LTE technology and LTE test; a deskside chat

April 2009
Christina Gessner
Technology Manager Rohde & Schwarz, Germany

Andreas Roessler
Technology Manager North America Rohde & Schwarz, Germany

l Motivation for LTE l LTE technology basics l Key parameters l OFDMA and downlink frame structure l SC-FDMA and uplink frame structure l Network and protocol architecture l LTE UE categories l Radio procedures l Cell search l System information broadcast l Random access l EPS bearer setup l Downlink and uplink data transmission l Mobility l MIMO l LTE test requirements l eNodeB RF testing l UE RF testing l LTE wireless device testing from R&D up to conformance l LTE field trial testing and coverage measurements

MIMO = Multiple Input Multiple Output EPS = Evolved Packet System UE = User Equipment RRM = Radio Resource Management OFDMA = Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access SC-FDMA = Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access

CG & AR | April 2009 | 2

Motivation for LTE

CG & AR | April 2009 | 3

Sources: www. l Mobile data traffic is growing exponentially.LTE market situation based on HSPA success story l HSPA growth is based on the uptake of mobile data services worldwide. R&S CG & AR | April 2009 | 4 . l LTE is accepted worldwide as the long term evolution perspective for today’s 2G and 3G networks based on WCDMA/HSPA. More than 250 networks worldwide have already commercially launched HSPA. caused by mobile internet offerings and improved user experience with new device types. and CDMA2000 technologies. GSM/EDGE.

LTE background story the early days l Work on LTE was initiated as a 3GPP release 7 study item “Evolved UTRA and UTRAN” in December 2004: l “With enhancements such as HSDPA and Enhanced Uplink. However. i.e. CG & AR | April 2009 | 5 . the 3GPP radio-access technology will be highly competitive for several years. to ensure competitiveness in an even longer time frame. for the next 10 years and beyond.” l Basic drivers for LTE have been: l Reduced latency l Higher user data rates l Improved system capacity and coverage l Cost-reduction. a longterm evolution of the 3GPP radio-access technology needs to be considered.

4. CG & AR | April 2009 | 6 . 10.913 „Requirements for Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA) and Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)”. 3.UE) below 10 ms Significantly reduced control plane latency l Support of scalable bandwidth: 1. OPEX) including backhaul Cost-effective migration from legacy networks l A detailed summary of requirements has been captured in 3GPP TR 25. 5. 15. 20 MHz l Support of paired and unpaired spectrum (FDD and TDD mode) l Support for interworking with legacy networks l Cost-efficiency: l l Reduced CApital and OPerational EXpenditures (CAPEX.Major requirements for LTE identified during study item phase in 3GPP l Higher peak data rates: 100 Mbps (downlink) and 50 Mbps (uplink) l Improved spectrum efficiency: 2-4 times better compared to 3GPP release 6 l Improved latency: l l Radio access network latency (user plane UE – RNC .

) 128 kbps (typ.) 384 kbps (typ.) 128 kbps (typ.Evolution of UMTS FDD and TDD driven by data rate and latency requirements FDD evolution TDD evolution WCDMA WCDMA HSDPA/ HSUPA TD-HSDPA HSPA+ TD-HSUPA LTE and HSPA+ TD-LTE and TD-HSPA+ TD-SCDMA LTEadvanced 3GPP release App. year of network rollout Downlink data rate Uplink data rate Round Trip Time 3GPP Release 99/4 2003/4 3GPP Release 5/6 2005/6 (HSDPA) 2007/8 (HSUPA) 14 Mbps (peak) 3GPP Release 7 2008/2009 3GPP Release 8 2010 LTE: 150 Mbps* (peak) 3GPP Study Item initiated 384 kbps (typ.7 Mbps (peak) < 100 ms *based on 2x2 MIMO and 20 MHz operation CG & AR | April 2009 | 7 .) ~ 150 ms 28 Mbps (peak) HSPA+: 42 Mbps (peak) 28 Mbps (peak) 11 Mbps (peak) HSPA+: 11 Mbps (peak) 11 Mbps (peak) < 50 ms LTE: ~10 ms LTE: 75 Mbps (peak) 100 Mbps high mobility 1 Gbps low mobility 5.

LTE technology basics CG & AR | April 2009 | 8 .

spatial multiplexing. 16QAM. 20 MHz) 300 Mbps (UE category 5. 16QAM. and cyclic delay diversity (max. 2x2 MIMO. 1 Resource Block=180 kHz Modulation Schemes Multiple Access MIMO technology 1.4 MHz 6 Resource Blocks 3 MHz 15 Resource Blocks 5 MHz 25 Resource Blocks 10 MHz 50 Resource Blocks 15 MHz 75 Resource Blocks 20 MHz 100 Resource Blocks Downlink: QPSK. 4x4 MIMO.LTE key parameters Frequency Range UMTS FDD bands and UMTS TDD bands Channel bandwidth. 20 MHz) Uplink: 75 Mbps (20 MHz) Peak Data Rate CG & AR | April 2009 | 9 . 64QAM Uplink: QPSK. 4 antennas at base station and handset) Uplink: Multi user collaborative MIMO Downlink: 150 Mbps (UE category 4. 64QAM (optional for handset) Downlink: OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) Uplink: SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access) Downlink: Wide choice of MIMO configuration options for transmit diversity.

LTE frequency bands Work on UMTS/LTE 3500 MHz ongoing CG & AR | April 2009 | 10 .

Introduction to OFDMA and downlink frame structure CG & AR | April 2009 | 11 .

What is OFDM? Single Carrier Transmission (e. WCDMA) 5 MHz Typically several 100 sub-carriers with spacing of x kHz Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing e.g.g. 5 MHz CG & AR | April 2009 | 12 .

CG & AR | April 2009 | 13 .OFDM signal generation chain l OFDM signal generation is based on Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) operation on transmitter side: Data source QAM Modulator 1:N N symbol streams IFFT OFDM symbols N:1 Useful Cyclic prefix OFDM insertion symbols Frequency Domain Time Domain l On receiver side. an FFT operation will be used.

Difference between OFDM and OFDMA l OFDM allocates users in time l OFDMA allocates users in time domain only and frequency domain Frequency domain Frequency domain User 1 User 1 User 2 User 3 User 2 User 3 Time domain CG & AR | April 2009 | 14 Time domain .

different configurations possible: l l Normal cyclic prefix with 5.LTE downlink conventional OFDMA 5 MHz Bandwidth FFT Guard Intervals Symbols Sub-carriers … Frequency … Time l LTE provides QPSK. 64QAM as downlink modulation schemes l Cyclic prefix is used as guard interval.7 Os l 15 kHz subcarrier spacing l Scalable bandwidth CG & AR | April 2009 | 15 .7 Os (other symbols) Extended cyclic prefix with 16.2 Os (first symbol) / 4. 16QAM.

16QAM or 64QAM modulation .OFDMA time-frequency multiplexing 1 resource block = 180 kHz = 12 subcarriers Subcarrier spacing = 15 kHz frequency 1 slot = 0.5 ms = 7 OFDM symbols** 1 subframe = 1 ms= 1 TTI*= 1 resource block pair UE4 *TTI = transmission time interval ** For normal cyclic prefix duration UE1 UE2 UE3 UE5 UE6 time CG & AR | April 2009 | 16 QPSK.

4 3 5 10 15 20 Transmission Bandwidth [RB] Channel edge Channel edge Resource block 6 15 25 50 75 100 Active Resource Blocks DC carrier (downlink only) CG & AR | April 2009 | 17 .4 MHz to 20 MHz in steps of 180 kHz (resource block) l Current LTE specification supports a subset of 6 different system bandwidths l All UEs must support the maximum bandwidth of 20 MHz Channel Bandwidth [MHz] Transmission Bandwidth Configuration [RB] Channel bandwidth BWChannel [MHz] Number of resource blocks 1.LTE – spectrum flexibility l LTE physical layer supports any bandwidth from 1.

5 ms LTE frame structure type 1 (FDD). downlink 1 subframe = 1 ms Userl data allocations L1/2 downlink control channels Downlink reference signal Screenshot of R&S SMU200A signal generator CG & AR | April 2009 | 18 .1 radio frame = 10 ms #0 #1 #19 1 slot = 0.

1 radio frame = 10 ms #0 One radio frame Tf =10 ms #1 #19 1 slot = 0.5 ms 1 subframe = 1 ms LTE frame structure type 2 (TDD) Special subframes containing: DwPTS: downlink pilot time slot UpPTS: uplink pilot time slot GP: guard period for TDD operation Possible uplink-downlink configurations (D=Downlink. S=Special Subframe): DSUUUDSUU Screenshot of R&S SMU200A signal generator CG & AR | April 2009 | 19 . U=Uplink.

Introduction to SC-FDMA and uplink frame structure CG & AR | April 2009 | 20 .

l IFFT and cyclic prefix (CP) insertion as in OFDM. l Sub-carrier mapping allows flexible allocation of signal to available sub-carriers. … coded symbol rate R NTX symbols N-point DFT Subcarrier Mapping M-point IDFT CP Insertion l Each subcarrier carries a portion of superposed DFT spread data symbols. CG & AR | April 2009 | 21 … .How to generate SC-FDMA? l DFT “pre-coding” is performed on modulated data symbols to transform them into frequency domain.……………. therefore SC-FDMA is also referred to as DFT-spread-OFDM (DFT-s-OFDM). Time Domain Parallel/Serial . Time Domain Frequency Domain ………………………..

each sub-carrier only carries information related to one specific symbol. but… – …in OFDMA. CG & AR | April 2009 | 22 .How does a SC-FDMA signal look like? l Similar to OFDM signal. each sub-carrier contains information of ALL transmitted symbols. – …in SC-FDMA.

distributed FDMA s0 s1 S0 S1 X0 X1 x0 x1 sM M 1 SM M M 1 XN xN 1 M 1 l We have seen that DFT will distribute the time signal over the frequency domain Next question that arises is how is that distribution done: localized or distributed? multi-user scheduling gain in frequency domain localized mode is used in LTE robust transmission for control channels and high mobility UE CG & AR | April 2009 | 23 .SC-FDMA signal generation Localized vs.

SC-FDMA – Peak-to-average Power Ratio (PAPR) QPSK 16QAM localized mode (LFDMA) is used in LTE Source: H.Lim. SEPTEMBER 2006 IFDMA = “Interleaved FDMA” = Distributed SC-FDMA LFDMA = “Localized FDMA” = Localized SC-FDMA CG & AR | April 2009 | 24 .J. J.G. Goodman “SC-FDMA for Uplink Wireless Transmission”. IEEE VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY MAGAZINE. Myung. D.

SC-FDMA parameterization (FDD and TDD) l LTE FDD l Same as in downlink.2 for 1st symbol 4.7 for other symbols 16. Configuration Normal CP ∆f = 15 kHz Extended CP ∆f = 15 kHz Number SC-FDMA Symbols 7 12 6 Number of Subcarrier Cyclic Prefix Length in Samples 160 for 1st symbol 144 for other symbols 512 Cyclic Prefix Length in Es 5.7 l TD-LTE l Usage of UL depends on the selected UL-DL configuration (1 to 8). means number of SC-FDMA symbols same as for FDD and depending on CP. CG & AR | April 2009 | 25 . each configuration offers a different number of subframes (1ms) for uplink transmission. l Parameterization for those subframes.

Network and protocol architecture CG & AR | April 2009 | 26 .

LTE/SAE network architecture SAE = System Architecture Evolution eNB = evolved Node B MME = Mobility Management Entity E-UTRAN = Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network S-GW = Serving Gateway EPS = Evolved Packet System EPC = Evolved Packet Core P-GW = Packet Data Network Gateway NAS = Non Access Stratum RB = Radio Bearer CG & AR | April 2009 | 27 .

UM.Protocol stack user plane Header compression (ROHC) In-sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs Duplicate elimination of lower layer SDUs Ciphering for user/control plane Integrity protection for control plane Timer based discard… AM. TM ARQ (Re-)segmentation Concatenation In-sequence delivery Duplicate detection SDU discard Re-establishment… Mapping between logical and transport channels (De)-Multiplexing Scheduling information reporting HARQ Priority handling Transport format selection… PDCP = Packet Data Convergence Protocol RLC = Radio Link Control MAC = Medium Access Control PHY = Physical Layer SDU = Service Data Unit (H)ARQ = (Hybrid) Automatic Repeat Request CG & AR | April 2009 | 28 .

Protocol stack control plane Broadcast Paging RRC connection setup Radio Bearer Control Mobility functions UE measurement control… EPS bearer management Authentication ECM_IDLE mobility handling Paging origination in ECM_IDLE Security control… EPS = Evolved packet system RRC = Radio Resource Control NAS = Non Access Stratum ECM = EPS Connection Management CG & AR | April 2009 | 29 .

Mapping between logical and transport channels simplified architecture… Downlink: l DTCH: Dedicated Traffic Channel l DCCH: Mapping takes place in MAC layer Dedicated Control Channel l CCCH: Common Control Channel l DL-SCH: Uplink: Downlink Shared Channel l UL-SCH: Uplink Shared Channel CCCH DCCH DTCH Uplink Logical channels l B(C)CH: l P(C)CH: Broadcast (Control) Channel Mapping takes place in MAC layer Uplink Transport channels Paging (Control) Channel l RACH: Random Access Channel RACH UL-SCH CG & AR | April 2009 | 30 .


LTE UE categories (downlink and uplink) UE category 1 2 3 4 5 Maximum number of DL-SCH transport block bits received within TTI 10296 51024 102048 150752 302752 Maximum number of bits of a DL-SCH transport block received a TTI 10296 51024 75376 75376 151376 Total number of soft channel bits 250368 1237248 1237248 1827072 3667200 Maximum number of UL-SCH transport block bits received within TTI 5160 25456 51024 51024 75376 Maximum number of supported layers for spatial multiplexing in DL 1 2 2 2 4 ~300 Mbps peak DL data rate for 4x4 MIMO ~150 Mbps peak DL data rate for 2x2 MIMO UE category 1 2 3 Support 64QAM in UL No No No No Yes MIMO = Multiple Input Multiple Output UL-SCH = Uplink Shared Channel DL-SCH = Downlink Shared Channel UE = User Equipment TTI = Transmission Time Interval 4 5 ~75 Mbps peak UL data rate CG & AR | April 2009 | 32 .

Radio procedures CG & AR | April 2009 | 33 .

LTE Initial Access Initial Access Cell Search and Selection Power-up Derive System Information Random Access User Data RX/TX CG & AR | April 2009 | 34 .

.Downlink physical channels and signals LTE Downlink Physical Signals Primary and Secondary Synchronization Signal Downlink Reference Signal Provide acquisition of cell timing and identity during cell search Cell search. system bandwidth Indicates format of PDCCH (CFI) Carries control information (DCI = Downlink Control Information) not requiredCarries data (usersearchinformation. system and cell selection = HARQ indicator) for uplink data packets Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH) Carries ACK/NACK (HI Physical Multicast Channel (PMCH) Carries MBMS user data CG & AR | April 2009 | 35 .…) for cell data. coherent demod. channel estimation LTE Downlink Physical Channels Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) Provides essential system information e. initial acquisition.g.

CG & AR | April 2009 | 36 .. Secondary synchronization signal (SSS) – 168 different sequences to identity physical layer cell identity group. 2 .Cell search in LTE Physical layer cell identity (1 out of 504) Physical layer cell identity group “Smith” “Johnson” “Rose” 0 0 “James” 1 2 0 1 “John” 167 2 “Robert” Identified by… Physical layer identity 1 “John” 0 “James” 1 “John” 2 “Robert” “Robert” “James” 1. where N ID) = 0.. 2. (2 – PSS is carrying physical layer identity N ID ).1.167 and N ID ) = 0. .. 2). providing PSS and SSS for assistance. (1 – SSS is carrying physical layer cell identity group N ID). Primary synchronization signal (PSS) – 3 possible sequences to identify the cell’s physical layer identity (0. (1 (2 (1 (2 cell – Cell Identity is computed as N ID = 3 N ID) + N ID ). 1. 1. l Hierarchical cell search as in 3G.

Zadoff-Chu) Screenshot taken from R&S® FSQ signal analyzer CG & AR | April 2009 | 37 .Primary Synchronization Signal N (2) ID =0 Primary Synchronization Signal (CAZAC sequence.

Secondary Synchronization Signal Secondary Synchronization Signal in 6th OFDM symbol (= symbol #5. RBPSK modulation) Screenshot taken from R&S® FSQ signal analyzer CG & AR | April 2009 | 38 .

Cell search in LTE. 2). 1. – … downlink channel estimation for coherent demodulation/detection at the UE. l Cell-specific reference signals are used for… – … cell search and initial acquisition. 2. CG & AR | April 2009 | 39 . reference signals Radio Frame = 10 ms Physical layer cell identity (1 out of 504) DL Frame Structure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time Slot = 0. – … downlink channel quality measurements. Primary synchronization signal (PSS) – 3 possible sequences to identify the cell’s physical layer identity (0.5 ms Subframe = 1 ms ( use of Normal Cyclic Prefix) 1. Downlink reference signals. Secondary synchronization signal (SSS) – 168 different sequences to identity physical layer cell identity group.

– Frequency domain spacing is 6 subcarrier.g. for 2 antennas. e.Downlink reference signals l Each antenna has a specific reference signal pattern. – Time domain spacing is 4 OFDM symbols 4 reference signals per resource block. Resource Block CG & AR | April 2009 | 40 .

Cell search in LTE. System Frame Number [SFN. 2). – QPSK modulated. PHICH configuration [Duration: 1 bit. CG & AR | April 2009 | 41 . 2. Primary synchronization signal (PSS) – 3 possible sequences to identify the cell’s physical layer identity (0. essential system information Radio Frame = 10 ms Physical layer cell identity (1 out of 504) DL Frame Structure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Time Slot = 0. Downlink reference signals. Physical Broadcast Channel (PBCH) – Carrying broadcast channel (BCH) with Master Information Block (MIB) System bandwidth [4 bit]. 8 bit] and indirect about the used Tx antennas.5 ms Subframe = 1 ms ( use of Normal Cyclic Prefix) 1. cell-specific scrambling – Transmitted on 72 subcarriers around the carrier frequency. Secondary synchronization signal (SSS) – 168 different sequences to identity physical layer cell identity group. Resource: 2 bit]. 1. 3.

Tracking Area Code. scheduling information. PHICH configuration.… SI-RNTI is used on PDCCH to address System Information Block Type 1 and SI messages System information blocks with same scheduling requirements can be mapped to same SI message (DL-SCH) CG & AR | April 2009 | 42 . periodicity 80 ms: PLMN IDs. Cell identity. Access restrictions. SFN number of transmit antennas. UE E-UTRAN MasterInformationBlock SystemInformationBlockType1 SystemInformation System Information Block Type 1 (on DL-SCH).System information broadcast in LTE Master Information Block (on BCH). periodicity 40 ms: System bandwidth.

addressed by PDCCH using RA-RNTI) Random Access Response 2 3 Scheduled Transmission (Data send on PUSCH) Early contention resolution (mirroring of uplink message) generated by MAC sent on DL-SCH Contention Resolution (PDCCH / CR on PDSCH using TC/C-RNTI) 4 PRACH RA-RNTI MAC DL-SCH Physical Random Access Channel Random Access Radio Network Temporary Identity Medium Access Control (Layer) Downlink Shared Channel C-RNTI UL-SCH CR TC-RNTI Cellular RNTI Uplink Shared Channel Contention Resolution Temporary Cellular RNTI CG & AR | April 2009 | 43 .Random Access Procedure Sent on PRACH resources associated with RA-RNTI UE eNB 1 Random Access Preamble (sent on PRACH with RA-RNTI) Generated by MAC sent on DL-SCH with RA-RNTI. includes NAS UE identifier and RRC CONNECTION REQUEST (RAP sent on PDSCH. assignment of Temporary C-RNTI. initial uplink grant Sent on UL-SCH. timing advance.

321 V8. System Information (SI-RNTI). Paging Information (P-RNTI) or during Random Access Procedure (RA-RNTI).g.How to derive information in LTE? Check the PDCCH for an unique IDENTITY1).5. As soon as you have found it.0 MAC Protocol Specification CG & AR | April 2009 | 44 . Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) Physical Downlink Shared Channel (PDSCH) I would like to read the PDSCH but I don‘t know which resources are allocated for the transport of system or paging information or data and how they look like? ? ! 1) Several identities are used in LTE to identify UE’s (e. for details see 3GPP TS36. C-RNTI). you will get all the information you need there.

3 (or 4)) in the beginning of each subframe are allocated for PDCCH! Physical Control Format Indicator Channel (PCFICH) Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) I would like to read the PDCCH but where is it? ? ! CG & AR | April 2009 | 45 .Indicating PDCCH format Check PCFICH! It will tell you how many symbols (1. 2.

Hybrid ARQ in the downlink
l ACK/NACK for data packets transmitted in the downlink is the same as for

HSDPA, where the UE is able to request retransmission of incorrectly received data packets,
– ACK/NACK is transmitted in UL, either on PUCCH1) or multiplexed within PUSCH2) (see description of those UL channels for details), – ACK/NACK transmission refers to the data packet received four sub-frames (= 4 ms) before, – 8 HARQ processes can be used in parallel in downlink,


– Physical Uplink Control Channel – Physical Uplink Shared Channel

CG & AR | April 2009 | 46

Default EPS (Evolved Packet System) bearer setup
UE EUTRAN / core network Initial access and RRC connection establishment attach request and PDN connectivity request Authentication NAS security UE capability procedure AS security RRC connection reconfiguration Attach accept and default EPS bearer context request Default EPS bearer context accept
PDN = Packet Data Network RRC = Radio Resource Control NAS = Non-Access Stratum AS = Access Stratum
CG & AR | April 2009 | 47

Uplink physical channels and signals

LTE Uplink Physical Channels Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH) Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Carries user data Carries control information (UCI = Uplink Control Information) Preamble transmission for initial access

LTE Uplink Physical Signals Demodulation Reference Signal (DRS) Sounding Reference Signal (SRS) Enables channel estimation and data demodulation Enables uplink channel quality evaluation

CG & AR | April 2009 | 48

Scheduling of uplink data Check PDCCH for your UE ID. 64QAM is optional for the UE) ? ! I would like to send data on PUSCH but I don‘t know which resource blocks and transport formats I can use? CG & AR | April 2009 | 49 . 16QAM modulated. As soon as you are addressed. Physical Downlink Control Channel (PDCCH) Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) (QPSK. you will find your uplink scheduling grants there.

Explicit frequency offset is used in the 2nd slot. l Inter-subframe hopping. Type I with different offsets CG & AR | April 2009 | 50 . Screenshots of R&S® SMU200A Vector Signal Generator Example: Intra-subframe hopping. can be configured and is indicated to the UE by resource block assignment / hopping resource allocation field in DCI format 0. – Type I. l Intra-subframe hopping. Frequency allocation changes from one subframe to another one. UE hops to another frequency allocation from one slot to another within one subframe. – Type II. allocated BW is divided into sub-bands. hopping is done from one sub-band to another from one slot or subframe depending on configured frequency hopping scheme.UL frequency hopping l Intra. Use of pre-defined hopping pattern.and inter-subframe hopping. l Two types of hopping.

Demodulation Reference Signal (DRS) in the UL l DRS are used for channel estimation in the eNodeB receiver in order to demodulate data (PUSCH) and control (PUCCH) channels. depending on format (see one of the following slides). Different symbols. Demodulation Reference Signal (DRS) Screenshot of R&S® SMU200A Vector Signal Generator CG & AR | April 2009 | 51 . Located in the 4th SC-FDMA symbol in each slot (symbol #3. – PUSCH. #10 for normal CP). spanning the same BW as allocated for user data. – PUCCH.

cyclic shift. – Configuration (e. Screenshot of R&S® SMU200A Vector Signal Generator CG & AR | April 2009 | 52 . – Transmitted in areas. periodicity. hopping pattern) is signaled by higher layers. where no user data is transmitted.g. first or last symbol of subframe is used for transmission. duration. BW.Sounding Reference Signal (SRS) in the UL l SRS are used to estimate uplink channel quality in other frequency areas as a basis for scheduling decisions. power offset.

PUSCH power control & timing relation l Power level in dBm to be used for PUSCH transmission is derived using the following formula: Maximum allowed UE power Combination of cell-1) and UE-specific2) component configured by RRC PUSCH transport format PPUSCH (i ) = min{PMAX .10 log 10 ( M PUSCH (i )) + PO_PUSCH ( j ) + UE PUSCH transmit power in subframe i Number of PUSCH resource blocks Cell-specific Parameter configured by RRC PL + Downlink path loss estimate TF (TF (i )) + f (i )} Power control adjustment derived from TPC command received via DCI format subframe (i-4) CG & AR | April 2009 | 53 .

Acknowledging UL data packets on PHICH Read the PHICH. It carries ACK or NACK for each single packet. CG & AR | April 2009 | 54 . Physical Uplink Shared Channel (PUSCH) Physical Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel (PHICH) ? ! I have sent data packets on PUSCH but I don‘t know whether they have been received correctly.

(CQI/PMI or RI)+ACK/NACK (ext. CP only) (CQI/PMI or RI)+ACK/NACK (normal CP only) (CQI/PMI or RI)+ACK/NACK (normal CP only) 2b CG & AR | April 2009 | 55 . when no PUSCH is available. means resources have been allocated to the UE for data transmission. configured by higher layers. PUCCH format Bits per subframe Modulation Contents 1 1a 1b 2 2a CQI/PMI/RI are only signaled via PUCCH when periodic reporting is requested. – Inter-slot hopping is used on PUCCH.Physical Uplink Control Channel – PUCCH carries Uplink Control Information (UCI). UCI are multiplexed with user data. scheduled and aperiodic reporting is only done via PUSCH On/Off 1 2 20 21 22 N/A BPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK+BPSK QPSK+BPSK Scheduling Request (SR) ACK/NACK. ACK/NACK+SR ACK/NACK. CQI. – PUCCH is transmitted on reserved frequency regions. – UCI are Scheduling Requests (SR). which are located at the edge of the available bandwidth – Minimizing effects of a possible frequency-selective fading affecting the radio channel. – A RB can be configured to support a mix of PUCCH formats (2/2a/2b and 1/1a/1b) or exclusively 2/2a/2b. ACK/NACK information related to DL data packets. ACK/NACK+SR CQI/PMI or RI (any CP). Pre-coding Matrix Information (PMI) and Rank Indication (RI) for MIMO. – If PUSCH is available.

MIMO CG & AR | April 2009 | 57 .

Introduction to MIMO gains to exploit from multiple antenna usage l T1 T2 Transmit diversity (TxD) l Combat fading l Replicas of the same signal sent … TNt s s11 R1 s1 2 … ss1 Mt RNr l on several Tx antennas l Get a higher SNR at the Rx Spatial multiplexing (SM) l Different data streams sent Antenna array simultaneously on different antennas l Higher data rate l No diversity gain l Limitation due to path correlation l Beamforming CG & AR | April 2009 | 58 .

LTE MIMO downlink modes l Transmit diversity: Space Frequency Block Coding (SFBC) Increasing robustness of transmission l Spatial multiplexing: Transmission of different data streams simultaneously over multiple spatial layers Codebook based precoding Open loop mode for high mobile speeds possible l Cyclic delay diversity (CDD): Addition of antenna specific cyclic shifts Results in additional multipath / increased frequency diversity CG & AR | April 2009 | 59 .

LTE downlink transmitter chain QPSK. 16QAM. 64QAM modulation schemes Mapping to time / frequency resources Code words output from coding chain MIMO layer mapping OFDMA multiple access scheme and precoding OFDMA multiple access scheme CG & AR | April 2009 | 60 .

Downlink transmit diversity Space-Frequency Block Coding (2 Tx antenna case) 1 code word Layer Mapper Resource element mapper Precoding Resource element mapper f d(1) Symbols d(1) d(0) d(0) d(1) d(0) Tx 1 t d(0) t d(1) t * d(0)* -d(1) t f d(0)* t t Tx 2 t * -d(1) CG & AR | April 2009 | 61 .

e.Downlink spatial multiplexing codebook based precoding l The signal is “pre-coded” (i. multiplied with a precoding matrix) at eNodeB side before transmission Codebook of precoding matrices for 2x2 MIMO: MIMO channel Regular UE feedback: PMI = Precoding Matrix Indicator RI = Rank Indication CQI = Channel Quality Indication l l Optimum precoding matrix is selected from predefined “codebook” known at eNode B and UE side Selection is based on UE feedback CG & AR | April 2009 | 62 .

2 TX antennas at UE side l Closed loop selection of transmit antenna l eNodeB signals antenna selection to UE l Optional for UE to support Multi-user MIMO / collaborative MIMO: l Simultaneous transmission from 2 UEs on same time/frequency resource l Each UE with single transmit antenna l eNodeB selects UEs with close-to orthogonal radio channels l CG & AR | April 2009 | 63 .LTE MIMO uplink schemes l Uplink transmit antenna selection: l 1 RF chain.

LTE mobility CG & AR | April 2009 | 64 .

Handover (Intra-MME/Serving Gateway) UE Source eNB Target eNB MME Measurement reporting Handover decision Handover request Admission Control Handover request Ack RRC connection reconfiguration Detach from old. sync to new cell Deliver packets to target eNB SN Status Transfer Data forwarding Buffer packets from source eNB RRC connection reconfiguration complete Path switch Req / Ack UE context release Flush buffer Release resources CG & AR | April 2009 | 65 .

Reselection GSM_Idle/GPRS Packet_Idle CG & AR | April 2009 | 66 .LTE Interworking with 2G/3G Two RRC states: CONNECTED & IDLE GSM_Connected CELL_DCH Handover E-UTRA RRC CONNECTED Handover GPRS Packet transfer mode CELL_FACH CELL_PCH URA_PCH CCO with NACC Reselection Connection establishment/release CCO. Reselection Connection establishment/release Connection establishment/release UTRA_Idle Reselection E-UTRA RRC IDLE Reselection CCO.

LTE Interworking with CDMA2000 1xRTT and HRPD (High Rate Packet Data) E-UTRA RRC CONNECTED 1xRTT CS Active Handover Handover HRPD Dormant HRPD Active Connection establishment/release 1xRTT Dormant Reselection E-UTRA RRC IDLE Reselection HRPD Idle CG & AR | April 2009 | 67 .

LTE test requirements CG & AR | April 2009 | 68 .

eNodeB RF testing CG & AR | April 2009 | 69 .

CQI missed detection for PUCCH format 2. UL timing adjustment. Base station (eNodeB) according to 3GPP l Measurements are performed using l Rx characteristics (= Uplink) – Reference sensitivity level. Receiver spurious emissions. … – Unwanted emissions. … l PRACH performance. highspeed train. etc.LTE RF Testing Aspects Fixed Reference Channels (FRC) and EUTRA Test Models (E-TM). HARQ-ACK multiplexed in PUSCH. – Occupied Bandwidth. Time alignment between transmitter antennas. – RE Power Control dynamic range. ACK missed detection PUCCH format 1a (multiple user) – Transmitted signal quality – Frequency Error. l …for PUSCH. detection requirements. l …for PUCCH. Adjacent channel selectivity (ACS) and narrow-band blocking. Operating band unwanted emissions. In-channel selectivity. Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio (ACLR).104: Base Station (BS) radio transmission and reception CG & AR | April 2009 | 70 . Dynamic range. – Transmit ON/OFF power. ACK missed detection PUCCH format 1a (single user). DL RS power. etc. Error Vector Magnitude (EVM). Blocking. – FALSE detection probability. – Transmitter OFF power. – Fading conditions. Receiver intermodulation l Performance requirements. – Transmitter spurious emissions and intermodulation. transmitter transient period. l Tx characteristic (= Downlink) – Base station output power – Output power dynamics. total power dynamic range. – DTX to ACK performance. Captured in TS 36.

– Quick test: OBW. 64QAM (8%). measured DL RS power shall be in the range of ±2. – Limit changes for modulation schemes QPSK (17.1 dB. measurement is to measure the time delay between the signals for the two transmitting antennas.05 ppm + 12 Hz (1ms). – Amount of distortion effecting the receiver to demodulate the signal properly. l DL RS power – “Comparable” to WCDMA measurement CPICH RSCP. l Error Vector Magnitude (EVM).eNB modulation quality measurements l Frequency error. delay shall not exceed 65 ns. CG & AR | April 2009 | 71 .5%). demodulation at the UE might not work properly and cause network interference. 16QAM (12. Limit for frequency error after demodulation 0. – If frequency error is larger than a few subcarrier.5%). l Time alignment. absolute DL RS power is indicated on SIB Type 2. – Only TX test defined for multiple antennas.

No filter definition in LTE!

Screenshot taken from R&S® FSQ Signal Analyzer E-UTRA transmitted signal channel bandwidth BWChannel [MHz] BS adjacent channel centre frequency offset below the first or above the last carrier centre frequency transmitted BW Channel 2 x BW Channel BW Channel /2 + 2.5 MHz BW Channel /2 + 7.5 MHz

Assumed adjacent channel carrier (informative)

Filter on the adjacent channel frequency and corresponding filter bandwidth Square (BW Config) Square (BW Config) RRC (3.84 Mcps) RRC (3.84 Mcps)

ACLR limit

1.4, 3.0, 5, 10, 15, 20

E-UTRA of same BW E-UTRA of same BW 3.84 Mcps UTRA 3.84 Mcps UTRA

44.2 dB 44.2 dB 44.2 dB 44.2 dB

BW Channel and BW Config are the channel bandwidth and transmission bandwidth configuration of the E-UTRA transmitted signal on the assigned channel frequency. CG & AR April transmit pulse shape filter defined in [15], with a chip rate as defined in this table. The RRC filter shall be equivalent |to the 2009 | 72

eNB performance requirements
PRACH and preamble testing I
l PRACH testing is one of the performance requirements defined in

3GPP TS 36.141 E-UTRA BS conformance testing,
l Total probability of FALSE detection of preamble (Pfa 0.1% or less), l Probability of detection of preamble (Pd = 99% at defined SNR), l Two modes of testing: normal and high-speed mode, – Different SNR and fading profiles are used (table shows settings for normal mode),
Number of RX antennas Propagation conditions (Annex B) AWGN ETU 70 AWGN ETU 70 Frequency offset 0 270 Hz 0 270 Hz SNR [dB] Burst format 0 -14.2 -8.0 -16.9 -12.1 Burst format 1 -14.2 -7.8 -16.7 -11.7 Burst format 2 -16.4 -10.0 -19.0 -14.1 Burst format 3 -16.5 -10.1 -18.8 -13.9 Burst format 4 -7.2 -0.1 -9.8 -5.1



l Depending on the mode different preambles

Burst format 0 1 2 3

Ncs 13 167 167 0 10

Logical sequence index 22 22 22 22 0

v 32 2 0 0 0

are used to check detection probability (table shows preamble to be used for normal mode),
CG & AR | April 2009 | 73


eNB performance requirements
PRACH and preamble testing II
l According to 3GPP TS 36.211 the NCS

value is not set directly instead it is translated to a NCS configuration value,
l This value is set in the signal generator R&S®

NCS Configuration 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

NCS value Unrestricted set 0 13 15 18 22 26 32 38 46 59 76 93 119 167 279 419 Restricted set 15 18 22 26 32 38 46 55 68 82 100 128 158 202 237 -

SMx or R&S® AMU,

Screenshot taken from R&S® SMU200A Vector Signal Generator

14 15

CG & AR | April 2009 | 74

R&S®SMx signal generators and R&S® FSx signal analyzers R&S®TS8980 LTE RF test system UE RF testing R&S®CMW500 wideband radio communication tester R&S®SMU200A signal generator and fading simulator including MIMO CG & AR | April 2009 | 75 .

Adjacent Channel Leakage Power Ratio (ACLR). l Performance requirements l Demodulation FDD PDSCH (FRC). Inband emission. l UE maximum input level. symbol. LO leakage.LTE RF Testing Aspects l Tx characteristic l Transmit power. – Frequency error. l Spurious emissions. l Adjacent channel selectivity.101: User Equipment (UE) radio transmission and reception CG & AR | April 2009 | 76 . l Output power dynamics. spectrum flatness. l Output RF spectrum emissions. User Equipment (UE) according to 3GPP l Rx characteristics l Reference sensitivity level. – Occupied bandwidth. Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM). IQ imbalance. l Transmit Signal Quality. subcarrier. l Spurious Emission. l Transmit Intermodulation. l Intermodulation characteristics. l Demodulation FDD PCFICH/PDCCH (FRC) Captured in TS 36. l Blocking characteristics. EVM vs. EVM vs.

CG & AR | April 2009 | 77 .Transmit modulation Frequency error ±0.1ppm level signal noise RF carrier I/Q imbalance IQ component RB0 RB1 RB2 RB3 RB4 RB5 frequency EVM + spectrum flatness According to 3GPP specification LO leakage (or IQ origin offset) is removed from evaluated signal before calculating EVM and in-band emission.

CG & AR | April 2009 | 78 . – Minimum requirement max[ 25. as the UE shares transmission bandwidth with other UE’s. – Measurement is defined as average across 12 subcarriers and as a function of RB offset from the edge of the allocated bandwidth.In-band emission l Estimate the interference to non-allocated resource blocks. – In-band emission are measured in frequency domain are measured right after FFT. before equalization filter. … RF correction FFT … In-band emissions meas. (20 log10 EVM ) 3 10 ( RB 1) / N RB )] DUT Modulated symbols DFT … 0 … 0 IFFT TX Front-end Channel Test equipment Tx-Rx chain equalizer IDFT EVM meas.

l Measure of carrier feedthrough present in the signal. l Removed from measured waveform. etc.5 kHz frequency shift ∆f = 15 kHz CG & AR | April 2009 | 79 . Annex F). but subcarriers are shifted half of subcarrier spacing (= 7. IQ offset.IQ component l Also known is LO leakage..5 kHz) to be symmetric around DC carrier.101 V8.3. Downlink (OFDMA) Parameters Output power > 0 dBm LO leakage -30 dBm ≤ output power ≤ 0 dBm -40 dBm ≤ output power < -30 dBm DC subcarrier Uplink (SC-FDMA) Relative Limit (dBc) -25 -20 -10 ∆f = 7. l In difference to DL the DC subcarrier in UL is used for transmission.0. before calculating EVM and in-band emission (3GPP TS 36. l Due to this frequency shift energy of the LO falls into the two central subcarrier.

5 MHz/ Span 25 MHz Center fUTRA. signaled by network to the UE 1. ACLR2 fUTRA.2008 15:51:00 CG & AR | April 2009 | 80 .AUG.ACLR measurement I * RBW 10 kHz Ref 0 -10 1 AP VIEW 2 AP VIEW 3 AP CLRWR 0 dBm Att 25 dB VBW 30 kHz SWT 250 ms * A -20 -30 -40 -50 EXT 3DB UTRAACLR1 = 33 dB UTRAACLR2 = 36 dB -60 UTRAACLR2bis = 43 dB -70 -80 -90 -100 Additional requirement for E-UTRA frequency band I.947 GHz 2. ACLR1 fCarrier Date: 21.

Receiver characteristics l Throughput shall be >95% for… l Reference Sensitivity Level. l …using the well-defined DL reference channels according to 3GPP specification. CG & AR | April 2009 | 81 . l Adjacent Channel Selectivity. l Blocking Characteristics.

R&S®SMx signal generators and R&S® FSx signal analyzers R&S®TS8980 LTE RF test system LTE wireless device testing from R&D up to conformance R&S®CMW500 wideband radio communication tester R&S®AMU200A signal generator and fading simulator incl. MIMO CG & AR | April 2009 | 82 .

layer 1. protocol stack.Stages of LTE terminal testing R&D testing IOT and field trials Conformance testing Production testing Maintenance and service Complementary test approaches for verifying: Functionality and performance (RF. application) Interoperability between features and implementations Standard compliance (basis for terminal certification) Final functional test and alignment Basic functions and parameter test CG & AR | April 2009 | 83 .

IOT test scenarios are based on requirements from real network operation and typical use cases.LTE terminal interoperability testing motivation l Interoperability testing is used to verify l Connectivity of the UE with the real network (by means of base station simulators) l Service quality. R&S®CMW500 wideband radio communication tester (base station simulator) CG & AR | April 2009 | 84 . end-to-end performance l Different LTE features and parametrizations l Interworking between LTE and legacy technologies l l The complete UE protocol stack is tested.

VoIP.LTE terminal interoperability testing example test scenarios l l l l l l l l l l l Registration UE initiated detach Network initiated detach Mobile originated EPS bearer establishment Mobile terminated EPS bearer establishment Cell (re-)selection GUTI reallocation Tracking are update … Plus: end-to-end scenarios (video streaming. …) Plus: intra-LTE mobility. inter-RAT mobility CG & AR | April 2009 | 85 .

bearer setup.Test scenarios for LTE terminal IOT different sources for maximum test coverage Rohde & Schwarz Basic procedures and bearer verification (registration. …) LSTI forum „Common Test Descriptions“ agreed in LSTI IO(D)T activity IOT test coverage Network-specific IOT requirements for terminal acceptance Network operators CG & AR | April 2009 | 86 . VoIP call.

GCF) define certification criteria based on RAN5 test specifications. R&S®TS8980 LTE RF test system CG & AR | April 2009 | 87 .LTE conformance testing motivation l Verifying compliance of terminals to 3GPP LTE standard l by validated test cases implemented on registered test platforms l in order to ensure worldwide interoperability of the terminal within every mobile network l R&S®CMW500 wideband radio communication tester 3GPP RAN5 defines conformance test specifications for l RF l Radio Resource Management (RRM) l Signalling l Certification organizations (e.g.

g. work item structure l LTE alignment team founded within CCF CG & AR | April 2009 | 88 . device manufacturers and test industry l Close liaison between standardization fora and certification groups l Harmonized processes for LTE FDD and TDD.LTE terminal certification success factors l Terminal certification as quality gateway l Ensuring global interoperability of terminals l Increasing reliability and performance l Partnership between network operators. e.

R&S®FSH4/8 handheld spectrum analyzer R&S®ROMES drive test software LTE field trial testing and coverage measurements R&S®TSMW Universal Radio Network Analyzer CG & AR | April 2009 | 89 .

CDMA2000 1xEV-DO) Spectrum clearance and refarming scenarios Femto cell / Home eNB scenarios Applications EPC CG & AR | April 2009 | 90 .4 MHz to 20 MHz Different LTE FDD and TDD frequency bands Combination with legacy technologies (GSM/EDGE.LTE field trials requirements from different deployment scenarios l l l l l Bandwidths from 1. WCDMA/HSPA.

also from subscriber’s point of view l Parallel use of scanners / measurement receivers for comparison with UE and base station behaviour Support of IOT activities DL Throughput UL Throughput l CG & AR | April 2009 | 91 .LTE field trials scope of test tools l Field trials provide input for: l Calibration and verification of planning tools for different deployment scenarios l Network optimization (capacity and quality) l Quality of service verification l Definition of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) R&S®TSMW Network Scanner and ROMES Drive Test Software and verification.

Example result from the field scanner measurements for LTE Up to 64 Frequencies TopN list of all pilots with Power and SINR Number of Pilots not limited Channel Impulse Response for Multi Path Reflections and check of Cyclic Prefix Multi Path reflections up to 8 x length of cyclic prefix (CP) CG & AR | April 2009 | 92 .

Would you like to know more? LTE application notes from Rohde & Schwarz CG & AR | April 2009 | 93 .

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