TECHNICAL REPORT ON POWER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

SUBMITTED TO THE HEAD OF DEPARTMENT ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGG CHAITANYA ENGG COLLEGE

SUBMITTED BY G DURGA NAGA ANIRUDDH 07L61A0212

Page 1

PREFACE: In this paper I would like to illustrate the necessity of power quality and its management. in quantities and time frames that have not been experienced before. harmonics created mainly by the nonlinear electronic loads. the two dominant factors in power quality are its unbalanced distortion and harmonic distortion. This infrastructure was designed primarily to serve analog electrical devices . The current trend toward miniaturization in microelectronics increased processing speed and greater functionality results in a particular sensitiveness to certain kinds of electromagnetic perturbations. it will also contribute to an improvement in the efficiency of our daily activities. Then. In the future. The problems associated with the presence of disturbances on power distribution systems are not just the power-quality problems but also affect the energy efficiency of the plant. but in addition higher levels of power quality and reliability (PQR) needs. which are generally tolerant to voltage fluctuations in the power supply. can damage the system components. Electrical energy is one of the main elements for the economical development of society. As far as energy efficiency is concerned in a building power-distribution system. On the other hand. With the rapid growth of the information-based economy. The reliability of the power supply delivered by utilities varies considerably and depends on a number of external factors. The just aspirations of modern societies to economical growth have forced us to secure more continual energy resources. the present electric power grid is unable to consistently provide the PQR level required by the digital devices of our information-based economy. Unbalanced distortion in three phase supply voltages will create negative sequence components causing additional power losses in conductors and motors. Page 2 . widespread expansion of electronic devices has become a prevalent phenomenon in both the public and private sectors. this situation is not only bringing about a greater demand for electricity. the use of PQ mitigation technologies and their incorporation into electrical systems and electronic equipment will also prevent an increase in the number of problems detected. However. Thus.

The paper presents examples showing how to analyze these clues. distribution and transmission levels have made non-sinusoidal load currents more common. The technological advancement in electronic field resulted into sophisticated equipments. harmonics and flicker are present. waveform distortions. The widespread use of high-power semiconductor switches at the utilization. the most efficient and cost effective one. PQ analyzers. Then. voltage is poorly regulated. and the power utilization is degraded. These equipments are highly sensitive to poor power quality. electricity power quality has grown from obscurity to a major issue. but also shows that similar disturbance waveshapes may still have radically different causes. recent advances in power electronic technology are providing an unprecedented capability for conditioning and compensating harmonic distortion generated by the non-linear loads. These require reliable and good power quality free from all power quality issues. measurement aggregation. their proliferation during the last decade is creating a growing concern and generates more and more problems: not only these electronic loads pollute the AC distribution system with harmonic currents.ABSTRACT: In little more than ten years. Power quality monitors assist the trouble shooter to identify and solve many power quality problems. The use of such equipments is increasing day by day because of their advantages. However. the most flexible. Disturbance waveshapes from these monitors provide important clues toward locating the source of these problems. electricity power quality is becoming a major issue for utilities and for their customers. Keywords: voltage notching. Today. Page 3 . but they also appear to be very sensitive to the voltage distortion. offering unmatched comfort. Electronic converters and power electronics gave birth to numerous new applications. flexibility and efficiency to the customers. and both are quickly adopting the philosophy and the limits proposed by the new International Standards. When wave shapes are irregular. or there are momentary events that distort the usually sinusoidal wave. This new innovative active conditioner appears to be the easiest of use.

2.INDEX: CONTENT S. INSTRUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR HARMONIC MEASUREMENT POWER QUALITY MONITORING Conclusion References 11 12 Page 4 .NO 1. 8. 4. PAGE NUMBER Introduction POWER QUALITY (i) Why are we concerned about Power Quality (ii) The Power Quality Evaluation Procedure 5 6 POWER QUALITY ISSUES 3. (i) Why are we concerned about Power Quality (ii) Power Quality Disturbances (i) Voltage Notching (ii) Loose Connections (iii) Detecting Insulation Failures (i) Capacitor Switching disturbances 7 8 UNDERSTANDING SUMMARY PLOTS CBEMA 5. 10 7. POWER QUALITY ANALYZERS AND CONTROLLERS (i) DYSC (ii) Flywheel (iii) Dynamic Voltage Restorer (iv) Series Active Power Filter (v) Capacitor Demand meter (i) Harmonic Filters (ii) Shielded Isolation Transformers (iii) K-Rated Transformers 9 6.

