Hampton Beachfront and Shoreline Management

Hampton p Waterways Committee
February 15, 2011

Rebecca S. Francese, REM Rebecca S. Francese, REM

Management Goals
Storm Protection/Damage Reduction Flood Protection / Damage Reduction Recreation Habitat Preservation/Enhancement The priority may vary depending on the individual reach or section of shoreline.

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Study Area

Shoreline Management
Challenge (Ownership)
Bay Fronting Shoreline ~ 8 3 Miles 8.3 (South tip of Fort Monroe to Factory Point)
Fort Monroe (29%) Buckroe, Salt Ponds, Grandview Nature Buckroe, Preserve (44%) Private Thimble Shoals Court, Malo Beach, ,G ( %) White Marsh, Grandview (27%) Fort Monroe and the Nature Preserve (59%) are roughly the same length at opposite ends of the shoreline. Central 41% of the shoreline is interspersed private and public ownership – with an inlet segmenting the reach. Federal Public

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Shoreline Management
Challenge (Higher Storm Tides)
Higher Tides / Greater Storm Impacts
• The current average highest monthly water level is almost 0.5 ft higher than in 1980 (based on simple trend analysis). • Seven (7) of the top ten highest tide events have occurred in the past ten years and Ten (10) of the top twenty high tide events have occurred in the past 20 years. • Only one top twenty storm occurred in the 1970’s , one top twenty storm occurred in the 1980 and three in the 1980’s 1990’s.

Challenge (Coastal Processes)
Average erosion rate of about -2 to -3 ft/yr – hotspots or highly eroded areas mixed with stable areas

Beach Morphology

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Sediment Transport

Aeolian

Overwash/ Inlet

Fetch/ Wave Energy
Northeast and Northwest Bay-Internal Bay Internal – 25% Greatest waves – highest energy Generates currents to the south Southeast and Southwest Bay-External – 75% Typically smaller waves Generates currents to the north

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Net Longshore Transport
North of Lighthouse Point – the “net” transport is to the north (8,000 to 12,000 cy/yr) South of Lighthouse Point – the “net” transport is to the south (15,000 cy/yr to 20,000 cy/yr) – though there are seasonal reversals and localized hotspots.

Shoreline Management
Strategies
Hold the Line (Flooding and Storm Impacts) Hard shoreline alternatives – seawalls and revetment Enhanced Dunes (geotube or rock cores) (geotube Shoreline Buffers (Storm Impacts) Beach re-nourishment and living shorelines reHydrodynamic / Process Altering ( y y g (Storm Impacts p and Typical Processes) breakwaters, groins, jetties Possibly near shore reefs/near shore disposal

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Shoreline Management
Strategies (Continued)
Composite Strategies Combination of strategies Typically some form of beach nourishment and a process altering (ie. breakwater) or “hold the (ie. line” (ie. Revetment) (ie. “Do Nothing” or Shoreline Retreat Allow the shoreline to move back to a natural state At times – this is the most practical solution or may be applied in a conservancy setting.

Shoreline Management Buckroe Beach Bulkhead
Buckroe Beach Bulkhead was designed in 1967 g and constructed during the late 1960s. The bulkhead has been re-evaluated several retimes during the past 20 years…and it has been determined that it was near the end of its useful ….however, the bulkhead has continued to protect the upland properties during the recent period of storm impacts…probably due to the beach nourishment project.

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Shoreline Management Buckroe Beach Bulkhead

Shoreline Management Grandview Revetment
Grandview seawall / revetment was constructed initially during the 1960’s and has continued 1960 s throughout the present. The revetment was constructed of numerous types of building materials including concrete block and various size stone. The revetment has “held the line” for many years, but over the years the beach profile in front of the y structure has steepened and deepened. As a result, during storms – larger waves can impact the shoreline structure at that location than other segments of the Hampton shoreline.

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Shoreline Management Grandview Revetment

Shoreline Management Geotube at Salt Ponds Beach
In Ju y, 1998 - 2,000 ft of geotextile tube was July, 998 ,000 t o geote t e as filled with sand dredged from Salt Ponds Channel. The geotube was established along the upper limits of the public beach at Salt Ponds. A dune system was constructed over top of the tube and sprigged with American beachgrass. beachgrass. The geotube project served as a dune restoration project for the public beach and also as a revetment along the upper limits of the public beach.

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Shoreline Management Geotube at Salt Ponds Beach

Shoreline Management Beach Renourishment
Several small re-nourishment projects were reconstructed in the 1980s – as part of dredging t t d i th 1980 t fd d i maintenance at the Salt Ponds Channel. Major beach re-nourishment project constructed rein 1990 at public beach in Buckroe (224,000 cy). Beach re-nourishment project constructed in re1996 (60,000 cy) along the north end of the public beach at an “erosional hotspot.” “erosional Large scale federal project constructed in 2003 along Buckroe Beach and Salt Ponds.

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Shoreline Management Beach Renourishment

Shoreline Management

Groins
Constructed by the Corps of Engineers y p g during the early-1960s after the Ash earlyWednesday Storm. Approximately 20 structures were constructed along the Hampton Shoreline. The groins have been past their useful life g p since the early 1980s. The cost of repair at the time exceeded any potential benefits.

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Shoreline Management

Groins

Shoreline Management
Buckroe Avenue Breakwater
In 2001, a 250 ft breakwater was constructed at the end of Buckroe Avenue in the middle of the public beach at Buckroe

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Shoreline Management
Point Comfort Ave. Breakwater
In 2010, a 250 ft breakwater was constructed at the end of a Point Comfort Avenue on the public p beach in Buckroe. Buckroe.

Shoreline Management Salt Ponds Jetty System
North Jetty constructed by the City of Hampton in 1976 as part of the Salt Ponds Development. South jetty was actually an existing groin. The south jetty was replaced and lengthened in late 2005 / early 2006. Recommendations have been made for improvement to sand tighten and possibly lengthen the north jetty and re-construct the resand trap.

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Shoreline Management Salt Ponds Jetty System

Shoreline Management Breach Restoration
Factory Point was breached during a northeaster y g in 1997. With continued storms – the breach widened significantly until the Point was an island completely separated from the Preserve. Preserve. ~145,000 cy of sand was dredged and pumped from the shoal to reconnect the island. Five breakwaters were constructed to help p stabilize the beach. The project also included navigation improvements…widened/straightened channels, new consistent dayboards, etc. dayboards,

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Shoreline Management Breach Restoration

1994

2004

2010

Other Municipalities
City of Virginia Beach
Federal beach renourishment project at both the Oceanfront and Sandbridge. Project also Sandbridge. included the Seawall along the resort strip. No other hardened structures. Entire oceanfront is public beach.

City of Norfolk
Series of breakwaters along the Chesapeake Bay shorefront (Municipal and State Funding). Entire Chesapeake Bay beach is public beach.

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Fort Monroe to Buckroe Beach

South Buckroe to Malo Beach

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Salt Ponds to White Marsh

Grandview to Lighthouse Pt.

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Factory Point

Shoreline Management Strategy Planning
Purpose or Intent of Strategy Coastal Processes Specific to the Management Area Impact of Environmentally Protected Area or Regulatory Issues Shoreline Ownership (Public or Private) Cost and Where is the Money Coming From and Who does it benefit?

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