CONSERVATION STATUS AND THREATS FACING SHIMONI FOREST April 2010

CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Ecological Importance of Shimoni Forests (East and West) 2.1 Flagship species 2.2 Forest Biodiversity 2.2.1 Plants 2.2.2 Mammals 2.2.2.1 Angolan black and white Colobus 2.2.2.2 African Golden Cat 2.2.2.3 Zanj Elephant Shrew 2.2.3 Insects 2.2.4 Birds 2.2.5 Reptiles 3 Socio-Economic Importance of Shimoni Forests (East and West) 3.1 Fishing Materials 3.2 Construction Materials 3.3 Fuel 3.4 Medicinal Uses 3.5 Kaya Shrines and Cultural Heritage 4 Threats to Shimoni Forests 4.1 Charcoal Burning 4.2 Illegal Logging and Timber Extraction 4.3 Encroachment from Agriculture 4.4 Development of Coastal Plots 4.5 Fragmentation of the Forest Areas 4.6 Unsustainable Resource Use 4.7 Poaching 5 Impacts and Consequences of Continued Forest Destruction 5.1 Soil Erosion 5.2 Poor Drainage 5.3 Loss of the Kayas 5.4 Loss of Natural Resources 5.5 Loss of Biodiversity 5.6 Environmental Disruption 6 Actions So Far 6.1 Reports and Petitions 6.2 Tourist Trail 6.3 Friends of Shimoni Forest Scholarship Fund 6.4 Tree Nurseries and Reforestation 6.5 Alternative Charcoal

7 Recommendations and Requirements 7.1 Gazetting / Protection of Shimoni Forests 7.2 Community Management 7.3 Assistance in Continued Conservation and Community Initiatives 8 Contacts 9 Bibliography 10 Appendices

1. Introduction The lowland coastal forests of the Shimoni peninsula and Wasini Island form a thin strip of ‘coral rag forest’, officially labelled Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane (Z-I) Lowland Coastal Forest, also known as the Coastal Forest Mosaic due to the high number of small fragmented forest patches it contains. It is a small yet vital part of the East African Coastal Forests Ecoregion.

The Eastern Africa Coastal Forests Ecoregion (EACFE) extends from Somalia in the north to Mozambique in the south. This ecoregion is one of the smallest of the 25 Global Biodiversity Hotspots recognised by Conservation International, and ranks first among the 25 hotspots in the density of endemic plant and vertebrate animal species. By definition, a hotspot has already lost at least 70% of its original natural vegetation. The Coastal Forest Mosaic is considered as the hotspot most likely to suffer the most plant and vertebrate extinction for a given loss of habitat and as one of 11 “hyperhot” priorities for conservation investment (Brooks et al., 2000). Due to its limited area, the density of endemic species in the EACFE is among the highest in the world.

The specialised flora that is found in these habitats supports and sustains rare and endemic species which are of particular interest to biological conservation. Additionally, the indigenous forest provides a vital natural resource to surrounding communities and has the potential to support alternative sustainable livelihoods through responsible tourism. This forest zone is formed on ancient coral reef exposed by falling sea levels, leaving limestone rock covered by relatively shallow soils and in turn favours shallow roots systems of trees reducing stability. This renders these forest habitats highly susceptible to erosion processes exacerbating the risk posed by deforestation in the wider Shimoni area. Increased sedimentation from soil erosion, in conjunction with diminishing mangrove forests poses a significant risk to adjacent marine ecosystems such as coral reefs and marine species that utilise these habitats.

2. Ecological Importance of Shimoni Forests (east and west)

2.1 Flagship Species

Shimoni Forests are listed as #129 in a list of 160 Key Biodiversity Areas for the EACFE hotspot, and are known to host one bird species listed as “critically endangered” by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List: the Spotted ground thrush (Zoothera guttata fischeri) and at least 2 species listed as “Vulnerable”: a mammal, Hildegarde’s Tomb Bat (Taphozous hildegardeae) and a plant, Coffea pseudozanguebariae. Furthermore there are 6 species listed as nearthreatened or threatened that are present in Shimoni’s forests: the Southern banded snake-eagle (Ciraetus fasciolatus), Fischer’s turaco (Tauraco f. fischeri), Plain-backed sunbird (Anthreptes reichenowi), Uluguru violet-backed sunbird (Anthreptes neglectus), Zanj elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi) and the African golden cat (Felis aurata). Within Shimoni’s forests there is also an array of unlisted yet threatened species which are of great conservation and scientific interest, and could serve as flagship species. Primarily an East African subspecies of the Angolan black and white colobus (Collobus angolensis palliatus)

2.2 Forest Biodiversity Due to the fragmentation of forest patches within the Coastal Forest Mosaic, the distribution of endemic species within this area merits special consideration. Firstly, there are many disjunct distributions, particularly among the birds and the plants. Secondly, there is a huge turnover of species between patches, especially in the less mobile species. Forests that are only 100km apart can differ in 70% of their millipedes (Hoffman, 2000) and in 80% of their plants (Clarke et al. 2000).

2.2.1 Plants

Figure 2-1 Recording Sites and Vegetation Zones – Shimoni (Luke, 1999)

The species outcomes are based on the 2002 IUCN Red List (Table 2-1.), and 2009 IUCN Red List or Coastal Forest Survey (CFS; Robetson & Luke, 1993) (Table 2-2.) Although sufficient for several taxonomic groups it is in need of revision for plants (CEPF, 2001). It includes some widespread plant species in this hotspot, others that are in far greater danger of extinction because their restricted ranges have not yet been assessed (Q. Luke pers. comm.). Among the 273 species recorded in Shimoni area by Luke (1999) (see Appendix I), 24 species have some form of rarity status (Table 2-1). Four were considered rare in the world, namely Barleria whytei, Indigofera tanganyikensis var paucijuga, Manilkara sp aff discolor and Queenslandiella sp aff hyalina. Fourteen other species were rare in Kenya but occur elsewhere, while six others are rare on the Kenyan coast but occur elsewhere in Kenya or outside the country. From the 83 confirmed species (GVI) (see Appendix 1) and updated status reports on some of the species recorded in 1999 (Metcalfe, 2009), 2 species are considered endemic to Zanzibar-Inhambane forests and one other region, whilst 7 species are considered fully Zanzibar-Inhambane endemic. Baleria whytei is endemic to the Kenyan Coast whilst maintaning it’s globally rare status, and Coffea pseudozanguebariae is considered globally vulnerable. Milicia excelsa and Uvaria

lucida, are considered lower risk, near threatened and least concerned respectively. Taking into account the sample area used by GVI, some of the species that were not recorded in the more recent surveys should not be dismissed as absent, but should remain included in the total species listed as rare or endemic to the area.

Table 2-1 Rare and Endemic Tree Species found in the study area of Shimoni (Luke, 1999) Species Collectors No Rarity* Phytoge o* 3 1 2 4 3 5 4 5 4 5 1X 4 5 5 1/3 5 2 4 4? 2 5 2? 4 3

Amorphophallus maximus L&S 5839 RK Barleria whytei L&S 5829 R Chytranthus prieurianus ssp longiflorus L&S sr101 RK Clerodendrum sansibarense ssp L&M sr184 RK sansibarense Cyphostemma buchananii L&M sr163 RKC Desmodium tortuosum L&M 5856B RK Dictyophleba lucida L&R Sr RK Dioscorea quartiniana var quartiniana L&M sr152 RKC Garcinia volkensii L&M sr153 RKC Hibiscus physaloides L&M sr151 RK? Indigofera tanganyikensis var L&M 5857 R paucijuga Ipomoea shupangensis L&S sr053 RK Lasiodiscus pervillei ssp pervillei L&a 5940 RK Macphersonia gracilis var hildebrandtii L&M 5846A RK Manilkara sp aff discolour L&S 5841 R? Microcoelia physophora L&M sr111 RK Momordica henriquesii L&M sr168 RK Nervilia petraea L&M sr105 RK Ochna macrocalyx L&M 5847 RK Olea woodiana L&M 5845 RK Psiadia punctulata L&R 2675 RKC Queenslandiella sp aff hyalina L&M 5850 R? Tricalysia pallens L&M 5848 RKC Vepris simplicifolia L&S sr037 RKC The phytogeographic and rarity codes are determined as follows:Phytogeography

1

restricted to Kenya Coastal Districts within the area of the Zanzibar-Inhambane Regional Mosaic (Z-I), ie a true Kenya coastal (moist) endemic. restricted to Kenya Coastal Districts within the area of the Somali – Maasai Regional Centre of Endemism (S-M), ie a true Kenya coastal (dry) endemic. restricted to Z-I in general, ie moist K7,T3, T6, T8, Z, P and Mozambique; a true Z-I endemic restricted to S-M, ie drier K7, K1, K4 (part), Somalia (excl Z-I), Ethiopia (part); a true S-M endemic. restricted to Z-I plus one other in Africa ie Z-I and Afromontane (A-M), or S-M plus one other, ie S-M plus Sudanian; a near endemic. found in three or more phytochoria in Africa; afrotropical. found beyond Africa; palaeotropical or pantropical. show distribution of closest taxon where determination is not definite. used if plant not fully identified or there is insufficient or doubtful distribution data

1X

2 2X

3

4 5 (#), / ?

NB: K7, K4, T3, T6,T8, etc refer to the phytogeographic regions used in the Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rarity
Ext? R EXTINCT? RARE in a world sense, less than 5 localities worldwide. Distribution outside CFS area known or if uncertain then R?. RARE KENYA, less than 5 localities in Kenya, but occurs elsewhere. May actually be ‘R’ but data outside Kenya uncertain or unavailable. RARE KENYA COAST, less than 5 localities within CFS area but occurs elsewhere in Kenya and outside. May be ‘RK’ but data outside this area are uncertain or unavailable. Note: Many taxa achieve this rating because they just enter CFS area at Kora or are under-collected.

RK

RKC

Table 2-2 Rare and Endemic Tree Species found in the study area of Shimoni (Metcalfe 2009) Phytpgeographical IUCN, CFS region 1 status 2 ZI-E ZI-E R KCE VU ZI-E ZI+1

Species Angylocalyx braunii Anisocycla blepharosepala Baleria whytei Coffea pseudozanguebariae Fernandoa magnifica

Lannea schweinfurthii Lannea welwitschii Milicia excelsa Macphersonia gracilis hildebrandtii Rinorea arborea Uvariodendron kirkii Uvaria lucida Vangueria randii Vepris simplicifolia
1

ZI-E ZI-E PA PT ZI+1 ZI-E ? ZI-E PA

LR/NT RK VU LC RKC

. PA, Pan African; PT, Pan Tropical; ZI-E, Zanzibar-Inhambane Endemic; ZI+1, Zanzibar-Inhambane + one other region; KCE, Kenya Coast Endemic; U, Unassigned . VU, Vulnerable; NT, Near Th reatened; LR/NT, Lower Risk Near Threatened; LC, Least Concern (not a Red List status but rather ndicates that the species has RK, Rare Kenya; RKC, Rare Kenya Coast; AI, Alien Invasive; EXS, Exotic Species (Robetson & Luke, 1993). been assessed and is not under any threat of extinction); DD, Data Defi cient (IUCN, 2001). R, Rare;
2

2.2.2 Mammals

2.2.2.1 Angolan black and white colobus The Angolan black and white Colobus monkey is one of five species of black and white Colobus found in Africa and represents a flagship species for Kenya’s coastal forests. C. a. Palliatus is an East African subspecies and has a discontinuous distribution from the southern coastal and gallery forests of eastern Tanzania, into south-eastern Kenya. Its Kenya distribution runs from the Tanzanian border, to the border between Kwale District and Mombasa town (Anderson, 2007), having already been exterminated from coastal forests North of Mombasa.

C. a. palliatus is an arboreal folivore that exhibits a preference for mature leaves and unripe fruits. They have an enlarged fore-stomach to tackle the low levels of protein and high levels of fibre associated with this diet (Fimbel et al 2001). Their unique dietary specialisations enable the species to live at exceptionally high densities for primates, enabling viable populations to be maintained in fragmented indigenous forest patches. However their dependence on continuous tree cover and poor ability to disperse between forest patches render them particularly susceptible to habitat loss and localised extinctions. In parts of their range they are also hunted for bush meat and their pelts. The species is currently listed as ‘Data Deficient’ on the IUCN Red List, however a lack

of knowledge on population status and distribution of C. a. palliatus, together with the unique coastal forest system, has led the Species Survival Commission (SSC) African Primate Conservation action plan to recommend a stringent management plan to conserve the remaining forest areas in the region.

In 2001, Anderson (2001) conducted a census on the distribution and population of C. a. palliatus within Kenya. The largest population was found within the Shimba Hills National Reserve, closely followed by forests located within the Diani and Shimoni areas. GVI has been conducting primate surveys in Shimoni forest (east) targeting C.a.palliatus since 2006, focusing on density, population size and distribution. Surveys are

conducted using distance sampling techniques and are analysed using the population estimation program ‘Distance 5.0’ (Thomas et al 2006). Surveys are conducted four times per year. Tables 2-3, 2-4 and 2-5 below summarise the findings.

2007 Value D (Ha ) N mean cluster size
2

SE 0.835 184 4.28 0.192 42.4 0.31

95% confidence interval 0.501 110 1.392 306

Table 2-3 showing the results of primate community surveys conducted in Shimoni east forest in 2007. D = density per squared hectare, N = estimated population size of colobus

2008 Value D (Ha2) N mean cluster size 0.65 143 3.85 SE 0.514 44.83 0.364 95% confidence interval 0.088 73 0.334 282

Table 2-4 showing the results of primate community surveys conducted in Shimoni east forest in 2008. D = density per squared hectare, N = estimated population size of colobus

2009 Value D (Ha2) N mean cluster size 0.911 200 3.53 SE 0.158 34.7 0.2 95% confidence interval 0.165 139 0.328 288

Table 2-5 showing the results of primate community surveys conducted in Shimoni east forest in 2009. D = density per squared hectare, N = estimated population size of colobus

Figure 2-2 showing the density estimates of C.a.palliatus from 2007 to 2009

Figure 2-3 showing population estimates of C.a.palliatus from 2007 to 2009

The density estimates for 2008 have particularly large errors involved. This is due to a lack of data, because GVI shut down and discontinued research from January until July due to the post-election violence.

It can be seen that the population estimate for C.a.palliatus is between 143 and 200 individuals. In 2007 GVI and Go See Kenya (GSK) surveyed Shimoni forest (west) and recorded 192 individuals. When these figures are combined, it is clear that the Shimoni forests hold an incredibly important population of this rare and threatened primate species.

Furthermore, with populations in Diani falling in recent years this places Shimoni amongst the top two highest populations of C. a. palliatus within Kenya, and potentially the most important population for conservation of the species outside of the protected Shimba Hills National Reserve.

2.2.2.2 African Golden Cat The African golden cat (Felis aurata) is a threatened species of which very little is known. Their distribution is thought to be across central Africa with small, vulnerable populations in west and east Africa. Little is known about their habits, home ranges, social structure or behavior. There have been possible sightings in Arabuko Sokoke forest north of Mombasa and Shimba Hills National Park. In April 2010, there was a possible sighting of this predator in Shimoni forest (east) during a night walk conducted by GVI. GVI are currently designing survey techniques for this animal in Shimoni forest (east) so that confirmation of its presence can be obtained. If this animal is found in Shimoni forests, it could have huge impacts on the conservation status of the area, potential for groundbreaking research of international importance, and a significant tourism potential for the area.

2.2.2.3 Zanj elephant shrew Another key flagship species is the Zanj elephant Shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi), measuring 235-315mm, with orange forequarters, graduating to a deep red with a black rump. The elephant shrews, also termed ‘sengi’, represent a unique and ancient lineage of mammals, endemic to the African continent. IUCN have listed them as rare and threatened with action plans to determine their current range and densities, and appropriate conservation measures. This species is “Data Deficient” and restricted to the coastal forests of Kenya and Tanzania. The species is endemic to the area and it is also thought to serve as an indicator for the health and status of forest habitats in East Africa. There have been 212 sightings of R. petersi in Shimoni forest east (data from GVI’s casual observations surveys conducted from 2006 to the present). In Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, the Golden rumped elephant shrew, Rhychocyon chrysopygus is one of the flagship species for the forest, and with more research conducted on R. petersi, the same would apply to the Shimoni forest, which could take on global importance in the conservation of this species.

With 24 species of mammal identified (see Appendix IV), including larger mammals such as the bush pig (Potamochoerus larvatus) and bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), Shimoni’s forests continue to maintain important levels of mammalian biodiversity and

future research on small mammals such as rodents, shrews and bats may well reveal important populations of these diverse and less well known taxonomic groups.

2.2.3 Insects Butterflies (Order: Lepidoptera) offer an excellent indicator taxon of plant species diversity, habitat diversity and disturbance levels. Through casual observation, butterfly canopy traps and butterfly sweep nets, a total of 50 species have been recorded in Shimoni forests (see Appendix II), one of which (Charaxes protoclea azota) is typically a rainforest species and a rarity in coastal forests. There are millions of other insect species that inhabit the forests of Shimoni, which are vital to the areas ecosystem as a whole, and many that are endemic to the east African coast. Currently there is no research being conducted into insect species other than that of butterflies and therefore there is no data to present. 2.2.4 Birds Part of the Coastal Forest Mosaic is an “Endemic Bird Area”, as defined by BirdLife International (WWF East Africa Conservation Action Plan 2005-2010). When the sightings from GVI’s bird surveys and visits from Go See Kenya and ornithologists from BirdLife International, 145 species of bird have been positively identified in Shimoni forests (see Appendix III), 4 of which are recognised as threatened species, and one which is critically endangered i.e. very close to extinction. Globally threatened bird species found in Shimoni forests: Spotted ground thrush (Zoothera guttata fischeri) Fischer’s Turaco (Tauraco fischeri) Southern-Banded Snake Eagle (Circaetus fasciolatus) Plain-backed sunbird (Anthreptes reichenowi) IUCN status Critically endangered Near-threatened Near-threatened Threatened

Regionally threatened bird species found in Shimoni forests: Uluguru Violet-backed Sunbird (Anthreptes neglectus)

IUCN status Vulnerable

2.2.5 Reptiles Reptile diversity is represented by 23 provisionally identified species, though casual observation and further research is needed to contribute scientific data on distribution and inter-specific relationships of this taxonomic group (see Appendix V).

3. Socio-Economic Importance of Shimoni Forests (east and west) The coastal forests found within the Shimoni area are of huge importance to the local communities. They provide a number of critical resources for the people that reside in these areas, as well as support key environmental processes that provide a much wider area with necessities such as rainfall. 3.1 Fishing Materials 98% of all men in the Shimoni / Wasini area are fishermen and rely heavily on this occupation to provide food and income for their families. The primary methods of fishing in the area include that of traps and traditional line fishing. The materials used to construct the traditional canoes, traps and rods all come from Shimoni’s forests, and the loss of this resource would render construction of these tools nearly impossible without costly transport. 3.2 Construction Materials The poles and timber that the local people harvest from the forest are used for a large number of purposes, from construction of traditional housing and roofing, construction of modern roofing, construction of shambas, furniture, doors and other construction activities. Wood is the primary material used in these communities. 3.3 Fuel The communities within the Shimoni / Wasini area rely almost entirely on open fires for cooking. The use of firewood gathered from the forests is predominant, although charcoal is fast becoming the primary fuel source; and one that is also sourced from the forest areas. If fuel for fires becomes distant or costly, it will increase the cost of living for the entire population.

