GUERILLA MARKETING

 

How and by whom are the evolved success factors of the Guerilla Marketing philosophy from the 1980's used today and do they stand a chance in the business future?
Literature based thesis for attaining the Bachelor of Business Administration Degree at Saxion University in Enschede

1st Examiner: 2nd Examiner:

Drs. P. de Heus Dhr. R. Wierda

Study Course:

International Business and Management Studies

Students:

Anna Drüing Isendorf 77 48282 Emsdetten Germany

Katharina Fahrenholz Kalanderplein 1-2 7511HX Enschede The Netherlands

Timeframe:

February – June 2008

GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of Content
List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………………..IV Executive Summary……………………………………………………………………………………...V Methodology…………………………………………………………………………………………...VII

1. 2.

Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 1 When did Guerilla Marketing appear and how did it develop?....................................... 3
2.1.
2.1.1. 2.1.2. 2.1.3.

Roots of Modern Guerilla Marketing ................................................................................ 3
Terminology of Guerilla.................................................................................................................. 3 “Guerilla” enters Marketing ............................................................................................................ 4 Guerilla Marketing Philosophers..................................................................................................... 4

3.

How is Guerilla Marketing defined and used today? ...................................................... 7
3.1.
3.1.1. 3.1.2. 3.1.3.

What is Guerilla Marketing? .............................................................................................. 7
Definition ........................................................................................................................................ 7 Technological Development ........................................................................................................... 8 Uniformity vs. Creativity ................................................................................................................ 8

3.2.
3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.2.3. 3.2.4. 3.2.5. 3.2.6. 3.2.7. 3.2.8.

Guerilla Marketing Instruments ...................................................................................... 10
Out-of-Home Weapons ................................................................................................................. 10 Ambient Marketing ....................................................................................................................... 11 Guerilla Sensation ......................................................................................................................... 11 Ambush Marketing........................................................................................................................ 12 New Media Weapons .................................................................................................................... 13 Viral Marketing............................................................................................................................. 13 Guerilla Mobile ............................................................................................................................. 14 Low Budget Weapons ................................................................................................................... 14

3.3.
3.3.1. 3.3.2. 3.3.3. 3.3.4.

Guerilla Marketing in the Marketing Mix ...................................................................... 15
Guerilla Promotion (70%)............................................................................................................. 16 Guerilla Pricing (10%) .................................................................................................................. 16 Guerilla Distributing (Place 10%)................................................................................................. 17 Guerilla Producting (10%) ............................................................................................................ 18

3.4.

User Profile ......................................................................................................................... 18

 

II 

BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 

GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?

 
3.5.

 
3.5.1. 3.5.2.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case Study: Bionade .......................................................................................................... 20
Company Profile ........................................................................................................................... 20 Guerilla Marketing Campaign....................................................................................................... 22 Implementation.................................................................................................................... 22 Result................................................................................................................................... 26

3.5.2.1. 3.5.2.2.

3.6.

Obstacles of Guerilla Marketing ...................................................................................... 27

4.

How is Guerilla Marketing perceived today?................................................................. 28
4.1.
4.1.1.

Customer Perception of Guerilla Marketing................................................................... 28
Survey ........................................................................................................................................... 28 Purpose ................................................................................................................................ 28 Structure of the Questionnaire ............................................................................................. 28 Sample Selection ................................................................................................................. 29 Limitations........................................................................................................................... 30 Evaluation............................................................................................................................ 30 Conclusion ........................................................................................................................... 34 4.1.1.1. 4.1.1.2. 4.1.1.3. 4.1.1.4. 4.1.1.5. 4.1.1.6.

4.1.2.

Expert opinion............................................................................................................................... 34 Guerilla Marketing Today ................................................................................................... 35 Future of Guerilla Marketing............................................................................................... 37 Conclusion: Future Advice .................................................................................................. 37

4.1.2.1. 4.1.2.2. 4.1.2.3.

5.

Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 39

List of References ………………………………………………………………………..….IX Appendix……………………………………………………………………………….…...XII

 

III 

BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 

.............................. 23 Figure 6: Bionade Leuchtbotschafter ..............................XX   IV  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .... 18 Figure 5: Out-of-home............................................................................................................................................... 15 Figure 3: WMF Promotion ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Figure 4: Kellogs Drink n' Crunch ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 24 Figure 7: Bionade Banner ........................ 10 Figure 2: Marketing Mix....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... XII Figure 8: AIDA Model ............. Bionade Poster ..GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   List of Figures Figure 1: Guerilla Marketing Weapon Categories.....................

Then they merely attacked weak points of competitors by implementing preliminary injunctions for their campaigns for instance.   Only in 1983 did Jay Conrad Levinson make the term “Guerilla Marketing” known as a philosophy for small and start-up companies to successfully market their business with a small amount of money. The evolved Guerilla Marketing form is now used by companies of all sizes. involving the customer in a surprising. and start-up companies do so to create brand awareness. Through the drastic technological development until today and its complimentary change in the advertising market. when they needed new ways to outdo competitors. How this is actually done in practice. In the 1960’s US firms brought the “Guerilla” tactics to Marketing. Guerilla Marketing has developed into a marketing form mostly used for Promotion these days. the revolution in Cuba. displaying various facets of the Guerilla Marketing principle. whereas they consciously avoid traditional marketing as for instance TV advertisement. customer proximity. So Guerilla Marketing can find a way to actually   V  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . Guerilla Marketing is a brilliant idea. Magazines.   How such Guerilla Marketing activities are perceived by the actual prospect was researched through a customer survey.   The term “Guerilla” (battle) roots back to the war of independence in Spain and Portugal. New forms such as Ambush and Viral Marketing have evolved. In fact a majority of the respondents stated that such advertisements do catch their attention and interest. ever since customers are besieged with classical marketing communication via the traditional channels TV.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   Executive Summary Guerilla Marketing – an alternative marketing form that has been experiencing increasing importance in the advertising landscape. Here “Guerilla” stood for an attack strategy based on the surprise effect and on acts of sabotage. which was used by smaller groups that stood against a massive military force. Radio and Direct Mail. and the Vietnamese War. Global Players such as BMW use it. insistency. He based the success of a marketing strategy on the use of non-traditional marketing channels. is illustrated by the case study of the soft drink producer Bionade Corporation in Germany. and patience. unconventional marketing activity.

  However its potential is used.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   reach the customer. it has to be done cleverly to stand out from the 3000 advertising messages a day with which today’s consumer is flooded. find ways to surprise them and interest them by putting the idea in the forefront. will take over characteristics of Guerilla Marketing in order to actually reach the customer. not the brand. Smaller firms can make use of the cost-effective strategy to get the spotlight on their brand.     Financially strong companies should use Guerilla Marketing as a complimentary tool to present the brand in a multimodal way. at least in the first two steps of the AIDA Model1.                                                          1  Appendix: AIDA model  VI    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . This great potential of the Guerilla Marketing was confirmed by Marketing Experts in the course of an interview. They could imagine that the traditional Marketing Channels such as TV and magazine. who will also be at the forefront in the future. Good co-operation with for instance the Public Relations department is essential to increase the Guerilla Marketing effect enormously. Guerilla Marketing will adapt with the customers.

Al Ries’ and Jack Trout’s perception of Guerilla Marketing. and their publica                                                  2  Guerilla Marketing International  VII      BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .   Our first part concerning the history and development of Guerilla Marketing has a theoretical background. as well as Philip Kotler were taken into account. They shared their experiences. especially on the example of Bionade. since journalists just started to pay attention to this trend. publications. titled the “The Father of Guerrilla Marketing”2 . trade journals and other publications. Bionade successfully used the Guerilla Marketing approach in the past. opinions. only very few authors have written books about the topic so far.   For the conclusion of our report we wanted to find an answer concerning the future perspective of Guerilla Marketing.   One of the qualitative interviews will be held with Bionade Product Manager Christian Rath. who spread the knowledge of the Guerilla concept in the 1980’s and has updated his editions until today. However.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   Methodology Our research is based on diverse research methods in order to gain as many different perspectives on the topic as possible. Therefore we believe that one of the best sources for those research questions are the books and publications of the marketer Jay Conrad Levinson.   As a foundation for our section about the current use of Guerilla we used input from Marketing newspapers. we analyzed numerous Guerilla Marketing activities to formulate conclusions. In order to bring additional objectiveness to our report we also included the results from expert interviews as well as from a customer survey. Therefore we used primary as well as secondary data collection in combination with desk and field research.   For further analysis of the development of Guerilla Marketing secondary data such as articles. and examples of activities were used. Since Guerilla Marketing has became popular recently. We also utilized selected case studies to underline our theoretical findings. Furthermore we were in contact with some Marketing professionals that already worked with Guerilla Marketing and showed interest in our work.

we conducted a questionnaire that gave us some interesting insights into the perception of traditional and alternative marketing forms.                   tions on rather subjective questions for which the answers could not be found in public arti- Since we believe that the future of Guerilla Marketing will also be strongly determined by the current perspective and perception of the customers.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?   cles.   VIII  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .

 and a better spread to advance the market by using traditional marketing strategies. in front of your house. Their opponents are often a tremendous force consisting of more people and even of more resources such as weapons or money. The name “Guerilla” originally describes a group that uses a violent approach to achieve the implementation of their beliefs and ideology.                 Introduction Guerilla Marketers can get you anywhere – on your way home from work. continuing to attack the market leaders. Within the advertising branch it is almost something like a remedy that every business can use successfully. It is like love: You will find it at the moment you do not expect it at all! And at the moment you notice the advertisement and start thinking about its message they have what they want – your attention and interest. Now this alternative approach is used by companies of all sizes. or at major events. on the streets. The unexpected and unusual Guerilla Marketing campaigns helped smaller companies to  successfully reach their target group. even though their bigger market competitors had a larger marketing budget.   1  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . bus and train. The Guerilla fighter’s only advantage is the fact that only they know where and when they will strike. more experience. Many small and medium-sized companies started with Guerilla Marketing and established their business lucratively. strolling or relaxing at a café terrace. Through constant growth rates they have the means to also afford traditional marketing tools to gain more and more market share. The original approach of Guerilla Marketing is an alternative marketing strategy that suits small and medium-sized companies to act like the Guerilla fighters have in the past: hit vulnerable targets of larger enemies by taking them by surprise. Various agencies have specialized in developing Guerilla strategies.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?   1. in the car. Guerilla Marketing distinguishes itself from other promotion tools by its surprise effect and it has become a very popular marketing strategy in current times. Those accomplishments drew the attention of larger companies to Guerilla Marketing.