communication equipment. which.1. 4. and switching transients and are challenging the utilities to improve the quality of power delivered. other factors were coming into play. All electrical devices are prone to failure or malfunction when exposed to one or more power quality problems. End users have an increased awareness of power quality issues. they are part of a large network of utilities tied together in a complex grid. sags. There are four major reasons for the increased concern: 1. The electrical device might be an electric motor. stretched electricity generation to the limit. 2. It is an umbrella concept for a multitude of individual types of power system disturbances. a printer. In the last 50 years or so. The issues that fall under power quality concept are not necessarily new. Both electric utilities and end users of electric power are becoming increasingly concerned about the quality of electric power. Many things are now interconnected in a network. Electrical equipment susceptible to power quality or more appropriately to lack of power quality would fall within a seemingly boundless domain. Newer-generation load equipment. adjustable-speed motor drives and shunt capacitors for power factor correction to reduce losses. which meant that electrical machines were becoming smaller and more efficient and were designed without performance margins. Increased demands for electricity created extensive power generation and distribution grids. The combination of these factors has created electrical systems requiring power quality. a computer. depending on the severity of problems. The increasing emphasis on overall power system efficiency has resulted in continued growth in the application of devices such as high-efficiency. Utility customers are becoming better informed about such issues as interruptions. At the same time. is more sensitive to power quality variations than was equipment used in the past. electrical utilities are no longer independently operated entities.´ As appropriate as this description might seem. along with the growing use of electricity in the residential sector. What is new is that engineers are now attempting to deal with these issues using a system approach rather than handling them as individual problems. a transformer. Integrated processes mean that the failure of any component has much more important consequences. the limitation of power quality to ³sensitive electronic equipment´ might be subject to disagreement. or a household appliance. the industrial age led to the need for products to be economically competitive. All of these devices and others react adversely to power quality issues. with microprocessor-based controls and power electronic devices. a generator. 3. INTRODUCTION: The term power quality has become one of the most prolific buzzwords in the power industry since the late 1980s. Page 5 . Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standard IEEE1100 defines power quality as ³the concept of powering and grounding sensitive electronic equipment in a manner suitable for the equipment. Today. Industries demanded larger and larger shares of the generated power. This is resulting in increasing harmonic levels on power systems and has many people concerned about the future impact on system capabilities.

2. it is useful to look at the general steps that are associated with investigating many of these problems. like the blinking clock in residences. along with the major considerations that must be addressed at each step. In each category. they are more important than ever. it is important to record impacts of the power quality variations at the same time so that problems can be correlated with possible causes. undervoltages and overvoltages. each phase waveform has the same amplitude and the angular phase difference between them is 2/3 p radians. IEEE 1159±1995 classifies the disturbances into seven categories: transients. long-duration variations. characterized by proper fixed values of frequency and amplitude. However.1±1989 limits and includes long interruptions. Solutions that are not technically viable get thrown out. 3 POWER QUALITY ISSUES: 3. The general procedure must also consider whether the evaluation involves an existing power quality problem or one that could result from a new design or from proposed changes to the system. their customers. There has recently been a great emphasis on revitalizing industry with more automation and more modern equipment. This usually means electronically controlled. Power quality disturbances: Deviations of voltage or current from the ideal waveforms are generally called power quality disturbances. short duration variations. industrial customers are now more acutely aware of minor disturbances in the power system.2 gives some general steps that are often required in a power quality investigation. There are many classifications of PQ disturbances. Page 6 . and the rest of the alternatives are compared on an economic basis. Two classifications widely referenced are reported in the IEC¶s (International Electrotechnical Commission¶s) EMC series and in IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) 1159±1995. The quality of power can have a direct economic impact on many industrial consumers. The ideal waveforms in a three-phase power system are sinusoidal waveforms. When performing the measurements. The loss of a disgruntled customer to a competing power supplier can have a very significant impact financially on a utility. and suppliers of load equipment.2 POWER QUALITY 2. duration and magnitude. Each of these phenomena may have a variety of different causes and different solutions that can be used to improve the power quality and equipment performance. especially if the steps can involve interaction between the utility supply system and the customer facility. Possible solutions are identified at all levels of the system from utility supply to the end-use equipment being affected.2 The Power Quality Evaluation Procedure: Power quality problems encompass a wide range of different phenomena. Measurements will play an important role for almost any power quality concern. Solutions need to be evaluated using a system perspective. energy-efficient equipment that is often much more sensitive to deviations in the supply voltage than were its electromechanical predecessors.1 Why are we concerned about Power Quality: The ultimate reason that we are interested in power quality is economic value. There is big money associated with these disturbances. The electric utility is concerned about power quality issues as well. the number of end users being impacted. moreover. Meeting customer expectations and maintaining customer confidence are strong motivators. voltage fluctuations and power frequency variations. voltage unbalances. the disturbances are diversified as a function of their spectral content. Figure 2. With today¶s movement toward deregulation and competition between utilities. The optimum solution will depend on the type of problem.1. waveform distortions. and both the economics and the technical limitations must be considered. This is the primary method of characterizing the problem or the existing system that is being evaluated. The category short-duration variations include both short interruptions and IEC voltage dips (labelled voltage sags in IEEE 1159±1995). Thus. this category also covers voltage swells (the inverse phenomena to voltage dips). The category long-duration variation is added to deal with ANSI C84. There are economic impacts on utilities. and the possible solutions.

