Iodine Clock Reaction

In this experiment you will determine the Rate Law for the following oxidation-reduction reaction: 2 H+ (aq) + 2 I (aq) + H2O2(aq)  I 2 (aq) + 2 H2O (l) (1)

The rate or speed of the reaction is dependent on the concentrations of iodide ion (I ) and hydrogen peroxide, H2O2. (The spectator ions are left off the reaction.) Therefore, we can write the Rate Law (concentration dependence) for the reaction as: Rate = k [I]x [H2O2]y (2)

Where: x is the order of the reaction in I-, y is the order of the reaction in H2O2, and k is the rate constant. The temperature dependence of the rate is seen in k – that is, there is a separate value of k for each temperature at which the reaction takes place. The temperature must therefore be held constant to accurately calculate x, y and k. Since the Rate Law is empirical, we have to go to the lab to make measurements that will enable these values to be calculated. The rate will be measured for the reaction near time = 0, so that few products been formed and there will be no reverse reaction. The concentrations of iodide and hydrogen peroxide will be varied and the rates compared to find each order (i.e., the exponents x and y). This is the Method of Initial Rates and it will be used to find x, y and k. As with a lot of kinetics, the concentration of reactants or products at any instant is difficult to measure directly, so in this lab the rate will be determined indirectly. We have a very handy test for the presence of one of the products, iodine (I2), namely starch. Starch reacts with iodine to form a blue/black colored complex. Unfortunately as soon as any iodine is produced it will react to make the complex and the solution will turn blue/black instantaneously. Thus, using starch as an indicator by itself would not be of much help. It confirms that some amount of I2 is being formed, but it tells us nothing about what we are trying to measure - the rate (how long it takes to produce a given quantity of I2.) To get around this problem we will introduce a side reaction that will remove the initial I2 that is produced by our main reaction. This will prevent the solution from turning black for long enough so that we can make some good time measurements. We will use the following side reaction: I2

+ 2 S2O3 2—(aq)  2 I (aq) + S4O6 2— (aq)


S2O3 2—, thiosulfate ion , reacts with I2 which prevents the solution from turning blue/black. How will this help? Since we have carefully measured the amount of the thiosulfate (a small amount that will run out fairly quickly), we know exactly how much iodine it will take to react with this thiosulfate. As soon as all of the thiosulfate has reacted, iodine will then be left over and then the reaction will change color. By putting in this "time delay", we can now calculate the rate at which I2 is being formed. The length of time required for the reaction to change color will be the time that you will measure, and the amount of I2 produced in that time is the amount of I2 that is needed to react with the thiosulfate. So now we have the rate of formation of I2 and depletion of thiosulfate, and can calculate the final rate value we are looking for in this lab, which is the moles of hydrogen peroxide reacted per second. Rate = moles H2O2 reacted/time in seconds (4)

1 mole H2O2 reacts to produce 1 mole I2 which reacts with 2 moles S2O3 2-. (See reactions 1 and 3) So 1 mole H2O2 = 2 mole S2O3 2-. Since the moles of S2O3 2- in solution is known (we can calculate it), we know that the number of moles of H2O2 that react will be ½ of the moles of S2O3 2- in the solution. The rate is then this number of moles of H2O2 divided by the time. Calculate the moles of S2O3 2- from the volume and molarity of Na2S2O3 (2.5 mL of 0.010 M). Don’t forget that molarity is moles/Liter. Use this to calcuate the moles of H2O2 reacted. Include this number in the final data sheet for Parts I and II

Start the stopwatch as soon as you mix the solutions. we get [ I—] (initial)= 0.010 M Na2S2O3 Ice bath (for Part II) 0.0 mL 0. Record the temperature.0 mL 7. Prepare the following solutions in clean beakers: Beaker # 1 2 3 0.0 mL 5. Rinse and mostly dry 3 beakers and label as 1. Add the contents of beaker 2 to flask 2. Label them 1. Create a table so that the method of initial rates can be used. 2 and 3. 2. Use fresh pipettes for each solution.010 M Na2S2O3 2. Make sure that the shade of blue/black you observe is the same in each of the three runs.5 mL) is kept constant in each run.5 ml 4.0 mL)(0.0 mL 7. 9. This is Run 2.050 M H2O2 15. Fill in the rest of the table as well as the table on the Pre-lab Part I.5 mL 1% Starch 5. The KCl solution and deionized water are added so that the ionic strength and final volume of the various solutions (42. 7.0 M H2SO4 (Spill : B1) 1% starch solution Disposal: All mixtures Spill/Disposal B1 (down the sink) Three 100 or 150 mL beakers Thermometer Hot water bath (for Part II) 0.050 M H2O2 Procedure: Part I 1.050M) = (42. Add the contents of beaker 1 to flask 1.5 mL 2.050 M.0 mL Deionized H2O 0 7.5 ml)(M2) Solving for M2.050 M KI 15. 10. (Volume 1)(Molarity 1) Run 1 (Flask 1 + beaker 1) 2 (Flask 2 + beaker 2) 3 (Flask 3 + beaker 3) = (Volume 2 )(Molarity 2) [H2O2] (initial) [ I—] (initial) (15.5 mL 15. the Preliminary Data Sheet and the final data sheet for Part I .050 M KI 0. The initial concentrations of iodide and hydrogen peroxide are not 0.Equipment Three 125 or 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks 10 ml and 5 ml Pipettes Stop watch (cell phone ?) One bin of chemicals per group that will contain: 0. they were diluted Thus. Clean and mostly dry three Erlenmeyer flasks.5 mL 2. The chemicals must be added in the order listed (Left to Right) Flask # 1 2 3 0.0 mL 15. Rinse pipette twice with the solution that you will be measuring and keep this prepared pipette with the corresponding solution. 3. 8.050 M KCl 1. 11. Add the contents of beaker 3 to flask 3.5 mL 1 M H2SO4 5. This is Run 1.5 mL 0 6. Repeat procedure in step 7.0 mL 5.018 M 12. 2 and 3. Repeat procedure in step 7. Swirl the flask to mix and note the time it takes for the color to change. This is Run 3. Add the following amounts of the solutions below to prepare each flask.0 mL 5. We have to remember that when the solutions were mixed. 5.050 M KCl 0 0 7.0 mL 5.0 mL 0.

mix the contents of the two flasks and note the time it takes until the color changes.05 M H2O2.010 M Na2S2O3 2. Place Flasks 2 and 4 in a hot water bath.050 M H2O2 15.0 Rate = k[A]x [B]y.0 mL 5.) Record the exact temperature. we have to hold [B] constant and just see how [A] affects the rate. You can calculate k as well. Let both flasks warm up until the temperature of the two solutions is around 40°C.) Record the exact temperature. Place Flasks 1 and 3 in an ice water bath.150M) x Do the same for B (holding [A] constant) and discover that y = 1.0 mL 15. mix the contents and note the time it takes until the color changes.150 M 0.0 M/sec= k(0.150M) x (0.150M) y ________ __________ ___________________ x = k[A] [B]y 8. use your data from trial 1 in part I of the experiment.150M) y or 4.0 32. We need to calculate x.300M)1 (0.0 mL 1% Starch 5.0 = 2x Or x = 2 4. take 15 ml of the 0.050 M KI 15. Clean and mostly dry two 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks.150M)1 and on solving for k. 5.0 M/sec = k(0. (Label the flasks as 3 – 4.300 M [B]0 0.Part II (Temperature Dependence) 1. Clean and mostly dry two more 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks.00 M/sec = k (0.00 16.300/0.300M) x / (0.0 mL 5.150 M 0. (The temperature should be about 10°C higher than your room temperature from Part I. . Prepare the solutions according to the following table (Label the flasks as 1-2) Flask # 1 2 0.) Flask # 3 4 0. Using run 1: 8. Let both of them cool until the temperature of both solutions is < 5°C.050 M KCl 0 0 2.0 = (0.150 M 0.5 mL 1 M H2SO4 5. Take the ratio of Run 3/Run 1 Run 3 Initial [C]/ t ____ ___________ Run 1 Initial  [C]/ t Simplifying: = k[A]x [B]y 32. we get k = 178 M-1 s-1 . 4.5 mL 2. In each flask. For the room temperature run.300 M 0.300M) x (0. You will need the values for the initial concentrations of each reactant as well as the rate.0 = (0.0 mL 0. y and k To get x. Calculations: Part I Review the method of initial rates in your text. Disposal: All contents of the reaction flasks may be disposed of into the sink.0 mL 3. Hypothetical data for reaction: Run 1 2 3 [A]0 0.0 mL 15.150 M A + 2B → C + 2D Initial [C]/t (Molarity/sec) 8.0 mL 0. (The final temperature should be about 10°C lower than your room temperature from Part I.150)x or 4.

y and k: Rate = k [I]x [H2O2]y Part II: The Arrhenius Equation will be used to determine the Temperature dependence. Calculate k for each run and average the three values at the end.314J/mol K). Using Excel.For your data: Find x and y as explained above. round to the nearest whole number. T is the temperature in Kelvin. Using x and y from Part I and your rates from Part II. Write the Rate Law using your values for x. calculate k for each temperature in Part II. plot ln k versus 1/T . If your values for x and y do not turn out to be whole numbers. a straight line (y = mx + b) will be obtained where: y = m x + b ln k   (Ea/R)(1/T)  ln A where Ea is the activation energy of the reaction. The slope (m) will equal -Ea/R. The activation energy can therefore be calculated from the slope for the best fit line Please attach the graph to your lab report. k is the rate constant at this Temperature. Use Excel to add a best fit line and show the equation. If the reaction exhibits Arrhenius behavior. and R is the ideal gas constant (8. .

Iodine Clock reaction .Preliminary Data Sheet Part I Run 1 Initial [I.](M) Initial [H2O2](M) Name ______________________ Reaction Time (secs) Temperature (C) 2 3 Part II Run 1 (cold) Temperature (C) Temperature (K) Reaction Time (secs) 2 (room temp) 3 (hot) Partners Name _____________________________________________________ .

Iodine Clock reaction .0425 L = ______ M (Remember that the total volume of each solution was 42.Final Data Sheet for Part I Name:_______________________________________________________ Moles H2O2 reacted: ______________________ Molarity of H2O2 reacted = moles of H2O2 reacted / 0.) Temperature: Run 1 ______ Run 2 ________ Run 3 ________ Run Initial [ I. T ________ Reaction Rate (in Ms-1) = Molarity of H2O2 reacted ÷ reaction time in s 1 2 3 Show calculations for x and y and k (Include appropriate units) x = ______ y = _______ Rate Law : __________________________ k (run 3) = _________ k (run 1) = __________ Average k = __________ k (run 2) = _____________ Partners Name _____________________________________________________ .5 ml.] M Initial [H2O2] M Reaction Time (in s) Avg.

See if the reaction exhibits Arrhenius Behavior and if the equation: ln k  (  Ea/R)  (1/T)  ln A can be used to fit the data.0425 L = ______ M Run Initial [I.Final Data Sheet for Part II Name:________________________________________________________ Moles H2O2 reacted: ______________________ Molarity of H2O2 reacted = moles of H2O2 reacted / 0. Plot a graph of ln k vs 1/T. display the equation on the chart and use the equation for the line to calculate the activation energy for the reaction.] M Initial [H2O2] M Reaction Time (secs) Reaction Rate (Ms-1)= (Molarity of H2O2 reacted ÷ reaction time in sec) Rate constant ‘k’ (include proper units) Cold Room temp Hot Using Excel. (y = m x + b) Run Cold Room temp Hot Plot ln (k) vs 1/T. Show your calculations for the activation energy below: Temperature Temperature (in ˚C) ( in Kelvins) Rate constant ‘k’ (include proper units) 1/T in Kelvin ln (k) Ea = __________________________ Partner’s names: __________________________________ . Attach your graph with the lab report.Iodine Clock reaction . insert a trendline.

3. you accidentally spilled some. calculate the percent error.Iodine Clock reaction : Post Lab questions 1.010 M. calculate the value for your rate constant at 50.0125 M and [H2O2] = 0. Suppose that while mixing the solutions. 4. If the value for the activation energy should have been 53 kJ/mole. Using your Arrhenius Plot and the best fit equation. using your calculated value for Ea. Would this have affected your experiment? How? .0 °C. Name: _________________________________ Use your Rate Law from Part I to calculate what the rate would be if [I-] = 0. 2.

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