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2, FEBRUARY 2009
A Nonisolated Bidirectional ZVS-PWM Active Clamped DC–DC Converter
Pritam Das, Brian Laan, Seyed Ahmad Mousavi, and Gerry Moschopoulos, Member, IEEE
Abstract—Power electronic converter systems for applications such as telecom, automotive, and space can have dc voltage buses that are backed up with batteries or supercapacitors. These batteries or supercapacitors are connected to the buses with bidirectional dc–dc converters that allow them to be discharged or charged, depending on the operating conditions. Bidirectional dc–dc converters may be isolated or nonisolated depending on the application. A new soft-switched bidirectional dc–dc converter will be proposed in this letter. The proposed converter can operate with soft switching, a continuous inductor current, ﬁxed switching frequency, and the switch stresses of a conventional pulsewidth modulation converter regardless of the direction of power ﬂow. These features are due to a very simple auxiliary active clamp circuit that is operational regardless of the direction of power ﬂow. In the letter, the operation of the converter will be discussed and its feasibility will be conﬁrmed with experimental results obtained from a prototype. Index Terms—DC–DC power conversion, dc power systems, energy conversion, energy management, power conversion, power electronics, switched-mode power supplies.
Fig. 1. Standard boost/buck converter structure for bidirectional dc–dc power conversion.
I. INTRODUCTION OWER electronic converter systems for applications such as telecom, automotive, and space can have dc voltage buses that are backed up with batteries or supercapacitors. These batteries or supercapacitors are connected to the buses with bidirectional dc–dc converters that allow them to be discharged or charged, depending on the operating conditions. Bidirectional dc–dc converters may be isolated – or nonisolated –, depending on the application. Nonisolated bidirectional dc–dc converters, which will be the main focus of the letter, are typically (but not always) based on the boost/buck converter structure shown in Fig. 1. S1 operates like a boost switch and S2 operates as a boost diode when energy is transferred from the low-side source Vlo to the high-side source Vhi , and S1 operates like a buck diode and S2 like a boost diode when energy is transferred from Vhi to Vlo . It is not difﬁcult to implement soft switching in isolated bidirectional dc–dc converters as they tend to be based on conventional half-bridge and full-bridge structures that can use inductive energy stored in the main power transformer to discharge the capacitance across the converter switches. It is more challenging to do so for nonisolated converters as there is no such
Manuscript received April 04, 2008; revised July 30, 2008. Current version published February 6, 2009. This work was supported by the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC), Canada. Recommended for publication by Associate Editor B. Tamyurek. The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B9, Canada. Color versions of one or more of the ﬁgures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TPEL.2008.2006897
transformer. Previously proposed techniques to implement soft switching in nonisolated bidirectional dc–dc converter can be categorized as follows. 1) Converters such as the ones proposed in  and  and based on the topology in Fig. 1 that are made to operate with an inductor (Lin ) current that ﬂows in both directions during each switching cycle. Both converter switches are on (never simultaneously) sometime during each cycle so that the energy stored in the inductor when one switch is on is used to turn on the other switch with zerovoltage switching (ZVS) after the switch is turned off. The main drawback of this technique is that the inductor current has a lot of ripple with a very high peak as it must ﬂow in both directions during each switching cycle. This results in very high turn-off losses that take away from the improvement in efﬁciency due to the ZVS turnon and additional ﬁltering is needed to reduce voltage ripple. 2) Another approach to implementing soft switching in a nonisolated bidirectional dc–dc converter is to use quasiresonant or multiresonant techniques. Doing so, however, results in the converter having high peak voltage and/or current stresses, and forces the converter to be operated with variable-switching-frequency control, which complicates the design of the converter—especially the design of the magnetic and ﬁltering elements as the converter must be able to operate under a wide range of switching frequencies. In the case of a converter such as the one proposed in , the converter can be made to operate with constant switching frequency, but the switch stresses remain. A ﬁxed-frequency resonant-type bidirectional converter was proposed in , but this converter was very costly and sophisticated as it required two half-bridge converters in series. 3) A third approach has been to use auxiliary circuits to assist the switches to operate with soft switching as is done in
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CONVERTER OPERATION The modes of converter operation that the proposed converter goes through when it is operating as a boost or buck converter are given next along with equivalent circuit diagrams in Figs. begins to be discharged. ﬁxed switching frequency. input current begins to be diverted to Lr 2 and the capacitance across S2 . (a) Converter proposed in . and inductors Lr 1 and Lr 2 have been added. 4) Mode 0 (t < t0 ): Before time t = t0 . FEBRUARY 2009 Fig. 4 and 5. The proposed converter can operate with a continuous inductor current. These four components make up a simple circuit that is based on well-established active clamp technology – and that can be used to ensure that the main power switches S1 and S2 operate with ZVS regardless of whether the converter is operating in a boost or buck mode. 2. that . a new soft-switched bidirectional dc–dc converter with a simple active auxiliary circuit will be proposed. In this letter. IL i n IL i n . 3. Referring to Fig. conﬁrm the feasibility of the proposed converter will be presented. Cs 2 . rising. and complexity—nonisolated ZVS bidirectional dc–dc converters are not as widely used as they might be. it can be costly and complex. the inductor current IL r 1 is positive if it enters the inductor through its positive terminal. Mode 4 (t3 < t < t4 ): Some time before switch S1 is to be turned on. This is because a separate independent auxiliary circuit is needed for each main power switch so that the converter must be implemented with four active switches. cost. Typical converter waveforms for the boost mode of operation are shown in Fig. Due to the problems associated with each of these approaches—high stresses. 6. the currents through switches S1 and S2 are considered positive if they ﬂow into a switch through its drain. NO. Mode 2 (t1 < t < t2 ): This mode is a continuation of Mode 1 except that Cs 2 is completely discharged at t = t1 and current ﬂows through the antiparallel diode across S2 . The current ﬂowing through S2 is shown as a negative current waveform. 2 do have a single auxiliary circuit. Mode 3 (t2 < t < t3 ): At t = t2 . shown in Fig. during this mode. The current through Lr 1 charges up Cs 1 and begins to ﬂow through Cr . It should be noted that the waveforms in Fig. the converter operates as a standard PWM boost converter with switch S1 on and the current through Lin . switch Sa is turned on with zero-current Fig. and the current through Sa is considered positive if it ﬂows through the switch source. Although this approach is an improvement over the other two approaches. A. 6 also describe the buck mode of operation as the waveforms for both modes are identical—the waveforms for S1 in the boost mode are the waveforms of S2 in the buck mode and vice versa. current stops ﬂowing through the auxiliary active clamp circuit and the converter operates as a standard PWM boost converter. Converters such as the ones shown in Fig. Boost Mode of Operation (Fig. zero-voltage transition (ZVT) converters. is very similar to the conventional converter in Fig. the converter’s operation will be discussed and experimental results. 3. (b) Converter proposed in . II. 2. The proposed converter. The current through Lin decreases during this mode as a negative voltage is impressed across Lin . Proposed soft-switched nonisolated dc–dc PWM converter. capacitor Cr . 3. 1 except that auxiliary switch Sa . but require two auxiliary switches to make the circuit bidirectional. VOL.554 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. Also. 24. Previously proposed bidirectional converters. at t = t3 . switch S1 is turned off and the rise in voltage across it is limited by Cs 1 . variable-frequency control. Any current ﬂowing into the positive terminal of the capacitor Cr is considered to be positive. This has been done with converters such as the ones proposed in –[ 16]. Mode 1 (t0 < t < t1 ): At t = t0 . and the switch stresses of a conventional PWM converter regardless of the direction of power ﬂow. obtained from a prototype. In this letter.
5. Equivalent circuit diagrams for boost mode of operation. Typical converter waveforms for boost mode operation. Mode 7 (t6 < t < t7 ): Some time after S1 has been turned on. S1 can be turned on while this diode is conducting. (e) Mode 4 (t3 < t < t4 ). Mode 6 (t5 < t < t6 ): At t = t5 . (c) Mode 2 (t1 < t < t2 ). (g) Mode 6 (t5 < t < t6 ). (b) Mode 1 (t0 < 1 < t1 ). (d) Mode 3 (t2 < t < t3 ). rising. . Fig. (h) Mode 7 (t6 < t < t7 ). VOL. (g) Mode 6 (t5 < t < t6 ). (d) Mode 3 (t2 < t < t3 ). NO. B. (f) Mode 5 (t4 < t < t5 ). at t = t6 . 6. (h) Mode 7 (t6 < t < t7 ). switching (ZCS). Mode 5 (t4 < t < t5 ): At the beginning of this mode. Buck Mode of Operation (Fig. The current through S1 discharges the switch capacitor Cs 1 so that the voltage across the switch drops to zero by the end of the mode. capacitor Cs 1 has been completely discharged and the antiparallel diode across S1 begins to conduct. Capacitor Cr begins to discharge through Lr 1 Lr 1 Lr 1 and Lr 2 . (b) Mode 1 (t0 < 1 < t1 ). the current through Lr 1 will begin to reverse direction and the transfer of current from Lr 2 to S1 will begin. as IL i n continues to decrease. 4.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. (a) Mode 0 (t < t0 ). This mode of operation will continue until current has been completely transferred to S1 and the converter enters Mode 0 at t = t7 . 24. FEBRUARY 2009 555 Fig. Fig. Equivalent circuit diagrams for boost mode of operation. (c) Mode 2 (t1 < t < t2 ). (a) Mode 0 (t < t0 ). (f) Mode 5 (t4 < t < t5 ). the converter operates as a standard PWM buck converter with switch S2 on and the current through Lin . 2. switch Sa is opened so that the current in the inductor Lr 1 starts ﬂowing through the output capacitor of switch S1 . 5) Mode 0 (t < t0 ): Before time t = t0 . IL i n . (e) Mode 4 (t3 < t < t4 ).
FEBRUARY 2009 Fig. The converter was built to operate with a low-side voltage of Vlo = 100 V. 7. Experimental voltage and current waveforms of auxiliary switch S a in buck mode (V : 100 V/division. Cs 1 . . as IL i n continues to decrease. current stops ﬂowing through the auxiliary active clamp circuit and the converter operates as a standard PWM buck converter. t: 2 µs/division). capacitor Cs 2 has been completely discharged and the antiparallel diode across S2 begins to conduct. S2 can be turned on while this diode is conducting. I: 5 A/divison. t: 2 µs/division). maximum power of 500 W. Also. The converter was designed in a manner similar to the converter proposed in . EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS An experimental prototype of the proposed converter was built to conﬁrm its feasibility. NO.5 µs/division). This mode of operation will continue until current has been completely transferred to S2 and the converter enters Mode 0 at t = t7 . t: 0. VOL. (b) Experimental gate voltages for switch S 2 and switch S a in buck mode (V : 15 V/division and t: 2 µs/division) Fig. 24. Mode 4 (t3 < t < t4 ): Some time before switch S1 is to be turned on. at t = t3 . (a) Voltage and current waveforms for S2 with converter working in buck mode (V : 200 V/division. III.25 A/division. Mode 1 (t0 < t < t1 ): At t = t0 . Mode 5 (t4 < t < t5 ): Switch Sa is turned off at t = t4 . Mode 3 (t2 < t < t3 ): At t = t2 . input current begins to be diverted to Lr 1 and the capacitance across S1 . I: 1. during this mode.556 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. Some time during this mode. The current in Lr 2 is used to discharge Cs 2 . Mode 7 (t6 < t < t7 ): Some time after S2 has been turned on. Mode 2 (t1 < t < t2 ): This mode is a continuation of mode 1 except that Cs 2 is completely charged at t = t1 . I: 5 A/division. and a switching frequency of 100 kHz. a high-side voltage of Vhi = 400 V. Fig. The current through Lr 2 charges up Cs 1 and begins to ﬂow through Cr . Mode 6 (t5 < t < t6): At t = t5 . 9. the current through Lr 2 will begin to reverse direction and the transfer of current from Lr 1 to S2 will begin. Cs 1 may be completely discharged and/or current may stop ﬂowing through Cr . which is also an active clamp converter but one that can only operate unidirectionally. (b) Voltage and current waveforms for S1 with converter working in boost mode (V : 200 V/division. The current through Lin decreases during this mode as the converter is in a freewheeling mode of operation. at t = t6 . (a) Experimental gate voltages for switch S1 and switch S a in boost mode (V : 15 V/division and t: 2 µs/division). Experimental results. switch Sa is turned on with ZCS. Capacitor Cr begins to discharge through Lr 1 and Lr 2 . switch S2 is turned off and the rise in voltage across it is limited by Cs 2 . begins to be discharged. 2. 8.
while the positive hump shows the charging of the active clamp capacitor in resonance with resonant inductors Lr 1 and Lr 2 . 10. . Fig. In order to reduce the circulating current losses of the converter under light-load conditions. STP12NM50FP devices were used and a 700-µH inductor was used for Lin . It can be seen that the current in the auxiliary switch has a positive and a negative hump. Bocker. vol. The component values that were used are Lr 1 = Lr 2 = 12. Fig. 2000. IEEE IECON Conf. The duty cycle of Sa was kept ﬁxed for all operating conditions. The feasibility of the proposed converter was conﬁrmed with experimental results that showed the effectiveness of the auxiliary circuit in improving efﬁciency. These features are due to a simple and inexpensive auxiliary circuit that is based on well-established active clamp technology. Experimental efﬁciency graphs.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS.” IEEE Trans. the converter switches can operate with a ZVS turn-on. 521–526.  P. S2 was done as if the converter was a regular PWM converter since the converter is a PWM converter. Peng. 9 shows typical Sa voltage and current waveforms. pp. and J. pp. Frohleke. 2003. Pottharst. which still exist in the hard-switched converter and become more dominant at heavier loads. This is because the active clamp auxiliary circuit signiﬁcantly improves converter efﬁciency regardless of the direction of power ﬂow as it reduces the losses due to switching transitions. 595–606. CONCLUSION A new nonisolated ZVS bidirectional PWM converter was presented in this letter. It can be seen that in both cases. VOL.5 µH and Cr = 68 nF. For S1 and S2 . and J. Fig. A. NO. pp. pp.” in Proc.. N. IV. IEEE PESC Conf. 8. and the switch stresses of a conventional PWM converter regardless of the direction of power ﬂow. It can be seen that the auxiliary active circuit is ON for a short time and that Sa is off before S1 or S2 is turned on. The control strategy that was used for the switch Sa was the same as the one used in . Li. 15. The selection of the active clamp components was done by considering the high. REFERENCES  M. Li. Lawler. “A natural ZVS medium-power bidirectional DC–DC converter with minimum number of devices.-Z. no. Graphs of converter efﬁciency when the converter is operating in boost and buck modes are shown in Fig. “A bidirectional DC–DC converter topology for low power application. 2.” IEEE Trans. (a) Efﬁciency of ZVS and hard-switched converter operating in boost mode. The turning on of Sa allows energy to be stored in the auxiliary circuit inductors. ﬁxed switching frequency. 10. This is true as long as Lr 1 and Lr 2 are also the same so that the symmetry of the two modes is kept. M. The negative hump of the auxiliary switch current signiﬁes the discharging current of the active clamp capacitor through the auxiliary switch.  H. Rec. With these guidelines. Jain.and low-side voltages and the load range (which affects the current ﬂowing in the converter). Jose and N. Ind. Rec. The turn-on of the switch Sa is ZCS due to the presence of the resonant inductors. 7(a) shows the voltage and current waveforms of S2 when it is turning on and the converter is operating in buck mode. 39. 4. 525–535. It can be seen that the efﬁciency curves of the ZVS and the hardswitched converter diverge at heavier loads.. “Analysis and design of improved isolated full-bridge bidirectional DC–DC converter. which is then used to discharge the appropriate switch capacitance.. If the converter is designed to operate with ZVS for the boost mode. 7. (b) Efﬁciency of ZVS and hard-switched converter operating in buck mode. The selection of the main power circuit inductor Lin and the main power switches S1 . and P. it was decided to design the ZVS range to be from 40% load to 100% load.. 24. 117–122. Mar. The outstanding features of the proposed converter are that it can operate with continuous inductor current. vol. 2003. Daniele. Appl. 2004. Jain.” in Proc. It was determined that the ZVS operation range is not dependent on whether the converter operates in the boost or buck mode of operation as the voltages and the currents to be considered in the design of this range are the same. “A novel ZVS bidirectional cuk converter for dual voltage systems in automobiles. 7(b) shows similar waveforms of S1 when the converter is operating in the boost mode. no. Jul. Power Electron. The gating signals of Sa with respect to the main active switch S1 or S2 are shown in Fig. Mohan. 2. An IRC634 device was used as the auxiliary switch. Typical converter waveforms are shown in Fig. it can therefore operate with ZVS for the buck mode. K. FEBRUARY 2009 557 Fig.  R. S. the active clamp components were selected in a manner very similar to what is described in  as the proposed converter working in the boost mode is almost identical to the boost converter described in  with some very small differences. F.
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