Ce llu la r Com m u n ica t ion s

D e finit ion
A cellular mobile communications system uses a large number of low-power wireless transmitters to create cells—the basic geographic service area of a wireless communications system. Variable power levels allow cells to be sized according to the subscriber density and demand within a particular region. As mobile users travel from cell to cell, their conversations are "handed off" between cells in order to maintain seamless service. Channels (frequencies) used in one cell can be reused in another cell some distance away. Cells can be added to accommodate growth, creating new cells in unserved areas or overlaying cells in existing areas.

Ove r vie w
This tutorial discusses the basics of radio telephony systems, including both analog and digital systems. Upon completion of this tutorial, you should be able to accomplish the following: 1. describe the basic components of a cellular system 2. identify and describe digital wireless technologies

Topics
1. Mobile Communicatio ns Principles 2. Mobile Telephone System Using the Cellular Concept 3. Cellular System Architecture 4. North American Analog Cellular Systems 5. Cellular System Components 6. Digital Systems Self- Test Correct Answers

Acronym Guide

1 . M obile Com m u n ica t ion s Pr in ciple s
Each mobile uses a separate, temporary radio channel to talk to the cell site. The cell site talks to many mobiles at once, using one channel per mobile. Channels use a pair of frequencies for communication—one frequency, the forward link, for transmitting from the cell site, and one frequency, the reverse link, for the cell site to receive calls from the users. Radio energy dissipates over distance, so mobiles must stay near the base station to maintain communications. The basic structure of mobile networks include telephone systems and radio services. Where mobile radio service operates in a closed network and has no access to the telephone system, mobile telephone service allows interconnection to the telephone network (see Figure 1).
Fig u r e 1 : Ba sic M ob ile Te le p h on e Se r v ice N e t w or k

Ea r ly M obile Te le ph on e Sy st e m Ar ch it e ct u r e
Traditional mobile service was structured similar to television broadcasting: One very powerful transmitter located at the highest spot in an area would broadcast in a radius of up to fifty kilometers. The cellular concept" structured the mobile telephone network in a different way. Instead of using one powerful transmitter, many low-power transmitters were placed throughout a coverage area. For example, by dividing a metropolitan region into one hundred different areas (cells) with low-power transmitters using twelve conversations (channels) each,
Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 2/23

the system capacity theoretically could be increased from twelve conversations— or voice channels using one powerful transmitter—to twelve hundred conversations (channels) using one hundred low-power transmitters. Fig u r e 2 : Ea r ly M ob ile Te le p h on e Sy st e m Ar ch it e ct u r e 2 . Figure 2 shows a metropolitan area configured as a traditional mobile telephone network with one high-power transmitter. Areas had to be skipped before the same channel could be reused. but to the ratio of the distance between areas to the transmitter power (radius) of the areas. Systems based on areas with a one-kilometer radius would have one hundred times more channels than systems with areas ten kilometers in radius. Even though this affected the efficiency of the original concept. millions of calls could be served.iec. frequency reuse was still a viable solution to the problems of mobile telephony systems. As the population grows. By reducing the radius of an area by fifty percent. M obile Te le phone Syst e m Using t he Ce llula r Conce pt Interference problems caused by mobile units using the same channel in adjacent areas proved that all channels could not be reused in every cell. Frequencies used in one cell cluster can be reused in other cells. Conversations can be handed Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. Speculation led to the conclusion that by reducing the radius of areas to a few hundred meters. The cellular concept employs variable low-power levels. Engineers discovered that the interference effects were not due to the distance between areas. which allows cells to be sized according to the subscriber density and demand of a given area. cells can be added to accommodate that growth.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 3/23 . service providers could increase the number of potential customers in an area fourfold.

