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CONSERVATION STATUS AND THREATS

FACING SHIMONI FOREST


April 2010
CONTENTS

1. Introduction

2. Ecological Importance of Shimoni Forests (East and West)


2.1 Flagship species
2.2 Forest Biodiversity
2.2.1 Plants
2.2.2 Mammals
2.2.2.1 Angolan black and white Colobus
2.2.2.2 African Golden Cat
2.2.2.3 Zanj Elephant Shrew
2.2.3 Insects
2.2.4 Birds
2.2.5 Reptiles

3 Socio-Economic Importance of Shimoni Forests (East and West)


3.1 Fishing Materials
3.2 Construction Materials
3.3 Fuel
3.4 Medicinal Uses
3.5 Kaya Shrines and Cultural Heritage

4 Threats to Shimoni Forests


4.1 Charcoal Burning
4.2 Illegal Logging and Timber Extraction
4.3 Encroachment from Agriculture
4.4 Development of Coastal Plots
4.5 Fragmentation of the Forest Areas
4.6 Unsustainable Resource Use
4.7 Poaching

5 Impacts and Consequences of Continued Forest Destruction


5.1 Soil Erosion
5.2 Poor Drainage
5.3 Loss of the Kayas
5.4 Loss of Natural Resources
5.5 Loss of Biodiversity
5.6 Environmental Disruption

6 Actions So Far
6.1 Reports and Petitions
6.2 Tourist Trail
6.3 Friends of Shimoni Forest Scholarship Fund
6.4 Tree Nurseries and Reforestation
6.5 Alternative Charcoal
7 Recommendations and Requirements
7.1 Gazetting / Protection of Shimoni Forests
7.2 Community Management
7.3 Assistance in Continued Conservation and Community Initiatives

8 Contacts

9 Bibliography

10 Appendices
1. Introduction

The lowland coastal forests of the Shimoni peninsula and Wasini Island form a thin strip
of ‘coral rag forest’, officially labelled Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane (Z-I) Lowland
Coastal Forest, also known as the Coastal Forest Mosaic due to the high number of
small fragmented forest patches it contains. It is a small yet vital part of the East African
Coastal Forests Ecoregion.

The Eastern Africa Coastal Forests Ecoregion (EACFE) extends from Somalia in the
north to Mozambique in the south. This ecoregion is one of the smallest of the 25 Global
Biodiversity Hotspots recognised by Conservation International, and ranks first among
the 25 hotspots in the density of endemic plant and vertebrate animal species. By
definition, a hotspot has already lost at least 70% of its original natural vegetation. The
Coastal Forest Mosaic is considered as the hotspot most likely to suffer the most plant
and vertebrate extinction for a given loss of habitat and as one of 11 “hyperhot” priorities
for conservation investment (Brooks et al., 2000). Due to its limited area, the density of
endemic species in the EACFE is among the highest in the world.

The specialised flora that is found in these habitats supports and sustains rare and
endemic species which are of particular interest to biological conservation. Additionally,
the indigenous forest provides a vital natural resource to surrounding communities and
has the potential to support alternative sustainable livelihoods through responsible
tourism. This forest zone is formed on ancient coral reef exposed by falling sea levels,
leaving limestone rock covered by relatively shallow soils and in turn favours shallow
roots systems of trees reducing stability. This renders these forest habitats highly
susceptible to erosion processes exacerbating the risk posed by deforestation in the
wider Shimoni area. Increased sedimentation from soil erosion, in conjunction with
diminishing mangrove forests poses a significant risk to adjacent marine ecosystems
such as coral reefs and marine species that utilise these habitats.
2. Ecological Importance of Shimoni Forests (east and west)

2.1 Flagship Species

Shimoni Forests are listed as #129 in a list of 160 Key Biodiversity Areas for the EACFE
hotspot, and are known to host one bird species listed as “critically endangered” by the
International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red
List: the Spotted ground thrush (Zoothera guttata fischeri) and at least 2 species listed
as “Vulnerable”: a mammal, Hildegarde’s Tomb Bat (Taphozous hildegardeae) and a
plant, Coffea pseudozanguebariae. Furthermore there are 6 species listed as near-
threatened or threatened that are present in Shimoni’s forests: the Southern banded
snake-eagle (Ciraetus fasciolatus), Fischer’s turaco (Tauraco f. fischeri), Plain-backed
sunbird (Anthreptes reichenowi), Uluguru violet-backed sunbird (Anthreptes neglectus),
Zanj elephant shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi) and the African golden cat (Felis aurata).
Within Shimoni’s forests there is also an array of unlisted yet threatened species which
are of great conservation and scientific interest, and could serve as flagship species.
Primarily an East African subspecies of the Angolan black and white colobus (Collobus
angolensis palliatus)

2.2 Forest Biodiversity

Due to the fragmentation of forest patches within the Coastal Forest Mosaic, the
distribution of endemic species within this area merits special consideration. Firstly,
there are many disjunct distributions, particularly among the birds and the plants.
Secondly, there is a huge turnover of species between patches, especially in the less
mobile species. Forests that are only 100km apart can differ in 70% of their millipedes
(Hoffman, 2000) and in 80% of their plants (Clarke et al. 2000).
2.2.1 Plants

Figure 2-1 Recording Sites and Vegetation Zones – Shimoni (Luke, 1999)

The species outcomes are based on the 2002 IUCN Red List (Table 2-1.), and 2009
IUCN Red List or Coastal Forest Survey (CFS; Robetson & Luke, 1993) (Table 2-2.)
Although sufficient for several taxonomic groups it is in need of revision for plants
(CEPF, 2001). It includes some widespread plant species in this hotspot, others that are
in far greater danger of extinction because their restricted ranges have not yet been
assessed (Q. Luke pers. comm.).

Among the 273 species recorded in Shimoni area by Luke (1999) (see Appendix I), 24
species have some form of rarity status (Table 2-1). Four were considered rare in the
world, namely Barleria whytei, Indigofera tanganyikensis var paucijuga, Manilkara sp aff
discolor and Queenslandiella sp aff hyalina. Fourteen other species were rare in Kenya
but occur elsewhere, while six others are rare on the Kenyan coast but occur elsewhere
in Kenya or outside the country. From the 83 confirmed species (GVI) (see Appendix 1)
and updated status reports on some of the species recorded in 1999 (Metcalfe, 2009), 2
species are considered endemic to Zanzibar-Inhambane forests and one other region,
whilst 7 species are considered fully Zanzibar-Inhambane endemic. Baleria whytei is
endemic to the Kenyan Coast whilst maintaning it’s globally rare status, and Coffea
pseudozanguebariae is considered globally vulnerable. Milicia excelsa and Uvaria
lucida, are considered lower risk, near threatened and least concerned respectively.
Taking into account the sample area used by GVI, some of the species that were not
recorded in the more recent surveys should not be dismissed as absent, but should
remain included in the total species listed as rare or endemic to the area.

Table 2-1 Rare and Endemic Tree Species found in the study area of Shimoni (Luke,
1999)

Species Collectors No Rarity* Phytoge


o*
Amorphophallus maximus L&S 5839 RK 3
Barleria whytei L&S 5829 R 1
Chytranthus prieurianus ssp longiflorus L&S sr101 RK 2
Clerodendrum sansibarense ssp L&M sr184 RK 4
sansibarense
Cyphostemma buchananii L&M sr163 RKC 3
Desmodium tortuosum L&M 5856B RK 5
Dictyophleba lucida L&R Sr RK 4
Dioscorea quartiniana var quartiniana L&M sr152 RKC 5
Garcinia volkensii L&M sr153 RKC 4
Hibiscus physaloides L&M sr151 RK? 5
Indigofera tanganyikensis var L&M 5857 R 1X
paucijuga
Ipomoea shupangensis L&S sr053 RK 4
Lasiodiscus pervillei ssp pervillei L&a 5940 RK 5
Macphersonia gracilis var hildebrandtii L&M 5846A RK 5
Manilkara sp aff discolour L&S 5841 R? 1/3
Microcoelia physophora L&M sr111 RK 5
Momordica henriquesii L&M sr168 RK 2
Nervilia petraea L&M sr105 RK 4
Ochna macrocalyx L&M 5847 RK 4?
Olea woodiana L&M 5845 RK 2
Psiadia punctulata L&R 2675 RKC 5
Queenslandiella sp aff hyalina L&M 5850 R? 2?
Tricalysia pallens L&M 5848 RKC 4
Vepris simplicifolia L&S sr037 RKC 3
The phytogeographic and rarity codes are determined as follows:-
Phytogeography
1 restricted to Kenya Coastal Districts within the area of the Zanzibar-Inhambane Regional
Mosaic (Z-I), ie a true Kenya coastal (moist) endemic.

1X restricted to Kenya Coastal Districts within the area of the Somali – Maasai Regional Centre of
Endemism (S-M), ie a true Kenya coastal (dry) endemic.

2 restricted to Z-I in general, ie moist K7,T3, T6, T8, Z, P and Mozambique; a true Z-I endemic

2X restricted to S-M, ie drier K7, K1, K4 (part), Somalia (excl Z-I), Ethiopia (part); a true S-M
endemic.

3 restricted to Z-I plus one other in Africa ie Z-I and Afromontane (A-M), or S-M plus one other,
ie S-M plus Sudanian; a near endemic.

4 found in three or more phytochoria in Africa; afrotropical.

5 found beyond Africa; palaeotropical or pantropical.

(#), / show distribution of closest taxon where determination is not definite.

? used if plant not fully identified or there is insufficient or doubtful distribution data

NB: K7, K4, T3, T6,T8, etc refer to the phytogeographic regions used in the Flora of
Tropical East Africa.
Rarity

Ext? EXTINCT?

R RARE in a world sense, less than 5 localities worldwide. Distribution outside CFS area known or
if uncertain then R?.

RK RARE KENYA, less than 5 localities in Kenya, but occurs elsewhere. May actually be ‘R’ but
data outside Kenya uncertain or unavailable.

RKC RARE KENYA COAST, less than 5 localities within CFS area but occurs elsewhere in Kenya
and outside. May be ‘RK’ but data outside this area are uncertain or unavailable. Note: Many
taxa achieve this rating because they just enter CFS area at Kora or are under-collected.

Table 2-2 Rare and Endemic Tree Species found in the study area of Shimoni (Metcalfe
2009)

Phytpgeographical IUCN, CFS


Species region 1 status 2
Angylocalyx braunii ZI-E
Anisocycla blepharosepala ZI-E
Baleria whytei KCE R
Coffea pseudozanguebariae ZI-E VU
Fernandoa magnifica ZI+1
Lannea schweinfurthii ZI-E
Lannea welwitschii ZI-E
Milicia excelsa PA LR/NT
Macphersonia gracilis hildebrandtii PT RK
Rinorea arborea ZI+1
Uvariodendron kirkii ZI-E VU
Uvaria lucida ? LC
Vangueria randii ZI-E
Vepris simplicifolia PA RKC

1
. PA, Pan African; PT, Pan Tropical; ZI-E, Zanzibar-Inhambane Endemic; ZI+1,
Zanzibar-Inhambane + one other region; KCE, Kenya Coast Endemic; U, Unassigned

2
. VU, Vulnerable; NT, Near Th reatened; LR/NT, Lower Risk Near Threatened; LC, Least
Concern (not a Red List status but rather ndicates that the species has RK, Rare Kenya;
RKC, Rare Kenya Coast; AI, Alien Invasive; EXS, Exotic Species (Robetson & Luke, 1993).
been assessed and is not under any threat of extinction); DD, Data Defi cient (IUCN,
2001). R, Rare;

2.2.2 Mammals

2.2.2.1 Angolan black and white colobus


The Angolan black and white Colobus monkey is one of five species of black and white
Colobus found in Africa and represents a flagship species for Kenya’s coastal forests. C.
a. Palliatus is an East African subspecies and has a discontinuous distribution from the
southern coastal and gallery forests of eastern Tanzania, into south-eastern Kenya. Its
Kenya distribution runs from the Tanzanian border, to the border between Kwale District
and Mombasa town (Anderson, 2007), having already been exterminated from coastal
forests North of Mombasa.

C. a. palliatus is an arboreal folivore that exhibits a preference for mature leaves and
unripe fruits. They have an enlarged fore-stomach to tackle the low levels of protein and
high levels of fibre associated with this diet (Fimbel et al 2001). Their unique dietary
specialisations enable the species to live at exceptionally high densities for primates,
enabling viable populations to be maintained in fragmented indigenous forest patches.
However their dependence on continuous tree cover and poor ability to disperse
between forest patches render them particularly susceptible to habitat loss and localised
extinctions. In parts of their range they are also hunted for bush meat and their pelts.
The species is currently listed as ‘Data Deficient’ on the IUCN Red List, however a lack
of knowledge on population status and distribution of C. a. palliatus, together with the
unique coastal forest system, has led the Species Survival Commission (SSC) African
Primate Conservation action plan to recommend a stringent management plan to
conserve the remaining forest areas in the region.

In 2001, Anderson (2001) conducted a census on the distribution and population of C. a.


palliatus within Kenya. The largest population was found within the Shimba Hills National
Reserve, closely followed by forests located within the Diani and Shimoni areas. GVI
has been conducting primate surveys in Shimoni forest (east) targeting C.a.palliatus
since 2006, focusing on density, population size and distribution. Surveys are
conducted using distance sampling techniques and are analysed using the population
estimation program ‘Distance 5.0’ (Thomas et al 2006). Surveys are conducted four
times per year. Tables 2-3, 2-4 and 2-5 below summarise the findings.

2007
Value SE 95% confidence interval
2
D (Ha ) 0.835 0.192 0.501 1.392
N 184 42.4 110 306
mean cluster
size 4.28 0.31
Table 2-3 showing the results of primate community surveys conducted in Shimoni east forest in
2007. D = density per squared hectare, N = estimated population size of colobus

2008
95% confidence
Value SE interval
D (Ha2) 0.65 0.514 0.088 0.334
N 143 44.83 73 282
mean cluster size 3.85 0.364
Table 2-4 showing the results of primate community surveys conducted in Shimoni east forest in
2008. D = density per squared hectare, N = estimated population size of colobus
2009
95% confidence
Value SE interval
D (Ha2) 0.911 0.158 0.165 0.328
N 200 34.7 139 288
mean cluster size 3.53 0.2
Table 2-5 showing the results of primate community surveys conducted in Shimoni east forest in
2009. D = density per squared hectare, N = estimated population size of colobus

Figure 2-2 showing the density estimates of C.a.palliatus from 2007 to 2009
Figure 2-3 showing population estimates of C.a.palliatus from 2007 to 2009

The density estimates for 2008 have particularly large errors involved. This is due to a
lack of data, because GVI shut down and discontinued research from January until July
due to the post-election violence.

It can be seen that the population estimate for C.a.palliatus is between 143 and 200
individuals. In 2007 GVI and Go See Kenya (GSK) surveyed Shimoni forest (west) and
recorded 192 individuals. When these figures are combined, it is clear that the Shimoni
forests hold an incredibly important population of this rare and threatened primate
species.

Furthermore, with populations in Diani falling in recent years this places Shimoni
amongst the top two highest populations of C. a. palliatus within Kenya, and potentially
the most important population for conservation of the species outside of the protected
Shimba Hills National Reserve.
2.2.2.2 African Golden Cat
The African golden cat (Felis aurata) is a threatened species of which very little is
known. Their distribution is thought to be across central Africa with small, vulnerable
populations in west and east Africa. Little is known about their habits, home ranges,
social structure or behavior. There have been possible sightings in Arabuko Sokoke
forest north of Mombasa and Shimba Hills National Park. In April 2010, there was a
possible sighting of this predator in Shimoni forest (east) during a night walk conducted
by GVI.
GVI are currently designing survey techniques for this animal in Shimoni forest (east) so
that confirmation of its presence can be obtained. If this animal is found in Shimoni
forests, it could have huge impacts on the conservation status of the area, potential for
groundbreaking research of international importance, and a significant tourism potential
for the area.

2.2.2.3 Zanj elephant shrew


Another key flagship species is the Zanj elephant Shrew (Rhynchocyon petersi),
measuring 235-315mm, with orange forequarters, graduating to a deep red with a black
rump. The elephant shrews, also termed ‘sengi’, represent a unique and ancient lineage
of mammals, endemic to the African continent. IUCN have listed them as rare and
threatened with action plans to determine their current range and densities, and
appropriate conservation measures. This species is “Data Deficient” and restricted to the
coastal forests of Kenya and Tanzania. The species is endemic to the area and it is also
thought to serve as an indicator for the health and status of forest habitats in East Africa.
There have been 212 sightings of R. petersi in Shimoni forest east (data from GVI’s
casual observations surveys conducted from 2006 to the present). In Arabuko-Sokoke
Forest, the Golden rumped elephant shrew, Rhychocyon chrysopygus is one of the
flagship species for the forest, and with more research conducted on R. petersi, the
same would apply to the Shimoni forest, which could take on global importance in the
conservation of this species.

With 24 species of mammal identified (see Appendix IV), including larger mammals such
as the bush pig (Potamochoerus larvatus) and bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus),
Shimoni’s forests continue to maintain important levels of mammalian biodiversity and
future research on small mammals such as rodents, shrews and bats may well reveal
important populations of these diverse and less well known taxonomic groups.

2.2.3 Insects

Butterflies (Order: Lepidoptera) offer an excellent indicator taxon of plant species


diversity, habitat diversity and disturbance levels. Through casual observation, butterfly
canopy traps and butterfly sweep nets, a total of 50 species have been recorded in
Shimoni forests (see Appendix II), one of which (Charaxes protoclea azota) is typically a
rainforest species and a rarity in coastal forests.
There are millions of other insect species that inhabit the forests of Shimoni, which are
vital to the areas ecosystem as a whole, and many that are endemic to the east African
coast. Currently there is no research being conducted into insect species other than that
of butterflies and therefore there is no data to present.

2.2.4 Birds

Part of the Coastal Forest Mosaic is an “Endemic Bird Area”, as defined by BirdLife
International (WWF East Africa Conservation Action Plan 2005-2010). When the
sightings from GVI’s bird surveys and visits from Go See Kenya and ornithologists from
BirdLife International, 145 species of bird have been positively identified in Shimoni
forests (see Appendix III), 4 of which are recognised as threatened species, and one
which is critically endangered i.e. very close to extinction.

Globally threatened bird species found in Shimoni forests: IUCN status


Spotted ground thrush (Zoothera guttata fischeri) Critically endangered
Fischer’s Turaco (Tauraco fischeri) Near-threatened
Southern-Banded Snake Eagle (Circaetus fasciolatus) Near-threatened
Plain-backed sunbird (Anthreptes reichenowi) Threatened

Regionally threatened bird species found in Shimoni forests: IUCN status


Uluguru Violet-backed Sunbird (Anthreptes neglectus) Vulnerable
2.2.5 Reptiles
Reptile diversity is represented by 23 provisionally identified species, though casual
observation and further research is needed to contribute scientific data on distribution
and inter-specific relationships of this taxonomic group (see Appendix V).

3. Socio-Economic Importance of Shimoni Forests (east and west)

The coastal forests found within the Shimoni area are of huge importance to the local
communities. They provide a number of critical resources for the people that reside in
these areas, as well as support key environmental processes that provide a much wider
area with necessities such as rainfall.

3.1 Fishing Materials


98% of all men in the Shimoni / Wasini area are fishermen and rely heavily on this
occupation to provide food and income for their families. The primary methods of fishing
in the area include that of traps and traditional line fishing. The materials used to
construct the traditional canoes, traps and rods all come from Shimoni’s forests, and the
loss of this resource would render construction of these tools nearly impossible without
costly transport.

3.2 Construction Materials


The poles and timber that the local people harvest from the forest are used for a large
number of purposes, from construction of traditional housing and roofing, construction of
modern roofing, construction of shambas, furniture, doors and other construction
activities. Wood is the primary material used in these communities.

3.3 Fuel
The communities within the Shimoni / Wasini area rely almost entirely on open fires for
cooking. The use of firewood gathered from the forests is predominant, although
charcoal is fast becoming the primary fuel source; and one that is also sourced from the
forest areas. If fuel for fires becomes distant or costly, it will increase the cost of living
for the entire population.
3.4 Medicinal Uses
The use of traditional medicines and remedies is still prominent within these
communities, with many species of tree and plant being collected and used for these
purposes.

3.5 Kaya Shrines and Cultural Heritage


According to local traditions, the forests historically sheltered small fortified villages. The
sites of original settlements were maintained by communities (led by elders) as sacred
places of ritual and burial grounds. Destruction of vegetation around these sites was
prohibited so as to preserve the surrounding Kaya forest as a screen or buffering
environment for the clearings. Since 1992, the Kenyan Government has gazetted a
number of them as national monuments, with assistance from the well-known Kaya
project of the Coastal Forest Conservation Unit (CFCU) of the National Museums of
Kenya (CEPF ecosystem profile). None of the Kayas within the Shimoni Forests have
been gazetted or offered protective status of any kind. Recognition of the Kaya sites
(described in Appendix VI) within Shimoni forests would provide protection of the Kayas
that are of significant cultural and religious importance to local communities.

The people using the Kayas belong to the Digo tribe, a large tribe present from Shimoni
to the North coast of Kenya. This tribe use the Kayas regularly, even today, and have
been for generations. The Kayas have been passed down to them from their
grandfathers and hold a great amount of cultural significance. Each Kaya has a different
meaning and used in a different way. The elders of the Digo tribe that use the Kayas do
so out of respect for their cultural and religious beliefs, and their ancestors. The Kayas in
Shimoni and Anzwani forest are described below in Appendix VI.
During colonial period and time of war, the forest acted as areas of shelter where
communities could hide from their enemies, and the local people say the spirits used to
make the forest dark so the enemy could not locate them.
4. Threats to Shimoni Forests

The principal threats to the survival of Shimoni forest and biodiversity conservation
include charcoal burning, commercial timber cutting, poaching of wildlife, poorly
regulated allocation of land to private landowners, private and commercial development
and slash-and-burn clearance for agriculture.

4.1 Charcoal Burning


Before 2007 no charcoal pits were observed by GVI during disturbance surveys. Since
2007, charcoal pits have been encountered increasingly frequently. Figure 4-1 shows
the number of charcoal pits recorded on GVI’s Shimoni east transects from 2006 to
2009.

Figure 4-1 showing the number of charcoal pits recorded on GVI’s Shimoni east transects from 2006
to 2009

Following on from the above graph, during the final months of 2009 and the beginning of
2010 a further 22 charcoal pits have been observed. If these observations are expanded
out across the entire survey area, the number of charcoal pits would be alarming.

Charcoal burning is a highly inefficient form of resource use and fuel production. During
the production process, approximately 80% of the energy in the wood is lost. This
process (primarily the earth-mound kiln), is also highly destructive, as only mature
hardwood trees are selected and felled, creating large clearings. These specific trees
are known to be the preferred feeding, resting and socialising trees for many primate
and bird species.

4.2 Illegal Logging and Timber Extraction


Another major threat to the forest of the Shimoni area is that of logging and timber
extraction, which is done using power saws. Mature hardwood trees are selected and
felled using power saws, and then the wood is cut into planks to be used for timber.
Friends of Shimoni Forest have demanded to see permits of those conductng such
activities in the past, and have never seen one produced. This leads to the conclusion
that this is being done illegally. The way in which the trees are felled is highly inefficient
and destructive, with at least three quarters of the tree going to waste in most cases.
Figure 4-2 shows the number of pitsaws found on GVI’s Shimoni east transects from
2006 to 2009.

Figure 4-2 showing the number of pitsaws found on GVI’s Shimoni east transects from 2006 to 2009

During the same disturbance surveys conducted in Shimoni east forest, cut poles and
timber were recorded. A pole is a young tree with a diameter of between 5-15cm, and
timber is a tree with a diameter greater than 15cm that has not been cut into planks (i.e.
is not a pitsaw). Table 4-1 below summarises the data collected from 2006 to 2009
along GVI’s Shimoni east transects.

