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In order to comprehend fully the technical data sheets and the various types of paints and painting
methods, it is essential for the reader to have a fair knowledge of the terms used.

MICRON (µ): Metric unit used to designate film thickness.

1 micron = 1 mm / 1000 (One thousandth mm) = 0.000001 m (One-millionth m). Also written as
µm or um.

MIL: American unit used to designate film thickness. Also called "thou". 1 mil = 25.399 microns ≈
25 microns.

VOLUME SOLIDS: Volume Solids of paint is the ratio of the nonvolatile components present in it
to the total volume. Also termed as Solid Volume Ratio (SVR) or SV%. This is the most important
factor which determines the coverage of paint, others being thickness at which paint is applied,
nature of surface being painted, method of application etc.

DRY FILM THICKNESS (D.F.T.): The thickness of the paint film is measured in microns when
it is dry. An adequate film thickness is mandatory for the success of any coating system. Under
application will result in premature failure of the paint system. Exceeding the specified film
thickness can be equally dangerous. The recommended D.F.T. depends on the type of paint system
and nature of surface.

WET FILM THICKNESS (W.F.T.): The thickness of the wet film is measured in microns
immediately after application. Measuring W.F.T. is essential to keep the D.F.T. at the desired level,
by applying the paint at a pre-judged W.F.T; calculated by the following equation:-
WFT = DFT x 100

THEORETICAL SPREADING RATE (T.S.R.): The area covered by unit amount of paint when
applied is referred to as Theoretical Spreading Rate or simply Spreading Rate at a particular D.F.T.
Since T.S.R. is a function of DFT, it should be clearly specified while stating T.S.R.

It is calculated by the following equation:

T.S.R. (m2/litre) = SVR x 10

DFT (microns)


Theoretical Paint Consumption (liters) = AREA (M2)

PRACTICAL SPREADING RATE (P.S.R.): Practical Spreading Rate is calculated from T.S.R.
by providing the appropriate loss factor.
FLASH POINT: The lowest temperature, at which the solvent in the paint gives off sufficient
vapour to form ignitable mixture with the air above its surface.

TOUCH DRY: When a very light pressure with the finger does not leave a mark on the surface.

DRY TO HANDLE: When the paint surface is sufficiently hardened to be freely handled without

HARD DRY: When the drying has reached such a stage that if desired, a further coat can be
satisfactorily applied.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY: Weight in Kgs per liter of paint at 25º C.

CURING AGENT: Is the component which produces the chemical reaction linking the molecular
chains of the binder together in original structure.

CURING: Hardening of the liquid paint by heat or by chemical reaction.

POT LIFE: The chemical reaction sets in immediately after the component of two-component
paint is mixed, which starts thickening / gelling. The period after mixing the components during
which the paint remains usable is called pot-life. Pot-life depends on the temperature.

SHELF LIFE: The time that paint will remain in good, usable condition when stored in the
original sealed container under normal storage conditions.

SHOPPRIMER: A shopprimer is used to protect derusted "steel" against corrosion during the
storage and erection period until the ultimate protective paint system can be applied.

HIGH BUILD PAINT: A paint that can produce thick dry films per coat.


SURFACE PREPARATION: For any given paint system, surface preparation is the single
important factor that would determine its performance. Various surface preparation methods are
adopted depending on the requirements of the paint system used and the substrate. The substrate
could be steel, galvanized steel, aluminum, concrete or wood.

a) STEEL AS SUBSTRATE: Various methods of surface preparation are adopted viz. degreasing,
high pressure fresh water hosing, hand tool cleaning, power tool cleaning, blast cleaning etc.
Degreasing is done to remove all oil and grease prior to manual or blast cleaning. The most
common method is by solvent washing followed by wiping dry with clean rags. A suitable detergent
solution can also be used, and then the substrate has to be subjected to fresh water hosing to remove
traces of detergents.

The following are the most important surface preparation standards commonly followed worldwide.

1- Swedish Standard SIS 05 59 00 - (1967 - Pictorial Surface Preparation Standards for

Painting Steel Surface).

2- Steel Structures Painting Council (SSPC), U.S.A.

3- British Standards Institution - Surface Finish of Blast Cleaned Steel for Painting (BS

4- International Standard ISO 8501-1 : 1988.

Except for BS 4232, all other standards consider the state of steel surface to be painted by
classifying it into various grades A, B, C and D. Steel surface with mill scale but little rust is graded
A, and surface which has begun to rust and from which mill scale has begun to flake is graded as B,
surface from which mill scale has rusted away with slight pitting is graded C and surface with
general pitting visible is grade D.

The Swedish Standard being the prominent among all will be discussed in details.

SWEDISH STANDARD SIS 05 59 00 - 1967: The four grades for blast cleaning according to this
standard are Sa 3, Sa 2.5, Sa 2 and Sa 1.
SA-3 : Blast cleaning to visually clean steel. Surface should be completely free from oil,
grease, mill scale and rust.
SA-2.5 : Very thorough blast cleaning to achieve near white metal inferior to SA-3.
SA-2 : Widely known as commercial blast inferior to SA-2.5.
SA-1 : Light blast cleaning to remove mill scale, rust and paint.
ST-3 : Very thorough power tool cleaning to remove loosely adhering mill scale, paint and
rust. However, it cannot remove tightly adhering mill scale.
ST-2 : Loosely adhering mill scale, rust and old paint coatings are removed from steel by wire
brushing, sanding, scraping and chipping.
International Standard ISO 8501 - 1 - 1988 makes use of the same photos as used by Swedish
Standard with the help of four additional photos from German Standard DIN 55928.
British Standard BS 4232 - 1967 classifies blast-cleaned surfaces into three categories viz. First
Quality, Second Quality and Third Quality based on the proportion of the clean bare metal to the
total area. For First Quality, 100% area should be clean bare metal, for Second Quality, at least 95%
of the area should be clean bare metal and for Third Quality, it should be at least 80%.
The following chart gives an approximate equivalence between various standards:-
Swedish Standard British Standard Steel Structures Painting Council
SIS 055900 BS 4232 USA SSPC
SA-3 First Quality SSPC-SP5
SA-2.5 Second Quality SSPC-SP10
SA-2 Third Quality SSPC-SP6
SA-1 ------ SSPC-SP7
Surface texture of a metal, produced by abrasive blasting, to assist the adhesion of a coating, is
called anchor pattern or surface profile. Most paint systems, specially inorganic zinc coatings,
require an anchor pattern-characterized by a surface roughness and a roughness profile to obtain
proper adhesion. It is usually assessed by standardized comparator viz. Rugotest No.3 and Keane-
Tator Surface Profile Comparator.
Anchor pattern obtained depends on the type of abrasive used for blasting. Using fine sand of mesh
size 80, maximum height of profile is found to be 35-37 microns whereas with iron shot of mesh
size 14, it is found to be 90 microns.

Galvanized metal as well as aluminum presents a very difficult surface for painting because of the
problem of getting proper adhesion of the paint system to the surface. Galvanized metal is very
smooth which poses a serious threat to adhesion. So, it is imperative that an etch primer be applied
on the surface subsequent to degreasing before the application of a proper paint system. Application
of the etch primer results in a tacky surface which ensures proper adhesion of the paint system to
the surface.
Although concrete appears as a dense, homogeneous material it contains a lot of small pores, which,
if opened, contribute to a faster breakdown of the concrete. Fresh concrete possesses an alkalinity of
up to pH 13. This alkalinity protects the reinforcement against corrosion. Reinforcement steel starts
to corrode when pH of the moisture in the concrete is lower than 9. This happens due to the
following reaction:
Ca(OH)2 + H2CO3 ----- Ca CO3 + 2H2O (Carbonation)
Ca(OH)2 + H2SO4 ------ Ca SO4 + 2H2O (Carbonation)
Both H2CO3 (Carbonic acid) and H2SO4 (Euphoric Acid) are reaction products of CO2 and SO2
present in the atmosphere.

Another troublemaker is laitance. Laitance is a thin layer of surplus cement and water that rises to
the surface during setting of concrete. Unless removed, it will severely reduce adhesion and cause
failure of the paint system. Efflorescence, seen as a salty stain on walls has to be removed before
painting. Efflorescence is caused by moisture moving towards the surface of concrete.

Prevention of these faults is cheaper than renovation and this can be achieved by providing the
concrete surface with a protective coating.

The concrete surface should be clean, dry and sound prior to painting. When all trouble makers
have been identified, they have to be removed which is best done by mechanical cleaning and
power tooling combined with detergent cleaning if grease is present. An alternative to blasting is
acid etching.

For concrete, all coatings have to be alkali resistant. Furthermore, it has to prevent moisture, sulfur
dioxide and carbon dioxide from penetrating the concrete.

All new wooden surfaces like softwoods, hard woods, plywood etc. should be dry, clean and free
from foreign particles. Smooth down with sand paper and apply a suitable knotting preservative.
This should be followed by primer for protection against moisture. On previously painted surfaces,
apply paint removers followed by the method described above.

AREAS:- Similar to the standards for degree of cleaning of steel surfaces, there are several
standards for the description of the degree of paint breakdown and rusting on painted steel surfaces.
Most commons are:
1) The European Scale of Degree of Rusting for Anti-corrosive paints, devised and issued
by the Committee of Paint and Printing Ink Manufacturers' Association, Paris.
2) ISO 4628 / 3 - 1982: International Standards Organization, London.
3) SSPC - VIS - 2 - 68 T: Steel Structures Painting Council, USA.
4) ANSI / ASTM D 61 0: American National Standards Institute / American Society for
Testing and Materials.
All these standards contain photographic references. Among all, the European Scale is the most
widely used. A comparative chart of the standards is given below:


VIS – 2 – 68t D 610 SCALE 4628/3
Ref.% Rusting Ref. % Rusting Ref. % Rusting

10 <0.01 Re 1 0.05 Ri 0 0

9 0.03 Re 2 0.5 Ri 1 0.05

8 0.1 Re 3 1.0 Ri 2 0.5

7 0.3 Re 4 3.0 Ri 3 1.0

6 1.0 - - - -

5 3.0 Re 5 8.0 Ri 4 8.0

4 10.0 Re 6 15/20 Ri 5 40/50

3 16.0 - - - -

2 33.0 Re 7 40/50 - -

1 50.0 Re 8 75/85 - -

0 100.0 Re 9 95 - -


National Paints places great emphasis on the safe use of paint and wherever possible, products are
designed to minimize potential hazard. Thus there are solvent-free systems within the National
product range which reduces the risk of fire and consequently reduces interference with other
workers in the vicinity of painting operations. But the majority of paints in current use are still
solvent-borne and these are therefore; essentially flammable. Most paint solvents, many pigments
and some binders, too, are toxic. Nevertheless, most paint materials are quite safe if handled with
due precaution; accidents could be prevented by adopting sensible working attitudes and good
housekeeping practices.
Fire Hazard:-
The opening of a tin of solvent-borne paint immediately releases solvent vapours. The faster a paint
solvent evaporates; the lower will be its flash point (defined as the lowest temperature at which the
paint gives off sufficient vapours to form an inflammable mixture in air). If ambient temperatures
are close to the flash point quoted in the Product Data Sheet there is considerable risk of fire or
explosion in the presence of a spark or open flame. Even if ambient temperatures are well below the
flash point there may be a fire risk. Therefore no naked flames, lighted cigarettes, motors, electrical
equipment, electrical switches, torches, etc. should be allowed in the vicinity of painting operations
and care should be taken to avoid sparking by using non-sparking tools and grounding all
equipment (e.g. airless spray).
In addition, ensure that good ventilation exists to avoid vapour build up and the paint and solvent
cans are closed when painting operations have stopped. It is acceptable practice to reduce vapour
concentration, to less than 10% of L.E.L. (Lower Explosion Limit). Clean up solvent spills and
dispose paint rags daily, with care.
In the event of fire, do not extinguish with water but use dry foam, powder or CO2 fire

Health Hazard:-
Many paint materials are noxious, intoxicating, irritant or toxic to a greater or lesser extent. The
route of intake into the body may vary:
1- Ingestion:
It is unlikely that personnel will knowingly consume paint. However, in order to minimize the risk
of this occurrence it is recommended that food not to be stored, prepared or consumed in paint
stores or in the vicinity of painting operations.
In the event of ingestion, consult a medical practitioner immediately.

2. Inhalation:
Particular problems in this respect are due to the dusts generated by abrasive blasting and to solvent
vapours and spray mists generated at application, particularly by spraying procedures.
When surface preparation involves removal of old coatings, try to minimize the generated dust so as
to protect workers and neighborhood communities and dispose of coating residues carefully.
Workers can be protected by the use of proper respirators with regular changes of cartridge.
Spraying operations may develop paint mists, which will then be present locally at the site of
operation or may drift downwind affecting workers in other areas. The latter condition may be
avoided by ceasing spraying in wind and spray operators may need the protection of a cartridge
respirator to filter out these particles of paint. In bad circumstances, an air-fed hood or mask may be
Solvent fumes will be present around most spraying operations and as they are heavier than air they
will be present near the ground, displacing air. Good ventilation should always be available to
remove these fumes but care should be taken when entering areas where fumes could have
The most common symptoms of inhalation of solvent fumes are dizziness, drunkenness, headaches,
general indisposition, sleepiness and nausea. Operators experiencing these effects should be moved
into fresh air and should not return until the symptoms have disappeared and the ventilation has
3. Skin and Eye Contact:
Paint materials may make contact with the skin and eyes, through spillage, splashes, and paint spray
mists, etc. The best way to avoid this contact is to use sensible working clothes that cover as much
as possible of the body, including gloves and safety goggles. Other areas of the body might still be
exposed (specially neck, parts of the face around the goggles and parts of the arms) and it is
recommended to use a non-greasy barrier cream here. If clothes get soaked with paint, change
affected garments immediately and thoroughly wash them with soap and water.
Paint splashes on the skin should be removed with soap and water and not with solvents. In the
event of paint or thinner coming into contact with the eyes, wash them with water and seek medical
advice immediately.
Finally, always wash hands and rinse mouth after completion of painting operations.

From the foregoing we have derived some basic, minimum precautions:
a) Note carefully the precautionary notices on the paint tins.
b) Provide adequate ventilation during application.
c) As most paints contain flammable materials, keep away from spark and open flames
and do not permit smoking in the vicinity.
d) Avoid skin contact and inhalation of spray mists and fumes.
e) If the paint comes into contact with the skin, wash thoroughly with soap and water.
If paint splashes the eyes, wash with water and seek medical advice immediately.
The above notes are not intended to be exhaustive and do not cover all eventualities during the
storage and application of paint. They are intended as a guide to the minimum precautions that
should be taken with all National products. Additional information on particular products can be
provided by your local National Paints Dealer.


Paint is not a finished product until it has been applied and dried on an appropriate substrate at the
designed performance film thickness. Proper application therefore is critical to the performance of
the paint system. High performance paint systems are specially sensitive to misapplication thus
knowledge of the application characteristics and recommended film thickness are vital to obtain
optimum results.
Weather Conditions
Bad weather conditions are a perennial hazard in painting operations. Paint should never be applied
on wet surfaces and therefore painting should be avoided not only in rain, sleet and fog but also
when high humidity and low steel temperatures lead to condensation. Condensation is very difficult
to detect on surfaces and will occur if the steel temperature is below atmospheric dew point. As a
general guide, application should not take place when the steel surface temperature is less than 3º C
above the dew point.
Extreme temperature may present problems too. At low temperatures (below 5ºC), the curing of
paints such as epoxies may slow down dramatically and for some paints stop altogether. Others are
not seriously affected, chlorinated rubber - and vinyl paints may be used at/or below 0ºC as long as
the surface is free from ice. As ice may be present in pores of the steel surface at these
temperatures, generally however, painting below 1ºC should be discouraged. At high temperatures,
solvent loss from paint atomized during application is very rapid; paint droplets do not coalesce on
the surface (leading to a porous coat) and clouds of dry spray may also be produced. The problem
may be rectified by the addition of thinners but these should never be more than a few percent of
the weight of the paint. Generally, painting should be avoided during extremely hot hours - where
paint operations are carried out in hot climates, the paint should be applied in the morning and early

Application Methods
Three main methods are used in painting. The choice of method depends on the type of coating to
be applied, the effect on adjacent areas and the degree of skill of the personnel.
1. Brush & Roller
Low viscosity paints are easily applied by these techniques to yield low applied film
thickness. Modern, thixotropic paints are often specified at high film thickness specially
where they perform a protective function. Therefore, where brush and roller methods are
called upon (specially for "touching up "or" stripe coating") a number of coats may need to
be applied in order to achieve the minimum specified dry film thickness. Although these
techniques have largely been replaced by spray application, they may find use in
maintenance schedules.

2. Conventional Spray

This technique mixes a jet of air with a stream of paint to propel a fan of paint droplets
towards a surface. The mix of air with the paint particles gives high turbulence however and
considerable "bounce back". Air atomization of paint can thus results in considerable over
spray. Therefore not only adjacent areas must be protected but also paint losses may vary
from 20% to 40% on steel and paint operatives must wear protection to avoid paint mist
inhalation. The technique particularly suits low viscosity paints and is most commonly used
for the application of conventional decorative paints and zinc silicate coatings.

3. Airless Spray
This technique relies on hydraulic pressure rather than air atomization to produce the spray.
Paint under very high pressures (1000 to 6000 psi, approx. 100 to 400 kg/cm2) delivered to
the spray gun and then forced through a very small orifice to atomize it. Thus there is more
rapid coverage with much less over spray and much higher film thickness can be obtained.

Most of the products manufactured by National Paints can be applied by airless spray. Some
products (e.g. anticorrosive) are designed to be applied at high film build, others (e.g. finishing
paints) at low thicknesses. Follow the recommendations in the Product Data Sheets. If the
recommendations are significantly exceeded and over-application results, sags and runs may
develop - these are not only unsightly but may also have detrimental effects on the performance of
the coating.

Finally, it must be remembered that airless spray ejects paint under very high pressure. Do not
direct the spray at people nearby as injury can be easily caused and take due precautions when the
equipment is being cleaned.

Defect Cause Suggested Correction
Runs and Sags Improper spray There may be a tendency for sprayers who are
technique unfamiliar with airless application to deposit a
paint film much heavier than specified.
Gun is passed too The spray gun should be held at a distance of about
close to work piece 1-ft. (30 cm) from the surface for general work.
Gun held at wrong Hold gun at right angle to the surface and move in
angle to surface a straight line parallel to surface.
Excessive deposit In addition to the above suggestions, check spray
nozzle for excessive wear or improper selection.
Excessive dilution Paint materials have a value of viscosity and solids
content below which it cannot be diluted, so the
specified film thickness cannot be obtained.
Therefore, do not thin the paint unless absolutely
Streaks Wrong nozzle Select a smaller nozzle.
Nozzle is worked out Select a new nozzle.
Incorrect overlapping Follow the previous stroke accurately.
of strokes Deposit a wet coat.
Too high viscosity Increase pressure/thin the paint.
Too high film Improper technique See notes for "Runs and Sags" Use a smaller
nozzle. Hold the gun at right angles to the surface.
Dry overspray Excessive atomization Reduce pressure. Use a large nozzle. Hold spray
Nozzle too small gun closer to work piece. Trigger gun at edges.
Improper technique Spray at right angles towards surface.
Excessive spray fog Excessive atomization Reduce pressure.
Paint thinned out too Only the correct amount of thinner should be
much added.
Pinholes Paint film too heavy Apply less wet film thickness.
Poor atomization Increase pressure.
Orange peel Paint not thinned Add the correct amount of thinner.
Blistering Rust, oil or grease on Degrease the surface properly before painting.
Moisture on or in the Surface temperature must be above the dew point.
Solvents trapped Use a slower solvent.
under dried paint

Volume Conversion
1 0.220 0.264
2 0.440 0.528
3 0.660 0.793
4 0.880 1.057
5 1.100 1.321
6 1.320 1.585
7 1.540 1.849
8 1.760 2.113
9 1.980 2.378

Length Conversion
FEET w Meter-Feet x METERS
3.280840 1 0.3048
6.561660 2 0.6096
9.842520 3 0.9144
13.123359 4 1.2192
16.404199 5 1.5240
19.685038 6 1.8288
22.965878 7 2.1336
26.246718 8 2.4384
29.527558 9 2.7432

YARD w Meter-Yard x METERS

1.093613 1 0.91440
2.187226 2 1.82880
3.280839 3 2.743204
3.374452 4 3.657605
4.468065 5 4.57200
6.561678 6 5.48640
7.655291 7 6.400808
7.748904 8 7.351209
8.842517 9 8.22960

1 sq. meter / Liter = 4.527 sq. yards / US Gallon
= 5.435 sq. yards / Imperial Gallon
1 sq. yard / US Gallon = 1.200 sq. yards / Imperial Gallon
= 0.221 sq. meter / Liter
1 sq. yard / Imperial Gallon= 0.833 sq. yard / US Gallon
(9 sq. feet = 1 sq. yard) = 0.1 84 sq. meter / Liter

ºC » ºF ºC ¼ ºF ºC » ºF ºC ¼ ºF ºC » ºF ºC ¼ ºF ºC » ºF ºC ¼ ºF
2.22 36 96.8 25.0 77 170.6 87.8 190 374
2.78 37 98.6 25.6 78 172.4 90.6 195 383
3.33 38 100.4 26.1 79 174.2 93.3 200 392
-28.9 -20 4 3.89 39 102.2 26.7 80 176.0 96.1 205 401
-23.3 -10 14 4.44 40 104.0 27.2 81 177.8 98.9 210 410
-17.8 0 32 5.00 41 105.8 27.8 82 179.6 100.0 212 413.6
-17.2 1 33.8 5.56 42 107.6 26.3 83 181.4 101.7 215 419
-16.7 2 35.6 6.11 43 109.4 26.9 84 183.2 104.4 220 428
-16.1 3 37.4 6.67 44 111.2 29.4 85 185.0 107.2 225 437
-15.6 4 39.2 7.22 45 113.0 30.0 86 186.8 110.0 230 446
-15.0 5 41.0 7.78 46 114.8 30.6 87 188.6 112.8 235 455
-15.4 6 42.8 8.33 47 116.6 31.1 88 190.4 115.6 240 464
-13.9 7 44.6 8.89 48 118.4 31.7 89 192.2 118.3 245 473
-13.3 8 46.4 9.44 49 120.2 32.2 90 194.0 121.1 250 482
-12.8 9 48.2 10.0 50 122.0 32.8 91 195.8 123.9 255 491
-12.2 10 50.5 10.6 51 123.8 33.3 92 197.6 126.7 260 500
-11.7 11 51.8 11.1 52 125.6 33.9 93 199.4 129.4 265 509
-11.1 12 53.6 11.7 53 127.4 34.4 94 201.2 132.2 270 518
-10.6 13 55.4 12.2 54 129.2 35.0 95 203.0 135.0 275 527
-10.0 14 57.2 12.8 55 131.0 35.6 96 204.8 137.8 280 536
-9.44 15 59.0 13.3 56 132.8 36.1 97 206.6 140.6 285 545
-8.89 16 60.8 13.9 57 134.6 36.7 98 208.4 143.3 290 554
-8.33 17 62.6 14.4 58 136.4 37.2 99 210.2 146.1 295 563
-7.78 18 64.4 15.0 59 138.2 37.8 100 212.0 184.9 300 572
-7.22 19 66.2 15.6 60 140.0 40.6 105 221.0 151.7 305 581
-6.67 20 68.0 16.1 61 141.8 43.3 110 230 154.4 310 590
-6.11 21 69.8 16.7 62 143.6 46.1 115 239 157.2 315 599
-5.56 22 71.6 17.2 63 145.4 48.9 120 248 160.0 320 608
-5.00 23 73.4 17.8 64 147.2 51.7 125 257 162.8 325 617
-4.44 24 75.2 18.3 65 149.0 54.5 130 266 165.6 330 626
-3.89 25 77.0 18.9 66 150.8 57.2 135 275 168.3 335 635
-3.33 26 78.8 19.4 67 152.6 60.0 140 284 171.1 340 644
-2.78 27 80.6 20.0 68 154.4 62.8 145 293 173.9 345 653
-2.22 28 82.4 20.6 69 156.2 65.6 150 302 176.7 350 662
-1.67 29 84.2 21.1 70 158.0 68.3 155 311 179.4 355 671
-1.11 30 86.0 21.7 71 159.8 71.1 160 320 182.2 360 680
-0.56 31 87.8 22.2 72 161.6 73.9 165 329 185.0 365 689
0 32 89.6 22.8 73 163.4 76.7 170 338 187.8 370 698
0.56 33 91.4 23.3 74 165.2 79.4 175 347 190.6 380 707
1.11 34 93.2 23.9 75 167.0 82.2 180 356 193.4 385 716
1.67 35 95.0 24.4 76 168.8 85.0 185 365 196.1 205 725
C = (ºF – 32) x 5 ºF = (ºC x 1.8) + 32

sq. feet w sq. meter – sq. feet x sq. meter
10.76391 1 0.09290
21.527282 2 0.18580
32.29173 3 0.27870
43.05564 4 0.37160
53.81955 5 0.46450
64.58346 6 0.55740
75.34737 7 0.65030
86.11128 8 0.74320
96.87519 9 0.83610

sq. yard w sq. meter – sq. yard x sq. meter

1.19599 1 0.83613
2.39198 2 1.67226
3.58797 3 2.50839
4.78396 4 3.34453
5.97995 5 4.18065
7.17594 6 5.01678
8.37193 7 5.85291
9.56792 8 6.68904
10.76391 9 7.52517

Microns Mils / Thou.
10 0.39
20 0.78
30 1.18
40 1.57
50 1.97
60 2.36
70 2.76
80 3.15
90 3.54
100 3.94
110 4.33
120 4.73
130 5.12
Conversion factor: 1 micron = 0.0394 mil / thou 1 mil / thou = 25.4 microns