Fig u r e 3 : M ob ile Te le p h on e Sy st e m U sin g a Ce llu la r Ar ch it e ct u r e The cellular radio equipment (base station) can communicate with mobiles as long as they are within range. rural and urban regions are divided into areas according to specific provisioning guidelines. Ce llu la r Syst e m Ar ch it e ct u r e Increases in demand and the poor quality of existing service led mobile service providers to research ways to improve the quality of service and to support more users in their systems. Deployment parameters. the base station communicates with mobiles via a channel. frequency reuse. Provisioning for each region is planned according to an engineering plan that includes cells. Like the early mobile radio system. The channel is made of two frequencies. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. such as amount of cell-splitting and cell sizes. Ce lls A cell is the basic geographic unit of a cellular system. and handovers. so the mobiles must be within the operating range of the base station. In modern cellular telephony.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 4/23 . one for transmitting to the base station and one to receive information from the base station.iec.off from cell to cell to maintain constant phone service as the user moves between cells (see Figure 3). efficient use of the required frequencies was needed for mobile cellular coverage. Radio energy dissipates over distance. Because the amount of frequency spectrum available for mobile cellular use was limited. clusters. 3 . are determined by engineers experienced in cellular system architecture.

Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.The term cellular comes from the honeycomb shape of the areas into which a coverage region is divided. Figure 4 illustrates a seven-cell cluster. Clu st e r s A cluster is a group of cells. Cells are base stations transmitting over small geographic areas that are represented as hexagons.iec.Ce ll Clu st e r Fr e qu e n cy Re u se Because only a small number of radio channel frequencies were available for mobile systems.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 5/23 . Fig u r e 4 : A Se v e n . The solution the industry adopted was called frequency planning or frequency reuse. Each cell size varies depending on the landscape. Frequency reuse was implemented by restructuring the mobile telephone system architecture into the cellular concept. the true shape of cells is not a perfect hexagon. Because of constraints imposed by natural terrain and man-made structures. engineers had to find a way to reuse radio channels in order to carry more than one conversation at a time. No channels are reused within a cluster.

this approach is used to split a single area into smaller ones. Cells are assigned a group of channels that is completely different from neighboring cells. Here. the frequency reuse factor is 1/7. because the number of available frequencies is 7. each cell is using 1/7 of available cellular channels. urban centers can be split into as many areas as necessary in order to provide acceptable service levels in heavy-traffic regions. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. less expensive cells can be used to cover remote rural regions (see Figure 6). That is. Fig u r e 5 : Fr e q u e n cy Re u se Cells with the same number have the same set of frequencies.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 6/23 . As a service area becomes full of users. while larger. Ce ll Split t in g Unfortunately. The coverage area of cells are called the footprint.iec.The concept of frequency reuse is based on assigning to each cell a group of radio channels used within a small geographic area. system operators developed the idea of cell splitting. To overcome this difficulty. This footprint is limited by a boundary so that the same group of channels can be used in different cells that are far enough away from each other so that their frequencies do not interfere (see Figure 5). economic considerations made the concept of creating full systems with many small areas impractical. In this way.

iec.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 7/23 . Because dropping the call is unacceptable. As adjacent areas do not use the same radio channels. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.Fig u r e 6 : Ce ll Sp lit t in g H a n doff The final obstacle in the development of the cellular network involved the problem created when a mobile subscriber traveled from one cell to another during a call. the process of handoff was created. Handoff occurs when the mobile telephone network automatically transfers a call from radio channel to radio channel as a mobile crosses adjacent cells (see Figure 7). a call must either be dropped or transferred from one radio channel to another when a user crosses the line between adjacent cells.

and often a compromise between conflicting requirements results. telco. and often opposing.iec. The call continues as long as the user is talking. When the mobile unit moves out of the coverage area of a given cell site.Fig u r e 7 : H a n d of f b e t w e e n Ad j a ce n t Ce lls During a call. the cell site in use requests a handoff. the reception becomes weak. and the user does not notice the handoff at all. frequency and channel assignments Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. and equipment manufacturers worked together as a committee to develop a set of rules (protocols) that govern how cellular subscriber units (mobiles) communicate with the "cellular system. analog systems have been revised somewhat since that time and operate in the 800-MHz range. At this point. requirements for the system. 4 . Cellular development involves some basic topics: 1. The system switches the call to a stronger-frequency channel in a new site without interrupting the call or alerting the user. A group of government.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 8/23 ." System development takes into consideration many different. N or t h Am e r ica n An a log Ce llu la r Syst e m s Originally devised in the late 1970s to early 1980s. two parties are on one voice channel.

minimal privacy 6. It was the first standardized cellular service in the world and is currently the most widely used standard for cellular communications. Limitations associated with AMPS include: 1. N a r r ow ba n d An a log M obile Ph on e Se r v ice ( N AM PS) Since analog cellular was developed. The AMPS telephones (or handsets) have the familiar telephone-style user interface and are compatible with any AMPS base station.2. low calling capacity 2.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 9/23 .iec. modulation parameters 5. This makes mobility between service providers (roaming) simpler for subscribers. It maximized the cellular concept of frequency reuse by reducing radio power output. messaging protocols 6. maximum power levels 4. systems have been implemented extensively throughout the world as first-generation cellular technology. In the United States. limited spectrum 3. NAMPS was designed to solve the problem Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. poor data communications 5. call-processing sequences Th e Adv a n ce d M obile Ph on e Se r v ice ( AM PS) AMPS was released in 1983 using the 800-MHz to 900-MHz frequency band and the 30 kHz bandwidth for each channel as a fully automated mobile telephone service. Designed for use in cities. no room for spectrum growth 4. South America. type of radio modulation 3. AMPS uses frequency modulation (FM) for radio transmission. In the second generation of analog cellular systems. inadequate fraud protection AMPS is used throughout the world and is particularly popular in the United States. transmissions from mobile to cell site use separate frequencies from the base station to the mobile subscriber. AMPS later expanded to rural areas. and Australia. China.

It has the capacity to serve tens of thousands of subscribers in a major metropolitan area. mobile subscriber unit (MSU) Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. tripling the capacity of today's AMPS systems. cell site with antenna system 4. The NAMPS concept uses frequency division to get three channels in the AMPS 30-kHz single channel bandwidth. NAMPS is now operational in 35 U.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 10/23 . 5 . Ce llula r Syst e m Com pone nt s The cellular system offers mobile and portable telephone stations the same service provided fixed stations over conventional wired loops. cellular radio system that combines existing voice processing with digital signaling. and overseas markets and NAMPS was introduced as an interim solution to capacity problems.of low calling capacity. The cellular communications system consists of the following four major components that work together to provide mobile service to subscribers (see Figure 8): 1.S. This increases the possibility of interference because channel bandwidth is reduced.iec. NAMPS is a U. mobile telephone switching office (MTSO) 3.S. NAMPS provides three users in an AMPS channel by dividing the 30-kHz AMPS bandwidth into three 10-kHz channels. public switched telephone network (PSTN) 2.

The MSC controls calls. and locates cellular subscribers. the exchange area networks. field monitoring and relay stations for switching calls from cell sites to wireline central offices (PSTN). radio frequency transmitters and receivers. the MSC controls the system operation. A list of hardware located at a cell site includes power sources. and antenna systems.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 11/23 . interface equipment.iec. Th e Ce ll Sit e The term cell site is used to refer to the physical location of radio equipment that provides coverage within a cell. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. M ob ile Te le p h on e Sw it ch in g Of f ice ( M TSO) The MTSO is the central office for mobile switching. and the long-haul network that interconnect telephones and other communication devices on a worldwide basis. tracks billing information. In analog cellular networks.Fig u r e 8 : Ce llu la r Sy st e m Com p on e n t s PSTN The PSTN is made up of local networks. It houses the mobile switching center (MSC).

service providers found that basic engineering assumptions borrowed from wireline (landline) networks did not hold true in mobile systems. the transportable (typical transmit power is 1. Engineers who expected to assign fifty or more mobile phones to the same radio channel found that by doing so they increased the probability that a user would not get dial tone—this is known as call-blocking probability.6 watts) 3. Three types of MSUs are available: 1. the portable (typical transmit power is 0. 6 . the mobile telephone (typical transmit power is 4. mobile calls usually run ninety seconds. The critical problem was capacity. the early systems quickly became saturated.0 watts) 2. GSM.M obile Su bscr ibe r Un it s ( M SUs) The mobile subscriber unit consists of a control unit and a transceiver that transmits and receives radio transmissions to and from a cell site. The use of portable and transportable telephones is limited to the charge life of the internal battery. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. and CDMA promise to significantly increase the efficiency of cellular telephone systems to allow a greater number of simultaneous conversations. Portable and transportable telephones are hand-held and can be used anywhere. and the quality of service decreased rapidly.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 12/23 .iec. PCS1900. Figure 9 shows the components of a typical digital cellular system. The general characteristics of TDMA. and the handset is installed in a convenient location to the driver.6 watts) The mobile telephone is installed in the trunk of a car. D igit a l Syst e m s As demand for mobile telephone service has increased. While the average landline phone call lasts at least ten minutes. As a consequence.

providers look for a migration from AMPS to DAMPS by overlaying their existing networks with TDMA architectures. Technology options such as TDMA and CDMA offer more channels in the same analog cellular bandwidth and encrypted voice and data. Because of the enormous amount of money that service providers have invested in AMPS hardware and software.iec. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 13/23 .Fig u r e 9 : D ig it a l Ce llu la r Sy st e m The advantages of digital cellular technologies over analog cellular networks include increased capacity and security.

iec.Ta b le : AM PS/ D AM PS Com p a r ison Analog Standard EIA–553 (AMPS) Digital IS–54 (TDMA + AMPS Spectrum 824 MHz to 891 MHz 824 MHz to 891 MHz Channel Bandwidth 30 kHz 30 kHz Channels 21 CC / 395 VC 21 CC / 395 VC Conversations per Channel Subscriber Capacity 1 3 or 6 40 to 50 Conversations per cell 125 to 300 Conversations per cell TX / RCV Type Continuous Time shared bursts Carrier Type Constant phase Variable frequency Constant frequency Variable phase Mobile/Base Relationship Mobile slaved to base Authority shared cooperatively Privacy Poor Better—easily scrambled Noise Immunity Poor High Fraud Detection ESN plus optional password (PIN) ESN plus optional password (PIN) Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 14/23 .

It is primarily a Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. Uses many blocks of spectrum in 800 MHz and 1900 MHz 5. digital systems have the means to compress the spectrum used to transmit voice information by compressing idle time and redundancy of normal speech.Tim e D iv ision M u lt iple Acce ss ( TD M A) North American digital cellular (NADC) is called DAMPS and TDMA. IS–54 standard specifies traffic on digital voice channels 2. E–TDMA divides the finite number of cellular frequencies into more time slots than TDMA. TDMA uses the same frequency band and channel allocations as AMPS. TDMA has the following characteristics: 1. TDMA/FDMA application 7.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 15/23 . TDMA provides three to six time channels in the same bandwidth as a single AMPS channel. Using digital voice encoders. Ex t e n de d Tim e D ivision M u lt iple Acce ss ( E– TD M A) The extended TDMA (E–TDMA) standard claims a capacity of fifteen times that of analog cellular systems. 3 callers per radio carrier (6 callers on half rate later). This allows the system to support more simultaneous cellular calls. providing three times the AMPS capacity TDMA is one of several technologies used in wireless communications. TDMA is able to use up to six channels in the same bandwidth where AMPS uses one channel. In some cellular systems. Each caller is assigned a specific time slot.iec. Unlike NAMPS. TDMA provides each call with time slots so that several calls can occupy one bandwidth. Initial implementation triples the calling capacity of AMPS systems 3. Because AMPS preceded digital cellular systems. Capacity improvements of 6 to 15 times that of AMPS are possible 4. DAMPS uses the same setup protocols as analog AMPS. Fix e d W ir e le ss Acce ss ( FW A) Fixed wireless access (FWA) is a radio-based local exchange service in which telephone service is provided by common carriers (see Figure 10). This capacity is achieved by compressing quiet time during conversations. digital packets of information are sent during each time slot and reassembled by the receiving equipment into the original voice components. All transmissions are digital 6. TDMA is the digital standard and has 30-kHz bandwidth. Like NAMPS.