then this condition indicates the possibility of a loose connection or open circuit. In the last category the phenomenon noise is also introduced to deal with broadband-conducted phenomena. information about the cause of a voltage disturbance may be determined from examination of current in the circuit. but this time the cause of the disturbance is very different. A third useful and simple classification of PQ disturbances is µevents¶ and µvariations¶. In this case it was particularly instructive. subtracts from the waveform. interharmonics and DC in AC networks phenomena. the voltage is not disturbed at exactly its zero crossing because it is not in phase with the current due to a lagging power factor. This indicates that the current is tending to extinguish itself (go to zero) at this zero crossing due to the loose circuit condition. If the disturbance in the voltage is simultaneous with the zero crossing. However. Figure 5 shows a waveshape disturbance where the fault occurs at the peak of the voltage. typical of an inductive load. To analyze PQ disturbances. It was caused by a faulty connection in a distribution transformer. It is another waveshape that exhibits voltage notching.4 Detecting Insulation Failures: Let¶s take a look at another example. Variations are small deviations of the voltage or current from their nominal or ideal waveforms.When the power quality engineers at the utility company first examined it. Generally these problems are solved by introducing inductance. they were not sure at all. Now we might define a rule for an expert system that states ³When a voltage waveshape disturbance occurs at the peak of a sine wave. This notching is caused by the operation of a controlled rectifier that commutates current from one electrical phase to another during the ordinary operation of the power electronic drive. In addition. This classification is similar to another classification reported in the literature that separates the disturbances into µdiscrete disturbances¶ and µcontinuous disturbances¶. 3. Also. Page 7 . Many times in power quality monitoring. it is generally treated as a special case. thus. Figure 1 shows a typical case of voltage notching. However. In fact. consider figure 6. rules nearly always have exceptions! Look at figure 2. as well as for an additional phenomenon called notching. it can be characterized through the harmonic spectrum of the affected voltage. We might modify this rule for a circuit with lagging (leading) power factor to state that the loose connection is indicated when the voltage disturbance follows (leads) the zero crossing of the waveshape. as the cable ³cooks´ the insulation until the failure is finally catastrophic. variations are practically characterized by a value at any moment in time (or over a sufficiently long interval of time) and they have to be monitored continuously. Yet a day further and the transformer failed catastrophically due to an internal loose lug connection.The category waveform distortions is used as a catch-all category for the IEC harmonics. In order to recognize these clues we may decide to define a rule that declares that a waveshape with notching is being affected by a power electronic rectifier or motor drive. a steady-state deviation from an ideal sine wave of power frequency principally characterized by the spectral content of the deviation. Since notching occurs continuously. into the circuit between the rest of the power source and the drive. we can see that the current tends to be zero for several degrees. one of the indices Waveform distortion. The frequency components associated with notching can be quite high and may not be readily characterized with measurement equipment normally used for harmonic analysis. Our experience at one utility shows us that this type of waveshape fault is very typical with underground cable failures. Notice that the voltage disturbance occurs at the time of the zero crossing of the current. This particular disturbance was caused by a fault in an underground cable. Notice that the notches in figure 2 are not at the same angular location of the waveshape discussed previously in figure 1. This action causes the notching disturbance in the waveshape. Figure 4 shows both the voltage and current waveshapes on the same plot. the disturbance is initially of opposite polarity than the waveform and.3 Loose Connections: However. Typically underground cable faults begin with small leakage currents and progress as the insulation further deteriorates. 3. After a couple of days the loose connection progressed further and the evidence was more convincing as shown in figure 3. Events are occasional but significant deviations of voltage or current from their nominal or ideal waveforms. This process can take several days. 3. the likely cause is insulation breakdown. before we get too comfortable with our rule.´ This intuitively makes sense to us since the voltage stress on the insulation is greatest during the peak of the sine wave therefore that is Voltage Current the likely point of insulation breakdown. such as with an isolation transformer or reactive choke.2 Voltage Notching: Disturbance of the normal power voltage waveform lasting less than a half cycle.

experience shows us to amend our rule about insulation failure. normally these operations affect the customer only one time. The capacitor bank is being switched on to compensate for reactive power losses to support the voltage and energy transmission capability of the transmission grid. when the waveshape was sent to the manufacturer. Aggregation. Figure 13 shows the same data processed by temporal aggregation. The PQ View Analysis software. An example is shown figure 12. or grouping. An example of voltage sag is shown in figure 9. Reclosing operations on the utility system are the process of automatically restoring tripped circuit interrupters. a certain type of fault on the power system may be accompanied by a certain type of waveshape ³signature´. The operation of the device appeared to be suspect. However. Forty-four of those events are outside of the CBEMA limits and would be expected to cause a fault with equipment designed to the CBEMA tolerances. However. a specific type of waveshape signature may well have many different possible causes. This process is very important to the reliable operation of the power system. We might state it that ³waveshape faults that initiate near the peak of the waveshape. For example. They made no comment on whether the device was operating properly! Summarizing. Many users have found this a convenient way to characterize the power quality over an extended period of time. and report the characteristics on the worst phase. allows the user to combine individual events according to some important criteria. The power system transmits low frequency disturbances. Knowledge about the location and nearby loads is usually important when interpreting the output of power disturbance analyzers. It was possible that a ³make before break´ connection was malfunctioning. developed by Electrotek for EPRI provides this capability by allowing the user to perform aggregation on summary data. Therefore. Future power quality contracts between utilities and large customers may well specify the number of voltage sags allowable. one voltage sag event may be reported three times if all of the three phase voltages fall below the instrument threshold. some instruments will report on each individual phase that goes out of threshold. these operations can lead to multiple voltage sags over a short period of time if the reclosing operation is unsuccessful. if we use measurement aggregation to combine the results when multiple phases trigger at the same time.5 Capacitor Switching Disturbances: Figure 6 shows the disturbance to a waveshape during the energization of a large capacitor bank on a utility transmission substation. Because the reclosing times are very short. Unfortunately. where the voltage approaches rapidly an instantaneous value of zero are indicative of cable faults and other insulation breakdown. in figure 10 a total of 74 events are summarized. However. It is almost certain that these events will be counted using measurement aggregation so that a three-phase voltage sag will only count once.´ But let¶s see another exception to our rule. It shows that on thirteen separate days there were severe events. 4 UNDERSTANDING SUMMARY PLOTS Some power quality analyzers allow the capability of summarizing multiple events on one plot. Sags and under voltages can cause component overheating or destruction. Figure 7 shows us that capacitor switching transients are not always accompanied by the oscillatory ringing due to damping of the system and distance on the power system. and what the worst event was on each day. 4. So once more.3. It teaches us an important lesson. intended for small office loads. Page 8 . Usually voltage sags are summarized with a magnitude (perhaps minimum value) and duration (time that the signal is out of threshold values) so that these events can be compared against published equipment sensitivity limits. Figure 8 shows a waveshape fault that corresponded to the operation of a voltage regulator. the summary will show three events even though the lights blinked only once. Most users would prefer a summary that relates more directly to their perceptions of power problems. Notice that this waveshape also has the waveshape disturbance occurring at the peak of the sinewave. Power quality contracts will most likely also utilize some temporal aggregation ± grouping the measurements by a period of time. we might get the data in figure. their representative responded that this type of disturbance should not affect computers. These curves represent the ability of the equipment to survive power disturbances of a given magnitude and duration. It is important that summary data be understandable to the end user and their perceptions of power quality. but higher frequency (10 kHz and greater) are usually dampened out very quickly with any electrical distance. So.1 CBEMA: The most popular sensitivity curves have been those developed by the Computer Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (CBEMA). summaries such as the one shown in figure 10 can be misleading. not one that gives three data points for every time that the lights blink during a voltage sag. In this case. This process insures that each event reported actually refers to a ³customer´ event ± that which is actually significant to the end user. For example. The subject voltage regulator was rated for 120V and 15amps.

If the amplitude is adjusted for transient operating conditions. the magnitude of the resultant network current shall change and this current needs to be minimum at the load end terminals. 5. the reference current and reference voltage waveforms are smaller. 5. Even when the source voltage is unbalanced and distorted usually a DVR is connected to protect sensitive loads during faults in the power supply system. to keep the supply current drawn at minimum value. Capacitors. 5. These voltage components are added to the source voltages through the series transformers compensating the voltage unbalance at the load terminals. Voltage unbalance is corrected by compensating the fundamental frequency negative and zero sequence voltage components of the system. DVR can regulate voltage at the load terminals against any variation in the supply side voltage while consuming no real power. The high impedance imposed by the series active power filter is created by generating a voltage of the same frequency that the current harmonic component that needs to be eliminated. In this case. The higher voltage utilization of the inverter is obtained if the amplitude of the resultant reference signal is adjusted for the steady state operating condition of the series active power filter. 5. It is a power electronic converter based device that has been design to protect critical loads from all supply side disturbances other than outages. It is connected in series with a distribution feeder and is capable of generating or absorbing real and active power at its ac terminals. Page 9 . which is sufficient to protect against all voltage sags but not against supply outages. A Proposed series active filter topology is shown.2 Flywheel: A flywheel without a diesel generator protects the equipment against all sags as long as the inertia of the flywheel can support the load.4 Series active power filters It is well known that series active power filters compensate current system distortion caused by non-linear loads by imposing a high impedance path to the current harmonics which forces the high frequency currents to flow through the LC passive filter connected in parallel to the load.1 Control scheme: The block diagram of the proposed control scheme is shown in the fig below. 5. Current and voltage reference waveforms are obtained by using the Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory. Reactive Power Management is one of the aspects of Power Quality issues as this directly relates to the customer receiving end voltage . the zero sequence components of the line currents are calculated.5 Capacitor Demand Meter: It is a Power quality enhancer.3 Dynamic voltage restorer: A Dynamic voltage restorer is a power electronic controller that can protect sensitive loads from disturbances in the power supply.2 Gating signal generator: This circuit provides the gating signals of the three-phase PWM voltage-source inverter required to compensate voltage unbalance and current harmonic components. which covers 92%of the voltage sags that have been reported in a large study. In this way. 5. The basic principle is by inserting a voltage of required magnitude and frequency the DVR can restore the load side voltage to desired amplitude and frequency. current transformers and micro controller are the basic elements of Capacitor Demand Meter. The gating signals of the inverter are generated by comparing the resultant reference signal with a fixed frequency triangular waveform (5 kHz). which will create a higher dc voltage in the inverter thus defining a lower voltage utilization factor for steady state operating conditions.1 DYSC: A DYSC is a power electronic device containing a series sag corrector and a shunt converter that provides voltage sag immunity with a minimum retained of voltage of 50%. The triangular waveform forces the inverter switching frequency to be constant. Most flywheels can supply the rated load for 3-15 s.4.5 POWER QUALITY ANALYZERS AND CONTROLLERS 5. it is not necessary to sense the current flowing through the neutral conductor. the required reference signals will have a larger value. In order to reduce the amplitude of the current flowing through the neutral conductor. Capacitor Demand Meter is which when connected at the load end terminals shall directly indicate the KVAR rating of capacitors to be connected at that point. Voltage unbalance is compensated by calculating the negative and zero sequence fundamental components of the system voltages. The current and voltage reference signals are added and then the amplitude of the resultant reference waveform is adjusted in order to increase the voltage utilization factor of the PWM inverter for steady state operating conditions.4.When a capacitor is added to the electrical network .

6 INSTRUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR HARMONIC MEASUREMENT Power profiler BME 303A: It can measure and print in addition to various electric quantities voltage and current total harmonic distortion and frequency. Filtering characteristics need to be carefully designed for a given installation. the Emetics fixed-site units.5. KYZ output. The LM-5410 Portable Power Monitor Recorder is a three phase 600vac recorder supplied in a portable small case. currents. Alternatively. Filters are also fairly expensive on a per-kVA basis. and may be ineffective if the particular piece of equipment is changed.C. Power network analyzer DIP8000: It is portable three phase network analyzer designed for power surveys in which the measured data are transformed to PC for evaluation and documentation. The LM-5510 Wall Mount Power Monitor Recorder is equivalent to the LM-5410 except supplied in wall mount NEMA-4X case. paging. For situations where power quality has to be monitored on an ongoing basis. 7 POWER QUALITY MONITORING The Emetics LM-5410 and LM-5415 can be used for power quality investigations to identify specific problems and help in locating their cause.7 Shielded Isolation Transformers: Shielded isolation transformers are filtering devices that lessen feed-through of harmonic frequencies from the source or the load. current. Depending on the conditions encountered. and seeking professional design advice is recommended. lessening the harmonic loads on the wiring. RS232 cable and AC power cord (120/230v) and five voltage cables. manuals. line or phase voltage across potential transformer. waveform capture and harmonic analysis.8 K-Rated Transformers: K-rated transformers have beefed-up conductors and sometimes cooling to safely handle harmonic loads. They are a plausible retrofit technique where power problems have already been encountered. 5. This may be adequate to handle harmonics. It accepts Emetics high accuracy SMART split core CT¶s in various ranges records voltages. standard transformers are sometimes de-rated to allow for the extra heating due to harmonics. The LM-5520 adds the Integrated Monitoring & Control (IMC) Option which includes 3 relays with programmable contact operation (one latching relay and two relays NC/NO contacts). but are also quite expensive per-kVA. 5. a load limit of as little as 50% of the nameplate rating is observed. Page 10 . de-rated standard transformers should be made. Telephone modem option (TM-24) is included. Dynamic signal analyzer model(Hp3561): The parameters such as fundamental frequency of A. LM-5515 and LM-5520 should be used. A careful comparison of the relative costs of K-rated vs. But the filter design is dependent on the equipment on which it is installed. The filters are used to block or trap the offending currents. sag/swell events and power consumption includes software. but lowers effective transformer efficiency.6 Harmonic Filters: Filters are sometimes most cost effective in an existing structure where rewiring is difficult or costly.

the first approach is called Load Conditioning which ensures that the equipment is less sensitive to power disturbances allowing the operation even under significant voltage distortion. Insulation breakdown causes waveshape disturbances at the peak of the voltage. Knowledge about the electrical environment is always essential in interpreting disturbance waveshapes because very different causes can lead to similar waveshape disturbance patterns. Capacitor energizing transients initiate a sharp transient towards the voltage zero. in order not to overstate the number of disturbances.m. The other solution is to install line conditioning systems that suppress or counteracts the power system disturbances. For mitigation of power quality problems. 1. The globalization of industries have heightened awareness of deficiency of power quality around the world and many governments have revised their laws regulating electric utilities in the intent of achieving most cost competitive sources of electric energy. Page 11 . followed by a dampened oscillation at the power system frequency. The new liberalizes markets throughout the world are changing the framework in which power quality is addressed and power quality are now of great importance to all PQ engineers. 3.8 CONCLUSION There are several observations presented in the report that help us identify the cause of power quality disturbances from waveshapes. These plots should include aggregation of multiple events that occur concurrently on multiple phases or within a normal utility reclosing cycle. Normally waveshape disturbances that exhibit higher frequency characteristics indicate that the source of the disturbance is nearby. Loose connection faults cause waveshape disturbances in the voltage waveshape near the zero crossing of the current. 4.s disturbance events should reflect the end user¶s perceptions of ³customer events´. Higher frequency transients are dampened greatly by electrical distance. This technique will be especially important in premium power contracts between utilities and their most important customers. 2. Summary plots of r. Power Quality has become a pressing concern in the electrical power systems due to the increasing number of perturbing loads and the susceptibility of loads to power quality problems.

Page 12 .12ISSN 0972-3277. VOL 42 24. VOL43 no.REFERENCES: [1] ELECTRICAL INDIA SEPTEMBER 2003. [2] ELECTRICAL INDIA 31 ST DECEMBER 2002.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful