
Saint Petersburg State Technological University of
Plant Polymers, Member of the UN FAO Advisory
Committee on Paper and Wood Products
International and regional aspects of biofuel uses

International and Regional Aspects of Biofuel

Dear Colleagues,
3a nocneAHMe MecHqbl np06ne~b1 mo6anb~oro In the last months, the problems of global climate
M3MeHeHMR KnMMaTa, ~ ~ T M @ M K ~ M~ MBCTynneHMII
M B CMny change, of the Kyoto Protocol ratification and
KMOTCKO~O npoToKona, ~ c n o n b s o ~ a ~ w6 rnro ~ o n n ~ sMa coming into force, of the use of biofuel and other
ApyrMX B O ~ O ~ H O B ~ R ~ M ~MCTOYHMKOB
I X 3HePrMM renewable energy sources (RES) proved to be the
OKa3aSIMCb B UeHTpe BHMMaHMR BCerO MMPOBOrO focus of attention of the world community. These
Sustainable development and biofiel use as a way toward.\
the Kyoto protocol implementation arld enhanced cornples
utilization of wood raw material and year

problems were the points at issue at the European

meetings of George Bush, the President of the
U.S.A., with the Heads of EU countries and with
Vladirnir Putin, the President of the Russian
Late in April of 2001 in Rome, the 42ndSession of
the UN FAO Advisory Committee on Paper and
Wood Products (ACPWP) has taken place. This
Committee is the only UN structure that fulfils
analytical functions in the field of development of
the world's Forestry Complex.

The meeting of the International Forum of Forest

and Paper Associations was held prior to the
ACPWP meeting.
Along with the problems of certification in the
Forestry Complex, the problems of
interdependencies between global climate change,
forestry, forest-based products, and, in particular,
biofuel have been among the key points under
discussion at these meetings.
At this Conference in Saint Petersburg we have an
excellent opportunity to discuss both international
aspects of the problem and the specific steps which
are being taken in the North-Western Federal Area
towards the practical use of biofuel.

E s p o n e g c ~ ~Cf iO K )npmnn
~ perrrewe Y A B O M T ~K 2010 r. The European Union decided to double the use of
M ~ I X 3HePTMM RES for electric power generation and to treble the
AnII npOM3BOACTBa 3JIeKTP03HePTMM M B TPM pa3a use of biofuel by 2010. This can cause significant
yeenMrwn n o ~ p e 6 n e ~ a6uo~onnMsa.
e B pe3ynb~a~e structural changes in wood uses in West Europe,
PeYb MAeT 0 CTOnb CyueCTBeHHOM M3MeHeHMM CTPYKTYPbI which give serious concern to forest-based
MCnOnb30BaHMR ApeBeCMHbI B 3anaAHofi Espone, LIT0 3TO associations. Under these conditions forests of
BbI3bIBaeT Cepbe3HOe ~ ~ C I I O K O ~ C T B O~ c c o ~ M ~ ~ M G ,Russia and, first of all, of its North-West can and
npeAcTasnmaqMx MHTepecbr o~pacneii MHAYCTPMM, must be the focus of attention not only of the
6a3~pyrn1q~xcrrHa MCnOnb30BaHMM ApeBeCMHbI. B 3TMX European Forest Industry but of the whole
ycnoBwrrx m e m o neca POCCMM M, npexAe Bcero, ee European economy as well. The trivial truth that
CeBep0-3ana&3, MOrYT M AOJlXHbI OKa3aTbCH B UeHTpe Russia possesses almost a fourth of the world's
BHMMaHMH He TOJIbKO e ~ p o n e f i c ~ onecH0fi
ii MHAYCTPMM, forest reserves takes on a new meaning and
H 0 M B C ~ G3KOHOMMKM E~ponbl. T ~ M B M ~ J M IC~TH
MH~a,R development of the Russia's Forestry Complex.
YTO B POCCMM COCPeAOTOYeHa YeTBePTb MMPOBblX 3anaCOB especially, of in-depth mechanical and chemical
neca, n p ~ o 6 p e ~ a eHoBoe ~ ~ B Y L I ~ H M ~M , P ~ ~ B M T M ~
wood processing becomes an international rather
poccMtic~oro necHoro KoMnneKca, npexAe Bcero, than a national target.
m y 6 0 ~ 0 f i~ e x a ~ ~ q e c M~ oxM~Mrec~oii
ii nepepa60~~~
ApeBeCMHbI, CTaHOBMTCR He H ~ ~ M o H ~ U I ~ Ha O ~ ~ ,
M ~ X A ~ H ~ ~ O 3AaH~ Oa ~~ ~e i .
Sustainable development and biofitel use as a way towards
the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced conzpleJx
utilization of wood raw rnaterial and peat

International cooperation and global climate change

- the Kyoto Protocol and UN FAO activities.

CXMra~kieOrPOMHbIX KOJIMYeCTB KaMeHHOrO ymX, H ~ @ T H , Burning of huge amounts of coal, petroleum,

ra3a ( ~ . e McKonaeMoro
. ~ o n n ~ s npmoAm
a) K ~b16pocyB natural gas (i.e. of fossil fuels) gives rise to
~ T M O C @ ~ P Y OrPOMHbIX KOnMYeCTB TaK Ha3bIBaeMbIX atmospheric emissions of large amounts of
IIaPHMKOBbIX Ta30B. ~ T MT a b 1 BbI3bIBaIOT M3MeHeHMR so-called greenhouse gases (GHG). These gases
KnMMaTa Ha ~ceifi nnaaeTe, YTO MoxeT npmecm K cause climate change over the whole Planet. The
~IM lTOCneACTBM5IM. B TO Xe latter can lead to irreversible consequences. At the
BpeMR HpM lTpOM3BOACTBe 3HeprMM M 3 ~ M O M ~ C C ~ I same time, when generating energy on the basis of
06pa3y101~~wfic~ npu TOM yrne~ucnbrfira3 He O T H O C ~ R biomass burning, the resulting carbon dioxide is
K IlapHkiKOBbIM Ta3aM, T.K. 6 ~ 0 ~ a c cMa IIPOAyKTbI ee irrelevant to GHG as biomass and products of its
CrOpaHMR PaCCMaTPPiBaIOTCR KaK YaCTb lIpMp0,QHOrO burning are considered to be a part of the natural
K ~ P ~ O H O B O ~qkircna.
M 6110~acca He carbon cycle. In other words, biomass is not
PaCCMaTpMBaeTCR KaK 3MMTTep (HCTOYHUK B b ~ ~ e n e ~ u s ~ ) considered to be a carbon dioxide emitter.
yrneKmnoro rasa.
B n e ~ a 6 p e1997 r. B KPIOTO6b1n HpMHXT ~ ~ O T O K0O ~ In December of 1997 the Protocol on global climate
r n 0 6 a J l b ~ 0 M3MeHeHMH
~ KnMMaTa. B COOTBeTCTBMM C change was signed in Kyoto. According to the
3TMM nPOTOKOnOM nOAnMCaBHIMe er0 CTPaHbI AOJTXHbI Protocol, the signatory countries have to provide
06e~neYkl~b CHMXeHMe no CpaBHeHPiIO C YpOBHeM 1990 r. reductions in atmospheric GHG emissions as
~ 6 1 6 ~ 0B ~~ T0 M~ O C @ ~ napHMKOBbIX
~ Y ra30B. B e n ~ w i ~ a compared to the level of 1990. As far as all
CHWXeHMH anR pa3HbIX CTpaH HpMHRTa pa3JIPIYHofi. industrialized countries are concerned, the Protocol
l l p o ~ o ~ onpeAycMaTpasaeT
n am Bcex ~ ~ ~ B M cTpaH T ~ I X makes provision for them to reduce their GHG
Ha nepaoa c 2008 no 2012 rr. noHMxeHMe B ~ I ~ ~ O C O B emissions by 5.2% on average (as compared to the
ra3OB, O ~ Y C ~ O B ~ M B ~ I O L L ( M X ~ ~ P H M K O B 3@@eKT,
~ I ~ ~ B level of 1990) during 2008-20 12. The reduction
CpenHeM Ha 5,2% (no CpaBHeHMIo C YPOBHeM 1990 F). varies from 8% for the EU Member States and for
Y ~ o B ~ CHMHXe~HMH M3MeHHeTCH C 8% - AnH CTpaH the majority of Central and East European
Esponeiic~oro C 0 ~ 3 a M 6 0 n b r u ~ ~ c T ~ CTpaH
a countries, to 7% - for the U.S.A., 6% - for Japan
UeH~pLlJlb~ofi M B o c ~ o ~ ~Eeponb~;
oii a0 7% - ,QnHC U A , and Canada. The Protocol simultaneously specifies
6% - AnH O OH MM M Ka~aabI.B TO x e BPeMH AJlR POCCMH, the emissions to be kept at the level of 1990 in a
yKpaPI~b1 M HOBO^^ 3ena~aPIM ~~OTOKOA number of countries such as Russia, the Ukraine,
npeayCMaTpMBaeT COXpaHeHMe B ~ I ~ ~ O CHOa YpOBHe B 1990 and New Zealand but for some countries (for
F, a AJIH HeKOTOPblX CTpaH, - HanpMMep, A B C T ~ ~PIM M example, Australia and Iceland) a reservation is
H C ~ ~ H A M-M OrOBapMBaeT B 0 3 M O X H O C T b AaXe even made for potential increase in their GHG
YBeJIMreHMH sb16poco~.B MIoHe 1998 rOAa rOCyAapCTBa- emissions. To achieve the total 8% reduction, in
WIeHbI EC npMllrnM K CornarneHMm 06 O ~ ~ ~ M ~ H M T ~ ~ ~June
H O 1998
M the UN Member States have come to the
AOneBOM HpMHqMne anR AOCTMXeHMH CYMMaPHOrO 8% agreement based on the principle of shared
CHMXeHMR. T ~ K&JIH , H M A ~ ~ J ~ ~ npeAyCMaTpMBaeTCH
HAoB responsibility. For example, the provision is made
CHMXeHMe Ha 6%, rep~aHl4l.rM A a ~ mHa 21%, &?JIbrMM for the reduction by 6% for the Netherlands, by
Ha 75%. 21% - for Germany and Denmark, and by 7.5% -
for Belgium.
Carrying out of the measures against global climate
change, ratification of the Kyoto Protocol are the
subject of protracted multistage talks at the
international level. The new US Administration
took a decision about leaving the Kyoto Protocol.
However, West European countries declared that
the Protocol would be ratified without regard to this
event. In June 2001, in the course of George
Bush's stay in Western Europe, the Kyoto Protocol
Ycmoikusoe pa3sumue u ucnonbsosa~ue Sustainable development and biofiel use as a way towards
6uomonnusa - nymb K peantwayuu Kuornc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
n06blUleHUK)KOMi'lJleKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306aHl.42C)pe@e~UHbl
U m0p&l utilization of wood raw material and peat

challenges were among the most important aspects

of the talks. It was noticed in the course of
Parliament's hearings at the State Duma in
rnid-June of 2001 that the Kyoto Protocol
ratification was the most important global target.
However, doors should be open for possible USA
adherence to this process.

MRpo~b1eneca - s a x s ~ e i i m ~@
i i a ~ ~ npeAoTspaueHm
op World forests play a key role in preventing global
m06a.JIbH0~0A3MeHeHMH KnWMaTa, TaK KaK MMeHHO B HWX climate change as it is they which absorb the main
nOrnOuaeTCR OCHOBHaR YaCTb YmeKMCnOTbI. ~ O ~ T O M Y portion of carbon dioxide. That is why these issues
3TM BOnPOCbI 6bIn1.1 IIpeAMeTOM O ~ C Y W ~ H M I I Ha were discussed at sessions of the UN FAO
3aCeAaHMRX KOHCYJI~T~TMBHO~O KOMMT~T~ @ A 0 OOH H 0 Advisory Committee on Paper and Wood Products
6 y ~ a r Me ApeBeCHbIM np0AyKTaM ( C ~ H - b 0 n 0Ep2i3kinM5I,
, (Sao Paulo, Brazil, April 1999, Rotorua, New
anpenb 1999 r, Po~opya,H O B ~3Re n a ~ ~anpenb ~ x , 2000 r, Zealand, April 2000, Rome, April 2001). At the
PMM, anpenb 2001 . Ha 3TMX 3aCeAaHMHX sessions a number of aspects was considered which
PaCCMaTpMBUICR pHA aCIIeKTOB, HeIIOCpeACTBeHHO have a direct bearing on the Kyoto Protocol
C B I I ~ ~ H H ~ CI Xpemmaqaefi KMOTCKO~O I l p o ~ o ~ o n aB implementation in the Forestry Complex and in the
neCHOM KOMnJIeKCe M, B YaCTHOCTM, B uennton03HO- Pulp and Paper Industry, in particular.
The Confederation of European Paper Industries
(CEPI) issued a special Environmental Report
devoted to Kyoto Protocol implementation in the
pulp and paper sector. In 2000 CEPI coordinated a
joint brochure on climate change entitled "Meeting
the Challenge of Global Climate Change" in which
the American, Canadian, European, Japanese and
New Zealand paper associations set out their views
and messages.

The Pulp and Paper Industry is an energy-intensive

and, simultaneously, energy-efficient industry. The
weight of energy in its cost structure can be as high
as 25% of the manufacturing costs. This was an
invariable major incentive and permanent driving
force to improve energy efficiency. Between 1990
and 1997 specific CO2 emissions from the pulp and
paper production processes decreased by 17%.

One most important energy-saving factor is the

process of heat and power co-generation (CHP).
For example, the combined heat and power plants
operated by pulp and paper mills produced roughly
one third of the total electricity needed for the
papermaking process in 1999. CHP technology has
Ycnzoihsoe pa36umue u ucnonb3osa~ue Sustainable developnzent and biqfuel use as a way towards
o'uonzomu6a - nymb K peanu3ayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol inzpler~tentationand enhanced complex
nomuieHuw KoMmecHocmu ucnonb30sa~u11 d p e ~ e c u ~ Ub lmop$a utilization of wood raw material and peat

allowed savings of some 35% of the energy that

would be used to produce the same amount of
electricity by conventional boilers (an estimated
saving of 9 Mt fossil CO2). This amounts to savings
of about 0.25 kg CO2 per kWh of electricity.

B T O P ~ I M B ~ X H ~ ~ ~ U I M MITyTeM HBnHeTCX POCT The second important factor is the increased use of
MCnOnb30BaHMII ~ M o T o ~ J I M B~ ~~. ~ ~ I ~ J ' I o ~ H o - ~ biofuel. ~ M ~ xTheH ~Pulp
F I and Paper Industry is one of the
OTpaCnb RBnReTCR OAHMM M3 ~ p y l l ~ e f i u ~ ~ x largest producers and consumers of green energy:
n p o ~ 3 ~ o ~ ~ r e n e fMi no~pe6~~enefi3~eprw~, almost 50% of the thermal energy consumed by the
r e ~ e p ~ p y e ~3ao f c.ieT
i 3KcnnyaTaum B O ~ O ~ H O B J - I R ~ M ~ I X industry is based on biofuels whose emissions are
MCTOYHMKOB CblPbR: nOYTM50% n o ~ p e 6 n ~ e ~OTpaCnbK) ofi carbon dioxide neutral.
~ e n n o ~ osf i~ e p r ~6wa 3 u p y e ~ cHa
~ npoqeccax cropaHm
~ M O T O ~ npM ~ M 3TOM ~ I 3TMX npOUeCCOB
B ~ , B ~ I ~ P O COT
The third most important factor is the increased use
of recovered paper in the papermaking processes.
Besides providing a balanced use of the industry's
raw material, recycling of used paper is a key
element of the industry's carbon cycle since it
prevents considerable emissions of methane from
landfilling of used paper. This positive impact can
further be improved by increased recycling of used
paper providing of course that this recycling as a
part of paper life-cycle remains technically and
economically viable.

One more promising line in the use of biofuel is

energy recovery through combustion of both used
paper and the paper that cannot be recycled.

CO2 emissions from one ton of used paper

incineration for energy recovery (550 kg C0da.d.t.)
are close to the fossil-CO2 emissions generated
when producing one ton of paper (643 kg
Ycmoiiwsoe pa3sumue u ucnonbsosa~ue Sustainable development and biofiel use as a way towards
Guomomusa - nymb ~ p e a n u a ~ uKuU O ~ C K O
ZO u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
no6brueHum KoMmeKcHocmu ucnonb3osa~uxdpesecu~bzu mop& utilization of wood raw material and peat

Wood and paper products have rather long-term

service life - from several decades for wood
structures in house-building to several years for the
majority of books. This provides an expanding
reservoir of carbon removed from the atmosphere.

Today the role that forests play in balancing

society's need for wood-based products and
protecting our environment by absorbing CO2 is
being recognized more and more.


~ Y M ~ X H M K BH OCHOBHOM Papermakers use mainly the parts of trees which are
KOTOPbIe HeB03MOXHO yno~pe6MTb B ApyrMX unusable in other industrial processes such as
npOMbIUIneHHbIX npOIJeCCaX, TaKMX KaK CTPOLITenbCTBO construction or furniture making, as well as wood
MnW nPOM3BOACTBO ~ e 6 e na~Tame
, ApeBeCHbIe OTXOAbI M residues and sawmill waste.

The European Commission's White Paper and

biofuel challenges
B 1998199 r0AaX 6b1no npOBeAeH0 COBMeCTHOe In 1988199 the joint study has been carried out for
accneAosaHae B O ~ M O X H ~ I X nocnegc~safi p e a n w s a q ~ ~ revealing possible impacts of implementing the
p e ~ o ~ e ~ ~ a rcoAepxaLqMxcg
lai?, B aBTopmeTHoM AoKnaAe recommendations of the European Commission
Esponefic~ofi KOMLICCMM, 03arnaBJIeHHOM: "3~eprMH White Paper entitled: "Energy for the Future:
Gy~y~qero: B O ~ O ~ H O B J ' LICTOYHLIKM
I H ~ M ~ I ~~ H ~ ~ T ABM " . Renewable Sources of Energy". It is proposed in the
TOM AoKnaAe CTaBmcR s a ~ a ~ Y AaB O M T ~ K 2010 rosy White Paper to double the contribution of
IX 3HepTMM, renewable energy sources to gross EU energy
AOBeAH MX y~enbHb1fiBeC A 0 12%. production to 12% by 2010.
B COBM~CTHOM M3yYeHMI.I IIOJIMTMKM EC B 0 6 n a c ~ ~ The following organizations contributed to this joint
~0306~0~JlfleM0fi 3HePrMki YZIaCTBOBaJIM: E B P O ~ ~ ~ ~ C study: K ~ Hthe European Commission - DG Enterprise,
KOMMCCMH, re~ep2lJIb~blfiAMpeKTOpaT H 0 OTpaCJIM, the Confederation of European Paper Industries
K O H @ A ~ ~ ~~ W Y MRW H O ~IlPOMbIUlneHHOCTM
~ EBponb~ (CEPI), the European Confederation of
(CEPI), KoH(#EA~~~uM ~ eRp e ~ o o 6 p a 6 a ~ b 1 ~ a m ~ q e iWoodworking
i Industries (CEI-Bois), the French
~p0MbMIneHHOCTM E~ponb1 (Cei-Bo~s), Q ~ ~ H Q ~ ~ c K o ~
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, the
MMHMCT~PCTBO CeJlbCKOI'O X O ~ H ~ ~ C MT BP~~ I ~ O J I O B C T B ~ , Netherlands' Agency for Energy and the
H w ~ e p n a ~ ~ cA
~ ~o ~e H T C T no
B O 3~ep1-MMM oxpaHe Environment (Novem).
o~pyxamuei?cpeAbr (NOVEM).
The study has demonstrated that implementation of
the White Paper policy could have significant
impacts on the forest-based industries' wood
procurement situation. To meet the EC targets,
wood supplies should be increased by more than
40%. Other significant impacts on these industries
such as increased wood imports from the EU
non-members and reduced productivity in the
whole sector would be likely to appear.
Ycmo1hu6oe pa3sumue u ucnonb306a~ue Sustainable development and biojiel use as a way towards
Guomomusa - nymb K peanu3ayuu Kuomc~ozonpomotcona U the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced compkx
nOBbIUICHUt0 KOMWleKCHOCmU UCnOJlb308L2HUJl d p e 6 e c ~ ~ bU Imop& utilization of wood raw material and peat

POCCMII,0 6 n a ~ a m u a a n0YTM reTBepTbE0 MLlPOBbIX Possessing about a quarter of the global wood
3anaCOB ApeBeCMHbI, MMeeT PeanbHbIe B03MOXHOCTI.I AnFI reserves, Russia has real opportunities for
Cy4eCTBeHHOrO 3KCnOpTa ~ M O M ~ C C ~ I H~CMOTPR . Ha significant exports of biomass. Despite considerable
n p o ~ 3 o r r r e ~ r u3a
~ inocneAHwe
i roAbI C Y U ~ C T B ~ H HcnaA
~I~~ economic recession in the Forest - Industrial
B neCOnPOMbIUIneHHOM KOMnneKCe, HaYMHaII C 1998 - Complex, since 1988-1999 one can speak about its
1999 rr. M O X H O rOBOPMTb 0 er0 PeWIbHOM BO3pOweHMH. real recovery.
The role of the North-Westem Federal Area in
cooperation of its Regions and Republics in the
field of biomass use and export.
3Ha~MTenbHaH YaCTb neCHbIX PeCypCOB P o c c u ~ The North-Western Federal Area possesses a
pacnonomeHa B C e s e p o - 3 a n a ~ ~CDeAepanb~o~
o~ oKpyre. considerable portion of Russia's forest reserves. Its
P a c q e ~ ~necoceKa
a~ no C e s e p o - 3 a n a n ~ o ~ yperuoHy annual cut is equal to 82.9 million m3 including
COCTaBnHeT 82,9 MnH.M3, B TOM YMCne n0 nMCTBeHHOMY 32.14 million m3 falling on deciduous forests.
XO~IIECTBY- 32,14 MnH.M3. @ ~ K T R ~ ~ B C1999
K M r. no According to the data of logging enterprises, there
AaHHblM neCXO3OB ~ b l p y 6 n e ~36,5 0 MnH.M3 MnM 44% OT were 36.5 million m3 of timber felled in 1999 or
p a c r e ~ ~ o fnecocew,
i B TOM w c n e no nMcTBeHHoMy 44% of the annual cut including 10.8 million m3 of
Y 10,8 MnH.M3. Ha~6onee hardwood species. The annual cut was being
nonHo pacqeTHaA necoceKa ocBansanacb B p e c n y 6 n ~ ~ e mastered most efficiently in the Republic of
Kapenm. B TO x e s p e m B p e c n y 6 n ~ ~ eKOMM Karelia. At the same time, there are large reserves
coxpaHmoTcH 6onbrrr~ep e s e p ~ b-~ pacqeTHalr necoceKa in the Republic of Komi where only 30% of the
MCllOnb3OB2UlaCb nMWb Ha 30%. (K1.C. K O M ~ ~ AOwIaA OB, annual cut are utilized (Yu.S. Komarov,
Ha MHBeCTMuMOHHOM @ O P Y M ~B C ~ H K T - ~ ~ T ~TOT P ~ Y P ~ presentation
~). at the Saint Petersburg Investment
nOTeHlJMWI HBnHeTCH O C H O B O ~AnII ~ pa3pa60~~M IlpOeKTOB Forum). This potential is a basis for working out
U I M P O K O M ~ C L L I T ~ ~ H O T OMClTOnb30BaHMFI 61.10~onn~sa projects on large-scale biofuel utilization
HenOCpeflCTBeHHO B PerMOHaX M 3KCnOPTa ~ M O M ~ C CB ~ I immediate in the regions and on biomass exports to
3 a n a n ~ y wEspony. West Europe.
The Russia's Pulp and Paper Industry as well as the
Forestry Complex as a whole became
export-oriented. Today more than three fourths of
the manufactured market pulp and approximately a
half of paper and board made in Russia are
A ~ a n ~ s ~ perMoHanbHym
py~ c n e u ~ @ l . i ~npennpw~~wfi
y While analyzing regional features of Forestry
neconpoMbrruneHHoro KoMnneKca Ce~epo-3ana~~o1-o Complex enterprises in the North-Western Region,
PerMOHa, MOXHO OTMeTMTb, q T O OHa BbIrOAHO OTnHYaeTCR one can note that they differ advantageously from
OT CMTYauMM B APYrMX @e~ep2UlbHb1~ OKpyraX. B those of other Federal Areas. Presently, the
OTnMqMe OT JIeCOnPOMblUIneHHblX KOMnneKCOB North-Western Federal Area has all necessary
60n ~ L L I M H c T B ~ c y 6 x e ~ ~ o s@e~epalJMM M ApyrMX conditions for rapid and unconventional
(DeflepWIbHblxOKPYTOB, CeBep0-3ana~HblfiOKpyr MMeeT B development of the Pulp and Paper Industry, of the
HaCTORuee BpeMH BCe YCnOBMH An54 6blcTpor0 M Forestry Complex as a whole and of bioenergetics,
HeOp,QNHapHOrO pa3BMTHII lJenJllo.JI03~0-6y~a~~0fi in particular.
npoMblwneHHocTM, B UenoM necHoro KoMnneKca M, B
qaCTHOCTM, ~ M O ~ H ~ P T ~ T M K M .
Ycmoikusoe pa3sumue u ucnonb3osa~ue Sustainable developnzent and bi~fueluse as a way towards
Guomonnusa - nymb ~peanu3ayuuKuomc~ozonpomo~onau the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
~ O ~ ~ ~ U L KoMnneKcHocmu
~ H U K ) ucnonb306a~u~
dpesecu~blu mop@ utilization of wood raw material and peat

These features incorporate a number of factors:

A rich stumpage base with proper age and
species stand composition;
A unique geographical position because of
immediate proximity to ports and to major
consumers of forest- and paper-based products
both on the domestic and on the foreign markets
of North and West Europe;
The availability of large production capacities
on the territory of the Federal Area, which
provide extended wood processing as well as
the whole process cycle, from logging
enterprises to woodworking, furniture, and pulp
and paper mills. Thus, the Area has a good
chance to make a short-term transition from
untreated timber exports to exports of
science-intensive products while widening
simultaneously a biofuel raw material base;

The transport infrastructure including

automobile, railway, sea and river transport and
construction of a number of new ports in the
Leningrad Region;

Favourable investment policy (of the

Government of the Leningrad Region and of a
number of other subjects) towards creating
conditions for development of Forestry
Complex enterprises, for more extended wood
processing immediately in the region of trees
growing, higher economic and social efficiency
of utilization of forest resources;
H m w i k i e ~ KpynHOrO HayYHOrO nOTeHUM2LJIa - B High scientific potential - main universities and
P ~ ~ M O H ~ CKOHueHTpMpOBaHbI OCHOBHble research institutes bearing on the Forestry
YHMBePCMTeTbl M HayYHbIe MHCTMTYTbI neCHOrO Complex are concentrated in the Region: SPb
KoMnneKca - CIl6 TTY PIl, J I e c o ~ e x ~ ~ r e c ~ a ~ STUPP, the SPb Forest Technical Academy, the
M H , BHMME M ~ p .
A K ~ A ~ MAJITY, Arkhangelsk Forest Technical University,
VNIIB, etc.
However, there exist a number of negative
factors in today's activities of the
Forest-Industrial Complex. They are as follows:
Large specific weight of untreated timber in the
structure of exports of forest-based products
results in considerable losses - both direct
financial and social, for the Region becomes
depleted of a lot of jobs. Besides, such a
Ycmotirlusoepmsumue u ucnonb3osatiue Sustainable development and biofiel use as a way towards
6uomonnusa - nymb K peantwayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol irnplementation and enhanced cornplex
n06bllUeHUK) KOMi'UleKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306UHUII dpe6ec~tiblU mop&l utilization qf wood raw rnaterial and peat

structure of forest-based exports makes Russian

exporters dependent on a situation in the foreign
markets, which have selective unstable demand for
untreated and treated timber;
reorpa@m3 ~ c n o p Kpyrnoro ~a neca oTnmaeTclr TeM, Geography of round wood export differs in that
YTO OKOnO 30% 3KCIIOpTa IIPMXOAWTCR Ha Finland accounts for 30% of these exports and
(DEIHIIIIHAEIIO, M CBbIUIe 10% Ha u ~ e u M I o KOTOPbIe Sweden - for more than 10%. Actually, these
@~KTMY~CKW HBnHeTCII OCHOBHbIM KOHKYPeHTOM AJlR countries are the main competitors of Russian
P O C C H ~ ~ C K 3KCllOPTePOB
~~X KaK 0 6 p a 6 0 ~ a ~ ~ oTaK
fi, M exporters of both processed and unprocessed
He06pa60TaHH0fi ApeBeCMHbI. TO AenaeT wood. This makes the Russian exporters
~ O C C W ~ ~ C K M X3KCIIOpTepOB yH3BkiMbIMki CO CTOPOHbI vulnerable to Nordic competitors;
Equipment obsolescence and wear and tear at
the majority of large forestry enterprises
reduces competitiveness of their products;

H ~ A O C T ~ T O ~pa3BkiTkie
HO~ CMCTeM nec~ofi Poor development of forest certification
cep~a@u~aqss, a Tame cep~a@u~aqas systems as well as of certification of enterprises
npe~npMHTkifi Ha COOTBeTCTBWe CHCTeMaM as to their conformity with the IS0 9000 and
MeX,QyHapOAHbIXCTaHAapTOB Cepkiki kZCO 9000 W I S 0 14000 series of International Standards
MC0 14000, CHkDKaeT ee K O H K ~ ~ ~ H T O C I I O C O ~ H O C T ~reduces the competitiveness of their products,
npoAyKqm, O C O ~ ~ H H O Ha 3~onorasec~a especially on the environmetally sensitive
YYBCTBATenbHbIX PbIHKaX. market S.
The most important factors offering prospects for
stable operation of the Forest-Industrial Complex
enterprises are unconditional compliance with
sustainable forest management and as a
consequence, development of forest certification as
well as extended mechanical and chemical
processing of wood. The processing, coupled with
production and use of biofuel, would allow due
solving of global climate change problems and
implementation of the Kyoto Protocol.

Thus, construction of new enterprises and

stage-by-stage environmental and economic
reconstruction of the existing ones, their
certification as to conformity with the I S 0 9000 and
I S 0 14000 series of International Standards along
with extended use of wood raw material resources
while increasing share of hardwood species and
biofuel are the most important today's targets of the
Forest-Industrial Complex of the North-Western
Ycmoiivusoe passumue u ucnonb3osa~ue Sustaiizable developnzent and biofiel use as a way towards
Guomonnusa - nymb K peanusayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol inzplementation and enhatwed cwnples
n06blllMHUK)KOMfUleKCHOCllZU UCnOJlb306UHUII d p e s e c ~ ~ Ub lm0p&l utilization cf wood raw marerial atzd peat

Real steps towards biofuel use in the

North-Western Region
The use of biofuel has considerably increased in the
Region in recent years, especially, in its pulp and
paper mills; a number of projects are in progress.

, Ha OAO < < C B ~ T O ~ OKOpbeBOrO ~CK>> For example, construction of the bark boiler of the
KOTJIa (YCK HaMeYeH Ha C ~ H T I I ~ P 2001 ~ r.) capacity 150 t. steamlhour at the Svetogorsk Mill
~ ~ O ~ ~ B O ~ ~ M T ~ J -150 H O C napa
I ~ TOHH T ~ I ~B .rat peruaeT He (the target date for putting it into operation is
TOnbKO CerOAHRLLIHI-OIO n p o 6 n e ~ y yTMnM3auMM September 2001) not only solves today's problem
ApeBeCHbIX OTXOAOB, H 0 I? 06e~Ile9M~aeT nepCneKTMBb1 of wood residue utilization but also creates
MClTOnb30BaHMR ~ M o T o ~ J I M BHa
~ KOM~MH~T~. prospects for further use of biofuel at the Mill.
Presently, in the settlement of Elizavetin ka, the
Lemo Concern proceeds to construction of a major
lumber enterprise. The use of the enterprise residues
both for manufacturing pulp and paper products and
as biofuel will make the use of wood more extended
and will increase its in-depth processing in the
immediate region of tree growing.

A number of municipal boilerhouses are in

successful operation with the use of biofuel (in
Lisino, etc.).
Promising charcoal technologies are developed at
the Forest Technical Academy and at the Polycor
Company. A charcoal mill has been put into
operation in Priozersk, and several more plants are
being constructed.
Apyrofi n p m e p KacaeTcR A p x a ~ r e n b c ~ o foi 6 n a c ~ ~ . Another example refers to the Arkhangelsk Region.
PeiUIbHb1~ BK.JIaAOM B YBeJIMYeHMM MCnOnb30BaHMR A practical contribution to the extended use of
~ H O T O I ~ J I M B ~RBnReTCR HpOBeAeHHaR B KOHue 2000 r biofuel is the reconstruction and upgrading of a
PeKOHCTPYKUMH M MOAePHM3auMR KOPbeBOrO KOTJIa bark boiler at the Arkhangelsk Pulp and Paper Mill.
ApxaHrenbc~oro K . Ero npOki3BO~MTenbHOCTb Its capacity has been raised from 30 to 65 t.
nosbrmeHa c 30 ~o 65 T napa B yac. Koren 6 y n e ~ steamlh. The boiler will utilize 280 thousand tons of
YTMJlM3MPOBaTb B TOA 280 TbIC. T. KOPbl M APYrMX bark and other wood residue a year (the increase is
ApeBeCHbIX OTXOAOB ( Y B ~ ~ M Ha Y 90
~H TbIC.
M T~ / r o ~ ) . equal to 90 thousand tons a year).
However, this is only a small share of the available
biofuel reserves.
n o AaHHblM, nPMBeAeHHbIM A ~ ~ K C ~ H] ; YA~ ~~ TOO BM~ IHMa According to the data Mr. A.Bulatov presented at
@0pyMe no ~ M O T O ~ ~ - H BP ~o T T ~ ~ A@e~pUIb
~M, 2000 r., the Biofuel Forum in Rotterdam in February of
MMen 2,2 Mnpn. cnenoro n e p e c ~ o i i ~ o r neca
o Ha 2000, while possessing 2.2 billion m' of old-growth
KOPHIO, 06na~arr p a c r e r ~ o i i necoce~oti Ancl stumpage with allowable cut of 23 million m' for
~ ~ o M ~ ~ L L I J I ~ H3aTOTOBKM
H o ~ 23 MnH. M3 B rOA, industrial-purpose logging, the Arkhangelsk Region
Apxa~renbcKaR06nac~b@ K T M Y ~ C K M 3WOTOBMna B 1999 has actually harvested only 8.5 million m' of wood
Ycmokweoe pmsumue u ucnonmosarrue Sustainable development and biojkel use as a way towards
Guomomusa - nymb K pemu3ayuu Kuornc~ozonpornoKona u the Kyoto protocol itnplernentationand enhanced complex
noebiuerrum KoMmeKcrrocmu ucnonb30sarr~1dpesecurrbr u rnop@a utilization of wood raw material and peat

r nulub 8,5 MnH. M'ApeBeCHHbI. COOTB~TCTB~HHO, B in 1999. There are correspondingly as much as 2.2
O ~ J I ~ C T06pa3ye~cH
H 2,2MnpA. IlnOTHbIX M3 KOPb1, WenbI U million solid m' of bark, chips and sawdust
onanoK. Ilpa ysenarema o 6 a e ~ a~ ~ ~ O T O BAO
O K10 MnH. appearing in this connection in the Region. When
M3 KOnHYeCTBO OTXOAOB O ~ P ~ ~ Y W U I ( X C HTOnbKO OT increasing annual logging up to 10 million m3, the
A ~ ~ ~ B O O ~ ~ COCTaBHT
~ ~ O T K2,5
H - 3 MJIH. M3/r. K ~ o M ~ amounts of waste resulting from woodworlung
TOTO, B 06nac~H B OTBlUIaX HaXOAElTCH 14 MIIH. T operations only will range from 2.5 to 3 million m3
r a ~ p o n m ~ onaraaaa.
ro per year. In addition, there are 14 million tons of
hydrolysis lignin in the Region.
PM 3TOM AnR 06ecnese~ax 1300 HHAHBMHyaJIbHbIX To provide 1300 individual boiler-rooms with
KOTeJIbHbIX B 06na~Tb eXerOAH0 BB03HT 990 TbIC. T. fuels, 990 thousand tons of coal, 250 thousand tons
KaMeHHOrO ymH, 250 TbIC. T TOllOYHOrO Ma3yTa, 60 TbIC. T of furnace fuel oil and 60 thousand tons of diesel
AH3enbHOrO TOnJIkiBa. fuel are delivered to the Reional annually.
B O ~ M O X H O C T ~ ~kiCllOJlb30BaHMH 6ao~onnasa The opportunities for using biofuel in the immediate
HelTOCpeACTBeHHO B PerHOHaX npOH3paCTaHHH IIpH region of tree growing in connection with in-depth
ocyWecTsneHas m y 6 0 ~ o f i ~ e x a ~ a r e c ~ o Gana mechanical and chemical processing of wood must
X M M E I S ~ C K O ~ ~ llepepa60T~Pl ApeBeCllHbI AOnXHbI be evaluated with due regard to the whole variety of
OUeHHBaTbCR C YreTOM BCWO ~~0r006pa3aH environmental and economic consequences. The
3KOnO~A'IeCKHX I? 3KOHOMIIYeCKIIX n p o 6 n e ~ , KOTOPbIe questions of biomass export and of the use of wood
npI4 3TOM B03HMKaIOT. Oco6oro PaCCMOTpeHElH residue in production of exportable and
~I, transportable high-calorie biofuels deserve special
kiCllOnb3OBaHaH ApeBeCHbIX OTXOAOB AnH npOM3BOACTBa consideration.
B ~ I C O K O K ~ J I O ~BRAOB
M~~H ~HoToII~MB~.

Analysis of these problems and of efficient ways for

solving them is one most important aspect of
scientific support to any large-scale projects in the
field of biofuel.