As of 1995.g.2 MHz downlink. Channel 512 = 1850. the FCC auctioned commercial licenses. or GSM). In the PCS frequency spectrum the operator's authorized frequency block contains a definite number of channels.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 16/23 . it reduces the cost of conventional wireline. The uplink and downlink bands are paired mirror images. FWA systems employ TDMA or CDMA access technologies. a channel number implies one uplink and one downlink frequency: e. radio loop.iec. The frequency plan assigns specific channels to specific cells. Other labels for wireless access include fixed loop. wireless telephony.2 MHz uplink paired with 1930. As with AMPS. fixed wireless. FWA extends telephone service to rural areas by replacing a wireline local loop with radio communications..rural application—that is. Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. Trial networks were operational in the United States by 1993. Fig u r e 1 0 : Fix e d W ir e le ss Acce ss Pe r son a l Com m u n ica t ion s Se r v ice s ( PCS) The future of telecommunications includes personal communications services. following a reuse pattern which restarts with each nth cell. fixed radio access. and Ionica. PCS at 1900 MHz (PCS1900) is the North American implementation of DCS1800 (Global System for Mobile communications. radio access. and in 1994 the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) began spectrum auctions.

a. each user is a noise source on the shared channel and the noise contributed by users accumulates. Mobiles that transmit excessive power increase interference to other mobiles. n = 1. it is essentially the same as wireline service—the primary difference is that access to the local exchange carrier (LEC) is provided via wireless phone. lightly populated urban areas d. claiming eight to fifteen times the capacity of analog.Te st 1. Unlike AMPS/TDMA. This creates a practical limit to how many users a system will sustain. This greatly simplifies frequency planning in a fully CDMA environment. For CDMA. they can share the same carrier frequency. CDMA has a soft capacity limit. CDMA is an interference limited system. rural areas c. Ideally. the power of the transmitters c. so with respect to clusters. a. Interference effects in cellular systems are a result of ___________. The goal is to keep each mobile at the absolute minimum power level that is necessary to ensure acceptable service quality. the ratio of the distance between areas to the transmitter power of the areas d.25 MHz band. the power received at the base station from each mobile should be the same (minimum signal to interference). Based on spread spectrum theory. Larger cells are more useful in __________________.iec. the height of the antennas 2. Because users are isolated by code. the distance between areas b.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 17/23 .Code D iv ision M u lt iple Acce ss ( CD M A) Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a digital air interface standard. Every CDMA cell site can use the same 1. precise power control of mobiles is critical in maximizing the system's capacity and increasing battery life of the mobiles. however. mountainous areas Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. densely populated urban areas b. eliminating the frequency reuse problem encountered in AMPS and DAMPS. It employs a commercial adaptation of military spread-spectrum single-sideband technology. Se lf.

3. Which of the following is not a limitation of AMPS? a. false 8. a digital air interface standard. 1 b. a. Cells are always hexagonal in shape.iec. 10 5. true b. code division multiple access (CDMA) 4. the mobile subscriber unit (MSU) c. has twice the capacity of analog. false Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. true b. The most widely used standard for cellular communications is __________. 3 d. wide coverage area 6. How many conversations per channel can TDMA digital cellular carry at once? a.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 18/23 . true b. 2 c. poor privacy protection c. a. low calling capacity b. Digital cellular technologies offer increased capacity and security . Limited spectrum d. a. the advanced mobile phone service (AMPS) b. TDMA. false 7. the mobile telephone switching office d. a.

false Cor r e ct An sw e r s 1.iec. the distance between areas b. the mobile telephone switching office d. Frequency reuse was maximized by increasing the size of cells. false 10. a. th e ratio o f th e d is tan ce be tw e e n are as to th e tran s m itte r p o w e r o f th e a re a s d. the power of the transmitters c . a. th e ad van ce d m o bile p h o n e s e rvice ( AMPS) b.9. lightly populated urban areas d. the mobile subscriber unit (MSU) c.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 19/23 . Fixed wireless access is primarily a rural application. the height of the antennas See Topic 2 2. densely populated urban areas b. The most widely used standard for cellular communications is _______. a. ru ra l a re a s c. Interference effects in cellular systems are a result of _________. Larger cells are more useful in _____________. true b. code division multiple access (CDMA) Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. a. a . mountainous areas See Topic 3 3. true b.