3.4 Medicinal Uses The use of traditional medicines and remedies is still prominent within these communities, with many species of tree and plant being collected and used for these purposes.

3.5 Kaya Shrines and Cultural Heritage According to local traditions, the forests historically sheltered small fortified villages. The sites of original settlements were maintained by communities (led by elders) as sacred places of ritual and burial grounds. Destruction of vegetation around these sites was prohibited so as to preserve the surrounding Kaya forest as a screen or buffering environment for the clearings. Since 1992, the Kenyan Government has gazetted a number of them as national monuments, with assistance from the well-known Kaya project of the Coastal Forest Conservation Unit (CFCU) of the National Museums of Kenya (CEPF ecosystem profile). None of the Kayas within the Shimoni Forests have been gazetted or offered protective status of any kind. Recognition of the Kaya sites (described in Appendix VI) within Shimoni forests would provide protection of the Kayas that are of significant cultural and religious importance to local communities.

The people using the Kayas belong to the Digo tribe, a large tribe present from Shimoni to the North coast of Kenya. This tribe use the Kayas regularly, even today, and have been for generations. The Kayas have been passed down to them from their grandfathers and hold a great amount of cultural significance. Each Kaya has a different meaning and used in a different way. The elders of the Digo tribe that use the Kayas do so out of respect for their cultural and religious beliefs, and their ancestors. The Kayas in Shimoni and Anzwani forest are described below in Appendix VI. During colonial period and time of war, the forest acted as areas of shelter where communities could hide from their enemies, and the local people say the spirits used to make the forest dark so the enemy could not locate them.

4. Threats to Shimoni Forests The principal threats to the survival of Shimoni forest and biodiversity conservation include charcoal burning, commercial timber cutting, poaching of wildlife, poorly regulated allocation of land to private landowners, private and commercial development and slash-and-burn clearance for agriculture. 4.1 Charcoal Burning Before 2007 no charcoal pits were observed by GVI during disturbance surveys. Since 2007, charcoal pits have been encountered increasingly frequently. Figure 4-1 shows the number of charcoal pits recorded on GVI’s Shimoni east transects from 2006 to 2009.

Figure 4-1 showing the number of charcoal pits recorded on GVI’s Shimoni east transects from 2006 to 2009

Following on from the above graph, during the final months of 2009 and the beginning of 2010 a further 22 charcoal pits have been observed. If these observations are expanded out across the entire survey area, the number of charcoal pits would be alarming.

Charcoal burning is a highly inefficient form of resource use and fuel production. During the production process, approximately 80% of the energy in the wood is lost. This process (primarily the earth-mound kiln), is also highly destructive, as only mature hardwood trees are selected and felled, creating large clearings. These specific trees

are known to be the preferred feeding, resting and socialising trees for many primate and bird species. 4.2 Illegal Logging and Timber Extraction Another major threat to the forest of the Shimoni area is that of logging and timber extraction, which is done using power saws. Mature hardwood trees are selected and felled using power saws, and then the wood is cut into planks to be used for timber. Friends of Shimoni Forest have demanded to see permits of those conductng such activities in the past, and have never seen one produced. This leads to the conclusion that this is being done illegally. The way in which the trees are felled is highly inefficient and destructive, with at least three quarters of the tree going to waste in most cases. Figure 4-2 shows the number of pitsaws found on GVI’s Shimoni east transects from 2006 to 2009.

Figure 4-2 showing the number of pitsaws found on GVI’s Shimoni east transects from 2006 to 2009

During the same disturbance surveys conducted in Shimoni east forest, cut poles and timber were recorded. A pole is a young tree with a diameter of between 5-15cm, and timber is a tree with a diameter greater than 15cm that has not been cut into planks (i.e.

is not a pitsaw). Table 4-1 below summarises the data collected from 2006 to 2009 along GVI’s Shimoni east transects.

Disturbance Type Old Timber New Timber Old Poles New Poles Mature trees lost Young trees lost Total of mature trees lost in sample area Extrapolated to: Total of mature trees lost in survey area Total of young trees lost in sample area Extrapolated to: Total of young trees lost in survey area

Quantity Lost 193 11 733 55 204 788

204 204 x 45.44 9271.8

788 788 x 45.44 35814.6

Table 4-1 summarizing the data collected on cut poles and timber in Shimoni east from 2006 to 2009

Figure 4-3 below displays these results:

Figure 4-3 showing the estimated number of young and mature trees lost in Shimoni east forest from 2006 to 2009

It is clear from these results that a massive number of trees are being cut down for various purposes, and the rate at which it is being done is unsustainable for a forest of such a small size. 4.3 Encroachment from agriculture Both Shimoni east and west forests are under considerable threat from the expansion of Shimoni village. A large amount of survey area has been lost between 2006 and 2010 due to land clearance primarily for agriculture. Slash and burn tactics are the most widely used. In 2010 alone, GVI has recorded approximately 40,000m2 of their survey area on the western edge of Shimoni east forest as being totally cleared for agricultural development. The soil in Shimoni’s forests is shallow and loose due to the presence of the fossilised marine substrate, and is of poor agricultural quality. Large crop yields will not be reached, and the lifespan of these areas for agricultural purposes will be short, leaving the areas highly susceptible to desertification and soil erosion. 4.4 Development of Coastal Plots

In the last two years Shimoni east forest has seen a substantial increase in the level of development along the southern and eastern coastline. These areas have been sold to private landowners, and land clearance and development has increased exponentially. At the end of 2007 there was one coastal area that had suffered clearance (22,500m2) and there were no roads within the forested areas. At present, GVI have recorded 6 coastal areas of total land clearance (approximately 55,000m2), two major roads (approximate width of 10m) and several smaller roads. Traffic along these roads is increasing, primarily trucks carrying materials and workers to the sites. Friends of Shimoni Forest have observed several laws being broken in these developments, such as the lack of a buffer zone of trees and vegetation 30m from the high water mark. Not adhering to these protocols will leave the coastline open to soil erosion. Figure 4-4 shows the extent of these developments, marked using GPS coordinates.

Figure 4-4 showing the coastal plots that are suffering clearance and development

4.5 Fragmentation of the Forest Areas Due to the issues highlighted in section 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, the areas of total land clearance in the Shimoni forests are increasing dramatically. As forest areas shrink and fragmentation increases, species will come under greater pressure from reduction of home ranges, increased competition for food resources and lack of suitable habitats.

Larger areas will succumb to soil erosion, there will be less vegetation to store water and retain moisture, the adjacent marine life will come under greater threat and rainfall will decrease. Table 4-2 summarises the data collected by GVI from 2006 to April 2010 regarding areas of total land clearance (total land clearance is defined as an area with more than 80% of vegetation removed).
Location N/S Spine T1 to T2 Transect: 1 Section: 2 to 6 Transect: 2 Section: 0 to 2 Transect: 2 Section: 25 Transect: 2 Section: -2 to -6 Transect: 3 Section: 0 to 4 Transect: 3 Section: (-)13 Transect: 4 Section: (-)8 to (-)10 Transect: 5 Section: 9 Transect: 5 Section: 17 and 18 Transect: 6 Section: 11 Transect: 6 Section: 14 Transect: 6 Section: 19 Number of areas of total land clearance in sample area Area of Clearance (m)

150 x 100 = 15,000m

2

250 x 150

=

37,500 m

2

100 x 100 50 x 150

= =

10,000 m 7,500 m
2

2

2

200 x 200 = 40,000m

250 x 50 30 x 80

= =

12,500 m 2,400 m
2

2

100 x 70

=

7,000 m

2

40 x 25 60 x 55

= =

1000 m

2

3,300 m

2

60 x 50 10 x 10 10 x 50

= = =

3000 m 100 m 500 m
2

2

2

13

TOTAL AREA % of total survey area that has suffered absolute clearance

139,800m 2.9

2

It is worth noting that between 2006 and September 2009 only 1.8% of the survey area was lost to total land clearance, followed by a further loss of 1.1% between September 2009 and April 2010. That is a dramatic increase in the rate at which areas are being cleared, highlighting the threats that face this forest. Appendix VII shows four images, highlighting the recorded clearing in Shimoni east forest in 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009. 4.6 Unsustainable Resource Use The forests of the Shimoni area are a crucial resource for the local communities, and one which they have an intrinsic right to use. However the rate at which the forest areas are being depleted (through charcoal production, areas cleared for farmland, timber and pole extraction etc.) is unsustainable. If one takes the area of land clearance from 2006 to April 2010 as an estimate of forest clearance, it can be estimated that in approximately 33 years the whole of Shimoni east forest will have disappeared, leading to disastrous consequences for future generations. 4.7 Poaching Since 2006, GVI have recorded 16 snares found during disturbance surveys. This figure does not include the many found during casual observations. Snaring wild animals is illegal and traps and kills animals in an inhumane way.

5. Impacts and Consequences of Continued Forest Destruction Other than the global impacts of deforestation on habitat loss, biodiversity shrinkages and the problems of global climate change, deforestation in this area will bring many direct, negative impacts to local communities that maintain a heavy socio-economic dependence on natural resources. 5.1 Soil Erosion The coral rag soils in Shimoni are very shallow and susceptible to erosion. Currently the trees protect the soil from being washed away by rain and wind. Without sufficient

vegetation cover these soils will be vulnerable to erosion, and without a fertile top soil, the potential for vegetation to rejuvenate here becomes increasingly unlikely. Furthermore, eroded soil particles located near the coast-line in Shimoni East (Mbuyu Tundu) forest will be washed into the sea, creating many problems for the health of the adjacent protected Marine Park and its ecologically sensitive coral reef ecosystem. The resident population of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis), estimated at between 20 and 25 individuals in the Wasini channel (Meyler & Felix, in press), feed exclusively off reef fish, favouring near-shore habitats. If deforestation continues at its current rate, increased sedimentation in the waters, in the absence of a sufficient mangrove system to trap sediment, is likely to smother the fringing reef. This would eliminate the dolphins’ food source, displacing the resident humpback dolphin population. With the status of the species unknown along the rest of the Kenyan coast, this would represent a significant failure of Kenya’s current commitment to cetacean conservation, and impact on the dolphin-based tourism for which Shimoni and surrounding communities are becoming increasingly economically-dependent.

5.2 Poor Drainage Already in Shimoni, there are drainage problems during the rains, with some parts becoming inaccessible after heavy rains. It is very likely that without vegetation cover to absorb the rains there will be an increased amount of surface water in surrounding villages. These temporary ponds provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes, potentially increasing the prevalence of malaria. The recent outbreak of cholera in the Shimoni area could be exacerbated in the future if there are large bodies of standing water. It will also degenerate the aesthetic quality of the area for tourists. 5.3 Loss of the Kayas Concern has also been raised for the future of the Kayas located within the forests, at least one of which has reportedly been lost recently to development. In the absence of responsible management and stakeholder participation, the cultural heritage of Shimoni and surrounding communities will steadily be lost. 5.4 Loss of Natural Resources The local people of this area have strong dependence on the natural resources of the forest for many domestic uses including firewood for cooking, medicinal plants, food and

construction materials for homes, boats and furniture. Without sustainable management of these resources, there will be future challenges for the ‘quality of living’ and socioeconomic status of local communities. Furthermore, if soil erosion leads to the damage of reefs and marine life, the fish populations will be dramatically reduced, eliminating the primary livelihood of the coastal communities.

5.5 Loss of Biodiversity As this report has highlighted, the forest of Shimoni are a vital area for biodiversity, and are of conservational value locally, nationally and internationally. There are many plant and animal species that are threatened at some level, and many are not found anywhere else in the world. The loss of these habitats will have significant impacts on their

chances of survival. East African coastal forests are often overshadowed by savannah and marine habitats, yet are scientifically proven to be the most critical habitats for the conservation of species in Africa.

5.6 Environmental Disruption Forests are critical areas for environmental processes such as the water cycle. Moisture is absorbed and retained in vegetation, and the released to form rain clouds. The loss of large areas of forest will result in reduced rainfall across the wider region, having significant negative effects on communities and wildlife. On a global scale, the loss of forested areas is reducing the number of carbon sinks which lock compounds such as greenhouse gases in their biomass, reducing the impact of climate change.

6. Actions So Far In 2007 members of the Shimoni community who were concerned with the destruction of the forest formed the community group Friends of Shimoni Forest (FSF). The aims of the group are • • • Continued research and monitoring Indigenous reforestation Conservation of biodiversity

6.1 Reports and Petitions

FSF have submitted the following reports and petitions to local and national administrations: • • • • Conservation Status of Shimoni Forest (2007) Kaya Report and Petition to National Museums of Kenya (2007) Summary of Disturbance 2006-2009 (2009) Conservation Status and Threats Facing Shimoni Forest (2010)

No response has been received regarding any of the reports.

6.2 Tourist Trail FSF have set out to create a tourist trail through Shimoni east forest. The majority of the trail has been cut and various routes planned. The trail will start in Anziwani, where tourists will be taken too see two of the Kayas. The trail will then follow the coast south past the mangrove forests, and will then go south west towards the village of Shimoni either via the road, or one of GVI’s transects. There are currently three community members from Safe Shimoni Youth Group being trained as forest guides.

6.3 Friends of Shimoni Forest Scholarship Fund FSF have been raising money via the website JustGiving for the implementation of their initiatives. One of the main initiatives is the FSF-SF which is currently funding two children through Shimoni Secondary school. FSF have a Memorandum of Understanding with the family and the children. All applicants for the scholarship have interviews with FSF to demonstrate their interest in conservation, and all applicants must be an active member of their school Wildlife Club. The recipient and their family must dedicate one day per term to helping FSF with conservation initiatives (e.g. tree planting, trail cutting), and the recipients progress through secondary school is strictly monitored. 6.4 Tree Nurseries and Reforestation FSF are beginning to start a project to create tree nurseries for the purpose of indigenous reforestation. The tree nurseries will look to provide saplings that can be replanted all across the Shimoni area, including school grounds, around villages and within the forest. FSF are also looking to begin planting fast-growing trees that can be

harvested for poles and timber, reducing the pressure on the forest resources. In April 2010 FSF planted 32 Mbambakofi saplings in the village of Shimoni. 6.5 Alternative Charcoal FSF are committed to eliminating the production of charcoal from the forest, and are therefore researching forms of alternative charcoal. They have successfully managed to get a charcoal briquette press donated and sent from the USA, and are now in the process of planning the experimental stage. Once a sound method is established, with readily available raw materials, FSF will set up training workshops specifically aimed at charcoal burners. In time, this will hopefully replace the use of traditional charcoal and make a huge step towards conserving what remains of the forest. 7. Recommendations and Requirements

7.1 Gazetting / Protection of Shimoni Forests At present, none of the forested areas around Shimoni have any form of protective status, which has allowed the unregulated sale of land and unmonitored destruction. If some form of protective status is not granted, then the vital coastal forests of the Shimoni area will be lost forever, seriously jeopardising Kenya’s flora and fauna and the socio-economic status of the local communities. National administration and governmental bodies must use all avenues possible to protect what is left of these forested areas immediately, to safeguard the future of this unique area and its people.

7.2 Community Management The local communities must be given the opportunity and the resources to become key stakeholders in the preservation of Shimoni’s forests. If effective community management status were obtained, research can be used to suggest management protocols whereby resource use is acceptable at specified levels, and re-plantation initiatives are utilised to ensure the long-term sustainability of forest resources for both the human and wildlife communities. Additional forms of income may also be derived from the forest through responsible tourism, the Angolan black and white Colobus representing just one of the possible charismatic flagship species. Guided tours through the forest would provide a source of sustainable revenue to supplement the successful community fund initiatives of the Shimoni Slave Cave Committee.

Grassroots advocacy for conservation can help to prevent theft, invasion, encroachment or development of sites with biodiversity value (Gordon & Ayiemba 2003). Many excisions have in recent years been made in the name of squatters in the local community, while the land was subsequently allocated to the well-connected. In such situations, community protests can be more effective than the lobbying of city-based NGO's. Local communities are also effective watchdogs, since they live next to biodiversity sites and know most about what is going on in them. 7.3 Assistance in Continued Conservation and Community Initiatives FSF and other community groups have demonstrated admirable determination and responsibility with regards to initiatives covering conservation, wildlife, sanitation, healthcare, education and income generation. More assistance should be provided for the continuation and expansion of such activities, through access to funding, grant applications, training, personnel, equipment and logistical support.

8. Contacts Friends of Shimoni Forest: • Mshemanga Hamisi Riziki Chairman of Friends of Shimoni Forest 0728836784 • Athumani Fadhili Ali Treasurer of Friends of Shimoni Forest 0721114559

GVI • Graham Corti Regional Director graham@gviworld.com • Andrew Hayes Base Manager Mkwiro@gviworld.com • Zeno Wijtten

Terrestrial Science officer Shimoni@gviworld.com

9. Bibliography Anderson, J., Rowcliffe, J.M. & Cowlishaw, G. (2007). The Angola Black and White Colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus) in Kenya: Historical Range Contraction and Current Conservation Status. American Journal of Primatology 69, 664-680.

Anderson, J. (2001) Status, Distribution and Conservation of the Angola Black and White Colobus (Colobus Angolensis Palliatus) in Coastal Kenya. A report for Wakulazu, Friends of the Colobus Trust, Diani Beach, Kenya

Bennun, L. & Njoroge, P., 1999. Important Bird Areas in Kenya. Published by Nature Kenya. 318p.

Brooks, T.M., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Rylands, Konstant, W.R., Flick, P., Pilgrim, J., Oldfield, S., Magin, G. & Hilton-Taylor, C. 2002. Habitat Loss and Extinction in the Hotspots of Biodiversity. Conservation Biology 16:909923.

Clarke, G.P, Vollesen, K. & Mwasumbi, L.B., 2000. Vascular Plants. In The Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa. Burgess N.D. & Clarke G.P eds. IUCN: Cambridge and Gland. Pp 129-147.

Criticial Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) Ecosystem Profile: Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests of Tanzania & Kenya. Final version, July 2, 2003 (Updated March 2005). 118p.

Fimbel, C., Vedder, A., Dierenfeld, E., Mulindahabi, F. 2001. An ecological basis for large group size in Colobus angolensis in the Nyungwe Forest, Rwanda. African Journal of Ecology. 39, 83-92.

Gordon, I. & Ayiemba, W., 2003. Harnessing butterfly biodiversity for improving the livelihoods and forest conservation: the Kipepeo Project. The Journal of Environment and Development 12:82-98.

Hoffman, R.L. 2000. Millipedes. In The Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa. Burgess, N.D & Clarke, G.P., eds. IUCN: Cambridge and Gland. Pp 211-218.

Karczmarski, L., Cockcroft, V.G and McLachlan, A. (2000). Habitat use and preferences of Indo-pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Marine Mammal Science 16:65-79.

Luke, Q., 1999. Vegetation and Floristic Baseline Study for Proposed Ship Loading Facility in Shimoni, and Dongo Kundu. For Tiomin Resources Inc. CFCU Report. 15p.

Metcalfe, 2009. Sacred sites as hotspots bor biodiversity; the Three Sisters Cave complex in coastal Kenya. Fauna and Flora International, Oryx 44 (1), 118-123

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Kent, J. 2000. Biodiversity hotpots for conservation priorities. Nature. 403, 853 – 858.

10. Appendices Appendix I- Plants (Luke, 1999)
00 POLYPODIACEAE Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm.f.)Pichi Serm. 008 ANNONACEAE Annona senegalensis Pers. ssp senegalensis Asteranthe asterias (S.Moore)Engl. & Diels ssp asteria Monanthotaxis fornicata (Baill.)Verdc. Monodora grandidieri Baill. Ophrypetalum odoratum Diels Sphaerocoryne gracilis (Engl. & Diels)Verdc. Uvaria acuminata Oliv. forma? Uvaria welwitschii (Hiern)Engl. & Diels Uvariodendron kirkii Verdc. Xylopia parviflora (A.Rich.)Benth.

023 MENISPERMACEAE Cissampelos pareira L. var hirsuta (DC.)Forman Tiliacora funifera (Miers)Oliv. Tinospora oblongifolia (Engl.)Troupin Triclisia sacleuxii (Pierre)Diels 036 CAPPARACEAE Capparis viminea Oliv.? Cladostemon kirkii (Oliv.)Pax & Gilg Ritchiea capparoides (Andr.)Britten Thilachium africanum Lour. 037 MORINGACEAE Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn. 040 VIOLACEAE Rinorea arborea (Thou.)Baill. 042 POLYGALACEAE Carpolobia goetzei Guerke Polygala kilimandjarica Chod. 056 PORTULACACEAE Portulaca quadrifida L.? 063 AMARANTHACEAE Aerva lanata (L.)Schultes Psilotrichum sericeum (Roxb.)Dalz. 071 BALSAMINACEAE Impatiens walleriana Hook.f. 072 LYTHRACEAE Pemphis acidula J.R. & G.Forst. 074 SONNERATIACEAE Sonneratia alba Sm. 081 THYMELAEACEAE Synaptolepis kirkii Oliv. 093 FLACOURTIACEAE Bivinia jalbertii Tul. Grandidiera boivinii Jaub. Ludia mauritiana Gmel. 101 PASSIFLORACEAE Schlechterina mitostemmatoides Harms 103 CUCURBITACEAE Eureiandra sp A of FTEA Momordica henriquesii Cogn. 114 OCHNACEAE Ochna macrocalyx Oliv.? Ochna thomasiana Engl. & Gilg 118 MYRTACEAE Eugenia capensis (Eckl. & Zeyh.)Sond. ssp multiflora Verdc. 121 COMBRETACEAE Combretum illairii Engl. Combretum paniculatum Vent. ssp paniculatum Terminalia boivinii Tul. Terminalia sambesiaca Engl. & Diels 122 RHIZOPHORACEAE

Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.)Lam. Ceriops tagal (Perr.)C.B.Robinson Rhizophora mucronata Lam. 126 GUTTIFERAE (CLUSIACEAE) Garcinia volkensii Engl. Vismia orientalis Engl. 128 TILIACEAE Carpodiptera africana Mast. Corchorus olitorius L. Grewia forbesii Mast. Grewia plagiophylla K.Schum. Grewia villosa Willd. 130 STERCULIACEAE Melhania velutina Forssk. Sterculia rhynchocarpa K.Schum. Waltheria indica L. 131 BOMBACACEAE Adansonia digitata L. 132 MALVACEAE Abutilon zanzibaricum Mast. Hibiscus physaloides Guill. & Perr. Hibiscus vitifolius L. ssp vitifolius? Sida acuta Burm.f. 133 MALPIGHIACEAE Acridocarpus zanzibaricus (Loud.)A.Juss. Triaspis mozambica A.Juss. 135 ERYTHROXYLACEAE Erythroxylum emarginatum Thonn. Nectaropetalum kaessneri Engl. var kaessneri 136 EUPHORBIACEAE Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. var fruticosa Acalypha neptunica Muell.Arg. var neptunica Alchornea laxiflora (Benth.)Pax & K.Hoffm. Bridelia cathartica Bertol.f. Dalechampia scandens L. var cordofana (Webb)Muell.Arg. Erythrococca kirkii (Muell.Arg.)Prain Euphorbia tirucalli L. Excoecaria madagascariensis (Baill.)Muell.Arg. Flueggea virosa (Willd.)Voigt ssp virosa Mallotus oppositifolius (Geisel.)Muell.Arg. var oppositifolius forma ? Mildbraedia carpinifolia (Pax)Hutch. var carpinifolia Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn. Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir. Pycnocoma littoralis Pax Ricinus communis L. Suregada zanzibariensis Baill. Synadenium pereskiifolium (Baill.)Guill. Tragia furialis Bojer 144 DICHAPETALACEAE Dichapetalum madagascariense Poir. var madagascariensis

Tapura fischeri Engl. 146 CAESALPINIACEAE Caesalpinia bonduc (L.)Roxb. Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.)Greene Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.)Milne-Redh. Senna occidentalis (L.)Link Senna siamea (Lam.)Irwin & Barnaby Tamarindus indica L. 147 MIMOSACEAE Albizia versicolor Oliv. Dichrostachys cinerea (L.)Wight & Arn. Leucaena latisiliqua (L.)Gillis 148 PAPILIONACEAE (FABACEAE) Canavalia sp Crotalaria laburnoides Klotzsch var laburnoides Dalbergia vacciniifolia Vatke Desmodium tortuosum (Sw.)DC. Desmodium triflorum (L.)DC. Erythrina sacleuxii Hua Indigofera tanganyikensis Bak.f. var paucijuga Gillett Indigofera trita L.f. Millettia usaramensis Taub. ssp usaramensis var Ormocarpum sennoides (Willd.)DC. ssp zanzibaricum Brenan & Gillett Sophora tomentosa L. ssp tomentosa 154 BUXACEAE Buxus obtusifolia (Mildbr.)Hutch. 167 MORACEAE Antiaris toxicaria Leschen. ssp welwitschii (Engl.)C.C.Berg var usambarensis (Engl.)C.C.Berg Ficus bubu Warb. Ficus exasperata Vahl Ficus lutea Vahl Ficus natalensis Hochst. Ficus polita Vahl ssp polita Ficus scassellatii Pamp. ssp scassellatii Ficus sur Forssk. Ficus sycomorus L. Ficus tremula Warb. ssp tremula Milicia excelsa (Welw.)C.C.Berg 169 URTICACEAE Urera sansibarica Engl. 173 CELASTRACEAE Elaeodendron schweinfurthianum (Loes.)Loes. Maytenus undata (Thunb.)Blakelock 173 HIPPOCRATEACEAE (CELASTRACEAE) Indet Salacia elegans Oliv. Salacia erecta (G.Don)Walp. Salacia stuhlmanniana Loes. 180 SALVADORACEAE

Azima tetracantha Lam. 185 LORANTHACEAE Agelanthus sansibarensis (Engl.)Polh. & Wiens ssp sansibarensis Oncella curviramea (Engl.)Danser 190 RHAMNACEAE Lasiodiscus pervillei Baill. ssp pervillei Ziziphus mucronata Willd. ssp mucronata 193 VITACEAE Cissus integrifolia (Bak.)Planch. Cissus phymatocarpa Masinde & L.E.Newton Cissus quinquangularis Chiov. Cissus rotundifolia (Forssk.)Vahl var rotundifolia Cissus sciaphila Gilg Cissus sp aff integrifolia (Bak.)Planch. Cissus sylvicola Masinde & L.E.Newton Cyphostemma adenocaule (A.Rich.)Wild & Drummond ssp Cyphostemma buchananii (Planch.)Wild & Drummond Cyphostemma duparquetii (Planch.)Descoings 194 RUTACEAE Toddalia asiatica (L.)Lam. Vepris simplicifolia (Verdoorn)W.Mziray Zanthoxylum holtzianum (Engl.)Waterm. ssp holtzianum 195 SIMAROUBACEAE Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv. 196 BURSERACEAE Commiphora africana (A.Rich.)Engl. Commiphora edulis (Kl.)Engl. ssp boiviniana Commiphora lindensis Engl. 197 MELIACEAE Azadirachta indica A.Juss. Trichilia emetica Vahl Turraea floribunda Hochst. Turraea nilotica Kotschy & Peyr. Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lam.)Roem. 198 SAPINDACEAE Allophylus rubifolius (A.Rich.)Engl. var stachyanthu Blighia unijugata Bak. Chytranthus prieurianus Baill. ssp longiflorus Haplocoelum inoploeum Radlk. Lecaniodiscus fraxinifolius Bak. ssp vaughanii Lepisanthes senegalensis (Poir.)Leenh. Macphersonia gracilis O.Hoffm. var hildebrandtii Majidea zanguebarica Oliv. 205 ANACARDIACEAE Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.)Engl. var stuhlmannii Lannea welwitschii (Hiern)Engl. var ciliolata Engl. Mangifera indica L. Ozoroa insignis Del. ssp reticulata (Bak.f.)Gillett Rhus natalensis Krauss Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.)Hochst. ssp caffra

221 EBENACEAE Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern)F.White ssp abyssinica Diospyros squarrosa Klotzsch A185 222 SAPOTACEAE Inhambanella henriquezii (Engl. & Warb.)Dubard Manilkara sp aff discolor (Sond.)J.H.Hemsl. Manilkara sulcata (Engl.)Dubard Sideroxylon inerme L. ssp diospyroides (Bak.)J.H.Hemsl. 229 OLEACEAE Jasminum meyeri-johannis Engl. Olea woodiana Knobl. 230 APOCYNACEAE Ancylobotrys petersiana (Kl.)Pierre Baissea myrtifolia (Benth.)Pichon Dictyophleba lucida (K.Schum.)Pierre Hunteria zeylanica (Retz.)Gardn. Pleiocarpa pycnantha (K.Schum.)Stapf Saba comorensis (Bojer)Pichon Tabernaemontana elegans Stapf 231 ASCLEPIADACEAE Cryptolepis hypoglauca K.Schum. Cynanchum gerrardii (Harvey)Liede Omphalogonus calophyllus Baill. Pleurostelma cernum (Decn.)Bullock Schizostephanus alatus K.Schum. Secamone parvifolia (Oliv.)Bullock Secamone punctulata Decne 232 RUBIACEAE Chazaliella abrupta (Hiern)Petit & Verdc. var abrupta Coffea pseudozanguebariae Bridson Guettarda speciosa L. Keetia zanzibarica (Klotzsch)Bridson ssp zanzibarica Meyna tetraphylla (Hiern)Robyns ssp comorensis Oxyanthus zanguebaricus (Hiern)Bridson Pavetta crebrifolia Hiern var crebrifolia Pentodon pentandrus (Schum. & Thonn.)Vatke Polysphaeria multiflora Hiern ssp multiflora Polysphaeria parvifolia Hiern Psychotria capensis (Ecklon)Vatke ssp riparia Psychotria punctata Vatke var punctata Tarenna nigrescens (Hook.f.)Hiern Triainolepis africana Hook.f. ssp hildebrandtii Tricalysia ovalifolia Hiern var ovalifolia Tricalysia pallens Hiern Vangueria randii S.Moore ssp acuminata Verdc. 238 COMPOSITAE (ASTERACEAE) Pluchea sordida (Vatke)Oliv. & Hiern Psiadia punctulata (DC.)Vatke Solanecio cydoniifolius (O.Hoffm.)C.Jeffrey Tridax procumbens L. Vernonia hildebrandtii Vatke

249 BORAGINACEAE Bourreria nemoralis (Guerke)Thulin Cordia goetzei Guerke Cordia subcordata Lam. 250 SOLANACEAE Solanum incanum L. s.l. Solanum zanzibarense Vatke 251 CONVOLVULACEAE Evolvulus alsinoides (L.)L. Hewittia malabarica (L.)Suresh Ipomoea eriocarpa R.Br. Ipomoea shupangensis Bak. 257 BIGNONIACEAE Fernandoa magnifica Seem. Markhamia zanzibarica (DC.)Engl. 259 ACANTHACEAE Asystasia gangetica (L.)T.Anders. s.l. Barleria setigera Rendle Barleria whytei S.Moore Blepharis maderaspatensis (L.)Roth Ecbolium amplexicaule S.Moore Justicia inaequiifolia Brummitt Pseuderanthemum hildebrandtii Lindau 263 VERBENACEAE Avicennia marina (Forssk.)Vierh. Clerodendrum cephalanthum Oliv. ssp cephalanthum Clerodendrum glabrum E.Mey. var glabrum Clerodendrum sansibarense Guerke ssp sansibarense Lantana camara L. Premna chrysoclada (Boj.)Guerke Premna hildebrandtii Guerke Premna resinosa (Hochst.)Schauer ssp holstii (Guerke)Verdc. Vitex ferruginea Schum. & Thonn. ssp amboniensis (Guerke)Verdc. var amboniensis 264 LABIATAE (LAMIACEAE) Hyptis suaveolens Poit. Ocimum gratissimum L. var macrophyllum Briq. Plectranthus flaccidus (Vatke)Guerke Plectranthus tenuiflorus (Vatke)Agnew 293 AMARYLLIDACEAE Scadoxus multiflorus (Martyn)Raf. ssp multiflorus 293 ASPASPARAGACEAE Asparagus africana Lam.? Asparagus falcatus L. var falcatus Asparagus setaceus (Kunth)Jessop 293 COLCHICACEAE Gloriosa superba L. 293 HYACINTHACEAE Dipcadi longifolium (Lindl.)Bak. Ledebouria kirkii (Bak.)Stedje & Thulin

302 ARACEAE Amorphophallus maximus (Engl.)N.E.Br. Gonatopus boivinii (Decne)Engl. Gonatopus marattioides (Peter)Bogner Stylochaeton salaamicus N.E.Br. Zamioculcas zamiifolia (Lodd.)Engl. 311 DIOSCOREACEAE Dioscorea asteriscus Burkill Dioscorea quartiniana A.Rich. var quartiniana Dioscorea sansibarensis Pax 313 DRACAENACEAE Sansevieria kirkii Bak. 314 PALMAE (ARECACEAE) Borassus aethiopum Mart. Hyphaene compressa H.Wendl. Hyphaene coriacea Gaertn. 321 TACCACEAE Tacca leontopetaloides (L.)O.Ktze. 326 ORCHIDACEAE Aerangis kirkii (Reichb.f.)Schltr. Angraecum dives Rolfe Eulophia petersii Reichb.f. Microcoelia physophora (Reichb.f.)Summerh.? Nervilia petraea (Pers.)Summerh. 331 CYPERACEAE Bulbostylis sp Cyperus rotundus L. ssp? Fimbristylis cymosa R.Br. Mariscus dubius (Rottb.)Hutch. var macrocephalus Queenslandiella sp aff hyalina (Vahl)Bullock 332 GRAMINAE (POACEAE) Cyrtococcum trigonum (Retz.)A.Camus Enteropogon sechellensis (Baker)Th.Dur. & Schinz TOTAL RECORDS : 273 POSSIBLE KENYAN ENDEMICS : 4

POSSIBLE Z-I REGIONAL ENDEMICS : 54 PERCENT REGIONAL ENDEMICS : 20% =============================== TOTAL RECORDS RARITY = R or R? : 4 TOTAL RECORDS RARITY = RK or RK? : 14

TOTAL RECORDS RARITY = RKC or RKC? : 6 NB: Collectors – L = Luke WRQ, L&a = Luke WRQ, Lubke RA and others, M = Mbinda J, R = Robertson SA, S = Saidi C.

GVI 2006-2009

Species list of flora from Shimoni area, by Class, Order, Family, Phytogeographical region, and IUCN Red List (IUCN, 2009) or Coastal Forest Survey (CFS, Robetson & Luke, 1993) status.
Phytpgeographic al region 1 IUCN, CFS status 2

Species
Class Liliopsida, Order Amaryllidales Family Amaryllidaceae Scadoxus multiflorus Class Liliopsia, Order Commelinales Family Commelinaceae Commelina spp. Class Liliopsida, Order Dioscoreales Family Dioscoreaceae Dioscorea asteriscus burkill Class Magnoliopsida, Order Annondes Family Annonaceae Asteranthe asterias Monanthotaxis fornicata Class Magnoliopsida, Order Asterales Family Asteraceae Vernonia cinerascens Vernonia spp.

(coastal kenya)

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Burserales Family Anacardiaceae Harpephyllum caffrum Class Magnoliopsida, Order Burserales Family Burserceae Commiphora edulis

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Celastrales Family Celastraceae Salacia spp.

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Celastrales Family Dichapetalaceae Dichapetalum spp.

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Euphorbiales, Family Euphorbiaceae Acalypha fructicosa Bridelia cathartica Mallotus oppositifoliuis Mildbraedia carpinifolia Ricinus communis

PT U

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Fabales, Family Caesalpinoideae Caesalpinia insolita Delonix regia

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Fabales, Family Fabaceae Millettia usaramensis Rhynchosia congensis Class Magnoliopsida, Order Fabales, Family Leguminosae Angylocalyx braunii Tamarindus indica Class Magnoliopsida, Order Hypericales Family Clusiaceae Vismia orientalis Class Magnoliopsida, Order Lamiales, Family Chalcidoidea Ocimum spp.

ZI-E PT

VU

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Lamiales, Family Lamiaceae Hoslundia opposita Leonotis nepetifolia

PT

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Lamiales, Family Verbenaceae Lantana camara Premna hildebrandtii Priva curtisiae Class Magnoliopsida, Order Linales Family Erythroxylaceae Erythroxylum emarginatum Class Magnoliopsida, Order Magnoliales, Family Annonaceae Uvariodendron kirkii Uvaria acuminata Uvaria lucida Class Magnoliopsida, Order Malpighiales Family Alpheoidea Alchornea laxiflora Class Magnoliopsida, Order Malvales, Family Bombacaceae Adansonia digitata Class Magnoliopsida, Order Malvales, Family Malvaceae Abutilon spp. Gossypioides kirkii Hibiscus spp. Class Magnoliopsida, Order Malvales, Family Sterculiaceae Waltheria indica Class Magnoliopsida, Order Malvales, Family Tiliaceae Carpodiptera africana Grewia bicolor Grewia ectasicarpa Grewia forbesii Class Magnoliopsida, Order

PT

ZI-E

VU LC

PA

PA

Coastal Kenya

Menispermales Family Menispemaceae Anisocycla blepharosepala Class Magnoliopsida, Order Ochnales Family Ochnaceae Ochna thomasiana Class Magnoliopsida, Order Polygalales, Family Malpighiaceae Acridocarpus zanzibaricus Class Magnoliopsida, Order Rhamnales, Family Vitaceae Cissus spp. Class Magnoliopsida, Order Rosales Family Cannabaceae Trema orientalis Class Magnoliopsida, Order Rubiales, Family Pyraloidea Tricalysia ovalifolia Tricalysia pallens Class Magnoliopsida, Order Rubiales, Family Rubiaceae Guettarda speciosa Polysphaeria parvifolia Vangueria randii Tarenna spp. Class Magnoliopsida, Order Rutales Family Rutaceae Teclea simplicifolia Vepris eugeniifolia Class Magnoliopsida, Order Rutales Family Simaroubaceae Harrisonia abyssinica Class Magnoliopsida, Order Sapindales, Family Anacardiaceae

ZI-E

U

coastal Kenya PA ZI-E U

Lannea schweinfurthii Lannea welwitschii Sorindeia madagascariensis Class Magnoliopsida, Order Sapindales, Family Meliaceae Azadirachta indica Trichilia emetica Trichilia sp. Class Magnoliopsida, Order Sapindales, Family Sapindaceae Majidea zanguebarica Class Magnoliopsida, Order Sapindales, Family Sapotaceae Sideroxylon inerme Class Magnoliopsida, Order Scrophulariales, Family Acanthaceae Baleria whytei Ecbolium amplexicaule Class Magnoliopsida, Order Scrophulariales, Family Bignoniaceae Fernandoa magnifica Markhamia zanzibarica Class Magnoliopsida, Order Serophulanales Family Acathaceae Barleria setigera Class Magnoliopsida, Order Solanales Family Solanaceae Physalis angulata Solanum incanum Solanum nigrum Class Magnoliopsida, Order Urticales, Family Moraceae Antiaris toxicaria

ZI-E ZI-E PT

PT PT

AI

PT

KCE

R

ZI+1 PA

PA

Ficus sansibarica Ficus sur Ficus sycomorus Ficus thonningii Class Magnoliopsida, Order Urticales, Family Ulmaceae Celtis mildbraedii Class Magnoliopsida, Order Violales, Family Flacourtiaceae Rawsonia lucida Class Magnoliopsida, Order Violales, Family Violaceae Rinorea arborea Rinorea subintegrifolia Class Magnoliopsida, Order Vitales Family Vitaceae Cissus sciaphila
1

PT

PA

ZI+1

. PA, Pan African; PT, Pan Tropical; ZI-E, Zanzibar-Inhambane Endemic; ZI+1, Zanzibar-Inhambane + one other region; KCE, Kenya Coast Endemic; U, Unassigned . VU, Vulnerable; NT, Near Th reatened; LR/NT, Lower Risk Near Threatened; LC, Least Concern (not a Red List status but rather ndicates that the species has RK, Rare Kenya; RKC, Rare Kenya Coast; AI, Alien Invasive; EXS, Exotic Species (Robetson & Luke, 1993). been assessed and is not under any threat of extinction); DD, Data Defi cient (IUCN, 2001). R, Rare;
2

Appendix II – Butterflies (GVI) Family Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Charaxinae Species Charaxes brutus Charaxes varanes vologeses Charaxes candiope candiope Charaxes cithaeron nairobicus Charaxes hansali baringana Charaxes jahlusa kenyensis Charaxes protoclea azota Charaxes violetta maritimus Charaxes Achaemenes Charaxes ethalion kikuyuensis

Charaxinae Charaxinae Satyrinae Satyrinae Nymphalinae Nymphalinae Nymphalinae Nymphalinae Nymphalinae Nymphalinae Nymphalinae Nymphalinae Nymphalinae Nymphalinae Lipteninae Lipteninae Lipteninae Lipteninae Papilionidae Papilionidae Papilionidae Papilionidae Papilionidae Acraeinae Acraeinae Acraeinae Acraeinae Acraeinae Acraeinae Coliadinae Coliadinae Coliadinae Coliadinae Coliadinae Pierinae Pierinae Pierinae Pierinae Pierinae Danainae

Euxanthe wakefieldi Cymothoe coranus Bicyclus safitza safitza Melanitis leda Eurytela dryope angulata Hypolimnas misippus Neptis saclava marpessa Junonia oenone oenone Euphraedra neophron littoralis Byblia ilithyia Byblia anvatara acheloia Phalanta phalanta aethiopica Phalanta eurytis eurytis Junonia natalica natalica Baliochila hildegarda Pentila tropicalis Teriomima subpunctata Pentila pauli clarensis Papilio constantinus constantinus Papilio dardanus tibullus Papilio dardanus polytrophus Papilio ophidicephalus ophidicephalus Papilio demodocus demodocus Acraea eponina eponina Acraea anemosa Acraea zonata Acraea acrita Acraea insignis insignis Acraea sykesi Graphium antheus Graphium colonna Graphium philonoe philonoe Graphium porthaon mackiei Catopsilia florella Coloits euippe omphale Nepheronia buqueti buqueti Belenois thysa thysa Eurema floricola orientis Eurema senegalensis Amauris niavius niavius

Appendix III – Birds (GSK, Birdlife International, GVI)

Genus Accipiter Accipiter Accipiter Actitis Alcedo Anastomus Andropadus Anthreptes Anthreptes Anthreptes Amblyospiza Apalis Apaloderma Apus Aquila Ardea Ardea Batis Batis Bias Bostrychia Bradornis bubo Buteo Butorides Bycanistes Bycanistes Camaroptera Campephaga Campethera Campethera Casmerodius Centropus Cercotrichas Ceryle

Species m. melanoleucus minullus tachiro hypoleucos cristata galerita Lamelligerus importunus collaris garguensrs neglectus reichenowi albifrons Melanocephala narina narina affinis rapax c. cinerea melanocephala mixta ultima soror musicus hagedash brevirostris pallidus murinus africanus buteo vulpinus striatus atricapillus bucianator brevis brachyura flava mombassica nubica albus melanorhynchos superciliosus q. quadrivirgata r. rudis

Common name Great Sparrowhawk Little Sparrowhawk African goshawk Common Sandpiper Malachite Kingfisher African Open-billed Stork Zanzibar Sombre Greenbul Collared Sunbird Uluguru Violet-backed Sunbird plain-backed sunbird Grosbeak Weaver Black-headed apalis Narina trogon Little swift Tawney Eagle Grey Heron black-headed heron Forest batis Pale batis, Black and white shrike flycatcher Hadada Ibis pale flycatcher spotted eagle-owl Common (Steppe) Buzzard Green-backed or Striated Heron Trumpeter hornbill Silvery cheeked Hornbill Grey-backed camaroptera Black Cuckoo Shrike mombasa woodpecker Nubian woodpecker, Great Egret White-browed Coucal Eastern Bearded Robin Pied Kingfisher

Ceuthmochares Charadrus Chlorocichla Chrysococcyx Ciconia Circaetus Circaetus Colius Coracias Coracias Corvus Cossypha Cuculus Cuculus Cuculus Cypsius Dendropicos Dicrurus Diomedea Dryoscopus Egretta Euplectes Euplectes Eurystomus Falco Guttera Gypohierax Halcyon Halcyon Haliaeetus Hedydipna Hipargos Hirundo Hirundo Hirundo Ispidina Kaupifalco Laniarious Lamprotornis Larus

aereus marginatus tenellus flaviventris caprius episcopus cinereus fasciolatus striatus caudata g. garrulus albus natalensis canorus poliocephalus solitarius parvus fuscescens adsimilis cauta cubla dimorpha hordeaceus nigroventris glaucurus tannumculus pucherani angolensis albiventris c. chelicuti vocifer pallidigaster niveoguttatul macrospolotus aethiopica angolensis senegalensis saturatior picta m. monogrammicus aethiopicus corruscus Hemprichii

Yellowbill (Green Coucal) White-fronted Plover Yellow bellied Greenbul Diederik Cuckoo Woolly-necked Stork Brown snake eagle Southern-banded Snake Eagle Speckled Mouse Bird Lilac-breasted Roller Eurasian Roller Pied Crow Red-capped Robin Chat Eurasian Cuckoo Lesser cuckoo red-chested cuckoo, African Palm Swift Cardinal woodpecker Common Drongo Shy Albatross Black backed puffback Dimorphic Egret Black-winged Red Bishop Zanzibar Red Bishop Broadbilled Roller Common Kestrel Crested Guinea Fowl Palm-nut Vulture Brown-hooded Kingfisher Striped Kingfisher African Fish Eagle Amani sunbird Peter's Twin Spot Ethiopian swallow ethiopean swallow, Mosque swallow African pygmy Kingfisher Lizard buzzard Tropical boubou Black-bellied Starling Sooty Gull

Lophaetus Lonchura Lonchura Lybius Mocatilla Merops Merops Merops Milvus Monticola Muscicapa Muscicapa Mycteria Nectarinia Nectarinia Nectarinia Nectarinia Nectarinia Neocossyphus Nicator Numenius Numida Onychognathus Oriolus

occipitalis bicolor fringilloides melanopterus aguimp vida albicollis nubicus pusillus migrans saxatilis caerulescens cinereola striata ibis amethystina bifasciata olivacea changamwensis purpureiventris senegalensis rufus rufus gularis p. phaeopus meleagris walleri chlorocephalus amani o. oriolus auratus notatus larvatus rolleti jacobinus audeberti validus griseus purpureous bicolor bojeri cucullatus golandi intermedius ocularis subaureus aureoflavus roseus fischeri

Long crested eagle Black & White Manikin Magpie manikin Brown-breasted Barbet Africa Pied Wagtail White- throated Bee Eater Carmine Bee-Eater Little Bee-Eater Black kite Common rock thrush Ashy Flycatcher Spotted Flycatcher yellow-billed stork Amethyst Sunbird purple banded sunbird Olive sunbird Purple-breasted Sunbird Scarlet-chested Sunbird red-tailed ant thrush eastern nicator, Whimbrel Helmeted Guineafowl Waller's starling Green-headed oriole Eurasian Golden Oriole African golden oriole Black-headed Oriole black and white cuckoo Thick-billed Cuckoo Grey-headed Sparrow green wood hoopoe Dark backed Weaver Golden Palm Weaver Black headed Weaver Clark's weaver lesser-masked weaver spectacled weaver African Golden Weaver Greater Flamingo Fischer's Greenbul

Oriolus Oriolus Oriolus Oxylophus Pachycoccyx Passer Phoeniculus Ploceus Ploceus Ploceus Ploceus Ploceus Ploceus Ploceus Phoenicopterus Phyllastrephus

Phyllastrephus Pluvialus Poeoptera Poicephalus Pogoniulus Polyboroides Prionops Prionops Pyconotus Quelea Rhinopomastus Scopus Serinus Stactolaema Sterna Streptopelia Tauraco Telecanthura Terathopius Terpsiphone Threskiornis Tockus Treron Turdoides Turdus Turtur Turtur Uraeginthus Vidua Xenus

terrestris squatarola kenricki cryptoxanthus bilineatus t. typus retzii scopifrons barbatus erythrops cyanomelas schalowi u. umbretta mozambicus o. olivacea dougalli bangsi semitorquata fischeri ussheri stricilaema ecaudutus viridis a. aethiopicus alboterminatus geloensis calva gebberifroms jardineii tephronotus chalcospilos tympanistra bengalus macroura cinereus

Terrestrial brownbul Grey Plover Kenrick's starling Brown headed parrot Yellow-rumped Tinkerbird African Harrier-Hawk Retz's helmet shrike Chestnut-fronted Helmet-Shrike Common Bulbul Red-headed Quelea Common Scimitarbill Hamerkop Yellow-fronted canary Green Barbet Roseate Tern Red-eyed Dove Fischer's Turaco Mottled Spinetail Bateleur African Paradise Flycatcher Sacred Ibis Crowned Hornbill African green pigeon arrow-marked babler, African bare-eyed thrush Emerald-spotted Wood Dove Tambourine Dove Red-cheeked Cordon Bleu Pin-tailed Whydah Terek Sandpiper

Appendix IV – Mammals (GSK & GVI)
Genus Colobus Cercopithecus Papio Species angolensis palliatus nictitans albogularis cynocephalus Common name Angolan Black and White Colobus Sykes monkey Yellow Baboon

Cercopithecus Galago Otolemur Genetta Felis Ichneumia Mungos Hystrix Cephalophus Madoqua Neotragus Neotragus Tragelaphus Rhynchocyon Heliosciurus Paraxerus Thryonomys Cricetomys Taphozous Myotis Potamocherus

aethiops senegalensis garnettii spp aurata albicauda mungo cristata harveyi kirkii Batesi moschatus scriptus delameri petersi undulatus palliatus swinderianus gambianus hildegardeae spp spp

Vervet Monkey Lesser Bush Baby Short eared galago Genet (common or blotched) African golden cat White-tailed Mongoose Banded mongoose Crested porcupine Harvey's Duiker Kirk's Dik-dik Dwarf Antelope Suni Bushbuck Zanj Elephant Shrew Zanj sun squirrel Red bellied coast squirrel Cane Rat Giant pouched rat Hildegaard's Tomb Bat Hairy bat Bush pig

Appendix V – Reptiles (GSK & GVI)
Genus Hemirhaggerrhis Bitis Causus Chamaeleo Dendroaspis Dendroaspis Dispholydus Gerrhosaurus Hemidactylus Kenixys Kinixys Lygodactylus Mabuya Mabuya Naja Species nototaenia arietans defilippil dilepsis Angusticeps polylepsis typus spp. mabouia spekii belliana luteopicturatus maculilabris varia mossambica Common name Bark Snake Puff adder Snouted Night Adder Flap-neck Chameleon Green mamba Black mamba Boomslang Greater Plated Lizard Tropical house Gecko Speke's Hinged Tortoise Bell’s hinged tortoise Yellow headed dwarf gecko Speckled lipped Skink Variable skink Mozambique Spitting Cobra

Philothamnus Psammophis Rhampholeon Thelothornis Varanus Gerrhosaurus Thelotornis Python

punctatus subtaeniatus brevicaudatus capensis salvator Flavigularis mossambicanus sebae

Speckled Green Snake Striped sand snake Bearded/Short-tailed Pygmy-chameleon Vine snake Nile monitor lizard Yellow-throated plated lizard Eastern twig snake Central African rock python

Appendix VI – Kaya Shrines and Monuments
1. Panga za Ngamba This Kaya is located on the coastline of the Shimoni and Anzwani forests. The name means ‘flippers of the turtle’ as it is known that turtles come and nest on the beach- protection of the Kaya will also be conservation value. Many caves located on this coastline are sacred Kaya’s. This is a peaceful place and used for prayers. Gifts for the ancestors are left at the Kaya when it is visited by the Digo elders. 2. Pua za Ngamba

This Kaya is located 100m west of the previous Kaya and is also a coastal cave. Its name means ‘nose of the turtle’ due to the presence of turtles and the shape of the cave. The cave is a peaceful place and used for prayers. It has been a known Kaya for as long as the elders can remember. 3. Pangani Shrine

This shrine is located within the mangrove forest near to where the forest ends, close to Anzwani village. The ‘owner’ of the shrine is a black snake. This snake is a god in animal form and takes on many different forms depending on why you have visited the shrine. He can be very scary at times. Offers are left for the ‘owner’ of the shrine in the form of money, bottles containing rose or honey water. The age of the shrine is shown by how old the glass bottles, some are not made anymore. Animals including goats were made as sacrifices at this shrine. The shrine is used when someone has betrayed you or your family. People would ask for people to be killed as they were bad people and were causing bad things to happen to their family or village. This person would then become ill. To prevent themselves from dying, they would have to

go to the Kaya and ask the gods for forgiveness by gifts or sacrifices. This person would then realise the badness he has caused and become good.

4. Msegeju Kibanda Hongo

This shrine is located within coral rag of the mangrove forests. It is located where mangrove poles are harvested. Many mangrove poles are taken from this area and it is claimed that this is regulated by the forestry department. The local people don’t believe it is regulated effectively or enforced. The Kaya is for praying only and no sacrifices are made here. It is a very peaceful, but powerful place. Although mangroves are harvested here, the mangrove trees located within the Kaya are not. If anybody tries to cut mangroves from within the shrine the gods become angry. The person who cuts the mangrove begins to get sick and dies. A few years ago, it was told that a man from another village cut a tree down from within the shrine to repair his boat. A few days later he became sick from a mysterious illness and died within a week. No one has cut a tree down from this area since.

5.

Gizani Shrine

This shrine is located between Anzwani and Shimoni forests and is very difficult to locate. It is a coral rag cave that offered the local community shelter in times of colonial war. When war hit, the community would run down into the cave, where the cave would hide them and keep them safe. The shrine is used for prayers. Because it offered safety to the ancestors, people pray at this Kaya to ask for help in times of drought or bad harvest. Sacrifices in the form of goats were also made here.

6.

Kwadege Shrine

This Kaya is located deep within the northern side of the forest and is the central power of all the Kayas within the area. The Kaya has three flags, one red, one white and one blue to show the location of this Kaya. It is the most powerful of all Kayas and one of the most important. To the west of the Kaya is a large tree called Mukundi. This showed the entry point to the Kaya and the point where you are to remove your shoes in terms of respect for the ancestors and because it is a holy place. This Kaya should never be entered alone, an elder must always accompany the young. The Kayas have strong powers and there are ways to enter a Kaya and pray. This Kaya is more than 100 years old and the elders hold great respect for the area.

7.

Mjimwiru Shrine

The shrine’s name means ‘black village’ as many year’s ago a village resided here. The Kaya contains a very deep well which was the village’s water supply. Legend has it that if you enter the well you come to large beach, where lives the owner of the shrine. The owner of this Kaya is a large female snake with long plaits. To get help from the Kaya you must enter the well and meet face to face with the snake, this can be very overwhelming and the person must prepare themselves before entering. You can ask her for strength and motivation to invent or start a business. This shrine is used by the Mijikenda tribes, and the village that used to reside here was called Milongeni village. Shoes were removed before entering the shrine and a ritual cleansing process had to be followed before entering the shrine. This consisted of splashing water from the well onto your feet with leaves and chanting a prayer by the mzee; “These are our visitors, they are just visiting, when they go back give them fair well, good health, don’t make them suffer, these are good people and our friends”. You then chew on a small amount of mud from the well and spit it out as part of the cleansing process. There was also an entry point to the Kaya called Mvungunya. It is not allowed for women to enter if she is menstruating and bleeding as she is declared unclean.

8.

Kiliko cha nfani

This Kaya is located at the mangrove forest edge. The name means ‘the path of the monkey’, as the sykes monkeys and the yellow baboons are seen crossing through the trees. The Kaya is used for prayers.

9.

Jiwe la chambi

This Kaya is located within a cave in the coral rag in the mangrove forest. It is a peaceful place and used for prayers and gifts.

10.

Waga Village

Many years ago, a village called ‘Waga’ resided within the forest. The village consisted of the Digo tribe ancestors and they still come here to pay their respects to their ancestors.

11.

Kaya ya Waga

The Kaya was named as the people of Waga village would use this place for prayers. It is a very beautiful place and known for its many butterflies.

12.

Ancient Burial Ground

Many burial grounds are located throughout the forest. They are now sacred places where the spirits of the ancestors are worshipped and respected.

13.

Ziwani

A Kaya located on the southern coastal edge of the forest. The Kaya is used for prayers.

14. Kizwiani A cave Kaya located on the southern coastline.

15. Mhazi and Maumbi These two Kayas are also caves located on the coastline. They were unable to be reached at the time due to the incoming tide but are known to be used regularly.

16. Shunzulanzi This Kaya is an island located off the southern coastline. The Kaya is made up of two parts; the island itself, and a cave opposite. The island is known as Jabali cage, as it is the devils judgement area. This is used for prayers to ask for forgiveness and protection from the devil.

17. Ukunbi Mkuu

18. Kwa Gopha

19. Mwauomba The three shrines above are also located within the Shimoni forest, however were not visited on this occasion as there was not enough time. In addition to the Kaya’s the elders were asked about their forest and the importance of it to them.

Appendix VII - Recorded Clearings in Shimoni East Forest

2006

2007

2008

2009