Scientific problems of the biofuel uses

There comes a time when we should go from
individual pilot projects on biofuel use to working
out a strategy of large-scale production and
efficient use of biofuel as the most important type
of renewable energy sources. Working out and
implementing the strategy is possible only if
scientific support to the programme is provided.

Let's dwell on the most significant aspects of this

programme. They could be divided into a number of
9 biofuel logistics, direct and indirect export of
9 intensification of forestry;
Ycmoiiwsoe pa3sumue u ucnonb306a~ue Sustainable developnzent and biofuel use as a way towards
6uomonnu6a - nymb K peanu3ayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implenzentationand enhanced complex
n06bllUeHUIO KOMnJleKCHOCmU UCnOnb306ClHUEI dpe6ec~HblU mop& utilization of wood raw material and peat

higher efficiency of wood utilization on the

genitic engineering;

increased efficiency of wood burning, creation

of a sized series of high efficient boiler units of
a new generation applying, in particular, the
principle of biofuel gasification and vortical
burning of gasified products;

11p06neMb1 C03AaHMR HOBbIX T ~ ~ H c ~ o ~ T ~ ~ ~ J I ~ H ~ I creation

x of new transportable biofuels, for
BMAOB ~ H o T o ~ J I M B - ~B WICTHOCTM, K O M ~ 0 3 M ~ H O H H b I X example, energy-purpose composites
MaTepManOB ~ H ~ P ~ ~ T H ~ ~ c KHa3HaYeHIISI
O ~ O
(energy-pellets, etc.).
( 3 ~ e p r o n ~ n n eM~ ~b 1p . ) .
While considering biofuel problems, it is advisable
to always keep in mind that presently the use of
wood as a biofuel is the least efficient method of
wood utilization. Wood is an excellent structural
material; its life-cycle complies well with the idea
of sustainable development. Because of this, wood
must above all be converted into different wooden
structures, for example, constructive and others.
The part of wood that cannot be used as a structural
material, must find its application as a raw material
for the pulp and paper industry through, for
example, pulpchips. And finally, the last part of
wood that cannot be used as a structural material
and as a raw material for manufacturing pulp and
paper refers to biofuel.

Several important results follow from these general

l. On~PiMWlb~bIft YpOBeHb MCnOnb3OBaHMH JleCOCeLIHbIX The optimum use of forest residues and the
OTXOAOB M M ~ K C M M U I ~ YPOBeHb H ~ I ~ ~ MCnOnb30BaHMR maximum use of wood residue from
ApeBeCHblX OTXOAOB ~ e p e ~ 0 0 6 p a 6 a ~ b 1 ~ a mM~ M x woodworking and pulp and paper mills. The
~ e n n m n o 3 ~ 0 - 6 y ~ a x ~ b n1 xp e ~ n p m ~ ~ t i3aga~1a
. target of the full use of the totality of tree
nOnHOrO MCnOnb30BaHMH ~ c e f i ~ M O M ~ C CAepeBa ~ I biomass is fundamentally untrue as this could
npeAcTasnReTccr B npMHUMne ~ e n p a ~ ~ n b ~ T.K.
o ioHa
i, lead to soil depletion and biodiversity
MOXeT IlpMBeCTM K MCTOUeHMlO IlOqBeHHOTO CnOR M disbalancing. Because of this, optimum levels
HapyWeHMI-0 6 u o p a 3 ~ 0 0 6 p a 3 ~ ~~. O ~ T O M Y AnR for the use of forest residue ensuring
~ a m o f KaTeropmi
i necos AonxHbI 6 b 1 ~ ob n p e ~ e n e ~ ~ maintenance of soil layer should be determined
OnTMMWlbHbIe YPOBHM MCnOnb30BaHMR JIeCOCeYHbIX for every forest category.
OTXOAOB, 0 6 e c n e r ~ s a m u ~ ~ e n o ~ q e p x a ~ ~ e
Yctnoiku6oe pa36umue u ucnonb306a~ue Sustainable developr7zent and biofitel use as a way towards
6uomonrlusu - nymb K peanu3ayuu Kuornc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
nO6blUleHUK3 KOhlWleKCHOCmU UCnORb306aHUX dpe6ecu~blU mop&l utilization o f wood raw material and peat

The principle of successive use of wood.

Structural wood can be considered as a "carbon
reservoir" of the largest operating longevity (in
the range from 40 to 60 years). However, after
this period, the used wood can be reused as
biofuel. A similar situation takes place also for
forest-based products of medium and small
operating longevity. The used wood and the
used convertibles are essential components of
municipal and industrial solid waste and can be
considered as the most important resource for

Standardization and certiJication while dealing

with biofiel. The problem of biofuel becomes
one of the major international problems and
standardization and certification in this field not
only are of extraordinary importance but also
represent one of the basic points of international
trade in biofuel.

A K T M B HHayYHble
~I~ pa60Tb1 B 06nac~k-i reHH0fi Active research into genetic engineering in the
MHxeHepMM B necHoM KoMnneKce noKa ewe Forestry Complex is still aimed mainly at more
HanpaBneHbI, B OCHOBHOM, Ha n o m m e m e intensive growth of trees, at changing the
MHTeHCMBHOCTM POCTa AepeBbeB, M3MeHeHMe lignin: cellulose ratio, at increasing content of
CooTHomeHm nMrHCiHa M qennmnom, yBenMzieHMe high-strength fiber in wood (similar to
COAepXaHMR B APeBeCMHe BbICOKOnPOYHbIX BOnOKOH so-called "pulling" fiber of abnormal wood).
( ~ H W I O T M Y HTaK ~ I X Ha3bIBaeMbIM <<TRrOBbIM>> As applied to biofuel, the lines in genetic
BOnOKHaM B K ~ ~ H O BAO~~ ~~ B ~ C ~MP H M ~M )~ . H M T ~ ~ ~ H O engineering are expected to appear such as
K ~ M O T O ~ ~ M BM Y O X H O OXMAaTb M IIORBneHMR TaKMX increasing content of the wood components,
~ a n p a s n e B~r~e i~ ~ oMHxeHepm,
ti KaK yBenweHMe which are convertible into liquid fuel by
COAepXaHMH B APeBeCMHe KOMnOHeHTOB, C ~ ~ O C O ~ H ~ I X technologically acceptable techniques, creation
TeXHOnOrMYeCKM npMeMneM0 IIpeBpauaTbCR B of biofuel of higher calorific value, etc.
>KMAKOe TOWlMBO, CO3AaHMe 6wo~onn~~a
~ ~P M ~ ~ H O CMT T.A.
~ o B ~ I L U ~ H HK O~ O M

Energy-purpose cellulose composites.

Although wood is a natural composite by itself,
its residues, both primary and secondary, can be
used in the production of new energy-purpose
composites. These materials can also contain
alternative components, for example, peat,
particular fractions of petroleum or petroleum
refining products, etc.
Sustainable development and biojkel use as a way towards
the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
utilization of wood raw material and peat

6. Solid jkel gasijkation and production of liquid

fuel on this basis. In the former USSR the
Hydrolysis Industry was an independent
industrial sector. Presently, alcoholic additives
to motor fuels are successfully used in a
number of countries (for example, in Brazil).
However, the scientific potential of this
technology is not completely realized today.

7. Fundamental research of biofuel burning

processes, increasing efficiency of boilers are,
along with new energy-saving processes, quite
independent research lines.

l l e p ~ o ea3 sTax ~ a n p a ~ n e ~CaBi Hi ~ ~ HcO n p o 6 n e ~ a ~ ~ The first line is directly related to sustainable forest
yc~ofiwsoro n e c o n o n b 3 0 s a ~ ~ ~IIpa . pacse~~oi? management. While Russia' S annual cut is about
BeCOCeKe B POCCBHnOpHAKa 540 MnH. K Y ~ O M ~ T P O B 540 million cubic meters, logging volume has never
3arOTOBKa ApeBeCMHbI HMKOrAa He llpeBbILIIaJla 300-350 been more than 300-350 million cubic meters. As a
MnH. K Y ~ O M ~ T P BOpe3ynbTaTe
B. 3KOHOMAYeCKOrO CnaAa result of the economic recession of the nineties,
90-X I'OAOB o 6 x e ~3arOTOBKB APeBeCMHbI CHM3MnCH B logging dropped to 82 million m3 in 1997 and to 75
1997 a0 82 MAH. K Y ~ O M ~ T PBO 1998 B , - A 0 75 MnH. million m3 in 1998. In 2000 it approximated 100
K Y ~ O M ~ T aP BO2000
B , rOAy OKOnO 100 MnH. K Y ~ O M ~ T P O B .million m'. Thus, no more than 15% of the
T ~ K H06pa30~,
M MCllOJTb30BaHMe ~ ~ c ~ ~ neCOCeKM
T H o E He allowable cut is really being used at present. Russia
npeBb1ruae.r B HacToHuee BpeMx 15%. POCCMH He TonbKo not only possesses a quarter of the world's forest
o 6 n a ~ a eYeTBepTbm
~ M M P O B ~ I X 3anac0~ neca, HO M resources but in addition, it is located
r e o r p a @ u ~ epacnonoxer-la
c~~ B C ~ B ~ ~ nonymapkiu,
HOM B geographically in the Northern Hemisphere, where
C R KOnMYeCTBO the greater part of fossil fuel is consumed (West
McKonaeMoro Tonnwsa ( C T ~ ~ 3anag~oii H~I Esponb~, European countries, U.S.A., Japan). So, Russian
CLLIA, IIno~kia). JIeca POCCMM w p a m oYeHb 60nbLuyI-0 forests play a vital part in maintaining atmospheric
POnb B IlOAAepXaHMM ~ C T O ~ Y M B O C T M ~ T M O C @ M ~ ~3T0
I. sustainability. This is one most important factor of
- OAMH A 3 B ~ X H ~ ~ ~ U I MaCneKTOB X UHT~HCM$UK~~MM intensifying forest management in Russia.
~ ~ C O ~ O ~ ~ ~B OPOCCMII.
B ~ H M H

B HaCTOHqee BpeMH MHTeHCUBHOCTb POCTa ApeBeCMHbI B Currently the intensity of tree growth in Russian
p o c c ~ ~ c ~ w x n e c a x c o c ~ a ~ nc ~r e ~ ~0~a p1 a, 5~ r A
OA forests is 1.5 m3 per hectare per year for coniferous
X B O ~ ~ H ~nOpOA
IX A 0 2,5-3,o - AnH nMCTBeHHbIX nOpOfl, T.e. species and 2.5 - 3.0 m3 - for leaf species that is
B HeCKOnbKO pa3 MeHbLue, W M B C K ~ H A M H ~ B M considerably M smaller than in Nordic countries under
aHaJlOrMYHblX KnMMaTMYeCKMX YCnOBMHX. K ~ M3BeCTH0, K B similar climatic conditions. As we know, in recent
nOCneAHMe AeCHTMneTMH B MMpe yAenHnOCb AOCTaTOqHO decades considerable attention has been focused
6onbrrroe BHMMaHMe PaCUIMPeHMIo HnaHTaqMfi - B worldwide on developing tree plantations, in
WCTHOCTM, n n a ~ ~ a q ~YCKOpeHHOrO
fi POCTa. 16blnM particular, the healthy growth plantations.
AOCTHrHYTbl @ ~ H T ~ c T M ~ ~ c K M ~ pe3ynbTaTbl no Extraordinary results have been achieved in
~OBblLueHIIK, MHTeHCMBHOCTM POCTa ApeBeCMHbl. T ~ K , increasing intensity of tree growth. For example, the
cpenHm ~ P O A ~ K T M B H O CCOCHH
T~ B Gpas~nmicocTaBncleT average productivity of pine in Brazil is 28.5 m' per
28,5 Ky60MeTpa C reKTapa B rO& a 3BKaJlMnTa - 37 hectare per year and of eucalyptus - 37 m' per
KY~OM~TPOBC reKTapa B rOA. Ha HeKOTOPblX hectare per year. On certain experimental
3KCnepMMeHTaJlbHblX YWCTKaX B Epa3MnMM ~ O ~ O B O ~ plantations in Brazil, the annual increment of
npMpOCT 3BKaJlIInTa AOCTMf 119 ~y60~eTpoBfra B rO& eucalyptus was as much as 119 m' per hectare per
O A H ~ KaHaJlM3
O 3TMX AaHHblX nOKa3bIBaeT, YTO OHM year. However, analysis of these figures shows they
OTHOCHTCH, B nepByIo OYepeAb, K K)XHOMY nonyLuapMIo. are primarily applicable to the Southern
Yctnoiiweoe paseumue u ucnonb3oea~ue Sustainable developtnetlt and biojiel use as a way towards
o'uonlonnuea - nynlb K peanwayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol itnpletnentation and etzhatzced conlplex
n06blUleHUK)KOMtlJleKCHOCmU UCnOflb306UHUIIdpe8ec~HblU m0p&l utilization of wood raw tnaterial atzd peat

P ~ ~ B MnJIa~TauM6
TM~ YCKOpeHHOrO POCTa B ~ X H O M Hemisphere. The development of healthy growth
nonywapww n o 3 ~ o n ~ B ecTpaTermecKoM
~ nnaHe p e w a n plantations in the Southern Hemisphere makes it
npo6ne~br y c - r o f i ~ ~ ~ o r on e c o n o n b 3 o ~ a ~ ~M~ possible, at least strategically, to solve the problem
o 6 e c n e ~ e ~ ~M~M P O B O ~ ~ I & ~ I J - I K ) ~ o ~ H o - ~ ~of M sustainable
~ H o ~ ~ forest management and thereby to
nPOMblUIneHHOCTM BOnOKHMCTbIM CblPbeM Ha AnMTenbHYK) guarantee long-term supplies of fibrous raw
nepcneKTmy. material to the world's pulp and paper industry.
In the context of global climate change, increasing
productivity of Russian forests and the more
efficient use of their wood in manufacturing both
pulp and paper products and biomass is of no lesser
importance than the development of healthy growth
plantations in Latin America or in the Asian-Pacific

The reduction in logging is not only a Russian

problem. In a sense, this is the problem of climate
change all over the Northern Hemisphere. Intensity
of tree growth in Russian forests could really be
doubled, and this would have the major favourable
impacts preventing climate change in the Northern
Hemisphere. However, implementation of such a
programme would require major investment (many
billions of dollars) into the Russian
Forest-Industrial Complex, proper attention from
the world's financial institutions, and political and
economic stability in Russia.

Uenecoo6pa3~0 el4e pa3 OCTaHOBMTbCH Ha OHHOM It is worthwhile to consider here one more aspect of
acneKTe KMOTCKOI-o npo-rolcona. C nos~uMiirno6anb~oro the Kyoto Protocol. In the context of the global
6 a n a ~ c a yrneKMcnoro rasa M npeAorBpaweHm carbon dioxide balance and prevention of the
<cnapHMKOBOrO 3@$eK~a>> ~ a ~ 6 o n e ~ene~006pa3~blM
e "greenhouse effect", it makes more sense to process
mnHercH He 3 ~ c n o p r ~3 POCCMM Kpyrnoro neca, a wood as close as possible to the place where it is
r n y 6 o ~ an~e p e p a 6 0 ~ ~ApeBeCMHbI
a MaKCMMaJIbHO 6 n ~ 3 ~ 0 grown rather than to export roundwood from
K MeCTY ee HpOM3paCTaHMH. B 3TOM CnyYae pe3KO Russia. In this case, transport costs and power
COKpaU&3loTCHTpaHCnOpTHble 3aTpaTbl M PaCXOA 3HePrMM consumed to transport the timber are sharply
Ha TpaHCnOpTMpOBKy ApeBeCMHbI, a Tame c 6 n ~ x a m ~ c ~ reduced. Besides, the place where carbon dioxide is
MecTa nornoueHwcr M BblaeneHm yrneKMcnoro rasa - nec emitted - a processing plant - approaches as near as
M 3aBOA. TO nPMBOAMT K u e n e c o o 6 p a 3 ~ o c ~ ~ possible to the place where these emissions can be
3 ~ o n o r ~ r e c ~ ooueHKM
fi CTPYKTYP~I nemoro 3~cnopra absorbed - to a forest. This points to the
POCCMMM MHTeHCMBHOrO pa3BMTMH B POCCMM advisability of making environmental estimation of
u e n n ~ n 0 3 ~ 0 - 6 y ~ a ~ ~ o fnPOMbILIIneHHOCTM
i M Russian timber exports structure along with
n p e ~ n p m ~ u t i no ~ e x a ~ w ~ e c ~ onepepa60r~e
fi intensive development of the Russia's pulp and
ApeBeCMHbI. paper industry and of the mills where wood is
subject to mechanical processing.
C ~ O ~ M U M Gp e a n ~ 3 a w i ~ ~ O T C K O ~ O npoToKona In the context of Kyoto Protocol implementation it
~ e n e ~ 0 0 6 p a 3 ~.rtsnHeTcH
bl~ He npocro yBenMreHMe is advisable not only to increase felling volume in
061,e~a 3arOTOBKM B POCCMMApeBeCMHbl, H 0 M Russia but also to achieve better wood processing in
IIOBblLLIeHMe r n y 6 ~ ~ eeb l n e p e p a 6 0 ~HenOCpeflCTBeHHO
~~ the places where it is grown. In so doing, we obtain
B Pe~MOHaXnpOM3paCTaHMH. flpM 3TOM, COOTBeTCTBeHHO, increasing wood residue output at the woodworking
Ycmofivusoepa3sumue u ucnonb3o~a~ue Sustainable development and bic!fuel use as a way towards
Guomonnusa - nymb K peanwayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol irlzplerlzerztatiorl and enhanced cornp1r.r
n06bllUeHUK)KOMlIJleKCHOCmU UCnOnb306aHUZ d p e 6 e c ~ ~ Ub lmop@a utilization uf wood raw material and peat

and pulp and paper mills. Besides, in the context of

sustainable forest management, industrial wood and
pulpwood logging must be accompanied by
firewood logging and logging waste utilization. All
the above measures extend considerably the biofuel
raw material base both when it is utilized directly in
the region and when it is exported. However, the
most transportable biofuels such as briquetted
energy-pellets and charcoal are to be exported.