Further it will show its development. The conclusion will answer the question if the developed concept of Guerilla Marketing can also be successfully applied in the future.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   This development leads to some interesting questions: Is this trend going to continue? Will all companies be able to use it in the future? Will customers still be surprised and show the desirable reactions even though many companies already use Guerilla Marketing today? Do small companies have a chance with their Guerilla Marketing approach when larger companies are willing to spend a fortune on their Guerilla Marketing activities? This report gives an insight into the origin of Guerilla Marketing as being a tool for small to medium-sized companies to achieve large impacts with little resources.   2  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . where many Big Players use this alternative method as well. focusing on the current market situation.

or fighters as their opponents.1. The usage of unconventional weapons and activities helped them to destabilize their rivals and led them to their final success.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?   2.                 When did Guerilla Marketing appear and how did it develop? Roots of Modern Guerilla Marketing Terminology of Guerilla The term “Guerilla” first appeared during the war of independence in Spain and Portugal at the beginning of the 19th century. He belonged to a small militia group which wanted to put their political concept through. The Vietcong’s operations were                                                   3  Guerilla Marketing Portal  3    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . Even though Vietnam was theoretically much weaker. who used and defined this military tactic. because they used the Guerilla tactics that destabilized the American forces constantly. best known as Che Guevara. the US were not able to bring the enemy down. The term and the connected operations became famous through Ernesto Che Guevara Lynch de la Serna (1928 – 1967). Guerilla stands for a combat operation that was used by smaller groups that stood against a massive military force. Since Che Guevara and his followers did not possess as many resources such as weapons. Che Guevara defined and shaped basic principles for his fighters and summarized them in the book “Guerilla Warfare” that he wrote in 1961. they based their operations on the surprise effect and on acts of sabotage. 2. 2. having a quicker coordination and knowing the territory better. These are the most important elements that can be pointed out: • • • Ultimate goal: victory over the enemy Usage of surprise effects Tactical superiority3 During the 1960’s the United States of America faced major difficulties in the Vietnam War.1. Especially the Vietcong force was unbeatable.1. money. It is a Spanish expression which can be translated as “battle”. Due to their size they had the advantage of being more flexible. They were clearly in the weaker position and their only chance to achieve a successful revolution in Cuba was to fight the national military.

2. 4 2. He introduced new ways of advertising and presenting a business well with a small budget and based the success of a marketing strategy on the use of non-traditional marketing channels. insistency. This was not only realized by aggressive marketing efforts.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   similar to Che Guevara’s activities. This was the first time that Americans got to know the principles of Guerilla. The new strategy needed some years to develop and to become an integral part of business strategies. The only promising way was to use an anti-marketing concept that included attrition and attack strategies in order to gain as much attention as possible and to weaken competitors considerably. and patience. fought on Vietnamese territory.1. and used unusual means. His publications provided not only an explanation of the essential marketing ideas. The consumer’s behaviour had changed and businesses had to come up with offers that fit their consumers’ needs and not only their own.2. but also a philosophy for small business owners who wanted to follow the Guerilla Marketing idea. In order to make the Guerilla idea accessible to everybody Jay Conrad Levinson defined the root idea in his book “Guerrilla Marketing” in 1983. but also through legal means such as preliminary injunctions for campaigns of competitors. A company should create as many points of contact with customers and prospects as possible in order to stay in their memory. something that lets one company stand out in the crowd.3. customer proximity.8 million of them were small-sized companies that needed a strategy to fight their bigger competitors with a small budget. “Guerilla” enters Marketing At the same time America’s marketing experts were looking for new approaches to gain the attention of customers. He further believed that a long-lasting campaign will bring the desired competitive advantage. were much more flexible than their enemies.1. 10. Consequently marketing experts had to find realizable concepts for businesses with limited resources.                                                   4  Schulte  4    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . During the 1980s the US market was flooded with 11 million new founded companies. Guerilla Marketing Philosophers Levinson Of course Guerilla Marketing did not conquer the marketing world over night. They also used the surprise effect.

The revised passages mainly deal with new technologies and marketing channels that change over the years and offer new possibilities. Trout pointed out that the market size also has to be manageable with the limited and available resources. In general small business owners should use their advantageous flexibility even more. especially when the potential gain is high. Kotler suggests that such a competitive strategy should be adopted by market challengers that try to increase their own profitability by gaining more market share from other companies in the same industry. A competitive advantage over the challenged company is the foundation for a good strategy. Therefore he suggests specializing and investing in a niche product and/or market niche.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   Levinson’s book explains the basic pillars of Guerilla Marketing in a simple way and made him the “Father of Guerilla Marketing”. but they also developed some opposed elements. Trout  5    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . Mainly smaller and financially weaker companies are then using an aggressive Guerilla attack.6 Kotler The marketing expert Kotler also analysed the Guerilla tactics in the 1990s. warns Kotler. but also involves high risks. Unlike Levin                                                  5 6  Levinson   Ries. Trout and Ries believed that Guerilla marketing best suits small and medium-sized companies. Therefore insistency and patience is not one of the essential elements anymore like it was in Levinson’s opinion. the American Marketing experts Al Ries and Jack Trout specified the root idea of Levinson. Such a campaign can even be a tool to fight the current market leader.5 Ries/Trout Only three years after Levinson released his first edition in 1983. Updated versions of the book are released every few years. It was sold over 1 million times and translated into 37 languages. Both Ries and Trout suggest that a small business should try to use every product and/or market niche that becomes available and furthermore not hesitate to change their approach in case they believe that another strategy would be more profitable. Like Levinson. Furthermore Ries emphasized that a lean organizational structure with a centralized top management makes it easier for a growing company to continue to save costs and to keep their flexibility.

 Wong. Saunders.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   son. and Trout. Kotler believes that the main purpose of Guerilla Marketing is to destabilize the opponent – or best to destroy the competitors with the help of attrition tactics. Ries. 7                                                   7  Kotler. Armstrong  6    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .

 Handschin.8 Guerilla Marketing is a marketing strategy. Newspaper Ads.1. since no official definition of the term exists so far. and Word-of-Mouth Marketing are concepts that gain rising importance. unconventionality. surprising and efficient. but rather annoying. The aim is to irritate. Thereby the Guerilla Marketing strategy is based on imagination. The involvement for successful Guerilla Marketing is high.                 How is Guerilla Marketing defined and used today? What is Guerilla Marketing? Definition Around the globe. they mostly have the following characteristics of Guerilla Marketing in common: Creative. A false conclusion would be to think that the lower budget means the Guerilla marketing activities require less effort. which involves the consumer in the advertising experience. and animate the consumer. especially through one increasingly important marketing channel: the Internet.  and Direct Mail does not really excite the customer anymore. unconventional. Guerilla Marketing. marketing experts. It is advisable not to repeat a Guerilla action as it might not be surprising anymore. Energy and time are the main ingredients. and flexibility instead of market power. enterprise size. Siegenthaler. Guerilla Marketing campaigns display creative ideas dynamically with unconventional methods at places where advertising would be least expected. Viral Marketing. 3.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?   3. 3. Guerilla Marketing should stand out from the saturated advertising landscape by being fun and not bothersome.9 It is a marketing form. fascinate. and marketing budgets. The surprise effect belongs to the root philosophy. Significant for Guerilla Marketing is to reach maximum customer attention with minimal costs. It is central to emphasize the brand’s strengths and minimize its weaknesses in order to attack competitors. researchers. Spycher  7    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . nowadays predominantly used for the Marketing Mix “P” Promotion. Classical marketing communication via TV commercials. Radio Spots. Many explanations have thus been created and even though they vary in their wording. Unconventional forms on the other hand can accomplish excitement. and discoverers eagerly try to find the allembracing description of Guerilla Marketing.                                                   8 9   Guerilla Marketing Portal  Bieri.1.1.

and marketing automation. but the technologies that support them: e-commerce. Marketing has to carry out more and more tasks with tight budgets. Increasing transparency through the internet enables buyers to acquire product information. the Internet. fax machines.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   So far the beginning and the current definition of Guerilla Marketing was described. Price-sensitive customers. Creativity It was always the aim of marketers to attract new customers and to keep the existing customers loyal. globalization. Levinson with his Guerilla Marketing strategy – supported the belief that prospects have to be exposed to the same marketing message as often as possible. podand nanocasting in the online marketing scene. Businesses adapt their procedures according to the market and technology development. but since the market and the environment have changed so immensely. Thereby it is a thin line between annoying and attracting customers. Research showed that people need to see an advertisement up to 13 times before they understand what the product                                                   10 11  Kotler. new distribution channels. new communication channels. Within these developments Guerilla Marketing experienced increasing importance since more and more businesses demand practice oriented solutions for short term results.11 In times of globalisation the competitive pressure is high and the free market economy is tough. wireless commerce. while now in the 21st century it is mainly a communication strategy. sales. During the 1980s marketers – among them Jay C. deregulation. privatization… the list goes on.2. the way to get through to the customer has also changed. In the 1980s it was seen as an integral part of the business strategy. e-mail. compare them directly with competitors. new competitors.1. 2007  8    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . cable TV. It is imperative that companies think through the revolutionary impact of these new technologies. Maesincee   Levinson.“10 These developments have changed for instance the way customers behave. Technological Development “Markets today are changing fast. mobile phones.1. Uniformity vs. 3. and easily make worldwide purchases. Jain. And it is not only markets that are changing. 3.3. The following part will link the two sides and explain what influenced the Guerilla Marketing to develop to its current usage. Especially in Marketing innovative ways of promoting products and brands have come up. videoconferencing. An example are blogs.

Marketing takes time and consequently business owners have to wait. A hasty change in strategy would reset the customers mind and the invested time and money would have been wasted.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   is and that it can be beneficial for them. Consequently they do not perceive and remember the message afterwards. What makes it even worse is the fact that advertising messages from the same companies are repeated several times a day – up to 50 times. Levinson motivated this guideline with the fact that only a certain number of exposures can bring the customer to a final purchase. Of course for businesses this is a very costly activity that does not bring the desired success. Furthermore a chosen strategy had to be kept for a long period even if it did not bring the desired success immediately. logo. Unfortunately customers are not interested in such classical marketing communication like they used to be. As a result every customer is confronted with 3000 sales messages every day. small companies had over 200 different marketing weapons that allowed them to catch their customers’ attention over and over again. Consequently business owners were urged to publicise their name. The aim is to create more brand awareness. Companies achieved what they wanted. 12 Even though the explanation sounds logical it is not realizable anymore today.                                                   12 13  Levinson   Marketing Partner  9    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .13 Still companies all over the world invest billions in traditional activities. The solution is a cost-effective marketing form that stands out in the crowd of advertisings and catches the attention of the customer even in the rapidly changing marketing world of today. The aspects of Guerilla Marketing also fit these needs of today . Customers cannot go anywhere without being swamped with advertising. To take the early forms of Guerilla Marketing as an example. Marketers always have to come up with new ideas to spotlight their brand and protect the surprise effect of every Guerilla Marketing activity. In the end the surprise effect can create the most positive reaction from the customer. The market and the environment change rapidly and all companies try to get the attention of the customer as often as possible.away from uniformity and insistency towards creativity and flexibility. Simply put. which are often not affordable for smaller companies. and message at every possible opportunity.

                Guerilla Marketing Instruments Over the years Guerilla Marketing has developed and created many forms. Ambient Media. but the following distinction by experts of Guerilla Marketing Portal (GMP) has been build up logically and is therefore referred to in this paper14: Guerilla Marketing Weapons Out-of-Home Weapons Ambient Marketing Guerilla Sensation Ambush Marketing New Media Weapons Viral Marketing Guerilla Mobile Low Budget Weapons Clever ideas for small and medium-sized companies Figure 1: Guerilla Marketing Weapon Categories  3. but media interest as well. Done with simple tools those actions should be spectacular and clever to catch the attention of a certain target group. To get an overall picture of the potential of Guerilla Marketing weapons we have classified them by categories: Out-of-Home. witty inspiration. and Low Budget Weapons. Again no official definition exists. so called weapons.1. The most successful weapons in the category out-ofhome are Guerilla Sensation.                                                   14  Guerilla Marketing Portal  10    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . These weapons should support the root philosophy of Guerilla Marketing which entails creative. New Media. Newspaper reports about the action can create extra publicity for the advertised company and stimulates that people talk about the product. Out-of-Home Weapons As the name “out-of-home” suggests. At best it does not only catch the interest of people who pass by. As we know Guerilla Marketing is a dynamic way to create brand awareness.2. these weapons refer to marketing activities that are actually realised at public locations. The expansion of brand awareness is the aim.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?   3. and Ambush Marketing.2.

He used the blank backside of the fortune cookie slips given out in Chinese restaurants for an advertising message. As described above. since it does not fulfil the typical characteristics of being surprising and dynamic. 3. Ambient Marketing tries to approach the customer individually through the place of contact.2. Still it can also be a medium with good potential to bring attention to a brand or product in a creative way. Ambient Marketing positions advertising at unusual places. Some experts claim that Ambient Marketing does not belong to Guerilla Marketing. pizza cartons.15 The American Mark Hughes had what is probably one of the most profitable ideas concerning the placement of an advertisement.2.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?   3. but on the advertising space itself. In general Guerilla Sensation works with the same principle.                 Ambient Marketing The term became well-known  in the 1990s. While other out-of-home Marketers advertise on large-scale billboards. cranes. Indeed Ambient is more static.3. People are confronted with advertisements where and when they do not expect it. 16 The important aspect is to seek out the target group at their preferred location in an entertaining way. Until today newer ambient media have come up. Mark Hughes has been able to make a lot of money by selling this noticed advertising space to companies. Therefore it is easier to show the difference. There are no limits to formats there. such as messages on large-format screens in subways or handles of supermarket trolleys. Hereby the main focus is not necessarily on the idea. The number of prospects that are exposed to the advertisement is therefore relatively small compared to a few million people that might get in                                                   15 16  Webguerillas   Streitz  11    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . one-sided marketing. Guerilla Sensation Guerilla Sensation is very similar to Ambient Marketing. Ambient Media refers to non-traditional out-ofhome advertising.2. but it is only used on a very limited number of events and activities. These – in production cheap marketing messages reached 7 million restaurant guests in one week and were therefore very profitable. They are all a little more unusual displays. ambient advertisements are posted on manhole covers. free postcards in bars and so on.

which are often delivered by Guerilla Sensation activities. Pepsi for instance placed a huge oversize Pepsi bottle close to a soccer game which was sponsored by Coca Cola. It stands for a sneaky out-of-home marketing method. He even agreed to take care of all arising costs and legal issues. Giving out company material on a fair without having a stand is also Ambush Marketing. The rugby match between the All Blacks from New Zealand and the Wallabies from Australia was interrupted by two naked streakers whose bodies were painted with Vodafone logos. non-regional attention by making it to the media.2. At many major events one brand of a particular category pays a high price to be the exclusive sponsor.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   contact with an Ambient Marketing campaign as the example of the Fortune Cookies described above. reminding at the Guerilla Attacks from Che Guevara. Furthermore Vodafone was the sponsor of the participating Australian team. The CEO of the Australian Vodafone division knew that something provocative would happen and agreed to the proposal of an anonymous caller. because modern technologies spread the message. But such Guerilla Sensation actions can gain further. Through good Public Relations controversial or very original Guerilla ideas of a brand can be a widely discussed issue in the media as well. but his main competitor Telstra gave the arena its name. Ambush Marketers then still find a way to make notice of their brand in connection with the event. The legal boundaries can be thin as Vodafone experienced in Australia in 2002. Some Guerilla Sensation activities become an Ambient Marketing activity. 17 3. unusual pictures. the success of the campaign was arguable. since the match might have been influenced by the interruption and upset many fans.18                                                   17 18  Guerilla Marketing Portal   Spiegel online  12    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . Guerilla Sensation characteristics are those described in the Guerilla Marketing definition. Often newspapers are looking for extraordinary. Apart from the legal difficulties that Vodafone had to face. since it attracts the attention of thousands of visitors and even viewers on TV. The bizarre details unsheathed the wrongful behaviour of Vodafone. Ambush Marketing Ambush means attack out of the blue. which leaves their competitors be left in the dark. which promotes a brand at huge events without paying a sponsorship fee.4. Of course the line between Ambient Marketing and Guerilla Sensation is thin.

internet. and shopping possibilities that enable customers to access the resources of the world with a click on the computer mouse. The game was developed to promote the Scotch Whiskey brand Johnnie Walker in the German gastronomy sector. In 1999 it was shown in some German bars and then offered as a free download on the internet. It has to be mentioned that Viral Marketing is not a computer virus.5. it is harmless.19 This example vividly shows how successful Viral Marketing can be. The idea is to get an advertising message to as many contacts as possible and as fast as possible. Viral Marketing Viral Marketing is a very important weapon of Guerilla Marketing. Of course this also gives businesses the possibility to use the advantages that technology provides. This is realised by human multipliers who are animated to pass the message along for free. Encouraging people to pass the message along to others for free is an art.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?   3. The message rapidly spreads.2. If that is successful. Unexpectedly the game became so popular that people of all ages actively played it. The game downloads had exponentially increased within a very short time and the brand name Johnnie Walker was spread free of charge to millions of individuals. unlimited information.6. the campaigns should be smart and extraordinary. Two very strong instruments that use the modern possibilities are described below: Viral Marketing and Guerilla Mobile. A personalised  message or a motivational prize are often successful tools. In any way. The clue which makes this example Viral Marketing is that the game players recommended “Moorhuhn” to friends by forwarding the link or by word-of-mouth. since a conventional advertisement might not be accepted and                                                   19  Wikipedia  13    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . the snowball effect starts and the potential for the viral message’s exposure and influence is produced.                 New Media Weapons New technologies change our lives and they often make it easier due to mobile phones. similar to the way email jokes and software viruses are sent around to the online community. The beginning of Viral Marketing in Germany is often linked to the computer game “Johnnie Walker Moorhuhn”.2. 3. The challenge for a Viral Marketer is to build a motivation in a message for people to spread it. where the player gets to shoot grouses (German: “Moorhuhn”) in the Scottish highlands.

Other successful viral formats are for instance Facebook applications and viral videos on YouTube. The wireless connection provides the possibility to present marketing messages in different ways via SMS. 3. Winning is often the usage of sex.2.2. But since their capital is low. 3.co.hotmail. For example : “Join the world's largest free e-mail service with MSN Hotmail. Guerilla Mobile Not only the PC offers unlimited possibilities to marketers. when they started to add a frank message to the footer of all E-Mails sent out by Hotmail users.000 US-Dollar on advertising. Hotmail’s brand awareness and market share increased rapidly.nz/viral‐marketing. or Infrared. scandal. Therefore it was only a matter of time until marketers took the opportunity to reach customers and prospects at any place at any time.8. 20 Hotmail users thus automatically became sales promoters for their e-mail service provider.com“. and medium-sized companies. Since the number of mobile  phones exceeds the number of inhabitants in many countries. Bluetooth. coverage. Especially Hotmail is often mentioned as the showcase for Viral Marketing. The Viral Marketing concept is not dependent on a certain media. http://www. In the B2B sector downloadable White Papers are doing well. From its start in 1996 to its 12 millionth user.viz. The impact.7. the top priority is to use it as efficiently as                                                   20  http://www. but through the internet Viral Marketing has experienced a boom. This free email service by Microsoft was one of the first to gain remarkably from Viral Marketing. Then the message often spread by word-ofmouth.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   spread. Low Budget Weapons This Weapon refers to Guerilla Marketing for new. who only possess a small marketing budget. and pace that this media offers today is astonishing. and provocation. Communication between two persons has always existed in various ways. MMS. small. the cell phone is a permanent companion of prospects. Like Levinson already pointed out in the 1980’s that does not necessarily mean that those companies have a disadvantage compared to financially strong competitors. hotmail only spend 500.htm  14    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . while competitors spent 20 Million US-Dollar and did not nearly manage to attract that many customers. humour.

needs. The remaining 30% place their focus equally on price. Handschin. Today Guerilla Marketing is often only used in the form of a campaign. habits. Companies often operate according to their traditional marketing philosophy.                                                   21  Bieri.21 Marketing Mix Promotion 70 %   Price 10% Place 10% Product 10%   Figure 2: Marketing Mix The following examples show campaigns where the focus is on one of the 4 P’s. 3. its rituals. Here it is essential to outline that sometimes only one of these 10% of the Marketing Mix are designed according to the Guerilla Marketing principles. social network. Clever ideas appear through unconventional methods which are supposed to catch the attention of the target group. There the balance in the marketing mix shifts towards one of the 4 P’s. The figure 2 shows that 70% of the campaigns put their focus on promotion. sportive. norms. but Guerilla Marketing for single campaigns is different. Spycher  15      BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . traditions. Guerilla Marketing should put this into practice by focusing on the local culture with its geographical.3. and values.  and product. The remaining 90% can belong to a traditional Marketing approach. In the past it was a business philosophy that influenced all aspects of the business equally. Guerilla Marketing in the Marketing Mix Guerilla Marketing changed over the years. place. Siegenthaler.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   possible.

It describes a new way to differentiate itself from the rest of the                                                   22 http://images. The user cannot only see the decreasing pile.ch/ blog/&h=225&w=360&sz=116&hl=de&start=12&um=1&tbnid=g3DOMkCxNmw6nM:&tbnh=76&tbnw=121&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dguerilla%2Bmarketi ng%2Bmini%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dde%26lr%3D     16  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . only 10% of all Guerilla activities focus on price.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www. The non-profit organization WMF supplies one of the numerous examples of Guerilla Marketing promotion with its slogan: “save paper – save the planet”.3.2.minus3. the level of the overall paper towel pile decreases.1.3. or direct mail as well as the specific instruments described before. but also the effects that the use of the paper towels has on the rain forests in South America. sales promotion. Even though Guerilla Marketing tries to be different than the traditional marketing strategies.com/imgres?imgurl=http://minus3. With this simple example WMF tries to redirect the attention of the user towards WMF’s interest to maintain the rain forests.                 Guerilla Promotion (70%) In most cases Guerilla Marketing appears in the form of promotion.google. advertising. Actually the possibilities do not have limits. Even though we live in a world where prices play a big role within the purchase decision. Guerilla Pricing (10%) The focus of Guerilla Marketing strategies can also be pricing.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?   3. 3. Figure 3: WMF Promotion22  By pulling the paper towel out of the box. it uses the same channels to bring the message across such as public relations.ch/blog/wpcontent/uploads/2007/10/mini_guerilla_marketing_2.

retailers. A lot of fans even came in costumes to book stores to buy the first copies. A good distribution can boost sales tremendously. Even though books have a hard time to survive in competition with to other media. Others were willing to pay extra to get the book delivered to their homes at midnight. Especially young readers were waiting for the new book release and wanted to buy the book at the day of publication.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   competition. A competitive offer is still a success factor for some campaigns as the following witty idea shows.3. Rowling showed that even books can make the day of retailers and delivery services. Many people took the opportunity and bought one or more TV’s. and delivery services in many countries offered customers to buy or to receive the book at midnight in order to be one of the first to own the book.   17  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . K. 3. Customers of the electronic retailer Media Markt were promised to get back their money if they bought TV’s before the Soccer European Championship in case that the German soccer team won the tournament. Book shops.3. the famous Harry Potter series  by J. Guerilla Distributing (Place 10%) The distribution of a product can also be a special experience for the customer. In the end Germany did not even get into the final round and the customers did not receive their money back. Media Markt was the winner.

frederiksamuel. 3.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?   3.4.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www. Thereby small companies focus on using a small budget.frederiksamuel. User Profile In the battle for customer attention small companies as well as Global Players want Guerilla Marketing to stand out from competitors in a cost-effective way.3.com/blog/category/p ackaging/page/2&h=462&w=450&sz=76&hl=de&start=43&um=1&tbnid=h64qrsAJSSAlKM:&tbnh=128&tbnw=125&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dguerilla%2Bpacka ging%26start%3D40%26ndsp%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dde%26lr%3D%26sa%3DN     18  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .google.4. The one-person-portion in the cup only needs milk in addition to make it a snack that can be enjoyed not only at home.com/blog/images/bananaj. The classical version of Guerilla Marketing that was mainly developed by Levinson is still usable for small and medium-sized companies that are looking for a philosophy that fits their financial limita                                                  23   http://images. This makes the cornflakes an alternative to chocolate bars and other sweets. and the brand can be a vehicle for Guerilla Marketing. the form. while big enterprises utilize Guerilla Marketing in combination with classical advertising strategies to make branded goods a real experience.                 Guerilla Producting (10%) Also the packaging. Figure 4: Kellogs Drink nʹ Crunch23  The cup allows the customer to have cornflakes-to-go. One example introduced Kellogg’s with its Drink ‘n Crunch cup shown in the picture below.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www. Guerilla Marketing is a solution for companies of all sizes and all budgets.

is the way Guerilla Marketing is used. Actually there is no size of company and no field of industry that does not try to use the advantages of Guerilla Marketing. they all find a way to get through to their customers. and on the fifth position Germany. Vodafone. One third is willing to spend 5% and only one fourth will spend 10% of their marketing funds. Furthermore low-budget activities can be extended by putting in more money than necessary. Even though the budgets of the companies that use Guerilla Marketing vary widely. Consequently these enterprises only use Guerilla Marketing with all its facades for a specific time in the course of a campaign. In Germany 35% of the companies use unconventional advertising forms. Some additional and personalized services cannot be offered by businesses that serve millions of clients. then China. in China for instance by 1218%. Creativity and flexibility. since they do not want to invest much of their budget on such forms. BMW: they all do it. The main difference between small and bigger firms. the surprise effect. next to the size of their budget. The outcome of a Robert&Horst24 research was that 46% of the top 3000 Marketing Decision Makers in Germany have or will use alternative marketing forms in the future. Global players and other established companies cannot inherit the philosophy of Guerillas one-to-one since the strategy is made for small companies and consequently addresses only a limited customer base. They use the main characteristics of Guerilla Marketing that are still important today. Lycos. Little tricks and years of experience make a successful start for a company possible. It becomes clear. A Guerilla Marketing campaign does not change the whole marketing strategy of a company. UK. Japan. that they see alternative marketing forms as cost-effective means. Guerilla and Viral Marketing concepts are mostly used in the US.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   tions and high desires. and the unexpected are the main keywords here. Internationally the top 5 countries with the highest advertising expenditure are firstly the USA. Over the last 10 years expenditures in those countries have all risen tremendously. Larger companies do not have to opt for Guerilla Marketing like smaller companies some-                                                   24  Robert&Horst Marketing GmbH  19    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . On the other hand it is not only an alternative for smaller companies. Puma. for example by placing advertisements in additional cities. in the US by 53% and in Germany by 6%.

It also differentiates itself from competitors by its uncommon flavours. Case Study: Bionade So far the background. Their example nicely illustrates how wit. In the evenings after work he experimented on inventing a non                                                  25 Bionade    20  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . creativity. when the family-owned beer brewery Peter in Bavaria was experiencing stagnating turnover in the beer sector. Herbs. Company Profile Bionade Corporation is a German company which sells soft drinks under the brand name “Bionade”. development. To complement this progress. the case study will exemplify how Guerilla Marketing is implemented today. according to the German purity law “Reinheitsgebot” which is a regulation for beer quality standards and originates from the 16th century.5. They have used many facades of the strategy in the course of a campaign.”25 It is fermented like a beer. Bionade is produced with natural ingredients of organic quality.5. The product is currently available in 5 flavours. Lychee. The owner’s husband Dieter Leipold wanted to find a solution to survive in the market. It all started at the end of the 1980s. From a slow seller to a moneymaker The story of the company’s success can be read like a fairytale. Regional growers provide the natural ingredients such as herbs and fruits. In the following paragraphs it will be described why and how the Bionade Corporation implemented Guerilla Marketing to create brand awareness for their product: Bionade. and usage of Guerilla Marketing have been outlined. They choose it as an additional way of promoting their products and it is used complimentary to the traditional marketing mix which works for the company. a company background will be given first.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   times have to. which does not taste as sweet as other soft drinks. The company chosen is Bionade. Current flavours are: Elderberry. Thus it stands for a non-alcoholic refreshment. Ginger-Orange and Aktiv. Bionade differentiates itself from common refreshments by being “the first and only non-alcoholic refreshment drink produced by a purely organic process.1. 3. 3. To familiarise with the product. and diversity can help a rising company to succeed in a saturated market.

USA in 2009.and communication strategy on the basis of product sponsoring. “Bio” stands for biological/organic. and not merely by luck. media publicity. it might have been the fact that Bionade is filled in beer bottles. “Selling the company will not be an option for our proud family business”26. and word-of-mouth marketing. Part of the success can be attributed to their low-budget communication strategy. among others at McCafé. Ikea. said CEO Peter Kowalsky. since it was founded in 1995. Coca Cola offered a nine-figure range amount to take over the company.27 Ongoing success through clever marketing Bionade Corporation developed from a scene drink in Hamburg to where they are positioned now. There advertisers got a hold of Bionade and saw its potential. Major German economy magazines and newspapers. That was the beginning of their track record. Blum successfully used a viral marketing. transformed the brand Bionade from a purely organic product into a lifestyle drink. printed the Bionade company profile and interviews with the CEO Peter Kowalsky. It might have been the brand label. but Bionade Corporation rejected. and it became a scene drink in bars and clubs. In any case.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   alcoholic drink by fermentation. Since the company only had a low Marketing budget. A second production plant will be built in Iowa. Sales started slowly. By now Bionade Corporation has become successful in all of Germany. The next step for Bionade Corporation is to extent their sales to the global market. Then the company got lucky. The brand name was also chosen since it can be used internationally. Wolfgang Blum. Unfortunately even the best development does not sell automatically. Germany. Through public relations the company started to get national attention. and in the majority of supermarkets and bars. In 1995 the soft drink Bionade was ready to be sold. It took him 8 years and 3 million Euro of investment to create the drink Bionade. trendsetter in Hamburg saw Bionade as cult. By mistake Bionade bottles labelled in Hungarian were delivered to a client in Hamburg. Thereby the emphasis was purposefully put on the enormous success story: An                                                   26 27  Emsdettener Volkszeitung   Emsdettener Volkszeitung  21    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . 200 million bottles were sold in 2007. such as Financial Times Deutschland. and “nade” reminds of lemonade. Bionade is the first soft drink after Red Bull to be exported to the USA. Chief of Marketing. Leipold’s stepson. who leads the Bionade Corporation. Starbucks.

secondly to give plagiarism no chance. in which a caller (always the same man) surprises a normal person with kind words. A variation of eight different radio spots were produced and broadcasted in three intervals from March till September 2007 at 138 private radio stations in Germany. Cross media means the interaction of different media. The called persons                                                   28 29  Reich   Holzapfel   Seissler   Radio Marketing Service  22    30 Active Mobile Media AG  31 32   BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . 29 The company’s aim was to attain wide brand awareness and image profiling in Germany. a joke. The strategy now is to sustain Bionade’s position as being an original: Firstly to be a competition to Coca Cola28. 30 3. and used crossmedial advertising. The official drink of a better world“31 . radio and public relations. 32 Every spot displays one phone call. they targeted children and adults between 14 and 49 years of age. it can produce added value and save costs. and Bionade further engaged in attracting opinion leaders by sponsoring student parties and regional sport teams. online marketing. 3.2. The word about the unusual product spread. “Bionade.2. or amusing honesty.1. including out-of-home. Done cleverly. Implementation In March 2007 Bionade Corporation started to implement the Guerilla Marketing campaign in cooperation with advertising agencies. The skilful interaction between the different communication channels is vital. Blum’s viral marketing plan started to work out.5. Guerilla Marketing Campaign In 2007 Bionade Corporation used cross medial advertising for the first time. Readers sympathised with the company. Radio The radio campaign “Telephone Calls for a Better World” is a main pillar of the cross-medial Bionade advertising. promotional material was provided to bars. and aimed to spread a positive attitude for instance through welfare actions that made people connect the brand to good deeds.5. The theme was.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   almost bankrupt family-owned brewery in the middle of nowhere is saved through 8 years of research and development. With a budget in the lower seven-figure range.

Hamburg. with which every spot ended: “Bionade. Poster Beginning at the time of the second interval of the radio spots. He claims to have had a bad conscience and says that he came back this morning and secretly placed the batteries back in the shelf. based on the theme. Cologne.stille-taten. Bionade Poster34                                                    33 34  Radio Marketing Service   Bionade  23    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . An example will clarify how this was Radio Spot “Batteries” The content of the “Batteries” spot is the following: The man calls the service point of an electronic retailer and tells the woman who answers that he was in the store last week and stole a package of batteries. the product behind the spots was shown by a poster advertising campaign. Well Done. though the message was similar: doing something good. Huge bills in four different styles were posted on various locations in 15 large German cities.”33 The content of the spots varied. People in Berlin. each presenting one bottle of a Bionade flavour.de was also printed at the bottom. Munich. Figure 5: Out‐of‐home. The woman laughs and says: “I don’t know what to say. She should not wonder if the stock counts one more battery package in the evening. decorated with the slogan: “Das offizielle Getränk einer besseren Welt”.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?   done:                 often have a stressful job and thus reacted happily. Stuttgart or Frankfurt were able to see four different posters. The official drink of a better world”. The reference to the website www. because he felt a need for a thrill.

whereas the name does not play as big of a role. like lychee”.36 Mostly at dusk during the summer. the Leuchtbotschafter has been deployed in several major German cities to create brand awareness and profile the Bionade image. “Give and don’t ask for something in return”. “Give fruits more funny names. The Bionade crown cap at the bottom of the display and the blue coloured background are connections to the brand. “Be here”. and “Wishing helps” aimed to inspire good feeling. “Write it Down”. he approached crowded places such as café terraces.                                                   35 36  Bionade   Schulz  24    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . “Bionade” is displayed infrequently between the other messages. “Let your stomach decide”. they brought their messages as close as possible to their customers. rather focused on the product. and vehicles with a mobile beamer. “Elderberry is underestimated”. a person who walks through the streets and projects Bionade messages to house walls. In the course of the Bionade campaign. “Wake up and Dream”. This video is spread on the internet and can be viewed on the websites of Bionade. pavements. Figure 6: Bionade Leuchtbotschafter35   Projected messages such as. With the help of a socalled “Leuchtbotschafter” (literally translates to “illuminated messenger”). a video about the Leuchtbotschafter in action has been created by the advertising agency Kolle & Rebbe. “Smile”.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   Guerilla Sensation But Bionade also tried to make their advertising an unusual event. Next to that.

and Wellness Portals on the internet. diverse Online Newspapers. On You Tube it has been watched almost 9000 times. This is based on a voluntary favour that people do one another.39 Response The Bionade campaign was implemented only a few days before the G8-Summit in Germany started. It attracted the attention of pedestrians and after some time people actually stepped into the “zone” and hugged each other with a happy smile on their faces. The website documents what “good” people have done to others and also how the receivers experienced the silent doings. They surprise others in their daily lives with little. or polishing shoes that are standing in front of an apartment. and also on You Tube.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   Kolle&Rebbe. They are in the same style as the outdoor posters and also point to the website www. Examples are dropping a nice CD in a mailbox. wonderful doings though they stay anonymous.stille-taten.youtube. The idea behind the initiative is to bring joy and hope to people. Sport. Alone on the latter website the video has been viewed nearly 5000 times. Thus he or she advertised for the brand Bionade for free. The silent addresser of this action designed the Bionade crown cap on the sign that points to the “Hug Zone”.com/watch?v=gbPFt7xil7Y    37 38 25  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . Some silent doings even reach more than one person. The official drink for a better world” felt right for hundreds of                                                    http://www.youtube. The slogan “Bionade. A “Hug Zone” was drawn with chalk in a city’s shopping street. The website is not a campaign by Bionade. A video of the action can be seen on the internet. but nevertheless link to the brand to the good doings of people. Thus people do not feel to be an instrument of a Bionade marketing campaign. but Bionade Corporation supports the initiative.de which is another clever part of the campaign: Stille Taten “Stille Taten” can be translated to “silent doings”. which creates potential for viral marketing. He or she only leaves the “Stille Taten” postcard at the scene.37 Banner Bionade advertisment banners38 were placed at diverse German Lifestyle.com/watch?v=Hb13uMKKlN0   Appendix: Online Bionade Banner  39 http://www. to create speculation and discussion.

Thus it can be concluded that the goal of the campaign to achieve wide brand awareness and image profiling for Bionade was reached. online marketing.40 Topics of conversation about Bionade rose and that attention was used for the campaign.5. “Minimal costs for maximal output”.activemobile. and TV channels reported about the protests. 47                                                    Convenience Shop   200 million sold bottles achieved a turnover of 48. the small company from Bavaria. about their slogan. the year of the Guerilla Marketing campaign.2.htm)  43 MSN News  44 Reich  45 Results from Consumer Questionnaire Chapter 4   40 41     46 http://www.com/articles/dolak4.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   thousands of protesters of the G8-Summit.6 million € in 2007  42 Aided awareness occurs when you show or read a list of brands and the person expresses familiarity  with your brand only after they hear or see it (http://www. People should interact with themselves and their surroundings more consciously.pdf  47 Holzapfel    26  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . 46 Online and offline activities should be linked. just like the definition of Guerilla Marketing. Bionade acknowledged that the skilful interaction between the different communication channels is vital and used it to their advantage. about Bionade.45 The characteristics which come to mind when talking about Bionade now. For those results the budget is not high. radio. radios. thanks to the Guerilla Marketing Strategy of being creative and having wits among other things. Bionade Corporation tripled their sales from 2006 to 200 million sold bottles41. Bionade Corporation distances themselves from political statements. 3. who called Bionade their favourite drink. The cross-medial advertising created added value and cost only a few million Euros. but in fact they stand for social and environmental responsibility. German customers refer to Bionade as a lifestyle drink which is healthier than common soft drinks. since individuals today communicate through all available media. The aided brand awareness42 was 10% in 200643 and increased to almost 50% in 200744.davedolak. Result In 2007.05/Crossmedia. The media mix of out-of-home. are far from the original image of being a drink solely sold in health-food shops. Newspapers. Bionade Corporation. and public relations media was well chosen and it came into play at a critical time to create rising tension. now holds a good position in the saturated beverage market.ch/_admin/4_upload/_files/Factsheets.2.

They called the police and an anti-terror unit was sent to disarm the billboard which was wrongly interpreted as a bomb. The city centre and all access roads were closed. Therefore it is often difficult to recognize the fine line between provocation and offence. As described in the example above a creative idea can quickly turn into bad publicity. Thus an even greater damage could be avoided.48 Even though the advertising was already in the city for some days and was also placed in other major US cities and did not cause any excitement there. Lose cables were hanging out of the billboard. Consequently this means that every publication that has not been thought through carefully can damage the reputation of the company and can result in the loss of customers.                 Obstacles of Guerilla Marketing Guerilla Marketing goes another way than traditional marketing. There are sometimes invisible limits that a company should not cross: A company promoted its new comedy series by placing a large electronic billboard featuring an adult character in the city centre of Boston. MA. Later that day the mistake was uncovered and it resulted in two arrests and costs of 500.6. Viral and Mobile Marketing are the most successful marketing trends that spread the word so fast that it often cannot be retraced or controlled anymore. Especially in these cases it would be beneficial if the advertising could be just erased and would thereby limit the number of people that see it. it is obvious that those in charge should have dealt with this topic in a more sensitive way. it is almost impossible to let something “disappear“ that was presented to the public once before. The following example shows a Guerilla Marketing campaign that failed. People passing by believed that they were explosives and panicked. But in times of Viral Marketing and media coverage from all over the world.000 US$. New technologies – like many things – are a blessing and a curse at the same time. between drawing the attention to a company and to create a negative reputation. to get new customers and to lose prospects.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?   3.49                                                   48 49  Spiegel Online   Dr Prof Zerr      27  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .

                How is Guerilla Marketing perceived today? Customer Perception of Guerilla Marketing Survey 4. but their conclusions are also only a result of feedback from customers. the customers. 4. we can only draw conclusions from the people that are going to decide over the success of Marketing in the future – the customers.2. 50 4. The questions should clarify if the respondents like the idea and if they have actually seen or heard about the campaign. The answers can be chosen from various possibilities which were ranked according to a Likert scale. On the other hand a general acceptance or rejection now. The questionnaire can be divided into four parts.1. They would be a good alternative to a quantitative survey.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?   4. that can be uncovered through a survey.1. Within the three parts mainly closed questions have to be answered. can give some hints about the future trends. Basic instructions to answer the questions correctly are also given. 4. The first three parts refer to Guerilla Marketing campaigns by three different brands. especially about the future of Guerilla Marketing. Marketing experts also have to deal with the question of how customers are going to perceive advertising in the future.1. The respondent can see pictures of the first two activities and in the last example he or she can also listen to a radio spot that was part of a campaign.1.1.1. Therefore it is best to get the information from the initial source directly. Therefore a field research gives us the best picture of the reality. Purpose In order to get an idea about the future of marketing.1. It is of course difficult for people to have an idea about how they will perceive advertisings in 5 or 10 years. It is also essential to find out if they understand the message and if they are able to connect the information from the current campaign with the attributes and                                                   50  Appendix: Consumer Questionnaire   28    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . Structure of the Questionnaire At the beginning of the questionnaire the respondents are welcomed and are given a short introduction to the purpose and the general topic.1.

The selected examples were chosen to make it easier for respondents to evaluate GM ideas. We intentionally chose examples of Guerilla Marketing that are targeted at young adults. A specification about gender and age concluded the questionnaire.3. but about marketing and its perception in general. Our respondents were between the age of 12 and 35.1. because those who belong to this age group are going to be the ones with the highest purchase power within the next decades. the respondents needed to have the chance to be exposed to the products and brands before. In general the population and sample size cannot be determined and therefore a non-probability sampling technique was chosen. we chose our respondents according to their age group. The survey was sent by email to people of this age group with the request to redirect it to other people with the same important characteristics – in this case they have to be in the same age group. Sample Selection A determination of a target group that should preferably answer the questionnaire is difficult. The relevant instructions were given with every question. Others let the respondents rate the given answers according to their importance. but the survey is not about a specific product or its advertising.1.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   advertisings from former campaigns. Consequently they will be the ones that are going to face the future marketing efforts. The fourth and last part gives the respondent the possibility to evaluate their own perception of advertising in general and which aspects are important for their purchase decisions.   29  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . Even the resulting sample would be much too big. Open questions that ask for associations show if the goal of the companies have been met. Every product targets different groups. 4. To fill in the questionnaire with reliable data. Some questions were closed questions and offered various answers. Since they mainly target teenagers and adults up to 50 years. The chosen examples show Guerilla activities of products that were released on the German market. This can only be guaranteed if the respondents live in Germany. The population that has to be taken into consideration is comprised of everybody that is exposed to advertising and that includes almost all of mankind.

Even though the instructions were precisely stated. the most crucial points are summarized under various headings below.1.1. there were some issues in the design of the questionnaire that could have avoided these mistakes. Since   30  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   Due to time and budget limitations it was not possible to conduct a representative research. Limitations To weight the results of the survey the research quality has to be analysed. 4. Feedbacks were collected for three weeks and 100 replies revealed a general trend. Guerilla Marketing Examples The respondents were asked to rate how much they like the examples that were shown. The small group of the respondents we know personally might have hesitated in giving definite answers and therefore might have caused a participant bias. The first was the well-known detergent Mr. Furthermore not all answers that were given could be taken into the evaluation since the respondents did not answer the questions according to the instructions given. The answers of the respondents were handled anonymously. In the last example the respondents could listen to a radio spot from the Bionade Guerilla Marketing campaign that was described as a case study in this report before. All three examples showed different products that are sold on the German market. 4. Therefore the number of replies does not allow the results to be generalized. An evaluation can only show a trend. the second showed a Guerilla campaign from the airline Swiss Air. Clean.1. With the snowball effect the questionnaire was passed on to other respondents. Evaluation The 100 filled in questionnaires that we received back within three weeks are the basis for the results that we use to highlight trends. As mentioned above the resources available for the conduction of the research were limited.4. Nevertheless it has to be taken into consideration that a contamination of the answers cannot be out of question.1.5. The results are going to influence the overall conclusion of the report and will help to answer the question: Can Guerilla Marketing be successful in the future? In order to make it easier for the reader to understand the essential results of the customer survey.

GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

most of the questions were identical in every example the results are presented in summarized percentages. The interviewees evaluated the advertisement rather positive than negative. 27.9% liked the advertisings and even 17.2% liked them very much. But most respondents (36.6%) rated them as being fair.

Almost all respondents knew the products and brands that were shown and approximately 80% of all answers named obvious attributes and elements, that are partly also presented in other advertisings of the brand.

Even though most respondents tended to like the advertisings that were shown and knew which brands were presented, many would not tell their family or friends about the exceptional advertisings. Thereby it did not matter if they saw or heard it in reality or just on the pictures and the spot presented in the questionnaire. Only 8.3% were sure to tell at least somebody about the Guerilla marketing activities. In fact 24.1% were sure that they would not spread the word about the unusual advertising. Most of them - in total 28.6% - did not decide weather or not to tell other people.

Result: Guerilla Marketing seems to be something that amuses people and inspires them to take a closer look. 59.5% believe that they would have taken a closer look if they had seen or heard such advertising in reality. A closer look would mean that they would remember the information they saw better and that might influence their purchase decision later on. This is the ultimate goal of advertisements. It is a myth that an advertisement can push a person into the next shop to buy a product. Customers have to be exposed to advertisements up to 15 times before they feel the wish to buy a product. Normally this process can be best illustrated with the help of the AIDA model51. In the best case scenario an advertisement gets the attention of a prospect, arises his or her interest and later the desire to own it, which will lead to an action: the purchase. Guerilla Marketing seems to be the right way to get the first two steps of the AIDA model, the attention and the interest of customers, even at the first contact. Often advertisements need several contacts before they get the attention or even the interest of a prospect.

                                                 
51

 Appendix: AIDA Model  31 

 

BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 

GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The viral effect on the other hand does not work as good as expected. Not everybody is sharing his or her experience with Guerilla advertising. Even though the survey does not go into detail, it is most likely that the viral effect is most effective on the internet, because it is easier and quicker to spread information online. Often companies even offer the possibility to “tell a friend” with just one click.

Influence on purchase decision With every example the respondents were asked to think about the possibility to buy the product for the first time. Next to those that had already bought the product before, only 2 persons indicated that they would buy the product because of the advertising they just saw or heard. In total 70.8% of all respondents never bought the products before and did not choose the option to buy it in the future.

Another question in the survey requested the respondents to choose two purchase decision factors from a list: one that influences them the most and one that persuades them the least. For none of the respondents “advertising” was the most relevant element within the purchase decision process. Quite the contrary is true: 20.7% chose that advertising is the factor that influences them the least.

Result: Even though the survey revealed that people spend some thought on unexpected and unusual advertisings, the survey also shows that people do not necessarily consider buying the product – at least not right away. Even though the desire and the action are not inspired yet, the huge effects of Guerilla Marketing on the attention and the interest of a customer leads one to suspect that a prospect does not need as many contacts with the advertisement as with other marketing strategies to bring them to a final purchase.

Essentials of Advertising According to the AIDA model52, the first goal of advertising is to get the attention of the customer. If this goal is not met, the further goals - interest, desire and action - cannot be reached. Respondents rated the „design” of the advertising with 59.3% by far as the most relevant element that directs their attention towards an advertisement. The second fundamental aspect is the “content” with 21.3%.                                                  
52

 Appendix: AIDA Model  32 

 

BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 

GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Result: Design and content are the keywords. To get the interest of the customer it has to be something innovative that stands out from all the other advertisings. Since people are used to certain standard formats like TV or radio spots, something new and unusual has to be created in order to be the one advertisement that is noticed out of a thousand others.

Price/Quality Ratio in Combination with Traditional Tools Price and quality are the most essential elements that influence the purchase decision. For 42.1% of all of these interviewees quality is the most crucial factor, for 29.5% it is price. Other decision factors like packaging or reputation are not as important as price and quality.

The usual advertisement, that is seen everyday for thousands of times, was predominantly connected to negative aspects. Mainly the words “bothering” and “obtrusive” were associated with advertising. Almost half of all the respondents chose one of these words. But still, the respondents most likely notice advertisement on traditional channels that mainly show traditional advertisement. The following channels were rated as the most (or second most) important ones: TV (41.4%), magazines (20.4%), radio (15.1%) and posters (13.5%). Other channels, that are already used infrequently, such as events, e-mails, internet and give-away articles are not the locations where the respondents notice advertisement that much.

Result: Traditional advertising has the goal to inform customers and prospects about their benefits. Obvious and exaggerative fashion advertisings are focusing on the best taste, the perfect fit, the lowest price or on long-lasting performance. But people are not interested in these ways of advertisings anymore. They are tired of seeing offerings that are almost too good to be true.

Conscious persuasibility through advertising The survey revealed that consumers believe that they are influenced by advertising. 39% answered that they are probably influenced by it. 22% are sure that advertising is an integral part of their purchase decision process. Only 2% believe that they are not affected at all.

Result: These results show that the respondents know what most advertisements try to do – to push them towards a purchase. If somebody knows that a factor is trying to push into one
  33 

BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz 

thus the focus is on alternatives to stress the price and quality of a product. reputation and image. Their views and the results of the customer survey we conducted will contribute highly to the   34  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . are not very well perceived by customers. Furthermore Guerilla Marketing uses creative. Expert opinion Several opinions of Guerilla Marketing Experts have been brought together in this thesis. 4. Therefore these channels such as emails and events give advertisers the possibility to get customers and prospects at the moment where they do not expect to get in touch with marketing and where they can be persuaded more easily. and innovative elements that are positioned as to get the customer’s attention by a surprise effect. 4. The customer is then not without prejudice and not open to persuasions. The goal is to improve brand awareness. Advertising needs a comeback as an element that influences people towards a purchase. Conclusion The customer survey revealed that the respondents are looking for something different than what is presented to them in daily advertisements. new. The majority did also state that they consciously avoid traditional marketing communication like TV commercials for instance.6.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   direction. Often it focuses neither on quality nor on price.1.1. whereas the brand rather takes a position in the background. such as location. The results of the survey display that the respondents are interested in the shown Guerilla campaigns. it can result in a sceptical attitude towards what is said. Guerilla Marketing is different than traditional advertising. Thus we can conclude that Guerilla Marketing activities are more attracting to them than traditional advertisements nowadays. New channels that can be used for effective marketing are already discovered by marketers but not yet recognized by customers. that praise the advantageous price or quality of a product. The idea of the campaign is in the foreground. The combination of innovative advertisings and nontraditional channels seems to be an effective combination for the future. Even though quality and price are the essential factors that influence the decision for or against a product.2.1. Especially online advertisings seem to have a greater potential because of the convenience of additional word-of-mouth advertising. the predominately used advertising forms.

However larger companies can have advantages. more brains. the expectations on Guerilla Marketing differ. answering the question of whether Guerilla Marketing stands a chance in the business future. They use Guerilla Marketing since it achieves value that cannot be created by classical advertising alone. Their statements on the current usage of Guerilla Marketing and its chances in the marketing world of tomorrow are presented in the following paragraphs. and David Eicher. With the help of a prepared questionnaire 53 we spoke to the “Guerilla Thinkers” Ruedi Maeder. Internationally operating companies with established brands.1. use Guerilla Marketing to steer their brand into a certain direction. on the other hand. When implementing Guerilla Marketing. since they have more means. 4. Guerilla Marketing Today The main reason why companies opt for Guerilla Marketing these days can be differentiated between small and larger organisations. and more ideas. the profitability plays the fundamental role. Smaller companies obviously chose the costeffective principle since they only have a small advertising budget on-hand.2. Brand differentiation can be a goal.56 However.57 Implementation of Guerilla Marketing                                                    Appendix: Interview Questions Experts   Maeder   55 Maeder  56 Schulte  57 Eicher    53 54 35  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .54 Goal of Guerilla Marketing The Guerilla Marketing effect is in general independent from the size of the company. more solvent companies are often able to afford TV and Print Ads. Larger. Thorsten Schulte. or spreading the brand message of classical advertising by unconventional techniques.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   overall conclusion of this thesis. For small and medium-sized organizations and for no-name brands.55 Whoever implements Guerilla Marketing wants to get attention for their brand. who all closely monitor the advertising world through their work as marketers in agencies and because of their personal interest. Therefore they may achieve more penetration and impact.1. their focus is on increasing brand awareness and winning coverage.

59 Universal Remedy? Guerilla Marketing always has to be considered critically. It lists tested marketing activities and points out what activity is targeted to underline what brand element. since it meets the demand of the press for spectacular graphical material best and is therefore often cited. Since they want to build up a concentrated brand image worldwide. The actions have a dynamic character. their marketing activities need a certain amount of steering.58 Guerilla Marketing activities on an international basis can be realised through viral mechanisms. Guerilla Marketing is just the instrument. They often follow a “brand book”. which function internationally and comprehensively.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   Guerilla Marketing is done offline rather than online. Here the surprise effect is more important than the dialogue with potential customers. 61 According to a study                                                    Eicher   Maeder  60 Schulte  61 Maeder    58 59 36  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . Thereby it is of utter importance that the advertising is not at the expense of the audience. It is no universal remedy. tell a good story and contain an interactive element. The Guerilla Marketing appearances of smaller companies are often more radical and on the verge of crossing the line. following the principle of “hit and run”. Thus if marketers make bad Guerilla Marketing. Eicher states he uses the Guerilla Marketing instrument Guerrilla Sensation most. they cannot accomplish anything. Crucial for success are accompanying measures such as Public Relations. Professional handling is indispensable for every Guerilla activity.60 Guerilla Marketing is an instrument that can be employed subtly and appears different from classical advertising. What matters are ideas. not plump actions and originality carried to extremes. It cannot stand for a universal remedy. This is called a multimodal approach. If the aim for awareness and publicity is placed higher than the interest of the people. all that for a lot less money. International firms are more hesitant than small companies when using Guerilla Marketing. but if it is used cleverly. Guerilla Marketing can have great effect. they appear and disappear quickly. People actually make the advertising. the brand image is damaged. Here priority needs to be given to good coordination of the campaign. To draw attention the action should be highly emotional.

since ideas will always have an economic cycle. and without strong ideas.2. if those are inartificial. have been falsely titled Guerilla Marketing in major newspapers. In times of a good economy Guerilla Marketing is not a topic anyway.3. many claim to offer Guerilla Marketing.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   by Robert & Horst62 Guerilla Marketing unfortunately still lacks support from the PR departments in German industry. such as a flyer distribution. even though the interest to use it steadily increases. since the marketing budgets rise and classical advertising channels are favoured.2. Conclusion: Future Advice Against the general perception. 65 On the other hand there are good agencies specialised on Guerilla Marketing.2. 4. it might loose its appeal for the audience since repetition of an action kills the surprise effect. Normal promotional activities. Unfortunately the Press has also led to a confusion of ideas in the public. That minimizes its potential enormously. funny. But the composition of Guerilla Marketing will be different. or original messages are needed. As agencies want to be connected to good ideas. Future of Guerilla Marketing In the future consumers will take a negative view of advertising messages.1.                                                    Robert&Horst Marketing GmbH   Maeder  64 Schulte  65 Schulte  66 Schulte    62 63 37  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . Especially in the B2B sector Guerilla Marketing is applied more and more. Classical advertising with viral aspects is an example.64 But Expert Schulte warns: The term Guerilla Marketing has gained popularity in the last years. If more and more companies implement unusual activities. Guerilla Marketing is not a trend but an instrument. He calls for a more eventful marketing placed in the surroundings of the consumer. but they actually do not have the knowledge and experience to really implement it.66 Thus the philosophy will not be replaced by another root thought in the future. 63 Schulte hopes that Guerilla Marketing will always stay surprising.1. Schulte calls billions investments in those channels advertising insanity. 4. Clever. exchangeable. Guerilla Marketing should stay in a niche. It has existed for over 50 years now and gained importance since its invention. boring.

                                                  67  Eicher  38    BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . and consumer behaviour. The interaction is utterly important in the future in order to make potential customers become real buyers. They should not disregard Guerilla Marketing. but realise that classical advertising does not reach many target groups. In the future strategists should think and act modern. but not necessarily influence images. opinions. They do reach attention. Forms of approach need to be found that are accepted by the audience and not ignored.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   Single Guerilla Marketing activities are not advised by the experts. The classical advertising Media Mix should thus be complemented with unconventional forms to address the audience. 67 Companies have to be sensitive and pay close attention to their target group.

With the help of only a small budget. Such barriers have to be overcome first. Of course not all aspects of Levinson’s root idea can be used today. the maximum attention is drawn to their advertising. advertising campaigns make use of the Guerilla surprise effect and its witty ideas. often more solvent companies on the other hand do not have to opt for such an inexpensive way of advertising. Even though they often rely on a classical marketing mix. But still many companies partly use the aspects of the root philosophy. It is rather an instrument that is utilized by companies of all sizes. Classical advertising alone often fails to provide that extra value. Basic ideas such as the setup of a corporate identity were taken over by almost every company. Not the product is the central issue in Guerilla Marketing. Guerilla Marketing is not a guarantor of success. The approach to insist on a chosen Marketing campaign. Larger. Many others use new forms of Guerilla Marketing such as Viral Marketing or Guerilla Sensation. Today’s Guerilla Marketing. For small and medium sized companies the advantage is still the cost-effectiveness that makes it so interesting to implement. Thereby it is fundamentally important to create an advertisement that does not praise the obvious advantages of low prices and high qualities.   39  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . the reasons why they opt for that instrument differ. for instance. since people in the modern world have a rather negative attitude towards advertising. Neither the majority of small nor the majority of large companies take over the original Levinson idea. The creative idea is fundamental and is supposed to reflect positively on the brand. even if it does not lead to the expected return for quite a long time. is difficult to put into practice at a time where economical conditions and markets are changing rapidly. though. A design framework is needed to make campaigns as effective as possible.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?   5.                 Conclusion Guerilla Marketing is much more than just a trend today. Guerilla Marketing is an additional marketing instrument to them. but to draw the attention towards the brand. differs from the Guerilla Marketing philosophy that Levinson developed in the 1980s. which provides additional value in form of attention. Although companies of all sizes utilize the same new defined approaches of Guerilla Marketing.

the essential surprise effect will not be guaranteed anymore. Also it should act multimodal. This might result in advertisings with pointed formulation and direct address towards the target group. Guerilla marketing is a cost-effective alternative to traditional marketing strategies. Nevertheless classical advertising has to change to get through to customers. This fact lets them see advertising conditionally. Although customers often perceive Guerilla Marketing as something new and interesting today. being present in all kinds of channels their target group moves in. Since then it has developed and is used more frequently and also by bigger companies. which eventually got Guerilla Marketing into the spotlight of attention. Advertising would need to activate as many senses as possible. The concept of Guerilla Marketing will also work in the future if not too many companies work with this alternative. Since many companies face decreasing marketing budgets lately. This is a real threat due to the fact that a single Guerilla Marketing activity cannot influence customers’ behaviour or their purchase decision. In case the traditional advertising is repressed more and more and Guerilla Marketing activities are a rather normal appearance among advertisings.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   The creation of advertising that hits the nerve of the target group is elemental. in the future it can also turn to be something that bothers prospects. The fact that classical advertising is often perceived negatively among customers should be a warning for future Guerillas. The recipe for future Guerillas is simple: the classical Media Mix has to be combined with unconventional instruments such as the Guerilla Marketing in order to attract attention and   40  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . however it has to be actually seen by the people. It could come to this development when weak economic conditions diminish marketing budgets even further. But in all probability classical advertising will also exist in the future and will not be displaced by alternative forms like Guerilla Marketing. for instance the internet and emails. Consequently the advertisements have to be placed in channels that are not as noticed so far. It has also been successful in the 50s and 60s. Therefore it is likely that traditional marketing will transform for example by taking over characteristics of Guerilla and Viral Marketing. The success of Guerilla Marketing does not depend on a particular period. But costumers know exactly that marketers prefer to place advertisements through classical channels such as TV and magazines.

Companies have to be flexible and find the opportunities new situations offer.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   lead to a purchase. can use Guerilla Marketing victoriously as long as their idea is superior. who have their finger on the pulse of time. people and the markets are changing constantly. As we have read in this thesis. Practitioners and enthusiasts. Guerillas have to be venturous to use their whole creative potential with the selection of the adequate advertising design and the choice of the most effective channels.       41  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .

marketing.mpg Convenience Shop. „Crossmedia – Guerilla Attack“.wirtschaft. Innovativ In.2008 http://www..php?option=com_content&task=view&id=667&Itemid=26 CrossmediaCases. Saunders. C.2008 Guerilla Marketing International. P. Felix. Handschin.05. Siegenthaler.de/p. 2007   IX  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . M. Spycher. Wong.2008 http://www. 30. J. www..com/category/22-crossmedia/ Kotler. D. K.. 2007 http://www. http://www. D.pdf Bieri. Houghton Mifflin Company..info/index.bfh... S.guerilla-marketing-portal.04.de/index.gmarketing..cfm?linkArticleID=56 „Guerilla Marketing Instrumente“ http://www. 30.. „Bionade“. 2002 Kotler.htm Eicher.04.guerilla-marketing-portal.. „Marketing für Querdenker: Guerilla Marketing belebt die Werbung“. CEO.. 03.02. D. V.robertundhorst.ch/personal/1083/File/infos/themen/Guerilla_Marketing. 2005. 2005 http://www. 4th edition.de/v2/ Emsdettener Volkszeitung.pdf Bionade.bionade.cfm?menuID=90 Holzapfel.2651. http://www. PPT „Gorilla Marketing“.pdf “Sensation Marketing / Ambient Stunt“.com http://www.activemobile.05/Crossmedia.de/index.2006 http://guerillamarketingbuch.06.. Maesincee. C. Harvard Business School Press. „Guerilla Marketing Historie“. http://www. “Principles of Marketing”.com/ Guerilla Marketing Portal.innovativ-in. Growth. 10. Pearson Education Prentice Hall. 11. and Renewal”. Armstrong. Levinson. „Chefetage“ Interview with Peter Kowalsky“ . “Guerrilla Marketing: Easy and Inexpensive Strategies for Making Big Profits from Your Small Business”.com/service/BIONADE_Leuchtbotschafter.05. „Bionade:Kampagne zum G-8-Gipfel.07 http://convenienceshop.crossmedia-zentrum.ch/_admin/4_upload/_files/Factsheets. G. 02. Jain. P.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?       List of Literature             Active Mobile Media AG.. “Marketing Moves: A New Approach to Profits... P. Robert & Horst Marketing / webguerillas.ch/wissen/sonderwerbeformen/guerilla_historie.de/cms/2008/02/11/oktober-2007-bionade/ Dr Prof Zerr. J. 1st edition.bionade. 4th European Edition.06 http://www.

handelsblatt.html „Vodafone und die Hintern der Rugby-Flitzer“.de/bionade/ Reich. Trout.aspx?cp-documentid=5104158 Radio Marketing Service.com/wirtschaft/Article.de/koepfe/artikel/0.com/News/Karriere/Koepfe/_pv/_p/200811/_t/ft/_b/1349003/default. http://news..ch/wissen/sonderwerbeformen/guerilla_historie.de/wirtschaft/0. “Der König der Glückskekse”.atlantic-times.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   Maeder. I.00.de.10. A.2006 http://www. www. „Guerilla-Werbung stürzt Boston ins Chaos“. http://www.spiegel. R. „Guerilla Marketing für Unternehmertypen.agenturamwasser.1518. Employee. Handelsblatt..Warum Unternehmen auf neue Werbeformen setzen“. http://www. CEO. Spiegel Online. „Werbung im Tarnanzug . „New York und Los Angeles warten auf Bionade“. „Marketing Generalstabsmäßig“. Maeder & Partner Agentur am Wasser. „It’s all a matter of taste“. Manager Magazin.marketingpartner.2007 http://www.09.2828. Hamburg 1986 Robert&Horst Marketing GmbH. Das Kompendium" (Broschiert) Wissenschaft & Praxis.463661. Auflage: 3.00. 19.html Streitz. H. I.rms.11.de/v2/img/downloads/gfkstudie_2007.de http://www. 08.aspx/new-yorkund-los-angeles-warten-auf-bionade.php?recordID=980 Spiegel Online.08.8. http://www. .2002   X  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .pdf Schulz.pdf Schulte. Atlantic Times. 01.msn. J. T.ch Marketing Partner. tim/AP/AFP.marketing.robertundhorst.manager-magazin.... M. 05. völlig überarbeitete und erweiterte Auflage (Juni 2007) Guerilla-Marketing-Portal.2007 http://www.html    Ries.com/archive_detail. Kolle & Rebbe Werbeagentur Seissler.269999...02..2007 http://www.guerilla-marketing-portal. 16.de/presse/presseinformationen/infoarchiv/2006/?tx_mininews_pi1%5BshowUid%5D=192&tx_mininews_pi1%5Bpointer%5D=0&cHash=f2cdd545 9f MSN News.2003 http://www..

html Webguerillas.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   http://www.208279.wikipedia.spiegel.de/knowhow_faq.php Wikipedia “Moorhuhn Computerspiel” http://de.org/wiki/Moorhuhn_%28Computerspiel%29    XI  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . http://www.webguerillas.00.de/wirtschaft/0.1518.

Source: Cross Media Figure 7: Bionade Banner    XII  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?     Appendix               1. Online Bionade Banner.

Wer ist Ihre Zielgruppe? 3. Wo sehen Sie sich in 5 Jahren? Wie soll sich die Marke weiterentwickeln?   XIII  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . Interview Questions Bionade         1. Was erwarten Sie von der anstehenden Produkterweiterung um eine Geschmacksrichtung? 10. Wird Guerilla Marketing auch ein Bestandteil des Marketing im Ausland sein. Welche Marketingstrategie verfolgt Bionade? 4.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?           2. Fragen zu Ihrer innovativen Markenkommunikation: I. Wie wollen Sie Ihre Markenbekanntheit weiter ausbauen? 8. Warum kaufen Konsumenten Ihrer Meinung nach Bionade? 7. Hat Bionade nur eine Guerilla Kampagne verfolgt? 13. Wie würden Sie Ihren Markt beschreiben? 2. Leuchtbotschafter Wo wurde er eingesetzt? Was war das Ziel? Wie war die Reaktion? II.de) Wurden diese Aktionen zeitgleich eingesetzt? Wo hangen die Plakate? Wo und wie oft wurden die Radiospots ausgestrahlt? Haben Sie gezielt absatzstarke Städte ausgesucht? Was war das Ziel? Wie war die Resonanz? 11. Was halten Sie von Guerilla Marketing in Kombination mit klassischen Werbemitteln wie z. Was war der Hauptgrund aus dem sich Bionade für Guerilla Marketing entschieden hat? 12. TV und Print Werbung? 14. Funk Werbung/ Plakate/ (stille-taten. wenn Bionade weiter expandiert? 15. Wie können Sie sich in Zukunft von verschärfter Nachahmerkonkurrenz als Original abheben? 9. Auf welches Image zielt ihr Marketing ab? 6.B. Fokussieren Sie sich dabei auf die Marke oder auf das Produkt? Und warum? 5.

Glauben Sie. Wie ist ein Guerilla Marketing Konzept auf internationaler Ebene realisierbar? 5. Guerilla Marketing sollte der „Retter“ aus der Werbeflaute 2002 werden. Wie kann auch eine größere Firma die Guerilla Marketing Strategie heutzutage erfolgreich anwenden? 4.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?           3. Interview Questions Experts         1. Welche neuen Strategien werden Guerilla Marketing weiterentwickeln oder gar ablösen? 8. Ist die in den 80er Jahren von Levinson publizierte Guerilla Marketing Philosophie für kleinere Unternehmen in der heutigen Zeit noch so umsetzbar wie damals? 3. dass Guerilla Marketing dieses Ziel erreicht hat? Wird dieser Trend noch lange anhalten oder wird hier eine Kundenübersättigung eintreten? 6. Was ist Ihrer Meinung nach der Hauptgrund. Werden Konsumenten immer ablehnender gegenüber Werbebotschaften? 7. warum sich Firmen heutzutage für Guerilla Marketing entscheiden? 2. Wie sollten Unternehmen Guerilla Marketing in Zukunft nutzen?   XIV  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .

Was assoziieren Sie mit dieser Marke? _______________________________ 6. Wie gefällt Ihnen diese Werbung? Sehr gut Gut Mittelmäßig Schlecht Sehr schlecht 2. regelmäßig   Nein XV  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?           4. Haben Sie dieses Produkt schon mal gekauft? Ja. die Marke heißt:________________ Nein 5. Erkennen Sie diese Marke? Ja. Bitte schauen Sie sich folgende Werbeaktion an: 1. Zeitung) Sonstiges: ______ Nein Wenn nein: Würde diese Werbeaktion Ihnen auf der Straße ins Auge fallen? Ja ganz sicher Wahrscheinlich ja Vielleicht Wahrscheinlich nicht Nein 3. Consumer Questionnaire         FRAGEBOGEN ZUM THEMA WERBUNG I. mir fällt aber der Name nicht ein Ja. Kennen Sie diese Werbeaktion? Ja Wenn ja: Wie haben Sie davon erfahren? Auf der Straße gesehen Mir wurde davon erzählt Medien (Internet. Würden Sie Familienmitgliedern oder Freunden gezielt davon erzählen? Ja ganz sicher Wahrscheinlich ja Vielleicht Wahrscheinlich nicht Nein 4.

Berlin und Stuttgart durchgeführt wurde. Bitte schauen Sie sich folgende Werbeaktion der Schweizer Fluggesellschaft Swiss Air an. Würde diese Werbung Sie veranlassen weitere Informationen über das Angebot einzuholen?   XVI  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . Zeitung) Sonstiges: ______ Wenn nein: Würde diese Werbeaktion Ihnen auf der Straße ins Auge fallen? Ja ganz sicher Wahrscheinlich ja Vielleicht Wahrscheinlich nicht Nein 3. Kennen Sie diese Werbeaktion? Ja Wenn ja: Wie haben Sie davon erfahren? Auf der Straße gesehen Mir wurde davon erzählt Nein Medien (Internet. Würden Sie Familienmitgliedern oder Freunden gezielt davon erzählen? Ja ganz sicher Wahrscheinlich ja Vielleicht Wahrscheinlich nicht Nein 4. aber nach dieser Werbung kaufe ich vielleicht II.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?     Ja. Wie gefällt Ihnen diese Werbung? Sehr gut schlecht Gut Mittelmäßig Schlecht Sehr 2. die eine Woche lang in Hamburg. selten               Ja. gelegentlich Nein. 1.

regelmäßig Ja.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?     Ja           Nein     5. gelegentlich Ja. aber nach dieser Werbung buche ich vielleicht III. Zeitung) Sonstiges: ______ XVII  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . Was assoziieren Sie mit dieser Marke? ____________________________ 7. Wie gefällt Ihnen dieser Radiospot? Sehr gut Gut Mittelmäßig Schlecht Sehr schlecht 2. Kennen Sie Swiss Air? Ja Nein 6. selten Nein Nein. Bitte schauen Sie sich folgendes Werbeplakat an: Nun hören sie sich den Radiospot an! Öffnen Sie dazu folgenden Link: Bionade Radiospot (STRG Taste drücken und gleichzeitig auf den Link klicken) 1. Kennen Sie diesen Radiospot? Ja Wenn ja: Wie haben Sie davon erfahren? Im Radio gehört Mir wurde davon erzählt   Medien (Internet. Haben Sie schon mal einen Flug bei Swiss Air gebucht? Ja.

Gehen Sie Werbung gezielt aus dem Weg. einem Werbeblock im TV? Ja immer Meistens Gelegentlich Eher selten Nie 4. regelmäßig Ja. dass Sie durch Werbung beeinflusst werden? Ja ganz sicher Wahrscheinlich ja Vielleicht Eher weniger Nein 2. Wo nehmen Sie Werbung besonders stark wahr? Bewerten Sie bitte den wichtigsten“ Wahrnehmungsort“ mit 1 und den zweitwichtigsten mit 2. Angenommen Sie haben die Auswahl zwischen zwei identischen Produkten (auch preislich). gelegentlich leicht Ja. Was assoziieren Sie mit dieser Marke? ___________________________ 6. z. Haben Sie Bionade schon mal gekauft? Ja. Würden Sie Familienmitgliedern oder Freunden gezielt davon erzählen? Ja ganz sicher Wahrscheinlich ja Vielleicht Wahrscheinlich nicht Nein 4. TV Zeitung/Magazine Radio Plakate Internet Durch E-Mails Events (z.B. selten Nein Nein. Größe und Auftreten der Firma?   XVIII  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .Sportveranstaltungen) auf Werbegeschenken Sonstige: _________ 3. Welche Faktoren der Werbung erzielen Ihre Aufmerksamkeit? Aufmachung ___________ Inhalt Ort der Werbung Ansprache (Direkt) Sonstige: 5. wie entscheidend wäre die Geschichte. Kennen Sie Bionade? Ja Nein 5. Würden Sie von sich behaupten. 1.B.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?                   Nein Wenn nein: Würden Sie bei diesem Radiospot aktiv zuhören? Ja ganz sicher Wahrscheinlich ja Vielleicht Wahrscheinlich nicht Nein 3. aber nach dieser Werbung kaufe ich viel- Bitte schätzen Sie sich ein.

Persönliche Angaben Männlich Weiblich 1. Image/Ruf Werbung Sonstige:______ Ansprechende Verpackung Rat von Freunden/Familie Qualität Preis 7.17 18 . b.22 23 . Welche Attribute treffen am ehesten auf sie zu? Bitte wählen Sie eins der zwei gegenübergestellten Wörter aus. die unwichtigste Eigenschaft mit 2. c.28 29 . a. Spontankäufer Preisorientiert Markenprodukt oder oder oder Gewohnheitskäufer Qualitätsorientiert Produkt ohne Marke IV. Welche Worte assoziieren Sie am ehesten mit Werbung? Einfallsreich ge:_________ Informativ Penetrant Nervend Humorvoll Sonsti- 8. Geschlecht: 2.35 Vielen Dank für Ihre Mithilfe!   XIX  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  . Was beeinflusst Ihre Kaufentscheidung? Bewerten Sie bitte die wichtigste Eigenschaft mit 1.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?             Wichtig       Eher unwichtig Spielt keine Rolle Sehr wichtig 6. Alter: 12 .

com/files/123ef9407d8e6d92371d23abbff78ac3/aida‐sales‐ funnel. AIDA Model               Figure 8: AIDA Model   Source:http://www.GUERILLA MARKETING – OLD PHILOSOPHY WITH FUTURE?       5.gif    XX  BACHELOR THESIS                                                                Anna Drüing ‐ Katharina Fahrenholz  .provenmodels.

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