How many conversations per channel can TDMA digital cellular carry at once? a. 2 c. Which of the following is not a limitation of AMPS? a. fals e Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. a.See Topic 4 4. TDMA. fals e See Topic 6 8. a . a digital air interface standard. 3 d. a. poor privacy protection c. true b.iec. Cells are always hexagonal in shape. 10 See Topic 6 5. Digital cellular technologies offer increased capacity and security. limited spectrum d . tru e b.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 20/23 . false See Topic 6 7. has twice the capacity of analog. 1 b. w id e co ve rage are a See Topic 4 6. low calling capacity b. true b.

an identity signal that is sent from the mobile to the MSC during a brief registration transmission ETDMA extended TDMA. a form of digital cellular phone service that is a spread spectrum technology that assigns a code to all speech bits. a term for digital cellular radio in North America DCS digital cellular system ESN electronic serial number. fals e See Topic 3 10. a . sends scrambled transmission of the encoded speech over the air. false See Topic 6 Acr onym Guide AMPS advanced mobile phone service. true b. and reassembles the speech to its original format DAMPS digital advanced mobile phone service. a. Fixed wireless access is primarily a rural application. another acronym for analog cellular radio B TS base transceiver station.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 21/23 . used to transmit radio frequency over the air interface CDMA code division multiple access.iec.See Topic 3 9. tru e b. Frequency reuse was maximized by increasing the size of cells. developed to provide fifteen times the capacity over analog systems by compressing quiet time during conversations Web ProForum Tutorials http://www.

signaling. MH z megahertz. used to separate multiple transmissions over a finite frequency allocation. refers to the method of allocating a discrete amount of frequency bandwidth to each user to permit many simultaneous conversations FM frequency modulation. including radio interfaces. a switch that provides services and coordination between mobile users in a network and external networks MTSO mobile telephone switching office. a measurement of electromagnetic energy. handset carried by the subscriber MSC mobile services switching center.FCC Federal Communications Commission. millions of hertz. MS o r MSU mobile station unit. the central office for the mobile switch. switching. the government agency responsible for regulating telecommunications in the United Sates FCCH frequency control channel FD MA frequency division multiple access. equivalent to one wave or cycle per second kH z kilohertz.iec. and intelligent networks Hz hertz. a modulation technique in which the carrier frequency is shifted by an amount proportional to the value of the modulating signal FRA fixed radio access GS M global system for mobile communications. which houses the field monitoring and relay stations for switching calls from cell sites to wireline central offices (PSTN) Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. to ensure interpretability between countries. standards address much of the network wireless infrastructure.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 22/23 . standard digital cellular phone service in Europe and Japan. thousands of hertz.

NAMPS was introduced as an interim solution to capacity problems. a lower-powered. each caller is assigned a specific timeslot for transmission Web ProForum Tutorials http://www. and the long-haul network that interconnect telephones and other communication devices on a worldwide basis RF radio frequency. to permit many simultaneous conversations. electromagnetic waves operating between 10 kHz and 3 MHz propagated without guide (wire or cable) in free space S IM subscriber identity module. the exchange area networks. NAMPS provides three times the AMPS capacity to extend the usefulness of analog systems PCS personal communications service. a smartcard. used to allocate a discrete amount of frequency bandwidth to each user. a time division multiple access (TDMA) system that provides three to six times the capacity of AMPS N AMPS narrowband advanced mobile phone service. higher-frequency competitive technology that incorporates wireline and wireless networks and provides personalized features P S TN public switched telephone network. or USDC). used to separate multiple conversation transmissions over a finite frequency allocation of through-the-air bandwidth. a PSTN is made of local networks.org Copyright © The International Engineering Consortium 23/23 .MTX mobile telephone exchange NADC North American digital cellular (also called United States digital cellular. which is inserted into a mobile phone to get it going SN SE supernode size enhanced TDMA time division multiple access.iec.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful