Chemilca Kinetics Chemical Kinetics - the area of chemistry that is concerned with the speeds, or rates, at which reactions

occur FactorsThe concentration of the reactants The temperature at which the reaction occurs The presence of a catalyst The surface area of the solid or liquid The speed of an event is defined as the change that occurs in a given interval of time. - the speed of the chemical raction is its reaction rate Average Rate - change in the number of moles of B / change in time (Mol/s) - the greek letter delta means change in The units of reaction rates are molarity per second (M/s) -average rate = change in concentration / change in time (M/s) Instantaneous rate - the rate at a particular time as opposed to the average rate over an interval of time If stoichiometric relationships are one-to-one then the rate of appearance of A is equal to the rate of disappearance of B. The coefficients of a non-one-to-one equation is (1/moles of substance) Reaction rates diminish as the concentration of reactants diminish Reaction rates generally increase when reactant concentrations are increased. Rate law - and expression which shows how the rate depends on the concentrations of reactants Rate = K[A]^n[B]^m K = the rate law constant - Exponents M and n are called the reaction orders and their sum is the overall reaction order If a reaction is zero order, the change in the initial concentration does not affect the rate of the reaction. If it is first order, change in the concentration will produce a proportional change in the rate If it is second order, change in a rate will be (concentration)^2 First order reaction - is one whose rate depends on the concentration of a single reactant raised to the first power - Rate = k[A] The half-life of a reaction, t1/2, is the time required for the concentration of a reactant to drop to one half of its initial value. For first order the equation is t = .693 / k

Arrhenius found an equation based off of: the fraction of molecules possessing an energy of Ea or greater. The rate law of any elementary step is based directly on its molecularity. A catalyst that is present in the same phase as the reacting molecules is a homogeneous catalyst.Rate = k[A]^2 t(1/2) = 1/k[A] Temperature and Rate The rates of most chemical reactions increase as the temperature rises Collision Model . and the fraction of collisions that have the appropriate orientation. leading to an increase in reaction rate -only a small amount of collisions lead to a reaction. The rate determining step governs the rate law for the overall reaction A catalyst is a substance that changes the speed of a chemical reaction without undergoing a permanent chemical change itself In the process.k = Ae^(-Ea/RT) A . Molecules also must be orientated in the right fashion to create a reaction.the numebr of molecules that participate as reactants in an elementary step . Ea = activation energy Heterogenous catalysis .the process by which a reaction occurs Molecularity.two reactant molecules -teramolecular .they catalyze at a specific location and the substacnes that react there are called substrates.shows how reaction rates are affected at the molecular model . the number of collisions increases.exist in a different phase form the reactant molecules Adsorption . then we know its rate law.three molecules Intermediate .unimolecular .the frequency factor Reaction Mechanism . .Second order reaction is one whose rate depends on the reactant concentration raised to the second power .an elemente that is formed in one elemtary step and consumed in the next If we know that a reaction Is an elementary step. Arrhenius Equation . the number of collisions occurring per second. The minimum energy required to initiate a chemical reaction is called the activation energy.single molecule involved -bimolecular . Ea.efficient biological catalysts .as the concentration of reactant molecules increases.binding of molecules to a surface Enzymes .