~ P O M ~ B O A C T B OkiCIIOnb30BaHMe
, ki 3KCnOpT Only when any disintegrated wood residue
~ P M K ~ T M P O B ~ H H ~ I XkinM rpaHynMpOBaHHbIX ApeBeCHbIX (sawdust, wood powder, etc.) undergo processing,
OTXOAOB onpaBAaH TonbKo B cnyrae, ecnu n e p e p a 6 o ~ ~ e would production, utilization and exports of
IlOABepramTCR M3MenbYeHHbIe ApeBeCHbIe OTXOAbI briquetted and granulated wood residue be
(o~MJIKM,ApeBeCHaR MyKa M T.D.).O A H ~ KYYMTbIBaR, O, YTO worthwhile. However, taking into account that
Ha ~epe~oo6pa6a~brsam~qkix npeAnpMHTMRX woodworking enterprises produce these waste types
@ o ~ M M ~ ~ ~ T6onbwoec R KOJIMYeCTBO TaKMX OTXO,QOB, 3TO in large quantities, there is a good reason to develop
HanpasneHue ~ e n e c o o 6 p a 3 ~ o p e a n m o ~ b r ~ a ~ npM b this line of export in conjunction with the
M ~ X ~ H H Y ~ ~ C K n eO p~e~p a 6 0 ~ ~ e ApeBeCkiHbI. C e ~ e p 0 - mechanical processing of wood. The
3 a n a ~ ~ b 1 GPerMOH HBnReTCR OCHOBHbIM 3KCnOPTePOM North-Western Region is the major exporter of
J I ~ c H o G npOAyKL&iM. K ~ K yXe OTMeYaJOCb BbILIIe, C forest products. As noted above, in the context of
n o s ~ i ~ ~ wKMOTCKO~O n p o ~ o ~ o n a ~ a ~ 6 o n e e the Kyoto Protocol it is most advisable to process
~ e n e c o o 6 p a 3 ~OCyHJeCTBnRTb
0 MaKCMMUbHO my60~ytO wood most intensively close to where it is growing.
n e p e p a 6 o ~ ~ y ApeBeCkiHbI B~JIM~M MeCTa ee Because of this, a change in the regional Forest
npOM3paCTaHMR. ~ O ~ T O M YCTPYKTYPHaR nepe~~p06Ka Complex structure would result in increasing
necHoro KoMnneKca peruoHa npMseAeT K YBenmeHMtO amounts of potential raw material suitable for this
O ~ % ~ M O B IlOTeHsMUbHOrO CblPbR AnR TaKOrO line of export. A pilot project on wood residue
HanpaBneHm. B J I e ~ ~ ~ r p a A co~6oni ia c ~ ~ Hanpmep,
, B briquetting is presently being carried out in the
HaCTO5Iqee BpeMR OCy~eCTBnReTCRllMn0~~blfi npOeKT no Leningrad Region.
~ P M K ~ T M P O B ~ H MApeBeCHblX

Wood residue may be briquetted both without

binding agents and with wood chemical
convertibles (black liquor, tall oil, lignosulfonates,
etc.) as well as with petroleum refining products to
be used as binding agents. The creation and use of
such composites for energy-generating purposes
could be one of the most important directions in the
general programme.

The current prices for natural gas on the Russian

domestic market are known to differ approximately
ten times from those on world markets and from
export prices for Russian gas. Because of this, a
significant increase in the prices for gas on the
Russian market is being planned in a short time
(they will be approximately doubled during a year)
Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towards
the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced (:o~nplex
utilization of wood raw rnaterial and peat

PbIHKe CPaBHRIOTCH C MHPOBbIMEI. Y~enk19e~kle and will soon be at the world level of prices. The
BHYTPMPOCCP~~CKEIX IJeH Ha ra3 CYIlJeCTBeHHO MeHIIeT increase in domestic prices for gas fuel results in
CT~ Pi yXe B considerable changes in biofuel competitive
Gnamaiiruee BpeMH MOXHO 6 y ~ pea.JIbH0
e ~ rOBOPHTb 0 capacity and just in a short time wood will be quite
TOM, 9 T O ApeBeCMHa CTaHeT BHOnHe KOHKYPeHTHbIM a competitive type of fuel in the North-Western
BHAOM Tonnma B C e ~ e p o - 3 a n a ~
~ o ~ Poccm. Region of Russia.
IIPMBOAMBUM~~CH Ha C ~ H K T - I ~ T ~ ~ ~ ~ The
~ ~ forecast
C K O ofM development of the Russia's Energy
~ K O H O M E I Y ~ C K O M@ 0 p y ~ e HIO OH^ 2000 r.) npOrHO3 Sector presented at the Saint Petersburg Economic
~ ~ ~ B M T M H mepreTwrecKoro cemopa Poccww Forum (June 2000) provides for an eight- to
npeAycMaTpPisaeT npa ~ J - I ~ ~ O I I ~ I - I R T H ~ycnomxx
IX twenty-fold increase in the utilization of
y ~ e n ~ 9 e ~ ~RCIIOJlb30BaHMH
e HeTPaAMqHOHHbIX unconventional renewable energy resources under
B O ~ O ~ H O B ~ X ~3HeprOpeCYPCOB
M~IX B 8-20 pa3. O A H ~ K
MO favourable conditions. However, in our opinion,
3TM YPOBHM, no HaIIIeMy MHeHMIo, He OTBeWIoT pea.JIbH0 these figures are inadequate to the biofuel potential,
CyIlJeCTByIoueMy llOTeH~AaJIy6 a o ~ o n n w ~Ba Poccww Pi, which is really available in Russia, and especially in
n p e w e Bcero, B ee C e ~ e p o - 3 a n a ~ perlloae.
~o~ its North-Westem Region.
In this connection it makes sense to analyze global
data as to the use of wood as a fuel. Presently, wood
fuel figures prominently in the energy balances not
only of developing countries but also of developed,
with 59% of the wood harvested worldwide being
used as a fuel. Wood accounts for more than 7% of
the global energy balance. This percentage is
significantly lower in developed countries (about
2% - in U.S.A., 3% - in Canada) in comparison
with a developing part of the world (15%). In the
last years, because of the target of preventing global
climate change, the trend is evident towards a
drastic increase in a biofuel share in the total energy
balance. For example, in Sweden the biofuel share
approaches 8% and it is planned to be doubled or
tripled in the next years.

As to Russia, here the use of wood as a fuel is

basically in conformity with the Russian mentality
and its historical traditions. However, conversion of
the existing boilerhouses to wood fuels involves a
bulk of organizing, technical, economic, including
financial, problems.

Bce ~ T npo6ne~b1,
M TeM He MeHee, BnonHe pa3perumb1 M, Nevertheless, all these problems are quite tractable.
KaK nOKa3bIBaeT OnbIT m~eL@lIl, ApeBeCHOe TOnJIMBO Referring to the Swedish experience, we can
MOXeT YCneUHO MCnOnb30BaTbCH KaK Ha CpaBHMTenbHO conclude that wood fuel can be successfully used
KPYnHbIX 3JleKTPOCTaHUMHX, nepepa6a~b1~aK)~Ilx B rOA both at comparatively large electric power stations
CBbILLIe 1 MnH. K Y ~ O M ~ T P O BApeBeCMHbI, TaK M B and at the small fully automated settlement
MLiAeHbKMX nOnHOCTbK) aBTOMaTM3MPOBaHHbIX boilerhouses, which provide several tens of houses
nOCenKOBbIX KOTenbHbIX, 0 6 e c n e . 1 ~ ~ a m u ~TennOM
x with heat.
Ycrnoiivusoepa3sumue u ucnonb3osanue Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towards
Guomomusa - nymb ~peanu3ayuuKuornc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
~06bllUeHUH)KOM~eKCHOCmUUCilOnb306UHUII C ) P e 6 e ~ ~U~mop&
bl utilization of wood raw material and peat

B s u ~ ~ e f i m 3KOHOMkIWXKkIM
i~ aCneKTOM HporpaMM The most important economic aspects of the
I I B ~ R ~ T C I I MaKcwMa.JIbHoe
corcpameakie TpaHcnopTHbIx Programmes suggest a maximum reduction in
sa~pa~ B ,TOM w c n e s a ~ p a~a~ nepesan~y~ P Y ~ O B , transport costs including transhipment costs and
OnTPiManbHoe c o r e ~ a ~~~ ~~ Oe T O B K~ Ee In o ~ oApesecMHbI,
fi optimum combination of industrial wood, pulpwood
~ Z U I ~ HnCpOoB~, ~ ~ApesecwHbI.
ofi and firewood to be logged.
no-BWAUMOM~, qenecoo6pm~o conoc~a~neakie It would seem to be expedient well to compare
pa3nHrHbrx BapMaHToB KaK perMoHanbHoro different options of both regional biofuel uses and
~ ~ C ~ I O ~ ~ ~ O Gkio~onnki~a,
B ~ H H R TaK ki 3 ~ c n o p ~ ca biofuel exports not only in terms of volume or
nepecreToM He TonbKo Ha eAkiHEiUb1 o 6 a e ~ akinU MaccbI, weight units but also in terms of Gigacalories of the
HO W C nepecreToM Ha r ~ a n ~ p a ~ c n o p ~ u p y e ~ o f i transported biomass or products of its processing.
~ U O M ~ C Cm~ I npoAyIcToB ee n e p e p a 6 o ~ ~K~ pt .o ~ e~ o r o , Besides, account must be taken of expenses for
H~O~XOAMMO yrliTbIsaTb s a ~ p a ~ bHa
r npenoTapamesse preventing any negative transportation impacts on
oTpasaTenbHoro B O ~ A ~ ~ C T B UHaI I OKpyxammym cpeny the environment.
npU TpaHCnOpTkipOBKe.

B O ~ M O ~ IBapEianTbI
CH~I~ EI ~ T ~ I InporpaMMbI
~ I EI Options and milestones of the Programme and
IILlnOTHbIX IIpOeICTOB Pilot Projects
Implementation of a number of pilot projects on the
basis of the available production equipment and
transport flows can be thought to be expedient. For
example, conversion to wood chips (as an
alternative fuel) of a number of boiler-houses
located in rural districts can be made during a rather
short time with small capital costs providing any
centralized system of fuel chip preparation and
transportation is established. It seems to be
advisable for pilot projects on biofuel exports to be
oriented to Scandinavian countries and to the
Netherlands. For example, the pilot project of
charcoal export from Russia and the pilot project of
briquetted or granulated biomass export from
Russia can be suggested for Russian biofuel
utilization at the electric power stations, which are
currently available in the Netherlands.
The first stage of all pilot project options must
incorporate a preliminary feasibility study of
biomass production costs while calculating possible
prices ruling both at a port of shipment and at a port
of discharge or within an electric power station site.
The main task of the second stage is an analysis of
actual costs for every stage of biofuel production
and transportation. The most important task of the
third stage is an analysis of costs in the case of
expanding exports and determination of reasonable
prices for biofuel when implementing the
large-scale project, i.e. when proceeding from pilot
and pilot-industrial scales to the industrial one.
Y c m o i i ~ u ~pa36Umue
oe U ucnonb30sa~ue Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towards
Guomonnusa - nymb K peanu3a yuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona U the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
no~m~uenu~o KomnneKcnocmu ucnonmoeatiwz dpeeecunbr U mop$a utilization of wood raw material and peat

The problem of replacing black coal with biofuel is

one of the most important aspects of the Kyoto
Protocol implementation. Today there is a room for
development of the versions of a Complex
Programme at the Federal level for any Federal
Area and for Regions as well as for realization of
the pilot projects aimed at solving of this problem
with comparatively small expenses. With the most
use of the scientific potential of Saint Petersburg
and Arkhangelsk Universities and while basing on
elements of the appropriate industrial plants, which
are currently available in Russia, in Scandinavian
countries and in the Netherlands, one can develop
experimental process lines for biofuel preparation,
processing, transportation, and burning during a
short time. Owing to the use of the available
elements, capital costs will be considerably cut.
Production costs including the costs of scientific
support to the project will be much less than the
capital costs of creating any new process lines.
Besides, this way of resolving the problem allows
the minimizing of risks due to construction of new
industrial plants.

Taking into account the great international

importance of the Programme in solving the global
climate change challenges, it is advisable to
consider variants of financial support to the
Programme from funds not only of the
Governments of the countries concerned but also of
the European Union.
Having support from the Administration of the
North-Western Federal Area, of the Governments
of the Leningrad and Arkhangelsk Regions, it is
appropriate to make a proposal for the Ministry of
Industry, Science and Technologies of the Russian
Federation to insert such the project into the
sub-programme "Complex Use of Wood Raw
Material" of the Federal special-purpose scientific
and technical programme "R & D in priority lines
of progress of civilian-purpose science and
Ycmoiiwsoe pmeumue u ucnonb3osa~ue Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towardr
Guomomusa - nymb K peantuayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
n06bllUeHUlO KOMmeKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306UHlUl dpe8ecuHbl U mop& utilization of wood raw material and peat

I would like to dwell particularly on the points of

interaction with the UN Economic Commission for
Europe. The International Scientific and Practical
Conferences, which was held in the frameworks of
the Project aimed at development of the Russia's
Forest Sector (1999 - 2001, Saint Petersburg,
Arkhangelsk, Rotterdam), allowed to analyze the
state and prospects for the works in the field of
biofuel both in Russia and in Europe. The
Conferences can be considered to consititute a very
important step in information support to the
progress of this direction.
C~~OAHRIIIHIIX KoH@epeHuElR 3HaMeHyeT IIepeXOA OT Today's Conference marks the transition from pilot
nMnOTHbIX IIpOeKTOB no HCnOnb30BaHHIo GP~oToIIJIHB~K projects on biofuel use to working out and
pa3pa60~~e H peanasa~sa p e r ~ o ~ a n b ~ o cTpaTermi
ii implementation of a regional strategy for the
KOMnneKCHOI'O MClIOnb30BaHWR neCHbIX PeCYpCOB W complex use of forest resources and implementation
peWIH3auWH IIpkiHJ&illOB KAOTCKO~O IIpOTOKOna no of the Kyoto Protocol provisions concerning
npeAOTBpaIIQ3HWIo rno6anb~oro H3MeHeHMX KJIWMaTa. prevention of global climate change. This Strategy
Ta~arr CTpaTerHX BMWYaeT pa3pa60~~yKOHqenUHH suggests working out of the ideas of biomass
3 ~ c n o p ~ ~a H O M ~ C C ~3
~ I C e ~ e p o - 3 a n a ~ ~ operWoHa
ro exports from the North-Western Region of the
Poccafic~oii CDe~epaLwW H co3ga~kie cacTemI Russian Federation and creation of the system for
kiCIIOnb30BaHEIH ~ M O T O M M B ~B ~ ~ ~ H M H ~ P ~ 06nac~ki
A C K O ~ ~ using biofuel in the Leningrad Region on the basis
Ha 6a3e ~JIo'-IHo-MoAYJI~Ho~o PXAa ~ H W @ M ~ H ~ O B ~ H H ~ I X of a block-and-modular set of unified boilerhouses
KOTenbHbIX C OnTHManbHbIM HCnOnb30BaHWeM with optimized use of imported and domestic
HMllOPTHbIX W pocc~fic~1.1~ KOMnOHeHTOB. ~ P W components. While working out and realizing this
pa3pa60~~e H pCZUIH3a~WW3 ~ 0 f iCTpaTeruu 6 y ~ y.ITeH e ~ strategy, both the foreign practice of biofuel use and
KaK 3apy6em~b1fiOllbIT WCnOJIb30BaHWII 6ao~omasa,TaK that of the North-Westem Region will be taken into
EI n p a ~ ~ a s e c ~ aonbn
ii ero acnonbso~a~asr B Cesepo- consideration.
~ ~ ~ I ~ PerMOHe.
A H o M

In the Leningrad Region and in the North-Western

Federal Area the problems of sustainable forest
management can and must be solved with regard to
the prospects for the large-scale use of biofuel.

The prospects for development of the

Forestry-Industrial Complex of the Leningrad
Region and of the North-Westem Federal Area
prove to be coupled with the use of biofuel and with
its exports. The efficient use of biofuel and the
appropriate scientific support allow environmental
problems of the Region and of the Federal Area to
be also solved.

The UNECE support favourable investment climate

in the Region create reliable prospects for
development of the Forestry Sector, the Power
Industry, municipal economy, etc.
Ycmoiiweoe pmsumue u ucnonbsosa~ue Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towards
6uomonnusa - nymb K peanmayuu Kuomc~ozonpomo~onau the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
nosblweHuw K O M ~ ~ ~ K C H Oucnonb306a~~t1
C ~ U dpesecu~blu mop& utilization of wood raw material and peat

In the last 2-3 years, the Russian Pulp and Paper

Industry was demonstrating its recovery. Operation
of many pulp and paper mills is rather stable, there
is a progressive growth in their output and the
industry is being truly restructured. The output of
pulp and paper products has reached much as
70-80% of the level of 1988-89, i.e. of its peak.

However, for these years the global output of paper

and board was progressively increasing and as a
result, for the last 10-15 years, Russia's Pulp and
Paper Industry has slid from fourth position to
seventeenth. Russia's share in the global output of
paper and board has fallen from 5.2% to 1.6%.
ho6ana3aq~~ ~ ~ ~ J - I ~ I O ~ O ~ H O - ~Globalization
~ M W H O ~of~ the Pulp and Paper Industry
nPOMbIIUJIeHHOCTM CTWla PeaJIbHOCTbIO. O A H ~ K O became a new reality. However, we still can't speak
rOBOPATb 0 U ~ ~ ~ P O K O M ~ C I U T ~ M ~HHB~eC
X about large-scale investments into the Russia's
~ O C C M ~ ~ C1~enn10~103~0-6y~am~ym
K ~ I ~ npOMbILLIJIeHHOCTb Pulp and Paper Industry. A positive experience of
nOKa cue He npMXOAMTCR. ~0n0~M~eJIbHbIfi HpMMep the International Paper Company points to the fact
KoMnaHMM International Paper n o ~ a m s a e ~ that such a way is advisable.
~ e n e ~ 0 0 6 p a 3 TaKOrO
~ 0 ~ ~ bV H .
C~~OAH ~ MIoIT o ~ J I P ~ B o CTaHOBHTCR ~ 0 f i O ~ J I ~ C T ~
BK ) , Today biofuel becomes the area where radically
K O T O P O ~ ~ OTKPbIBaIOTCR IIpMH~MnHaJIbHO HOBbIe new prospects are being opened up for international
nepCneKTMBb1 AnR Me~HapOAHOrO COTpyAHMYeCTBa. cooperation. The European Programme of extended
E~poneiicKaR nporpaMMa pacruMpeHwrr M C ~ O J I ~ ~ O B ~ H M R use of renewable energy sources can best be carried
BOC~POM3BO~MMbIX MCTOYHMKOB 3HePrUM ~ a ~ 6 0 n e e out only on the basis of Russia's Forestry Complex.
~ ~ @ K T U B H OMOXeT 6b1~b peUIM3OBaHa TOnbKO Ha 6a3e Here we are above all dealing with reconstruction
p o c c ~ i i c ~ o rnecHoro
o KoMnneKca. Pesb, npeme Bcero, and expansion of the enterprises for chemical and
MAeT 0 PeKOHCTpyKUMM M PaCWMpeHMM Ha TeppMTOpMM mechanical wood processing on the territory of the
C e ~ e p o 3 a n a ~ ~ Qenepanb~oro
oro O ~ p y r anpe~npm~crii North-Westem Area and with simultaneous
no rny6o~ofiX M M M Y ~ C K OM~M~ ~ x ~ H M ~ ~ cnKe po e~p~a 6 o ~ ~ e production of biofuel followed by its direct and
ApeBeCMHbI npM OAHOBPeMeHHOM nPOB3BOACTBe indirect export.
~ M o T o ~ J I R B C~ er0 nPRMbIM M nM KOCBeHHbIM 3KCnOPTOM.
The Proposals of Vladimir Putin, the President of
the Russian Federation, to create the "EU - Russia"
common economic space opens radically new
horizons for realizing strategic programmes in

Together with the UN Economic Commission for

Europe and the Government of the Leningrad
Region, the SPb STUPP Department of Pulp and
Composites Technology and its Laboratory of
Information Technologies in the Forestry Complex
are working out such the strategic programme and
are ready for its implementation, scientific and staff
Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towar&
the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
utilization of wood raw material and peat

We invite all participants of the Conference to join

their efforts in the field of biofuel.

A.A. Benin
General Director of ZAO
Energy supply lays the foundation for progress in
science and technology, and sustainable vital
functions: economic growth is unfeasible unless the
issues energy supply are resolved. Currently
strained fuel balance therefore determines the
pressing issues or evaluating available energy
resources, and developing new, non-polluting
sources of energy and energy-saving technologies.

Renewable sources of energy in the RF contribute

to less than 0.1 per cent of total use. The 20-fold
(to about 2%) increase of their share by 2010, in
accordance with the new energy strategy, will be
still inadequate for a major forest power like Russia
(in particular, in view of deteriorating quality of
input in the oil industry and recession in oil-and-gas
production dominating the national fuel balance).

C e ~ e p o - s a n a ~ ~peraoH
b ~ f i (H . J I e ~ ~ ~ r p a 06nacTb
~ c ~ a aB The North West (including Leningrad Region) is
~) IIOnHOCTbIO 3aBHCHT OT almost totally dependent on imported energy
~PHBO~H~IX 3HepropecypcoB. T ~ K , exeroAHo B resources. Thus the region imports annual 800
~ ~ H H H ~ ~ ~ A06nac~b c K ~ I O~PHBO3RTCB OKOnO 800 TbIC. thousand ton coal as fuel for almost 40% regional
TOHH YIXR, RBnBIorrJerOCRTOnnMBOM npH6nEi3H~enbHoAn2 boiler houses. Annual black oil consumption
46% BCeX O ~ ~ ~ C T HKOTenbHbIX.~ I X ~ O A O B On~o ~ p e 6 n e ~ ~ e amounts to 400 thousand ton.
Ma3yTa B o 6 n a c ~n~p ~ 6 n ~ x a eK~ 400 c ~ TbIC. TOHH
Hpki 3TOM Ce~ep0-3ana~Hb1fiPerMOH o6na~ae~ Meanwhile the North West possesses immense
OrPOMHbIMH JIeCHbIMM 3anaCaMl-l - B HeM COCpeAOTOYeHO forest resources: over a half of those in European
6onee nOnOBHHb1 JIeCHbIX PeCypCOB e~poneficK0fiW C T H Russia. At the same time, the contribution of
POCCHH. B M ~ CCTTeM, ~ AOJI5I ApeBeCHOrO TOnnl-lBa, KaK firewood as a primary energy resource to the
nepsaworo 3~epropecypca,B s ~ e p r e ~ l - l r e c6ana~ce~o~ national fuel balance is over modest. Boiler houses
PerMOHa 6onee .IeM CKPOMHa. % C ~ O KOTenbHbIX,
using firewood as biofuel are very rare. Examples
kicnonbsyrn~~~ax ApesecHoe ~ H O T O ~ ~ HcwcnReTcrr
eAHHHuaMH. B KaLIeCTBe IIpHMepOB MOXHO IIpHBeCTH of such boiler houses are found in Leningrad
KOTenbHbIe B n e ~ l l ~ r p a0 ~6 n~ a~c ~~(Bf~n0C.
i ~ I I C H H OH Region (in Lisino estate and in Beloostrov near
B 5enooc~po~ 6 en ~ Cecpopeq~a),
3 Pecny6nH~eKapenua Sestroretsk). Karelian Republic (Priazhka and
(nocen~wn p m a H A ~ P ~ B ~ HKHaO n u~~)u, ~ r p a n c ~ o f i Dereviannoe estates) Kaliningrad (Pravdisk town)
Ycmoiilrueoepmeumue u ucnonmoeatiue Sustainable development and biopel use as a way towards
6uomonnusa- nymb K peanwayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
nosbnue~u~) dpesecu~blU mop4a
KomnneKcHocmu ucnonb30sa~u~1 utilization of wood raw material and peat

and Archangel Regions. The cases only provide

clear evidence of the very limited use of firewood in
the area.

B TO Xe BpeMR, TOJlbKO B n e ~ k i ~ r p a ~ oc 6~ n~ af ci ~ ~ On the other hand, forested area in Leningrad

nnouafib, s a ~ a necaMa,
~ a ~ cocTasnxeT 8.5 MnH. ra, a Region alone amounts to 8.5 mil hect. with
PaCqeTHafl JleCOCeKa - 12.3 MJIH.M) B rOA. B COOTBeTCTBMM estimated wood-cutting area of 12.3 mil m3 per
CO c ~ p y ~ ~ y ppoaici q e ~ ~ onecocemi
ii ( r p a a a ~Nc 1) 27% year. As is seen from estimated felling area
~ ~ ~ O T ~ B ~ M B ~ neca
~ M O InpaxoAwTcA
- o Ha O C H H ~He, structure (Fig. l). 27% of the stock falls to aspen
MMetOuytO ~ 6 b l ~ B a c a e p a ~TpaAM.IqHOHHOr0IIpMMeHeHHH wood commanding no ready market in traditional
ApeBeCHHbl. wood-using spheres.

PM BnaXHOCTM 40% TennOTa CrOpaHMR ApeBeCMHbI With 40% humidity, wood combustion heat is 2.44
COCTaBnReT 2.44 TbIC. K K ~ K T (An% CpaBHeHMR: tho kcaVkg (to compare: coal from Boksitogorsk
MCnOnb3yeMble B ~ ~ ~ H H H T P ~ A C K OO~~~J I ~ C T M used in Leningrad Region has the heating capacity
~OKCMTOTOPCKMGyrOnb XapaKTepM3yeTCR T ~ I I J I o T B o ~ H o ~ ~ of 4 to 4.5 tho kcaVkg, that from Inta 4.2 tho
C I ~ O C O ~ H O~C~TB~HKO~ 4-4.5
G, T~Ic.KK~LJI/KT,EIHTMHCKBG - kcalkg, and that from Kuzbass 4.5 to 6.15 tho
4.2 T ~ I c . K K ~ U Ky36acc~kifi
~/K~, - 4.5-6.15 T ~ I C . K n KpM~ K ~ kcalkg , with higher prices and considerable
6onee B ~ I C O K O ~ ~CTOWMOCTM M 3~aY~Tenb~0fi transport costs). Considering the efficiency of
H) COBpeMeHHbIX available domestic firewood boilers between 75%
OTeqeCTBeHHbIX KOTJIOB, pa60~amwsx Ha ApeBeCHOM and 80% and the 219-day heating season in the
TOnJlMBe, PaBHOM 7540% M ~ ~ o ~ o ~ x M T ~ ~ ~ H o c T M Region, this would be sufficient for aggregate boiler
OTOnMTenbHOrO Ce30Hl.a B O ~ ~ ~ C- T219 H ~Hefi3TOrO capacity of 480 GcaVhr, exceeding total heat
KOJlMqeCTBa TOnJIMBa AOCTaTOYHO AnR O ~ ~ C ~ ~ Y ~ H Wcapacity H of all boilers in Leningrad Region - as per
pa60~b1KOTnOB C Y M M ~ P H OTenn0~0fi
~~ MOwHOCTbH) OKOnO 0.1.O3.2OO1. Leningrad region operates 62 1 boiler
480 r ~ m / ~ a cYTO . , npeBbIuIaeT CyMMapHyIo TennoBym houses, including 48 1 and 140 institutional ones
neHMHrpa~CK0fio 6 n a c ~-~no AaHHbIM Ha 01.03.2001 r.
BCerO B ~ ~ H M H T P ~ A C K OO~~J I ~ C T Mp a 6 0 ~ a e ~621
KOTenbHaR, M 3 HMX MYHMuMlllLJIbHbIX 481 ki
Ycmoiilrueoepmsumue u ucnonb3oea~ue Sustainable development and biofiel use as a way towards
6uomomusa - nymb K peanwayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol in~plenzen ration and enhanced contplex
no8bimemro KoMnneKcHocmu ucnonb30eau~1
dpeeecunbl U mop$a utilization of wood raw material and peat

Ha r u e - 162 (26.1%); > Gas - 162 (26.1%);

Ha MuyTe - 124 (20%); 9 Black oil - 124 (20%);
Ha yrne - 279 (44.9%);
~a ~ o p a -
e 10 (1.61%); 9 Peat - 10 (1.6%);
Ha AM3enbHOM TOMaBe - 8 (1.B%); 9 Diesel oil - 8 (1X % ) ;
Ha ApeBeCHbIX OTXOAaX - 10 (1.61%); 9 Wood waste- 10(1.61%)
Ha cnaHse M CnaHueBoM Macne - 8 (1B % ) ; 9 Shaleand shale oil - 8 (1.28%);
Ha m e ~ ~ p ~ r e c3~epr1-1~
~ o i i - 20 (3.22%). > Electric power - 20 (3.22%).
~ O A ~ B J I I I E ~ X X ( ~ RrIaCTb KOTeJIbHbIX . ~ H M H I ' ~ ~ A c K oMost
~ ~ boiler houses in Leningrad Region and Saint
06nac.r~M Ca~KT-IIeTep6ypraCTpORnaCb B 50-70 TOAbI, Petersburg City were built between the 50s and 70s,
KorAa He cywecmosarro cneuaanbaoro 3 ~ e p r e ~ k i r e c ~ o r o with specialized fuel equipment lacking and
O ~ O ~ Y A O BOpHeHTkipOBaHHOrO
~HHX, Ha K O H K P ~ T H ~BMA
I~~ engineering designs ignoring fuel efficiency.
TOIIJIHBa, BCneACTBMe qer0 TeXHOnOrMreCKMe CXeMbI He Consequently, almost all boiler houses built during
C ~ O C O ~ C T B O B ~ . J I H PasMOHaJIbHOMy HCnOnb30BaHHH, that period feature excessive unit fuel consumption,
3 ~ e p r e ~ a r e c ~ onoTeHqtIana
ro Tonnasa. B c n e ~ c ~ s ~ e low efficiency (with current international standards
3TOr0 IIpaKTHreCKH BCe n0CTpOeHHbIe B Te rOAbI between 92 and 94%, minor coal boiler houses
KOTenbHbIe XaPaKTePM3YtOTCII llOBbIUleHHbIM YAenbHbIM average between 62 and 64%), and inadequate
PaCXOAOM TOnJMBa, HM3KEIM mfl ( T ~ Knpki , COBPeMeHHOM automatic combustion control and monitoring.
3 a p y 6 e X ~ 0 ~YpOBHe 92-94%, c p e ~ ~ k i f i Km AnH
H ~ ~ O J I ~ L L IKOTenbHbIX,
HX p a 6 0 ~ a m w ~Hax yrne - 62-65%),
ynpasneHm a KoHTpong HaA npoUeccoM ropeam.
Therefore more reliable, sustained and efficient heat
supply requires reconstruction - of many urban and
regional boiler houses, above all those using coal.
Obviously, this is also true about most areas in the
country. Within the reconstruction process,
conversion of available coal- and black-air boiler
houses to fuel wood would be beneficial both
technically and economically.

LEMO Concern specialized staff conducted

feasibility studies to optimize fuel selection for
boiler houses in Leningrad Region, using the
following criteria:

1. Economy (by cost price per l Gcal heat)

2. Recoupment
YcmoSvusoepmeumue U ucnontaosanue Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towards
6uomonnusa - nymb K pemmayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona U the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
KojumeKcnocmu ucnonb30eanm dpesecunbi U mop$a utilization of wood raw material and peat

Evaluation involved comparison of alternative

boiler fuel types with the same end effects. To
correlate the alternatives, we used unified heat-,
electric power and water supply tariffs, wages,
depreciation- and repair costs.

Evident differences in staff schedule, energy

consumption or required investment are governed
by specific features of boiler operation with
different fuel types.

1. Economy
Evaluation involved comparison of cost prices for 1
Gcal heat produced by a boiler plant of 3.6 Mw t
heat capacity (3.1 Gcal), using:

> coal;
> blackoil;
> natural gas;
> fuel wood (fiiewood chips).

The values were derived from typical operating data

(fuel prices etc.) for boiler houses in Leningrad
Ergoeconomic characteristics of different fuel types
analyzed are cross-tabulated in Fig. 2 (each point
derived from unit-weight or unit-volume price for
fuel by fuel efficiency). As seen from this diagram,
wood chips are inferior to natural gas alone in this

Ergoeconomic characteristic for specific boiler

fuel types

0.012 T-- - - r - - - r - - -1- - - 1

5 0.006 Series1

ras Uena Yronb Masyr gas chips coal black oil

Ycmoiiwsoe pmsumue u ucnonb3osa~ue Sustainable developtnent and biofuel use as a way towards
Guomomusa - nymb K peanwayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
n06btULeHUH)KOMl7.0eKCHOCmU UCnOJlb308UHUFI C ) P ~ S ~ C UUHm0p&l
~~ utilization of wood raw material and pent

Basic input values:

Fuel efficiency:
> black oil - 10000 KcaVkg
> coal (average) - 5000 kcaVkg
P natural gas - 8000 kcal/m3
> chips*' - 2440 kcallkg

Fuel costs (according to Regional Government data

as per 15.02.2001):
P black oil - 2850 rbI/ton
> yronb - 750-924 py6.1~(B pacseTe npHHaT c p e n ~ ~ i i > coal- 750-924 rbilton (average value used)
> natural gas - 458 rbV 1000 m3
chips*' - 181 rbU m3 area or 304 rbllton
*l with 40% humidity
Costs of chips are derived from the selling price
offered by Lsino U01 (fuel chips producer) and
effective carrier's tariffs (assuming a 75 km
Boiler house efficiency (average for each specific
fuel type, depending on appropriate boiler
> yronb - 75% > coal -.75%
P black oil -. 85%
P natural gas - 90%
P chips - 78%.
Capital boiler construction costs
Estimates start from the costs of a turnkey boiler
construction project with specified capacity, using
firewood chips. Findings from expert examination
for other fuel types indicate:

P comparable capital costs for gas- and chips

boiler houses similar in other respects;
P capital construction costs of a similar black-oil
boiler house amounting to 80% of those for a
chips boiler;
Ycmofivueoepmeumue u ucnonb3oea~ue Sustainable development and biufiel use as a way towards
Guomomuea - nymb Kpemwayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protorol implementation and enhanced w m p k x
nO6bllUeHUK) KOMilJleKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306UHWI d p e e e c ~ ~ Ub lmop&l utilization qf wood raw rnaterial and peat

> capital construction costs of a coal boiler house

comprising between 150 and 180% of those for
a chips boiler house.
The resulting cost price estimates for l Gcal heat
with different fuel types, for a 3.6 MW t (3.1 Gcal)
capacity boiler house in Leningrad Region are:

> with coal - $14.9

> with black oil - $15.6
P with natural gas - $6.34
> with chips - $10.02
T ~ K H OM~ P W O M , Ha OCHOBaHkiki BbInOnHeHHOrO PaCYeTa The findings clearly demonstrate that using wood
MOXHO OAH03HaYHO TOBOPkiTb 0 TOM, 9TO B chips as a substitute for black oil and coal in
neHHHrpaJJCK0fi 06nac.r~kiCnOJIb3OBaHkie IQenbI BMeCTO Leningrad Region is both economically advisable
Ma3yTa ki yrnR OIIpaBAaHO ki ~ @ @ ~ K T ? B H O C and feasible.
O ~ ~ 3peHkiR.
~ K O H O M M Y ~ C KTOZIKki

Obviously, findings for Leningrad Region would be

true for other (at least forested) areas in Russia.

In terms of cost price for 1 Gcal heat produced,

chips are inferior to natural gas alone. In addition,
two more points are noteworthy:
PaCYeT C~~~CTOMMOCTM eAMHMUb1 Tenna, cost price estimates for unit heat produced by
~b1pa6aTb1~aeM0r0 ra30~0fi KoTenb~ofi, BbInOnHeH gas boiler house assumed the distance between
the boiler house and available gas main
cywecmymwero ra3onpoBoAa pama 0; equaling zero;
cost price estimates ignored the tendency for
increased domestic gas prices, as specified by
Russia's fuel and energy complex (TEK)
C O ~ J I ~ C H3KCnepTH0k
O OueHKe, CTOMMOCTb 1 M According to expert opinion, the costs of 1 m direct
rmonpoBoAa, n o ~ a m q e r o ra3 HenocpeAcTseHHo K gas main to boiler house amount (as per
Ko~enbHofi,COCTaBnReT (no AaHHbIM Ha 15.02.2001 r.) 15.02.2001) to 3000 rbi (or $105.3 at the current
3000 py6. ( m ~$105.3 npw Kypce 28.5 py6./$). rate of 28.5 rbl). Our analysis of the relationship
~ b ~ f i3aBMCMMOCTM C ~ ~ ~ C T O M M O C T1M
n p o ~ e ~ e ~ aHWIM3 between the cost price for 1 Gcal heat produced by
TKW, ~b1pa60~aHHofi ra30~0fi~~TenbHofi, OT PaCCTORHMH a gas boiler house and the boiler houselgas main
K ~ T e n b ~OT~ fR330npOBO,Qa,
i IIOKWWI, YTO ~ ~ @ K T M B H O C T ~ distance indicates that gas is more efficient than
MCnOJIb30BaHMR M38 B CPaBHeHMM CO u e l l 0 ~ chips only within the distance of 6.4 km.
OrpaHMYMBaeTCR no C ~ ~ ~ C T O M M O C TeHAMHMUbI Tenna
YAWeHHOCTbW K O T ~ JbI ~ 0 f i OT ~ ~ ~ O I I ~ O B O A ~ ,
ocra~nmoqefi6,4 KM.
Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towards
the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced contplex
utilization of wood raw material and peat

The TEK strategy for Russia involves significant

rise in domestic prices for natural gas: between $27
and $3011000 m3 by 2005, with a maximum
approximation to worldwide prices by 20 10.

POCTC ~ ~ ~ C T O A M O C T1H ~ K ~ Tenna,

J I ~ b r p a 6 a ~ ~ ~ a e ~ o rHigher
o cost prices per 1 Gcal heat produced by a
ra30~0fi K O T ~ J I ~ H OC~ YreTOM
~ BpeMeHHbIX M3Me~eHMii gas boiler, accounting for temporal changes in
BHYTPeHHMX e H Ha T a 3 6b1n PaCCYMTaH AnR nRTM domestic gas prices, were estimated for five gas
BapMaHTOB paCnOnOXeHMX ra30~0G K0TeJIbH0fi boiler locations with respect to available gas main
O T H O C M T ~ ~ ~ HcOy ~ e c ~ ~ y 1 o ~ 1 ~rea1
3 -00n p 0 ~ 0 ~ a- Ha at a distance of 0, 1 , 2 , 3 and 4 km.
PaCCTORHMU 0, 1,2, 3 11 4 KM.
C n e ~ y OTMeTMTb,
e~ YTO npM paCnOnOXeHM11 ~0~enbHofi B Notice that with the boiler house located in the
H ~ ~ O C ~ ~ A C T B ~ H 6nw30c~a
H O ~ ~ OT ra30np0BOAa7 immediate vicinity to the gas main, cost price per 1
C ~ ~ ~ C T O H M O C1
T~ ~ K U HpM MCnOnb30BaHMM ra3a Gcal with gas will match that for wood chips by
AOCTMrHeT YPOBHR C ~ ~ ~ C T O M M O C T M 1 rKaJ'l npki 2008; with i km to the gas main the same will occur
MCIIOJIb30BaHHH UenbI K 2008 rOAy; np11 paCCTORH11tl OT by 2007, with 2 km by late 2006, with 3 km by mid-
ra3onpoBoAa, paBHoM l KM,TO n p o a 3 0 f i ~ eB~2007 roAy, 2005, and with 4000 km by 2004. Since gas boiler
2 KM - K K O H L I ~2006 rona, 3 KM - B cepenme 2005 M construction in rural areas requires much longer
4000 KM - B 2004 rOAy. ~ O C K O J ~ KB ~ ceJlbcK0fi gas-"extensions", it is reasonable to believe that, in
MeCTHOCTM npki CTpOMTenbCTBe ra30~0fi ~0~enbH0fi terms of 1 Gcal cost price, chips are already
O ~ ~ I ~ Hnpki OXOAMTCR <<TRHJ"I'b>> ra3 Ha 6onee comparable to natural gas (with rare exceptions of
3HaYMTeJIbHbIe PaCCTOXHMR, TO CnpaBeanMBbIM RBnReTCX new boiler houses built next to the gas main).
yTsepmeHwe o TOM, YTO y x e cefirac Anx cenbc~ofi
MeCTHOCTM no nOKa3aTeJIIo C ~ ~ ~ C T O M M O C1T ~~ ~K W I
B ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ T ~ I B TenJIa
~ ~ M Uena
o I ' o COnOCTaBMMa C
CTpOMTenbCTBa HOBO^^ Ko~eJIbHofi B H ~ ~ O C ~ ~ A C T B ~ H H O ~ ~
~ ~ M ~ O CC T~ A~ ~ O ~ ~ O B O A O M ) .

2. Recoupment
nep~b1fiK P M T ~ P M ~b16opa
~~ - 3KOHOMMYHOCTb TOnJ'lMBa The first guideline for selection - fuel economy
(C~~~CTOMM 1 OrKan
C T ~ Tenna, sb1pa6a~b1~ae~o1-o (cost price per 1 Gcal heat produced by the boiler
~0~enbH0fi) n03BOJlReT COnOCTaBMTb TeKyUMe house) allows comparison of typical current
( ~ K C ~ J I ~ ~ T ~ ~ 3aTpaTb1,
M O H H ~XapaKTepHbIe
I~) An2 (operating) costs for minor-capacity boiler houses
KOTeJIbHbIX ~e60nbuofiT ~ ~ J I O BMOOU ~H~OCTM npM p a 6 o ~ e using different fuel types. Since comparison
Ha pa3HbIX BMAaX TOnnMBa. ~ O C K O J I ~ KnP YM CPaBHeHMM analysis involves total costs, the second guideline
BapMaHTOB H ~ O ~ X O ~ M MYrMTbIBaTb
O BCe 3aTpaTb1, B represented the pay-off period (as a value showing a
KaYeCTBe BTOpOrO KPMTePMR ~b16paHCPOK OKynaeMOCTM linear relationship with capital costs).
( K ~n0Ka3aTenb7
K H ~ X O A R ~ M ~ B~ nMHefiH0fi
OT BenMSMHbI 3aTpaT KanMTaJl bHOr0 x a p a ~ ~ e p a ) .

For correlated repayment analysis, we used the

unified fuel tariff (as per 15.02.2001 in Gatchinski
District Leningrad Region).
Ycmoiivusoe pa3sumue u ucnonb3osa~ue Sustainable development and biofiel use as a way towards
6uomonnusa - nymb K peanu3ayuu Kuomc~ozonpomorcona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
nOBb1lUeHUK)KOMnneKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306aHlM dpe6eCU~blU mop& utilization of wood raw material andpeat

In the rate-of-return approach, a boiler using natural

wood pulp as fuel is inferior to gas boiler alone
(assuming zero distance between the latter and
available gas main). The pay-off period for coal-
and black-oil boiler houses is very long: 13.3 and
6.8 years respectively (Fig 3).

With gas fuel, the pay-off period is also largely

dependent on the distance to the gas main. With
dependent on the distance to the gas main. With the
gas main at a distance between 800 and 900 m to
the boiler house, the latter's rate of return is at least
similar to that of a chips boiler house of the same
capacity; with a distance between 900 and 1100 01,
comparable to that of a chips boiler house of the
same capacity. With a distance over 1,l km, the rate
of return for a boiler house using chips as fuel is
superior to the case of natural gas.

T ~ K H06pa30~,
M ra3 no B ~ I ~ ~ ~ HKPHMT~ePM I R
MM OUeHKM This means that, using the criteria of our choice
M CPOKY O K Y ~ ~ ~ M O C T U ) and rate of return), gas is only superior to
npmneKaTenbHee uenbI TonbKo B cnyrae, ecnw chips where the nearest gas main is not farther than
6n~xafillr~i3 ra30npOBOA HaXOAMTCR Ha paCCT0RHMI-i OT 1.5-2 km from the boiler house. This is true with
KoTenb~ofi, COCTaBnRIoueM He 6onee 1.5-2 KM. 3 ~ a effective domestic prices for natural gas for the 15t
OueHKa CnpaBeAJIMBa B OTHOLUeHMM BHYTPeHHMX 4eH Ha quarter 2001. In the nearest future (within 3 to 5
~ ~ A ~ ~ ~ c T B Y I ~ L I JBM Ix KBapTae 2001 r. B
I ~ P M P O A H ~ I ra3, years), with gas prices rising at the rate specifies in
~pa~qafiruwfi nepMoA (3-5 n e ~ )npM pocTe qeH Ha ra3, Russia's TEK strategy, the advantages of chips over
COOTBeTCTByIoueM TeMnaM, OIlpeAeneHHbIM B CTpaTerMM natural gas (using the guidelines described here)
~ ~ ~ B M T M T3K R POCCMM, npeMMyuecTsa WenbI nepeg will be obvious in any other context.
IIPMPOnHbIM Ta30M (no B ~ I ~ ~ ~ HB pH a~6 oI ~MeKPMT~PMHM)
6 y ~ y THeCOMHeHHbI IlpM n1o6b1x npOYMX yCnOBMRX.
Ycmoiiw6oe pmsumue u ucnonbsosa~ue Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towards
6uomomuea - nymb K peunzuayuu Kuomc~ozonpomorcona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
n06bllUeHUK)KOMnJleKCHOCmU UCnOnb306aHUR dpe6ecu~blU m0p@a utilization of wood raw material and peat

Notice also that firewood chips as fuel for boiler

rooms of low heat capacity (1 to 10 MW t) are of
current significance because the Gazprom,
considering the economic growth with reduced gas
production and obviating the need to reduce gas
export, calls for reduced domestic gas consumption
through alternative fuel types (according to
Gazprom conception, domestic gas consumption is
to be reduced by 30 mlrd cu m by 2003).
BHyTpeHHee n o ~ p e 6 n e ~rma
~ e AonxcHo CoKpaTmbcH Ha
30 MAP& M').
The advantages of firewood are not restricted to
economic factors. Using biofuel permits to:

relieve the country's fuel balance tension by

reducing the energy shortage;

save the nonrenewable resources through

renewable substitutes;
increase the country's export potential by saving
the export-oriented energy sources (gas, oil
products) ;
Ycmoiiw6oe pmsumue ti ucnonb306a~ue Sustainable developinent and Oiofuel use as a way towards
o'uonionnu6a - nymb K peanu3ayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol impletnentation and enhanced complex
U m0p&l
n06blZUeHUK)KOMiWleKCHOCnZU UCnOJlb306UHUII dpe6e~~Hbl utilization of wood raw material and peat

> enhance timber purchasing in view of increased

current demand for low-grade wood and
> create new jobs (in felling and fuel industries);

> contribute beneficially to regional and local

Biofuel is naturally decentralized and therefore
easily integrated in local forms of economic
H e o 6 x o ~ ~n ~o ~
o p o 6 ~ eOCTaHOBMTbCII
e ewe Ha OAHOM One aspect should be described in more detail,
acnewe Bonpoca - 3 ~ o n o r ~ q e c ~ B o ~K. ~ O Y ~ H M ~namely ecology. Incorporation of environmental
3KOnOrMYeCKMX @ ~ K T O ~ O B CMCTeMY 3KOHOMMYeCKMX factors in economic evaluation framework is typical
OueHOK XapaKTepHO AnII BCeX Pa3BMTblX CTpaH M OueHKM for all well developed countries, and their values are
3TOTO @a~Topa PaCTyT 6brc~peeApyTMX. growing faster than others.
TEK enterprises in Russia discharge over 48% of
air pollutants in all sectors of economy, and the
TEK is responsible for 60% of industrial pollution.

B o 6 q e ~~ o ~ o n o ~ p e 6 nB eP@
~ ~ AonH
u npe~npua~~fi TEK enterprises are responsible for 30% of total
T3K COCTaBJlHeT 30%, a B npOMb1LLIneHHOM CeKTOpe - water use in the RF, and over 60% in industry. At
6onee 65%. M3 06qero 0 6 ' b e ~ a c6pacbl~ae~blxB the same time, the TEK is responsible for almost
nOBepXHOCTHble BOAOeMbI 3aTPH3HeHHblX CTOYHblX BOA Ha 26% of surface wastewater discharge.
Aonm T3K npMXOAMTCH OKOnO 26%.
Adverse environmental effects of TEK enterprises
involve discharge or emission of organic and
inorganic (including radioactive) substances, waste
disposal, storage and transportation losses, as well
as land and soil withdrawal or degradation due to
waste warehousing or pumping, under-flooding,
under-working, changing seismological and tectonic
conditions, etc.

TEK enterprises largely influence global climate as

atmospheric pollution contributes to ozone-layer
degradation and enhanced hotbed effect (70%
hotbed gases entering the atmosphere with TEK
industrial emission).

Ecological evaluation of existing TEK projects is

particularly important with conversion to renewable
energy sources and minor- and unconventional
energy projects.
Sustainable developr~zerztand biojkel use as a way towards
the Kyoto protocol inzplenzetztation and enhanced c o ~ ~ ~ p l e . ~
utilizatiott qf wood raw rnaterial atzd peat

B TereHMe nocneawix 25-30 neT ApesecHoe 6 ~ o ~ o n n ~ ~ Ino the past 25-30 years, firewood as biofuel has
UIMPOKO MCnOJlb3YeTCR pa3BMTbIME.I CTpaHaMR An% been much used in well-developed countries in heat
B ~ I ~ ~ ~ OTenna
T K WM 3 n e ~ ~ p o s ~ e p r k i ~ . and electric power generation.
Among the examples of biofuel use in power
engineering is the McNeil electric power station, a
major biopulp-fed plant brought into service in
Burmington (Vermont, US) over ten years ago. The
station has electric power capacity of 50 MWt.

An undoubted leader in using woodfire as biofuel,

however, is Sweden where a riksdag decision of
1997 initiated a comprehensive program for energy
policy, promoting new energy technologies and
renewable fuel types.

3a IlepMOA C 1970 no 1997 rr. IlPOB3BOACTBO 3HePTMM B Between 1970 and. 1997, energy generation in
~ B ~ ~BbIpOCnO
M M Ha 36%; 3HaWiTenbHbIe M3MeHeHMR Sweden increased by 36%; the energy structure was
npeTepIIeJIa 3a 3TO BpeMH CTpyKTypa npOM3BOACTBa modified significantly: in 1970 oil and oil products
3 ~ e p r m- ecna B 1970 roAy 3a cveT ~ c n o n b s o s a ~ m were responsible for 77% of national energy
H ~ @ T H Pi H ~ @ T ~ ~ ~ O A ~ 6b1no
K T O BBb1pa60TaH0 77% Bcefi generation, by 1997 the share amounted to 33%
3~ep1-mB cTpaHe, TO B 1997 roAy 3 ~ qa@pa a cocTaBnna only, while the share of energy generated with
nurub 33%, B TO me s p e m B TeyeHMe 3 ~ o r onepMoaa firewood as biofuel increased from 9% in 1970 to
~ospocna AonR ~ H ~ P ~ Msb1pa6a~b1sae~oii
M, c 15% in 1997, and is still growing.
MCnOJIb3OBaHMeM J(peBeCHOr0 6 ~ o ~ o n n k i sC a9% B 1970
rosy ~o 15% B 1997 r. M TOT n o ~ a 3 a ~ e nnpoAonxaeT
E c n ~rOBOPMTb 0 ~ b l p a 6 0 T ~~ee n n 0 ~ 03HePTMM,
fi TO AOnR As regards heat generation, the share of firewood
ApeBeCHOrO TOnnMBa B COCTaBe APYTMX, MCnOnb30BaHHbIX among other types involved exceeded 33% (for
AnR nonyyeHm Tenna, npesbrcMna 33% cnpamu: B reference: in 1980, oil comprised over 90% of fuel
1980 rosy 6onee 90% Tonnma, ~ c n o n b s y e ~ o rAnrr o used in heat generation). Between 1990 and 1997,
the amount of firewood used by heat plants
increased by a factor of four. By 1998 the use of
firewood biofuel increased by 7%, as compared to

npM~eYaTenbH0, YTO npMMeHeHMe 6~oronn~sa Characteristically, biofuel has been increasingly

npOMCXOAMT B TeX OTpaCnRX, Ha AOnto KOTOPblX used in the industries responsible for the better part
of national energy consumption.
Ycmofwsoe pmsumue u ucnonb3osa~ue Sustainable developr~zentand biohel use as a way towards
6uomonnuea - nymb K peanwayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
nosbzweHum KomzneKcriocrnu U C ~ O J - I ~ ~ O Hdpeeecumz
~HW~ u mopijba utilization of wood raw material and peat

It must be emphasized that, while per capita electric

power consumption in Sweden ranks the world's 4th
(following Norway, Iceland and Canada), the share
of electric power generated with mineral fuel is
relatively small in the international context.

Total carbon dioxide emission of the Swedish

energy system decreased by 30% Between 1980 and
1997, so that current per capita carbon dioxide
emission there is lower than the average for most
world countries (Sweden being inferior in this
respect to Turkey, Mexico and Portugal only).

0 6 0 6 ~ tCKaaHHOe,
~ MOXHO CAenaTb HeIIpenoXHb~fi To summarize, we can state with assurance. that for
BbIBOA 0 TOM, 'IT0 AnIl PeTROHOB, 06na~amt41ix much forested areas conversion to firewood unusual
3Ha'INTeJlbHbIM neCHbIM @OHAOM, IIepeXOfl Ha in Russia, with gradual and partial substitution for
HeTPaAMqPiOHHOe WIl POCCMHApeBeCHOe TOHJlklBO C traditional fuel types, Is one of the few feasible and
H oC~T~M Y H 3
I I o c T ~ ~ ~ HW Oa~~
~ e ~ 0 MM
f i TPaAMUHOHHbIX efficient ways to an integrated solution for problems
BkIAOB TOnJIMBa RBJIReTCR OAHkIM M 3 HeMHOrHX of energy supply and sustainable forest
B03MOXHbIX M ~au6onee~ @ @ ~ K T M B H ~rry~efiIX PeLLIeHkiR management.
3 ~ e p r e ~ ~ r encp o
~ 6mn e ~ a n p o 6 n e ~ y c ~ o f i r a ~ o r o
To test the feasibility of the program to convert
municipal boiler houses to firewood as biofuel, the
LEMO Concern, at its own expense and inviting the
collaboration of key organizations in heat and
energy generation, developed a pilot project for a
3.6 MW t capacity boiler house using firewood
chips. The project involves construction of a
municipal boiler house in Shpankovo village
Gatchina District Leningrad Region, with
subsequent circulation.

B HacToxrqee s p e m K o ~ s e p<<J]CEMO>>
~ Tame 3a creT The LEMO Concern is currently engaged, likewise
C O ~ C T B ~ H H ~ ICpeACTB
X OCyueCTBnReT PeKOHCTpyWHlO at its own expense, in reconstructing the boiler
~ o ~ e n b ~Bocene f i Kpac~oosep~oe llpwosepc~oropafio~a house in Krasnoozernoe village Priozersk District
~ ~ H F I H ~ ~ ~ A c oK 6o n~ a~c ~ ~ C WeJIbm 3aMeHb1 Leningrad Region, replacing the existing boilers
yCTaH0BneHHbIX TaM KOTnOB Ha pa6o~am1q~ie Ha with those using firewood chips; reconstruction
T O ~ J I M B H O ~uelle;
~ B PaMKaX peKOHCTpyKL(FiM nnaHklpyeTCIl plans also involve a new fuel feeder device and a
ycTaHoma TonnsBonoAamuero y c ~ p o i i c ~s~ca o 3 ~ a ~ ~ e timber yard.
cwrana Tonnma.
Ycmoiiwisoe passumue u ucnonb30sanue Sustainable developiizent and biofuel use as a way towards
6uomonnusa - nymb K peanwayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol inzplenzentation and enhanced cornplrs
n06blUieHUH)KOMiUleKCHOCmU UCnOflb306aHMBd p e ~ e ~U~mop&
~bl utilization of wood raw rnaterial and peat

B s a w r m r e ~ ~cen e ~ y en~o ~ r e p ~ ~ y.ITO~ b p, a 3 ~ ~ ~ In ~ conclusion

e it should be emphasized that bio-pulp
3 ~ e p r e ~ k x r e c ~~ue xx ~ o n o r u~a
f i p a c ~ ~ ~ e n b6~uoo ~
f ia c c e energy technologies are developed in more
npoMcxonkIT B P ~ B U T ~ I XCTpaHax B O ~ C T ~ H O B K ~ advanced countries with legislative, economic and
s a ~ o ~ o ~ a ~ e n b~ K~OoHfOi M, W S ~ C K O MG O ~ T ~ H H ~ ~ ~ B O H H organizational
O ~ ~ support from the State because there
n o ~ e p x ~ rocynapcrea,
u 6e3 KOTOP~IX p e m ~ 3 a ~ ~is~ no other way in which programs for partial
nporpaMM rac~wraofi 3 a ~ e ~ bTpaAauwoHHbIx 1 TonnaB substitution of renewable energy resources for
B O ~ O ~ H O B ~ R ~ M ~ I M~ W H~~I'~TH.I~CKMMM pecypcaMki conventional fuel types can be implemented.



H e o 6 x o a u ~ o nepeii~1.i K ~ P O M ~ B O A C T B Y yma 06ecneqw~at0~ero3KonorMrecKym ~ M C T O T ~M

s ~ e p r o c 6 e p e x e ~)~$ te~ . p e a n m a ~ ~( T~O~G UenM M ~ pI a 3 p a 6 o ~ a nycTaHosKM
~ n ~ p o n ~ 3ApesecMHbt
a HoBoro mna.
OHM C ~ O C O ~ H MCnOnb30BaTb
~ I JleCOCeqHble OTXOAbl, HeTOBaPHYtO ApeBeCMHY, OTXOAbI ~ e p e ~ o o 6 p a 6 0 ~ ~ ~
~ ~ O M ~ B O , ~ C-T 3KOJlOrMLleCKM
BO 6e30nac~oe,M KallMT~OBJlOXeHMHMMHMMLUlbHbl. Bb16wpa~nPOM3BOAMTeJlbHOCTb
KOTOPbIe C O ~ W P ~ ~ O TBC6nM I I3M YCTaHOBKM (B PaAMyCe He AaJlee 50 KM),q~06biM36eXa~bPaCXOAOB n0 nepeBO3Ke
Ycmoikusoepm6umue u ucnonb3oea~ue Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way toward.\
Guomonnusa - nymb K peanmayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced conzp1e.a
~O6bllUeHUIOKOM?lJLeKCHOCmUUCnOJlb306UHUtI dpesecu~blU m0p&2 utilization o f wood raw rnaterial and peal

~ O M M M On e Y M Y C T a H O B K a COCTOMT M3 C K n a A a C b l p h H , nJIOll&3AKU n0,QrOTOBKM C b l P b R C H M J I o ~ ~M KOJIYHOM,

n O A ' b e M H O r 0 K p a H a , O n O p H b l X Il0,QCTaBOK A n R P e T O p T , Y C T P O ~ ~ C T B 3aTPY3KM M p a 3 r p y 3 K M PeTOpT, ~ ~ I T O B K M
a H r a p a AnR y n a K o r m i M c K n a A M p o s a H m ~ P O A Y K U M Mn
, o r p y 3 ~ (p~c.2).
YcmoUIwsoe passumue u ucnonbsosame Sustainable development and biofuet use as a way towards
6uomonnusa - nymb K peanusayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
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ceaepo-3ana~~oro p e r H o H a senecoo6pmao o p r a ~ a 3 0 s a ~CbO ~ C T B ~ H H ~O~~O H ~ B O A C T B aO n o c T a a K y n e n n e T o K B
A p y r H e P e r H O H b I POCCHH ki B E~pony. TO nOBbICHT p e H ~ a 6 e n b H o c ~ Nb K O H K ~ ~ ~ H T H O C ~ O C O ~ HOCHOBHOrO OCT~

H a n o r o s b l e JIbrOTbl M O T XBNTbCH AOnOnHMTeJIbHbIM NCTOYHNKOM @ N H ~ H C U P O B ~ H W IAn5I

I l l p e ~ l T p H 5 l ~ H fNi @ N ~ M
nm6ofi @ O P M ~ I C O ~ C T B ~ H H O C T HWCnOnb3yIOUlNX
, ~ H O T O ~ ~ H (BAOP ~ B ~ C HOTXOA~I)
~ I ~ AJM npOM3BOACTBa ~ e n J I 0 ~ 0 H
i e p r M N . &IH
3 n e ~ T p M Y e ~ K 0 3f H 3 T O r 0 H ~ O ~ X O A H MpOa 3 p a 6 0 ~ a ~lIpaBOByH3
3aKOHaM H HpOBeCTH HX %pe3 P e r H O H a n b H b I e n a p n a M e H T b I ( H n N AiUKe sepe3 ~ H yHMJy ~P@).
O C ~ A ~ ~ C T B ~A O
Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towardr
the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
utilization of wood raw material and p t

C n e A y e T I I O A ~ e p K H J T b COUHaJIbHbIe aCneKTbI <<npoI'paMMbl MOAepHH3aIJRH KOTeJIbHbIXD LIJIII P e r H O H a . Bo-
IIepBbIX,- CO3AaHHe HOBbIX pa6orm MeCT I I p H 3aTOTOBKe H nepepa60~~e
ApeBeCHOrO T O M B B a ; I I p H r e M CO3AaBaTbCII
~~ Bo-BTOP~IX,-
6e3pa60~~1~b1. IIOBbIUIeHBe ~ H ~ P T O O ~ ~ C I I ~ W H H OB C T B
K O M @ O P T ~HaCeJIeHUII. y n y W I I e H B e CpeAbI O ~ ~ ~ T ~ H E III,
CHE9KeHHe 3aTPII3HeHEIII 0 K p y ~ a K ) U e f iCpeAbI.

U ~ C T ~C.M.
k i 3 ~ 0 T e ~ n e p a T y p H a BUXpeBaII
II TeXHOJIO~HIICXHraHlnn ~ p o 6 n e ~ o TOIInMBa
3 a m U T b I OKpyXaIoIQefi CpeAbI. - A B T O p e 4 e p a T AMCC. H a COHCK. y9. CTeIIeHM A.T.H. - Cl36.: M38-BO CIIGTTY, 1999. -
40 c.
Ycmoii~~usoe pa3sumue u ucnonbsosa~ue Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towards
Guomonnusa - nymb K peanu3ayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced cornplex
U mop&
nO8blUleHUlO KOMnrleKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306UHUX c)pe@ec~~bl utilization of wood raw material and peat

~ ~ C T ~ KC.M.,
O B TPMHY~HKO A.A., K0361peB P.C. A ~ a n m~ ~ J ~ ~ C O O ~ ~nepeBoAa
~ ~ H O CMa3yTHbIX
KOTenbHbIX Ha CXMlTiHWe ApeBeCHbIX OTXOAOB // H ~ ~ ' - I H O - I I ~ ~ K K
T ~ X H O ~ O 3Hepr0~6epeXCeHM5I
~ M ~ ~ B np0MbIUneHHOCTb I? KOMMyHaJIbHOe X O ~ I I ~ T Te3~cb1
BO. AOMaAOB. C ~ H K T -
ne~ep6ypr,24-26 O K T R ~ P H2000 r.. - CH6, . - C. 70-76.

T ~ H ~ R KB.& OB Victor K. Teplyakov, Ph.D.

Koopdu~amopf l e c ~ o fnpozpmmbz
i Forest Programme Coordinator
ITpedcnzasunzenbcm60 IUCN - IUCN Office for CIS
B c e ~ u p ~ o C0lo3a
zo O~paHbl
Jlpupod~dnx cmpaH CHT
c<Bax~ocmb u ~eo6xodwnocmb ucnonb306a~m u 'The importance and necessity of use and increase
no6bzute~m 3 a q u m ~ ~qx3 y ~ ~ q u ineca i cma~osumcfi of preserving forest functions become especially
OCO~~HHO s~avumenmoii t-3 Hame epenlrz - s s e ~ important during our time, during the century of
yp6a~u3ayuu u u~dycnzpumu3aquu - 6 c6fi3u c urbanization and industrialization, due to the
H ~ O ~ X O ~ U . V O C ~ ~ynywueHux
K , m e z u ~ e f i cpedbl, necessity to improve the environment, which
o ~ p y x a l o u ~ e f i~ e n o s e ~ a ,ycrnpaHeHm onamocmu surrounds human beings, and to eliminate the
~ u c n o p o d ~ o z o zonoda~ux, ~amacmpoq3u~ec~ozo threat of oxygen deficiency, catastrophic pollution
~ ~ Z P A ~ H ~ H U amocq5ep~ozo
I E sosdyxa u sodbza of atmosphere and water' (I. S. ~ e l e k h o v ' ) .
(MC.~ e n e x o s ' )
Lately, the Kyoto Protocol issue gained special
attention, which led to special Russian Federation
State Duma hearings on 18 June 2001.
Unfortunately, yet again, there was no deep
discussion about the problems of greenhouse gas
absorbers, especially forests
The global value of forest, the basis for the building
material of which is carbon dioxide, is known not
only to the specialists. Forests have positive effects
on all natural levels: atmosphere, hydrosphere, soil,
fauna, human beings. Forests form a climate, and
their influence extends far beyond the territories
where they grow.
Years of research2 showed that the most cost-
effective natural phenomenon, which accumulates
on long-term basis carbon dioxide from atmosphere,
is forest vegetation.
& I M T ~ ~ ~ H BpeMR
o ~ CYMTi3.JIOCb,YTO HaM60Jlb~1MfiB m B For a long time it was considered that the most
npoayucrpoBaHMe 6 ~ o ~ a c c b 1 Ha nnaHeTe M, input in biomass production on the planet, and
cneAosaTenbHo, B AmaMMKe yrnepoaa BHOCMT M M P O B O ~ ~ consequently in the carbon dynamics, is brought by
OKeaH ( O K O ~80%).
O B pe3ynbTaTe BbInOnHeHMH B 1957- the World Ocean (around 80%). As the result of
1967 rr. M e w y ~ a p o & ~ o6i ui o n o r ~ ~ e c ~ np0rpaMMbI
ofi carrying out the International Biological Program
< < ~ W ~ O BM~ K6woc@epa>>yCTaHOBneH0 nO9TM llP5IMO "Man and the Biosphere" in 1957-1967 almost
npoTmononoxHoe cooTHomeHMe: cyrua, cocrasnmouaH opposite was established: land, which makes up
MeHee 30% nOBepXHOCTM 3eMnM nPOM3BOAMT nOYTM 213 30% of the Earth's surface, produces almost 213 of
~ W O M ~ C C ~ I . ~ the b i ~ m a s s . ~
YcmoLwsoe passumue u ucnonb3oea~ue Sustainable development and biofiel use as a way towards
6uomomuaa - nymb K peanusayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol inzplementation and enhancrd cornplrx
n06bIWeHUH)KOMilJIeKCHOCmU UCnOJlb308~HUIIdpet3ecu~blU mop& utilization of wood raw material arzd peat

K ~ ~ ~qMCTYlO IIePBWYHYlO IIPOAYKqAlO M whittaker4 during his evaluations gave nearly 100%
6 ~ o ~ a c cPy~ C T ~ H M
B ~rnaBHbIX 3KOCMCTeMaX % M ~ M to pure primary product and plant biomass of the
HOYTM B loo%, OTBOAR OKeaHaM M MOPRM nMUIb 4 M 3 1841 main ecosystems of the Earth, leaving 4 out of 1841
I. HOnR neCOB billions tons of the world's biomass to oceans and
OUeHMBaJIaCb B 1650 MnpA. TOHH, MnM 90%. Cneflye~ seas. Thus the forest fraction was evaluated to be
T a m e OTMeTMTb, YTO MMPOBaR YMCTaII nepBMYHaR 1650 billion tons, or 90%. It is also necessary to
IIpOAyKI&IR COCTaBnReT 170 MnPA. TOHH B rO& M 3 note that the global pure primary product makes up
KOTOP~IX Ha aonm c y u ~ ~PAXOAMTCII 115 MnpA. TOHH to 170 billions tons annually, out of which 115 is
(68%), a neCOB - 73 MnpA. TOHH (63,5% OT I I ~ O H ~ B O ~ M M Oland
~ ~ product (68%), and forests 73 billion tons
cyrueii a 43% OT M M ~ O B O ~ ) . (63.5% out of the land produced and 43% out of
The issue
The balance of greenhouse gases, first of all - the
contents of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. UN
Framework Convention on Climate Change was
adopted in Rio-de-Janeiro on May 9, 1992 and
became effective on 21 March 1994. The
quantitative obligations of countries to decrease the
let of greenhouse gases were fixed by Kyoto
Protocol, adopted at the end of 1997. According to
the Protocol, the developed countries by 2008-20 12
have to lower their emissions of greenhouse gases
by 5%.
The article 4.2.c of the UN Framework Convention
on Climate Change states, that "...calculations of
emissions by sources and removals by sinks of
greenhouse gases for the purposes of subparagraph
(b) above should take into account the best
available scientific knowledge, including of the
effective capacity of sinks and the respective
contributions of such gases to climate change." In
the article 4.1.d of the Convention forests are seen
as global absorbent and storage of greenhouse
gases, including carbon dioxide from atmosphere.
For reference: carbon dioxide (CO?) is the main
greenhouse gas, which causes about 80 % of all
green house effect.
According to the specialists, the amount of
greenhouse gases emission in 1990 was as follows
(see the diagram).
Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towards
the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
utilization of wood raw material and peat

Russia's potential
JIeca POCCWR, CocTaBnmaque 6onee 22% mowami necoB Russian forests, which take up 22% of the world's
Mupa u 6onee 60% 60peanb~b1~ n e c o ~ ~~O J M C H ~ I forest territories and more than 60% of the world's
IIOJlJMMTb COOTBeTCTBYIOI.I&e OTpaXeHkie B MkIPOBOM boreal forests: have to be accordingly reflected in
neperoBopHoM npoqecce no PKHK H ICMOTCKOM~ the global negotiating process on UNFCCC and
HPOTOKOJIY, O C O ~ ~ H HBOOTHOIUeHRki PeTa CTOKOB CO2. Kyoto Protocol, especially concerning CO2
deposition accounting.
n o OUeHKaM CIIeqUaJ'IUCTOB, P0cckur llPOki3BOAkiT B r0.4 8 According to the specialists, annually Russia
- 8,5 MnpA. T KHcnopona, no~pe6narr Ha CBOU H Y X A ~ I produces 8-8.5 billion tons of oxygen, while using
OKOnO 35-4 MnpA. TOHH. P O C C R ~ KneCa H ~ naWT around 3.5-4 billion tons for its needs. Russian
IIpkiMepHO 4,5-6,5 MnpA. T KHCJlOpOAa, eHcer0,QHO forests provide around 4.5-6.5 billion tons of
HaKaMHBaH 350-450 MnH. T YITIepOAa. n o HeKOTOPbIM oxygen, annually storing 350-450 million tons of
oqeHKaM, sanac exeroAHo c ~ x 3 ~ s a e ~ oyrnepona
ro B carbon. According to some statistics, the storage of
60peaJlbHb1~neCHbIX 3KOCkiCTeMaX COCTaBnReT 707 MnH. annual carbon deposition in boreal forest
TOHH, npMYeM Ha AOnlo POCCHH I'IpMXOAkiTCR 75%.8 ecosystems make up 707 million tons, 75% of
which is in ~ u s s i a . ~
OGwaii 3allaC YIYIepOaa, CBR3aHHOrO B JIeCHOM @ O H A ~ The total carbon storage in the forest fund is 36-48
COCTaBnReT 36-48 MnpA. TOHH. Pa3nkiWie B OqeHKaX billion tons. The difference in estimations is
O ~ ~ C ~ O B J I ~ H O MeTOAkiKaMU ~ O A C Y ~ T ~ Pi determined by the techniques of calculating and the
HeOIIPeneJIeHHOCTbIo ~0rIyue~Hfi OTHOCUTeJIbHO uncertainty of allowances in relation to the storage
HaKonneHm yrnepona B MopTMacce ki noTepb yrnepoaa 3a of carbon in mortmass and losses of carbon dioxide
CYeT ~ K ~ O T ~ H3MkiCCHR, H O ~ C B I I ~ ~ H H CO ~B O ~ A ~ ~ T B H ~ M due to exogenic emission, in relation to effect of
necHbIx noxapoB, ~ p e ~ k i ~ e n ekii i 6one3~eii neca, forest fires, pests and forest diseases, phyto-toxical
@ U T O T O K C ~ ~ Y H ~ I3a~pR3HeHtlfi
X ~TMOC@ pa3nOXeHHeM
~~~I, air pollution, disintegrating of timber waste during
OTXOAOB Apesecmm B nposecce necopa3pa60~0~, timber processing, woodworking etc.
A ~ ~ ~ B O O ~ ~H~Ten. ~ O T K H

Thus, it is necessary to scientifically work through

the problem of evaluation of the input of different
territories and regions into the global carbon circle.
For example, according to the calculations of
ARICFR specialists, in some regions with small
forest territories the net-storage of carbon, even in
forests, is negative.
Ycmoiilrusoe pmsumue u ucnonbsosauue Sustainable development and biojkel use as a way towards
6uomonnusa - nymb K peanmayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced cotnp1e.r
nosbnueuu~)KoMnneKcuocmu ucnonb30saut~~
dpesecuubl U mopi$a utilization of wood raw material and peat

What stops Russia from implementing its forest

P O C C M ~ ~ C3KCnepTbI
KH~ HeOAHOKPaTHO BbICKa3bIBUIH Russian experts have voiced their opinions several
MHeHMe A 0 M nOCne KMOTO0 TOM, YTO C T ~ T ~3.3. R times, before and after Kyoto, about the fact that
& ~ O T C K O ~ O IlpOTOKOna CTaBHT Pocc~IO B HeBbIrOAHOe Article 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol puts Russia into
nOnOXeHki€?.,B CBH3M C IIPPiHRTMeM l990 B KaseCTBe an unprofitable situation due to 1990 being adopted
b b 6 a 3 ~ ~r o~~ ~ a "r. 0TO c ~ m a ~ Bo ,nepsym orepeab, c
as a basis year. First of all it is related to the global
m 0 6 U I b ~ b 1 ~BnMflHMeM ~ O C C M ~ ~ C K M X neCOB Ha
coAepxaHae KacnopoAa B a ~ ~ o c a e p eK, O T O P ~K Ia~K~ , impact of Russian forests on the oxygen contents in
H ~ B ~ C T Hn O o ,~ p e 6 n ~ enpa
~ c ~c x a r a s m Bcex BMAOB the atmosphere, which, as it is known, is absorbed
ucKonaeMoro Tonnma - yms, rma, H ~ ~ T ~ ~ ~ O A ~aK T O Bduring , burning of all types of fossil fuels - coal,
Tame ApeBeCMHbI M ee npOM3BOAHbIX. C ~ ~ ~ ~ B OnpM Y H O : gas, petroleum, as well as timber and its
CXklTaHMII 1 TOHHbI YCnOBHOrO TOnnkiBa B ~ T M O C ~ ~ ~ Yderivatives. For the reference: while burning 1 ton
B ~ I ~ ~ ~ C ~ I 2,76 T C R CO2 H I I o T ~ ~ ~ ~ H 2,3
B ~ ~TOHHbI ~ T c H of conventional fuel, the atmosphere receives 2,76
TOHH~I Kacnopona, Anrr npMpoAHoro rma, tons of CO2 and 2.3 tons of oxygen is absorbed, for
COOTBeTCTBeHHO - 1,62 M 2,35 TOHH. natural gas, accordingly - 1,62 and 2,35 ton.
The intensity of carbon deposition by forests
correlates with the forest use characteristics
(deforestation), reforestation, afforestation, forest
fire control and other factors.
JTecononbsosatlue. A O ~ I ~ C T M M ~ Ip~ ~y 6 B~ necax
pamep ~ Forest use. The allowable annual cut (AAC) of
Poccau c Hasana 1960-X AO l990 r. cocTasnm q m forests in Russia from beginning of 1960's until
6onee 600 MnH. ra B roA, a B 2000 r. - 550 MnH. ra. 1990 was a little bit over 600 million ha, and 550
< D ~ K T B ~ ~ c K0 M6 ~b~e ~p y 6 ~ C~ HaYUa
1 1960-X A 0 1990 r. million hectares in 2000. Actual volume of forest
BapbMpOBUI OT 330 A 0 285 MnH. ~ y 6 .M B rOA, C
T ~ H A ~ H U HK ~ ~ CHWeHMIO.
~ n o c n e ~ ~ k i e 10 neT removal from the beginning of 1960's until 1990
c r r naAeHMe O ~ ~ ~ Mnec03ar-OTOBOK
~ a 6 n m ~ a e ~peslcoe O B C
varied from 330 to 285 million cubic meters
285 AO 95-117 MnH. ~ y 6 .M B ron, T.e. B 3 pma. annually, with a tendency to decrease. During the
< D ~ K T M Y ~ C K MMCllOnb3yeTCH TOnbKO 23% OT P ~ C ~ ~ T H O ~last decade there is a dramatic decrease of timber
neCOCeKM ( B O ~ M O X H061be~a O ~ O 3aTOTOBKI.1A P ~ B ~ C I I H ~ I ) . harvesting volumes from 285 to 95-1 17 million
cubic meters a year, i.e. by 3 times. Only 23% of
AAC is actually being used.
The decrease of timber harvesting volumes itself
does not essentially influence carbon emission,
though it has influenced economical and social
spheres in the country (decrease of commodity
timber and products from it, reduction of jobs etc.)
Increasing the volume of timber harvesting in the
frames of AAC and replacement of mature and
overmature forests with young forest will lead to
carbon emission during the first stage and intensive
absorption due to big timber volume increment in
young plantations.
l l a ~ e o~6 ~a ee~ na e c o 3 a r o ~ o ~npmeno
o~ K yMeHbureHMm The decrease of timber harvesting led to reduction
. PerMOHaX OCTaJIMCb of clear-cut areas. In some regions there are small
OYeHb He3HaqMTenbHble nnOL&lnM TaK Ha3blBaeMOrO areas of so-called forest restoration fund left,
necoKynbrypHoro ~ O H AXOTR ~ , B UenoM no cTpaHe OH
though overall in the country it is fairly big, around
AOCTaTOYHO BenMK - OKOnO 90 MnH. ra.
J I e c o ~ o c c ~ a ~ o ~ nM e ~n eu ce o p a 3 s e ~ e ~B~ eOTAenbHbIx 90 million ha.
opraHax ynpaBneHurr necaMM Ha.tanM ~ ~ O B O A M Iyxe - b He
Ha B ~ I ~ Y a~ no K ~H X~ Y,A O ~ H ~ 3eMnRM,
Ycmoiiwsoe pmsumue u ucnonb3osa~ue Sustainable development and b i o j k l use as a way towards
6uomonnusa - nymb K peanmayuu Kuomc~ozonpomouona u the Kyoto protocol irnplernentation and enhanced complex
U m0p@l
nOBbllUeHUl0 KOMilfleKCHOCmU UCnOnb306UHUII dpef3e~~Flbl utilization of wood raw material and peat

JIe~o6o~~ma~oen J el ~ ~ ~ n e ~ u eReforestation. Reforestation is a constituent of the

e ~c e~. ~ ~ c c ~ a ~HsnxeTcR
C O C T ~ B H O ~ ~ WiCTbIo ~ O C ~ A ~ ~ C T B ~CTpaTeraH
H H O ~ ~ state policy of Russian Federation on environmental
Poccwfic~ofi@eAepaqaa no oxpaHe o~pyxamueficpeAbI. protection. During 1970-1990 annually in Russia
B TeseHue 1970-1990 rr. exeroAHo B POCCMM reforestation was carried out on the area of 1.7 - 1.9
necoBoccTaHoBneHue OcywecTBnxnocb Ha mowaAu 1.7 - million ha. Due to decrease of forest harvesting
1.9 MnH. ra. C naAeHueM O ~ W M O~B~ C O ~ ~ ~ O T O Bvolumes, O K , the area of reforestation has also dropped
YMeHbIIIHnEiCb Pi nnOuaAM neCOBOCCTaHOBJIeHkIH - A 0 1.1 - to 1.1-1.4 million ha. According to the data of the
1.4 MnH. reKTapOB. I70 AaHHbIM rOCYAaPCTBeHHOr0 YYeTa State Forest Fund Account, in Russia non-forest
neCHOr0 $0HAa, He nOKpbITbIe nec~0fiPaCTMTWIbHOCTbH) lands comprise 104.4 million ha, most of which are
3eMnkI 3aHHMaWT B POCCEIEI 104,4 MnH. ra, KOTOPbIe located in hard-to-reach and underdeveloped
npeHMyueCTBeHH0 PaClIOJIOXeHbI TPYAHOAOCTJ4IHbIX Pi regions of Far East (more than 50%), East Siberia
MZUIOOCBOeHHbIX pafio~ax &UIb~er0 BOCTOK~ (6onee (39%) and West Siberia (around 5%). Thus, in the
50%), BOCTOSHO~~ Ca6upa (39%) u 3 a n a ~ ~ oCu6apa
fi European-Ural region non-forested lands make up
( O K O ~5%).
O T ~ K ~OI M ~ P ~ OHaMe~p~nefi~K~-ypa.JIb~~Eifi
, 6% of the territory, while most of forest harvesting
P~~OH rAe, BeAyTCH OCHOBHbIe neC03aTOTOBKki I4 and 415 of the country's population are located
npOXMBaeT 415 HaCeneHkIR CTpaHbI, IIPHXOAkITCH OKOnO there.
6% HelIOKpbITbIX neCOM 3eMenb.
@ e ~ e p a n b ~ oqene~ofi
fi n p o r p a ~ ~ o "Jleca
fi Poccau" Ha The Federal Target Program "Forests of Russia" for
1997-2000 lT. llpeAyCMaTpllBa.JIOCb llpOBeCTH years 1997-2000 planned to conduct forest
necoBoccTaHosneHue Ha nnouaAH 4.6 MnH. ra, B TOM restoration on the area 4.6 million ha, 1.3 million ha
YHCne IIOCeBOM kI ~ O C ~ A KJIeCa O ~ - 1.3 MnH. ra H IIyTeM of forest planting and 3.3 million ha - support of
II B O ~ O ~ H O B J I ~ H H-C I3.3
K ) MnH. natural forest regeneration.
Afforestation. According to the specialists, in some
regions of Russia, which are scarce of forests, net
storage of carbon is negative. Only immense
planting of new forests and forest bands will fix the
situation. According to scientifically justified
standards for farmland protection against droughts,
water and wind erosion 14 million ha of forest
plantation is required. Only 3.1 million ha is
available. According to the Federal Complex
Program "Increase of Soil Fertility" in 1997-2000 it
was planned to create forest plantations on the area
of about 700 thousand hectares. In 2000 within the
framework of the program new forests are planted
on the area of 25,2 thousand hectares.
T~KMM 06pa30~, B POCCHH HMeeTCH O ~ P O M H ~ I ~ ~ Thus, in Russia there is a huge potential to increase
noTeHuMan yBenaYeHm nnouana nec~brx~ a c m ~ e ~ ~ fforest i plantation areas in a heavily forested zone by
KaK B M H O ~ O ~ ~ C30He H O ~ nyTeM
~ neCOB0CCTaHOBneHMR H reforestation and support of natural forest
X ~ ~ C O B O ~ ~ ~ HT OaKBr?~B~ H M regeneration
~O, as well as in scarcely forested zone by
~ a n o n e c ~ o f3i o ~ enyTeM ~ ~ U M T H O n~ Oe c o p a 3 ~ e ~ e ~ a ~ . afforestation. Forests planted after 1990, can
Jleca, nocaxembre nocne 1990 rona, yxe MOXHO already be considered as a Russian contribution to
PaCCMaTpMBaTb KaK BKnaA POCCMM B YBenMqeHMe CTOKa carbon storage increase in the framework of Kyoto
yrnepoaa B paMKax K ~ ~ O T C K npoToKona.
O~O Protocol.
Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towards
the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
utilization of wood raw material and peat

O x p a ~ anecos om n o ~ a p o s . TO HM YTO m o e KaK Forest fire control. Forest protection from fires is
oxpaHa n o r n o ~ a ~ e n e f i napHaKosbIx ra3oB. B nothing else than protection of greenhouse gases
~ ~ C C M ~ T ~ H nBp o ~ 6~nM e ~OeA~~ H H ~ IKOMnOHeHT
G OYeHb absorbers. Given component is very specific to
cneqw+wre~nnrr Poccm. C o x p a ~ e ~OT ~ lOe~ H F5I ra necoB Russia. Costs to protect 5 ha of forests from fire
no 3aTpaTaM npMMepH0 COOTBeTCTByeT 1 ra llOCaXeHHOr0 approximately equals to 1 ha of a newly planted
JIeCa. K O C B ~ H KT H ~KT I ~ ~HeM3MePMMO BbIUIe, TaK KaK forest. The indirect effect is greater, due to better
3HaYMTenbHO YMeHbUaeTCFI o 6 a e ~~M E I C C MOT~ IlOXapOB ~ B protection volume of emissions from fires into
a ~ ~ o c + e p y , coxpameTccI npo~yqapywuk~fi nec, atmosphere considerably decreases, and the
csa3b1sa1o~aiiyrnepoa M coxpa~amqaiioKpyxamqym producing forest, which fixes carbon and protects
cpeny. l l r o u a ~ b n, p o f i ~ e ~ ~noxapam,
ac~ cocTasn2eT B the environment, is saved. On the average, the areas
cpeAHeM no P o c c a ~oKono 400-700 T ~ I Cra. B roA, a B passed by fires in Russia make up 400-700
OTAenbHbIe rOAbI A 0 2 M 6onee MnH. reKTapOB. B POCCHH B thousand ha per year, during some years they can
TOM MJW MHOM BMAe BCerAa Cy~eCTBOBaJIa make up to 2 and more million ha. In Russia in
rocyAapcmeHHa2 nporpaMMa no oxpaHe necoB OT some or another way a state program on forest fire
noxapoB, HO M oHa He AaeT HcenaeMbIx p e 3 y n b ~ a me3-3a ~ protection has always been present, but it also does
CKyAHOrO G I O A X ~ T H O ~ O~ M H ~ H c M ~ o B ~ H M I IB. 2000 r. not give the desirable results due to small financing
B03HMKn0 l 8 TbIC. JIeCHbIX IIOXapOB, YTO B 1,5 pa3a from state budget. In 2000 there were 18 thousands
MeHbUe, %M B l999 r., H 0 nJIOuaAb, ~ P O ~ ~ A ~ M HMM
H, ~ R forest fires, which is 1.5 times less than in 1999, but
yseneranacb B 1,8 pa3a M cocTasma oKono 2 MnH.ra. the area, passed by fires, increased by 1.8 times and
~ O M M M O npIIMOr0 yuep6a, K O T O P ~ IOI&3HMBaeTCFI
~~ nOgTki has reached 2 million ha. Apart from direct damage,
B 4 MnpA. py6., CyueCTByeT M K O C B ~ H H ~yuep6, I~~ which is estimated to be almost 4 billion rubles,
HaMHOrO llpeBb1~IIaIoIIJMfi~ P I I M O ~ ~ . there is also an indirect damage, which is greater
than the direct one.
Yqem necrctim pecypcos u necoycmpoccmso. Eonbmae The forest resources inventory and forest
CnOpbI BbI3bIBaeT n p o 6 n e ~ aMeTOAHKM YYeTa HaKOIUIeHMR management planning. The issue on the technique
YrnepOAa DeCHbIMM HaCaXAeHMFIMM. C rUkiPOKMM of registration of carbon storage by forest
MCnOnb3OBaHMeM ~ ~ C - T ~ X H O JBI neCHOM O ~ M ~ X~ O ~ H ~ ~ C T B ~ ecosystems causes large disputes. With broad use of
llOXBnFIeTCX B03MOXHOCTb HaYaTb aKTABHbIe pa60~b1H 0 GIS-technologies in forestry there is a possibility to
onpeneneHaIo yrneponHoro nyna npM necoyc~poiic~se begin activities on defining carbon pool during
OTAenbHbIX JTeCHMqeCTB M neCX030B7 B TOM YMCne M no forest management planning for separate forest
OCHOBH~IM necoo6pa3ymuw~ n o p o ~ a ~ . Ha management units and districts, including the main
PerMOHlUIbHOM YpOBHe 0 6 0 6 u e ~ ~ aMOXHO 6 y a e ~ forest species. On the regional level it will be
IlPOBOAMTb npM YYeTe neCHOr0 ~ O H A B C
~OO, TBeTCTBMM C possible to conduct overviews along with the state
HaqUOHlUIbHbIMM KPUT~PURMI~ M MHAMKaTOPaMM forest fund accounting, with respect to the national
y c ~ o j i r u ~ o r o ynpaBneHm necami ( K P I I T ~ P M4,~ ~ Criteria and Indicators on Sustainable Forest
MHAMKaTOP 4.7). CYU~CTBYIOT M APYrMe MHCTPYMeHTbl, Management (criteria 4, indicator 4.7). There are
no3~onrrlou~e c HeKoTopblM n p ~ 6 n ~ m exeronHo
e ~ ~ e ~ also other tools, which allow estimating the annual
onpe~enmbCKOPOCT~ HaKonneHm yrnepoaa necHbIMM speed of carbon storage by forest ecosystems.
Financing. Lack of budgetary funding for carrying
out activities, which are planned by state and
federal programs, as well as small attractiveness of
investments into the forest sector induces Russia to
use Kyoto Protocol to fill up the financial resources
to carry out activities such as forest fire protection,
reforestation and afforestation. There are some
examples of investments into forestry: Russian-
American project RUSAFOR in Saratov oblast, the
project on support of natural regeneration in the
Vologda area and others. One of such projects is
"Forest", carried out in a number of Subjects of
Ycmokvueoe pa3sumue u ucnonb306a~ue Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towards
Guomonnusa - nymb K peanwayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
t'l06blUleHUK)KOMrlJleKCHOCmU UCnOJlb306aHU dpe6eCu~blU mopqba utilization of wood raw material and peat

Russian Federation in Siberia and the Far East,

financially supported by the US Agency of
International Development (20 million US dollars
for 5-6 years).

Ways to solve the problems

Besides decreasing the volumes of greenhouse gas
emissions, consistently move towards including all
Russian forests while calculating the balance of
greenhouse gases, including carbon and its storage
by the forest ecosystems;
Include the issue on oxygen consumption in the
discussion, regarding oxygen as one of the
parameters in trading quotas on greenhouse gas
In the mechanism of joint implementation under the
Kyoto Protocol, put an extra stress on forests;

Increase the use volume in mature and overmature

forests, thus increasing the speed of carbon storage
at the account of intensive growth of young
plantations. However, it is necessary to note that
timber harvesting is qualified by the Protocol as
carbon emission;
Enhance reforestation and afforestation.

Decrease the losses from forest fires, which cause

big volumes of burning products to be released into
the atmosphere on top of direct losses of timber and
lowering the biodiversity in the region.

Make necessary investments into forest genetics

and selection to design fast growing forest
plantations in correspondence with the climate
conditions in Russia.
What will give a solution of the problem for
A more fair solution of the "emission-storage"
problem of carbon;
Increase in the speed of carbon deposition and
oxygen release by forest ecosystems at the expense
of replacement mature and overmature forests with
young forests;
Ycmoiiwsoe pa3sumue u ucnonbsosa~ue Sustainable development and biofuel use as a way towardr
Guomomusa - nymb Kpeantuayuu Kuomc~ozonpomoKona u the Kyoto protocol implementation and enhanced complex
nOBblU(eHUl0KOMWleKCHOC??lU U ??lop&.l
UCnOJlb306UHW3i)pe@ecu~bt utilization of wood raw material and peat

New investment projects in the forest sector within

the framework of joint projects implementation, in
particular, in the area reforestation, afforestation,
forest fire protection, deeper timber processing,
forest genetics and selection;
Preserve and increase not only potential of Russia's
nature at the expense of renewed resources, but also
the number on jobs, improve the social atmosphere
in many regions of Russia;
In conclusion, it is necessary to note that in the
historical perspective forests should be viewed as
the main global carbon storage. From this
perspective, first of all it is necessary to evaluate the
role of Russian forests and their input into the
global carbon and oxygen cycles. In relation to this,
provision of sustainable management, exploitation,
conservation, protection and restoration of forest
resources in Russia are not only National, but also a
global goal.

IO.A. PYHA~ITNH,K.A. ~ P w I ' o P ~ ~ B ,

B.E. Cxcy~uqxcaii,A.II. TOICYHOB,
A.H. ~ H B M ~ ~ B
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~ M A P O ~ M ~ H nMrHMH
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Basic parameters
Rated heating
capacity, MW
P a c s e ~ ~ Aasneme
oe Ha Inlet design
BXOAe B KOTen, Mlla pressure, Mpa
Inlet water
temperature, "C
Outlet water
temperature, "C
r ~ ~ p a s n ~ s e con
c~oe Hydraulic
POTIlBneHkIe KOTJIa, resistance
Mlla, He 6onee MPa, no less
Boiler water
consumption under
basic condition,t/h
Efficiency (gross),
coal-fired,%, no
Macca KOT.JIa Design mass of
P a c s e ~ ~Kar ~ , unit, kg
Overall dimensions:
12000/4800115000 160001115201 17470
BTKC-2,7129 BTKC-2,7158 Furnace device

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l M e n e x o ~M.C. 3 ~ a u e ~ k kii e kicnonbsosa~kieneca IMelekhov, I.S. (1977) The Role and the Use of
KaK c o c ~ a ~ ~sacTki
o f i o ~ p y x a m u e icpeAbI.
i M.: 1977, Forest as Integral Part of Environment. Moscow, p.7
c.7. (in Russian)
2 Aaxo P. O C H O B3~~I 0 n o r ~ kHep. i . c 4 p a ~ q- . M.: 2 Dajoz R. (1975) Precis D'Ecologie. Translation
IIporpecc, 1975. from French. - Moscow, Progress. (in Russian).
Y k i n e ~ e pP. C O O ~ ~ ~a ~CKTOBC ~ H C TCOKP.
~ M ~ nep.
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M e x n p a s u ~ e n b c ~ s e ~rpynna
~a~ sKcnepToB no sequences of climate change. Intergovernmental
ki3MeHeHMm MHMaTa. A o w r a ~Pa6orefi rpynnbI 11 Group on Potential Impacts on Climate Change
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3~0norkisec~kie npo6ne~br nornoweam Ecological problems of carbon sequestration by
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B CBI13M C B03MOXHOCTbKl ~ o ~ ~ J I ~ H M3MeHeHMII o T o to Global Climate Change // Abstracts of the Third
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aay~.-~ex~ a .o a 4 e p ." O x p a ~ anecablx ~ K O C M C T ~ UM Protection and Proper Use on Natural Resources
pa~UOHa.JIbHOe MCnOnb30BaHMe npkfpo,q~b~x (Mytishchi 18-19 October 1994). Volume1 (in
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~M, T. Russian)
4 . c ~Y. ~ m e ~ P.
ep 4 See Whittaker

5 CM.Olson, J.S., J.A.Watts and L.J. Allison 5 See Olson et a1

6 CM.M c a e ~A.C., Kopos~iar.H., C y x ~ xB.M. U np. 6 See Isaev et al.
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7 State of the World's Forests (1997) FAO of the 7 State of the World's Forests (1997) FAO of the
United Nations United Nations
8 Poccm. JIec~axnonmma B nepexo~~brji nepllon. 8 Russia: Forest Policy During Transition (1997) The
Peruo~anb~bre MccnenosaHm B C ~ M H P H6Oa~ ~O ~ -a . International Bank for Reconstruction and
B~.IMHIToH,~ I J O H1997
~ Development/The World Bank, Washington, D.C.