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Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, M.S.Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Karnataka, Bangalore, India Research scholar,JNTU Hyderabad, AP,india Email: - firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr.Soma v chetty
Principal, Kuppam Engineering College, A P, India Email: - email@example.com
Dr.Sudheer Prem Kumar
Vice Principal, JNTU College of Engineering, Jagatyala, Hyderabad, AP, India Email: - firstname.lastname@example.org
The wear behaviour of as cast and heat treated A 356.0 alloys containing 7.25% silicon slid against hardened steel counter face were studied using Pin-on-Disc apparatus by varying loads , sliding distances and sliding velocity. Cast alloys were subjected T6 heat treatment involving solutionisin at 5400deg celg, water quenching and artificially aged for 6 hrs at three different ageing temperatures namely 170, 180 and 190 deg cel. The microstructure of both as cast and heat treated alloys were observed using Light Optical Microscope and photographed. The worn surfaces of Pins were photographed using Light Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopes to analyze for wear mechanism. Spherodization of needle shaped silicon particles, reduction in size and their uniform distribution due to heat treatment resulted in improved wear resistance of heat treated alloys compared to as cast alloys. The wear resistance increased with ageing temperature.
Keywords: Pin-on-Disc, Contact Pressure
The wear rate was high at low relative humidity and increased slightly at higher relative humidity. There are sufficiently good number of studies made on tribological behavior of Al-Si alloys.R. Zinc.Alpas (13) made studies on three commercial grades of Al-Si alloys namely.V. Al-12Si- 1Cu-1. Mohd Harun.34%Mg 2 Si) and 6069(Al-2. heat treatment process involved. G. However. Rajan (6) made studies on Al-12 Si. Zn and Zr. high specific strength and good heat transfer ability which makes them suitable materials to replace components made of ferrous alloys. Hozimo Goto. automotive transmission. K.B. The presence of Mg. AA6061 with Saffil (Al2O3 whiskers) showed little advantage over the monolithic alloy.Razavizadeh and T. all in the T6 condition using Pin on Disc apparatus. Different observations were made by researchers using different sliding systems. AlSi alloys are widely used in all types of internal combustion engines such as cylinder blocks.Elmadagli. a die cast 383 with 9. Zr resulted in age hardening due to the formation of precipitates which have improved wear resistance. Sarkar (1) R. different researchers have made studies for different load and speed ranges.D. aircraft fittings. A.Gurcan. Kenji Uchijo (11) studied Al-Si alloy impregnated with 56% volume of Graphite in various gas environments to investigate the wear mechanism.S.B.Talib. It was concluded that dynamic aging using ECAE is efficient in executing aging treatment that results in superior mechanical properties of Al-Mg-Si alloy. water cooled cylinder blocks and nuclear energy installations. But AA6061+ 60% SiC showed the best performance.0 alloys find applications in aircraft pump parts. Different wear mechanisms were observed during the wear analysis.An. F. Y. Dheerendra Kumar Dwivedi (12) has studied the influence of sliding speed.N. the magnitude of which increased with increased fiber volume and loads.1. Q. 4) have studied the sliding wear behavior of Al-16% Si alloy slid against steel counter face and arrived at the conclusion that there exists an oxidative wear mechanism. The wear of unreinforced alloy and composites occurred by groove formation and its subsequent growth.P. A. Shivanath (2) were the earlier researchers who made studies on a near eutectic Aluminium-11% Silicon alloy. Ashok Sharma and T. C. M.Yilmas (8) studied the wear and friction behavior of LM-13 alloy containing up to 30% Al2o3 fiber against hard steel counter face with loads 5-60N and sliding speed of 1m/s.Akbulut.Field. AA6061 MMC’s together with the monolithic alloys AA6061 . melt treated and heat treated condition and has shown that the wear is closely related with interface temperature. Y. H. I. Zn. test duration.Perry. T. A.Cai. manufacturing processes.A. Zirconium additions and subsequent heat treatment on the wear of eutectic Al-Si alloy in dry sliding using Pin on Disc apparatus. Worn surfaces were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope.5Mg alloy with lead content varying from 4 to 16 % using Pin on Disc apparatus and have observed a number of wear processes such as delamination adhesion. A. abrasion etc take part in the material removal.Y Zhang. Studies were also made on binary Al-Si alloy and LM-13 alloys and compared with alloys containing Ce. aircraft structure and control parts. T. J.25% Mg2Si) aged at 1700C. Further improvement in wear resistance was achieved by heat treatment. M.T.1. INTRODUCTION Aluminium-Silicon alloys possess light weight. A356.Daud (7) have studied the effects of Cerium. Both hypo-eutectic and hyper-eutectic alloys can be used as useful engine block materials on account of their adequate wear resistance and high strength to weight ratio.Lu. test geometry. load. cylinder heads and Pistons. sliding time and Si content on the inter face temperature of the wear behavior of Al-8Si alloy in as cast. and environmental factors such as humidity which make the comparison of results difficult.5%Si. Al-4 to 20 % Silicon binary alloy and have shown two distinct wear regimes occurring during sliding wear namely. M. The presence of lead was found to reduce wear and friction. Baker (5) have made studies on the wear resistance of 4. D. (a) mild wear (MW) regime characterized by low wear rates of 10 -4 mm3/m to 10-3mm3/m accompanied by the formation of oxidized tribolayers on the contact surfaces and (b) a severe wear (SW) regime that existed at high loads and test speeds called as metallic wear.Dong (9) studied the wear behavior of hot extruded Al-Si-Pb alloy under dry sliding condition in the temperature range 25-2000C using Pin on Disc apparatus and have shown that the microstructure and mechanical properties can be greatly improved and porosity can be significantly decreased by hot extrusion.Durman. Ce.Liu. Dynamic aging was conducted using ECAE.W Lorimer (10) have studied both static and dynamic aging of 6061(Al. a sand cast A390 with 2 . Eyre (3.
The alloys were solutionised at 540oC with holding time 9 hours followed by water quenching (at 600C) and age hardened at 1700C. it is observed from literature survey that the number of studies made on the wear behavior Al–Si –Mg alloys aged to higher temperature is less compared to that of as cast alloys. The onset of mild wear (MW) coincided with complete wearing out of exposed Si particles.025 0.0 alloy (weight %) Element Si Mg Fe Cu Mn Ni Zinc Others Al Weight % 7. The solution Fig 2. 2.0 Alloy 3 . Ultra mild wear (UMW) in the alloy occurred due to the abrasive action on the top of exposed Si particles and fracture of larger particles. S.1 Microstructure The samples for microstructure examination were prepared by following standard metallurgical procedures.A Pery and A.18. 2.0 alloys were sand cast in the form of cylindrical bars of length 300mm and diameter 25mm.086 0. Hence. quenching and age hardening. 540-6h180 . in the present study. T.018 0. Optical Microstructure of as cast A356. etched in etchant prepared using 90ml water.190o for 6 hours.The chemical composition of the alloy shown in Table-1 was obtained using Optical Emission Spectrometer (Baird-Dv6E).T Alpas (14) have tested Al18.25 0.005 0. The mild wear damage stabilized after a prolonged sliding probably due to the formation of a protective oil residual layer.45 0. Table I Chemical composition of A356. the effect of ageing temperature on the dry sliding wear behaviour of A356.1. 180. Therefore. Quenching was done to retain super saturation. Consisting of solution treatment.028 Balance treatment resulting in the solution of soluble phases to form the solid solution with maximum concentration of solute in solvent.5% to 25 % increased the transition load by 140 %.0 alloys was made.540-6h-190 .5%Si and a spray cast alloy with 25% Si under dry sliding condition and have shown that an increase in Si content from 9. 4ml H2So4 and 2g CrO3 and were examined using Optical Microscope The conventional heat treatment adopted for Aluminum alloys is Precipitation heat treatment. It lasted for very short sliding cycle (104 cycles). 4ml of HF.1 Materials A356.2.K.Dey. and these alloys were designated as where 540-6h-170. The heat treatment process was carried out as follows.where 540 represent the solution temperature and 6h indicate 6hours of age hardening.5Si alloy against steel counter face for different sliding cycles up to 2x106 cycles under boundary lubrication.2 Testing Machines 2. Age hardening results in the formation of particles of second phase in the original phase matrix.010 0. Experimental details 2.
Hardness test Fig 2. reduced aspect ratio and shape factor. The increased ageing temperature resulted in spheriodization and more uniform distribution of reduced size silicon particles.1 Wear Testing Machine Plate 3.3. The hardness values of as cast and heat treated alloys is shown in Table II Table II Alloy designation Hardness(RHN) 84 92 93 95 Fig 2. 4.The micrograph (Fig.4: Microstructure of 540-6h-190 alloy 4 .2. 2. Plate 3: Microstructure of 540-6h-180 alloy As cast 540-6h-170 540-6h-180 540-6h-190 2.0 alloy which is predominant in the matrix. A closer examination of the microstructures indicate more uniform and better distribution of spherodised Silicon particles in alloys aged to higher temperature compared to dendrite structure in as cast alloys .2. Figs.1) shows the morphology and distribution of the primary dendrite alpha phase (Aluminum rich phase) in as cast 356. The gray needle shaped Silicon particles are seen in and around the inter dendrite regions result in increased aspect ratio. The tests were performed at randomly selected places on the surface of the samples by providing sufficient spacing between indentations and distance from the edge of specimen. Microstructure of age hardened 540-6h alloy The hardness tests were conducted on the alloy as per ASTM E10 norms using Rockwell Hardness tester (using 1/16 inch ball diameter and 100 kg load). 3 and 4 shows the microstructures of alloys age hardened for 6h at 1800C and 1900C respectively.2 shows the microstructure of alloy 5406h-170age hardened to 170 o C in which more even distribution of spherodized silicon particles is seen compared to as cast alloy resulting in reduced aspect ratio.4 Wear Test 2.
5 . The wear rate was based on the average value of 5 test results.Fig 5. Optical Micrograph of worn end of as cast alloy under a normal load of 30 N slid for 300meters.0001gm. The wear rates were found by dividing the loss of weight of specimen by the sliding distance. the load was increased gradually till seizure indicated by abnormal noise and vibration in Pin -Disc assembly was observed. A second set of experiments were conducted using (ii) Normal loads varying from 10N to 60N for a constant sliding distance of 1500 meters. The loss of weight was measured using an Electronic weighing machine to the accuracy of 0. Magnification 200X. Wear Testing Machine Dry Sliding Wear tests were conducted at room temperature on as cast and alloys age hardened 3 different temperatures at (i) constant normal load of 30N and sliding velocity 1 m/s in sliding distances from 300 to 1500m in steps of 300 m.5 m/s. Third set of experiments were conducted with 30N load for 10 min for sliding velocities 1 to 2. During the test. The worn surfaces were observed and photographed using LOM and Scanning Electron Microscope (JEOL JSM 6490LV) Fig 7.
K.Fig 8. Age hardened alloys showed better resistance to wear compared to as cast alloys. The optical photograph of the worn ends of as cast and age hardened alloy 540-6h for a normal load of 60 N is shown in fig 23. 1. Between 1200m and 1500m. Fig 9. References Fig 14.S.S.Baker . A transition in wear rate was observed at 1200m. the wear was 2.47*10-5 g/m indicating a 33% increase in wear rate.D Sarkar.86*105gm/meter. SEM of the worn end of as cast alloy under a Normal load of 30 N slid for 300meters Fig 15. It is seen that the width and length of the grooves formed due to wear are more pronounced for as cast alloys compared to age hardened alloys (540-6h). alloy under a normal load of 60 N slid for 600 meters. SEM of the worn of as cast alloy under a normal load of 30 N slid for 1500 meter showing the grooves and craters. Wear 79(1982) 325-333 4. Fig 13.A. Wear 188(1995) 185191 6 . 24.Eyre.N. 6.Razavizadeh and T.Shivanath et al. meters. Wear 87(1983) 261-271 5. Magnified SEM of the Worn end of as cast alloy under a normal load of 30 N slid for 1500 meter showing the intersecting cracks.R.T.Razavizadeh and T.A.Gurcan. A similar trend in wear was observed for age hardened alloy.B. The wear rate was found to be almost linear between sliding distance of 300 and900m with a value of 1.Eyre. Magnified view of the crack formed using SEM For the worn end of as cast alloy under a normal load of 30 N slid for 300meters This is confirmed from the observation of the worn surfaces of the age hardened alloy (5406h) compared to as cast material.Wear 31(1975) 331-343 2.K. The dimensions of the grooves (length and width) formed on the worn end of 540-6h are less compared to as cast alloy. Br Foundry man 70 (1977) 349-356 3. Optical Micrograph of the Worn end of as cast alloy under a normal load of 30 N slid for 1500 meter..
Yilmaz . Wear 262 (2007) 79-82 14.Wear 256(2004) 374-385 10.Cai.W. LOM of worn surface of as cast alloy slid at 1m/s 7 .Y.Talib.Elmadagli.M.Alpas. 3.Hozimo Gotu. gm/m Light optical Micrographs Fig.75 2 2. a 6. (a. S l i d in g V e l o c ity .2 5 1 . As cast versus age hardened alloys Fig.2. Q.Dong .Lorimer.C. A s C as t 5 4 0 -4 h 5 4 0 -5 h 5 4 0 -6 h range Wear rate.A 373(2004 ) 65-71 11.b.A. vol46 (2006) No.K.Lu. shows the plot of wear rate verses sliding velocity for as cast and age hardened alloys.7pp1101-1105 13.4a.Perry. ISIJ International.M.25 showed better resistance to wear compared to as cast alloys for the sliding velocity considered.Akbulut.67% increase in wear rate was observed.75 m/s reaching a critical value at 1.A.A decreased trend in wear rate was observed with increase in sliding velocity till a critical value of velocity was reached for both as cast and age hardened alloys.F. Matl Science & Engg.Liu.2.T.Mohd.T.M.Ashok Sharma and T.Wear 194(1996) 54-59 8. D. As cast alloys indicated a 27.6.Kenji Uchijo.Rajan.A.Durman.S.T.3 per decrease in wear rate between sliding velocities 1and 1.G. 3.Field.75 m/s .P.Dey.H. peak solution treated and age hardened alloys tested at a sliding velocity of 1 m/s and the optical micrographs obtained appear almost identical with slightly wider and deeper grooves observed for as cast material compared to solution treated and age hardened alloys. The 540-6h alloys Fig.c) shows the light optical micrographs of the worn surfaces of as cast. m /s Fig. Y.Wear 215(1998 )170-179 9.R.T.A. I. Wear74(1994) 217-228 7.B.75 and 2 m/s. Y. 3.Perry.Between 1.An.Dheerendra Kumar Dwivedi.Alpas.5 1 .4.Zhang. Harun.Daud .Wear 267(2009) 515-524 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 1.A. Wear 259(2005) 613-619 12.V.J.3.
i) shows the optical micrographs of the worn surface of as cast and heat treated alloys photographed after transition velocity resulting in wider and deeper grooves.f) are shown the optical micrographs of worn surfaces at which transition is observed with comparatively less wider and deeper grooves compared to Fig 3. show the Scanning Electron Micrographs of as cast .4(g.c).4(a.b.4g. The decreased trend may be attributed to a portion of debris produced filling the grooves on the wear surface and forming a compact protective layer of debris at the Pin-Disc interface. SEM of as cast alloy slid at 1m/s 8 .25m/s Fig. Scanning Electron Micrographs Analysis Figs.4a.Fig.h.3. irrespective of condition of material (as cast or heat treated).4h.peak solution treated and peak age hardened Al-Si-Mg alloys slid at a velocity of 1m/s under a normal load of 20 N for 10 minutes. The other factor resulting in higher wear rate at low sliding velocity is the metal to metal contact at the Pin-Disc interface where the rate at which the material was removed was higher compared to the rate at which tribolayers are formed at the Pin-Disc interface.3.4(a.25m/s This increased wear rate in as cast material compared to the other heat treated alloys was attributed to the low hardeness of as cast material compared to heat treated alloys. Fig. The increased wear rate after transition (at high velocity) may be attributed to steep increase of temperature at the Pin-Disc interface and sub surface leading to the softening of Pin material.4c.b. Fig 3.These micrographs are almost similar with the worn surfaces characterised by long continuous grooves and severely damaged regions indicating higher wear rate . 4. LOM of worn surface of 540-6h -170 alloy slid at 1m/s In Fig 3.e.3. Fig. LOM of worn surface of as cast alloy slid at 2.4(d.c). LOM of worn surface of 540-6h-170 alloy slid at 2.
Fig.38. and 4. peak solution treated and peak age hardened (slid at 2.25 m/s).Plate 4.4g.i). 4.f).39:Light optical micrograph of 540-6h170 alloy slid at 1m/s Plates 4.36.These micrographs are almost similar with the worn surfaces characterised by long continuous grooves and severely damaged regions indicating of higher wear rate.h. show the Scanning Electron Micrographs of as cast alloy (slid at 1. Figs.peak solution treated and peak age hardened Al-Si-Mg alloys slid at a velocity of 1m/s under a normal load of 20 N for 10 minutes.e. SEM of as cast alloy slid at 2.4(g. Fig. Figs. SEM of 540-6h alloy slid at 2m/s The Scanning Electron Micrographs are again almost identical but with lot of striations and lesser width grooves compared to alloys slid at 1 m/s.40 shows the scanning electron micrographs of as cast .40:Scanning electron micrograph of 540-6h-170 alloy slid at 1m/sec The extent of damage casued to as cast surface is more compared to heat treated alloys.25 m/s) under a normal load of 20 N for 10 minutes. peak solution treated and peak age hardened alloys(slid at 2 m/s) under a normal load of 20 N for 10 minutes. show the Scanning Electron Micrographs of as cast (slid at 2. The decreased width of the grooves and lesser damage caused to the surface results in minimum wear.25m/s 9 .4f. Plate 4.25m/s Fig.4(d. This decreased wear rate with increased sliding velocity is attributed to the increased hardness achieved by heat treatment.75 m/s).4i. SEM of 540-6h-170 alloy slid at 2.
10 . The large quantity and bigger size debris produced was an indication of metal to metal contact at the PinDisc interface. the wear rate was maximum for as cast material and least for 540-6h alloy.25 m/s for all.The worn sufaces are charaterized by severe damage resulting in higher wear rate compared to wear transition velocity (figs.e. (figd)the major portion of debris produced consisted of fragmented shining particles of metal removed from the Pin specimen. 5. at transition (1. The rate at which the tribolayers were formed at the interface was lesser compared to the rate at which the metal was removed. when as cast specimen was slid at 1m/s.75 m/s at which transition occurred in wear rate.75m/s for as cast and 2m/s for solution and age hardened alloys) and finally at velocity 2. The debris were stored in air tight plastic container for SEM analysis.5g) was a mixture of bigger sized irregular flakes indicating the occurrence of delamination of Pin specimen.f).25 m/s (Fig. (refer fig-a) the debris produced was in the form of black colored powder clearly indicating the removal of Iron from the counterface by the protruded Si particles of the Pin. DEBRIS ANALYSIS The debris was carefully collected for as cast and heat treated alloys at minimum sliding velocity (1m/s). d. Refer fig (a) 5c With the increase in sliding velocity to 1. 5d 5e 5a 5b 5f The debris produced at higher velocity 2. The quantity of Iron removed from counterface was very small.
53E-06 7.19E-05 Wear Rate of 540-6h170 4.09E-05 1. (fig 5f&5i) the debris were irregularly shaped flakes .at sliding velocity of 1 m/s.89E-06 9.70E-06 6.33E-06 7.25 m/s.09E-05 1.5g 5i With further increase in sliding velocity to 2. the quantity of debris produced was more.93E-06 5.42E-05 1.31E-05 Sliding Distance.28E-05 1.45E-05 Wear Rate of 5406h-180 3.45E-06 7.51E-05 2.N 10 20 30 40 50 60 Wear Rate of As cast 6.80E-06 1.17E-06 8.50E-06 1.52E-05 1.86E-05 Wear Rate of 540-6h170 8.67E-06 1.47E-06 1. For 540-6h alloy. Fig (5c) the debris produced consisted of large quantity of flake like particles with minimum quantity of Iron.m 300 600 900 1200 1500 Wear Rate of As cast 1.08E-05 1.25 m/s.00E-06 6.00E-06 6.03E-06 6.62E-05 1.35E-05 1.60E-06 9.50E-06 8.47E-06 6.87E-06 6.5g)consisting least quantity of Iron with maximum Pin material similar to debris observed at 2m/s.47E-05 1.43E-05 1.12E-05 1.53E-06 8.02E-05 1.20E-06 5h Load.01E-05 Wear Rate of 540-6h-190 1.02E-06 9.27E-06 11 . Wear rate of 540-6h190 2.83E-06 1. At velocity between 2 and 2. compared to vel 2 m/s (Fig.57E-06 6.56E-05 Wear rate of 540-6h180 3.99E-06 8.
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