Questions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. What is GDM2000? What is a geocentric datum? What is the advantage of GDM2000? Why is Malaysia adopting the GDM2000? What is the difference between the existing coordinates and the new GDM2000 coordinates? Will the move to GDM2000 cause an effect in our leveling heights? Why is the new GDM2000 coordinates based on the ITRF2000, instead of WGS84? How will GDM2000 affect existing maps? Will the move towards GDM2000 affect our present cadastral system? How do I transform from one coordinate system to another? Where do I get the parameters for conversion and transformation? Why is the GRS80 ellipsoid used for GDM2000, instead of the WGS84 ellipsoid? Am I obliged to change to GDM2000?

Q1. What is GDM2000?

A. GDM stands for the Geocentric Datum of Malaysia. It forms the new earth-centred coordinate datum for Malaysia will ‘gradually’ replace the regional datums of Kertau 1948 in Peninsular Malaysia and Timbalai 1948 in Sabah Sarawak. GDM2000 is basically realized using Global Positioning System (GPS) to connect the national Zero Order Netw (i.e. the Malaysia Active GPS System stations) with some of the global permanent GPS network (i.e. the International Service stations). GDM2000 was officially launched on 26th of August 2003. Q2. What is a geocentric datum?

A. A geocentric datum is a geodetic reference frame that uses an ellipsoid that has the earth’s center of mass as origin. The size and shape of this ellipsoid closely approximates the size and shape of the earth. Q3. What is the advantage of GDM2000?

A. The main advantage is that GDM2000 coordinates are immediately compatible with global coordinates obtained f GPS and with other coordinate systems adopted in many parts of the world. It will also allow an efficient exchang data and linking of products from various information systems.

Q4. Why is Malaysia adopting the GDM2000?
A. There are many reasons for the adoption of GDM2000. Amongst them are: • • • • Wide spread use of satellite positioning systems Existing datums not compatible Unification of datums between East and West Malaysia In line with international recommendation

Q5. What is the difference between the existing coordinates and the new GDM2000 coordinates?

A. The existing coordinates were obtained using conventional techniques, long before satellite techniques w available. They are based on a model of the earth, that best suited our region at the time. On the other hand, GDM2 is based on an international mathematical model which "best fits" the shape of the whole earth, with its ce coinciding with the earth's centre of mass. Existing coordinates will change approximately 200 metres with the GDM2000. The exact change and orientation of the change will vary slightly from area to area. Q6. Will the move to GDM2000 cause an effect in our leveling heights?

λ .0 set of coordinates has an epoch because coordinates slowly change with time. the pre cadastral survey system will be maintained until the full implementation of the Coordinated Cadastral System (C which would be making use of GDM2000 as the coordinate reference frame in Peninsular Malaysia. Users can purchase them directly from JUPEM. On the other hand. Q11. ITRF2000 is the latest realisation of the reference fram and thus the most accurate to date. which was developed over 15 years ago by the US Department of Defense. 2000. Where do I get the parameters for conversion and transformation? A. based on local mean sea level. The two ellipsoids can be considered identical. h and X. When the WGS84 system was developed it was based on the GR ellipsoid. How do I transform from one coordinate system to another? A. First. There are 10 coordinate systems in Malaysia and they are: • • • • • • • • • • Old Cassini-Soldner for Peninsular Malaysia (E.000 scale. Y. In Peninsular Malaysia. This is due to tectonic’s plate motion and thus they need to be brought or mapped using a plate motion or velocity field to their coordinates at a tim of. There are two issues that need to be addressed here. Q12. N) JUPEM have published various parameters in order to transform coordinates from one system to another. Why is the new GDM2000 coordinates based on the ITRF2000. N) Old Rectified Skew Orthomorphic for Peninsular Malaysia (E. λ . Th because the two systems are completely different and independent. Map details will experience about 200 metres shift. N) New Rectified Skew Orthomorphic for East Malaysia (E. λ . The bearing as well as distanc the land parcels and consequently the lot boundaries will not change. λ . One of the motivating factors in the adoption of the GDM is to develop the cadastral database to be in internationally accepted reference frame and to an acceptable and defined accuracy. N) Old Rectified Skew Orthomorphic for East Malaysia (E. instead of the WGS84 ellipsoid? A.A. How will GDM2000 affect existing maps? A. Nevertheless. Y. Q9. the ITRF2000 Epo 2000. h and X. Z) New Cassini-Soldner for Peninsular Malaysia (E. Q7. Our present height system is not affected by the move towards GDM2000. and thus remains unchanged. instead of WGS84? A. Q8.000 the shift is ba significant at 4 mm. heights of GDM are above GRS80 ellipsoid. Why is the GRS80 ellipsoid used for GDM2000. Y. Z) East Malaysia Primary GPS Network (φ . h and X. Secondly. in our case. However. The same principle also applies in Sabah and Sarawak. N) New Rectified Skew Orthomorphic for Peninsular Malaysia (E. Thus it is more accurate than the WGS84 datum. which is different from the mean sea level (or the geoid). but computational techniques resulted in a small difference in the flattening. relative to the gridlines on the map. Will the move towards GDM2000 affect our present cadastral system? A. methods for converting and transforming them are given in the GDM2000 Technical Manual. It is based on the mean sea level from a year tidal observation at Port Kelang since 1983. When used to express ea . N) Malayan Revised Triangulation (φ . The good new that these heights can be transformed to levelling heights using the national geoid model. Z) Geocentric Datum of Malaysia (φ . It used GPS data recorded up to the year 2000. our height system referenced to the Peninsular Malaysia Geodetic Vertical Datum (PMGVD). It is 20 mm at 1:10. Q10. but m complicated as there are many vertical datums currently in use. the coordinates of the boundary m will change since they would then be referred to a different coordinate referencing system. At 1:50. h) Peninsular Malaysia Primary GPS Network (φ .

You can still use the old set of coordinates. the GDM2000.centred Cartesian positions (X. No. And what a better way than to have them all in a single uni common datum. it will s become necessary to integrate all types of data sets. Am I obliged to change to GDM2000? WGS84 6378137 m 298.257222101 A. Z) as latitude. . you are not. longitude and ellipsoidal height. Semi major axis (a) flattening (1/f) Q13. as GDM2000 is being implemented. Y. However.257223563 GRS80 6378137 m 298. these two ellipsoids result difference of less than 1 millimetre.

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