Disturbance Type Quantity Lost


Old Timber 193
New Timber 11
Old Poles 733
New Poles 55

Mature trees lost 204


Young trees lost 788

Total of mature trees


lost in sample area 204
Extrapolated to: 204 x 45.44
Total of mature trees
lost in survey area 9271.8

Total of young trees lost


in sample area 788
Extrapolated to: 788 x 45.44
Total of young trees lost
in survey area 35814.6
Table 4-1 summarizing the data collected on cut poles and timber in Shimoni east from 2006 to 2009

Figure 4-3 below displays these results:


Figure 4-3 showing the estimated number of young and mature trees lost in Shimoni east forest from
2006 to 2009

It is clear from these results that a massive number of trees are being cut down for
various purposes, and the rate at which it is being done is unsustainable for a forest of
such a small size.

4.3 Encroachment from agriculture

Both Shimoni east and west forests are under considerable threat from the expansion of
Shimoni village. A large amount of survey area has been lost between 2006 and 2010
due to land clearance primarily for agriculture. Slash and burn tactics are the most
widely used. In 2010 alone, GVI has recorded approximately 40,000m2 of their survey
area on the western edge of Shimoni east forest as being totally cleared for agricultural
development. The soil in Shimoni’s forests is shallow and loose due to the presence of
the fossilised marine substrate, and is of poor agricultural quality. Large crop yields will
not be reached, and the lifespan of these areas for agricultural purposes will be short,
leaving the areas highly susceptible to desertification and soil erosion.

4.4 Development of Coastal Plots


In the last two years Shimoni east forest has seen a substantial increase in the level of
development along the southern and eastern coastline. These areas have been sold to
private landowners, and land clearance and development has increased exponentially.
At the end of 2007 there was one coastal area that had suffered clearance (22,500m2)
and there were no roads within the forested areas. At present, GVI have recorded 6
coastal areas of total land clearance (approximately 55,000m2), two major roads
(approximate width of 10m) and several smaller roads. Traffic along these roads is
increasing, primarily trucks carrying materials and workers to the sites. Friends of
Shimoni Forest have observed several laws being broken in these developments, such
as the lack of a buffer zone of trees and vegetation 30m from the high water mark. Not
adhering to these protocols will leave the coastline open to soil erosion. Figure 4-4
shows the extent of these developments, marked using GPS coordinates.

Figure 4-4 showing the coastal plots that are suffering clearance and development

4.5 Fragmentation of the Forest Areas

Due to the issues highlighted in section 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, the areas of total land
clearance in the Shimoni forests are increasing dramatically. As forest areas shrink and
fragmentation increases, species will come under greater pressure from reduction of
home ranges, increased competition for food resources and lack of suitable habitats.
Larger areas will succumb to soil erosion, there will be less vegetation to store water and
retain moisture, the adjacent marine life will come under greater threat and rainfall will
decrease. Table 4-2 summarises the data collected by GVI from 2006 to April 2010
regarding areas of total land clearance (total land clearance is defined as an area with
more than 80% of vegetation removed).

Location Area of Clearance (m)

N/S Spine
2
T1 to T2 150 x 100 = 15,000m

Transect: 1 2
250 x 150 = 37,500 m
Section: 2 to 6

Transect: 2 2
100 x 100 = 10,000 m
Section: 0 to 2
Transect: 2 2
50 x 150 = 7,500 m
Section: 25
Transect: 2 2
200 x 200 = 40,000m
Section: -2 to -6

Transect: 3 2
250 x 50 = 12,500 m
Section: 0 to 4
Transect: 3 2
30 x 80 = 2,400 m
Section: (-)13

Transect: 4 2
100 x 70 = 7,000 m
Section: (-)8 to (-)10

Transect: 5 2
40 x 25 = 1000 m
Section: 9
Transect: 5 2
60 x 55 = 3,300 m
Section: 17 and 18

Transect: 6 2
60 x 50 = 3000 m
Section: 11
Transect: 6 2
10 x 10 = 100 m
Section: 14
Transect: 6 2
10 x 50 = 500 m
Section: 19

Number of areas of
total land clearance in 13
sample area
2
TOTAL AREA 139,800m
% of total survey area
that has suffered 2.9
absolute clearance

It is worth noting that between 2006 and September 2009 only 1.8% of the survey area
was lost to total land clearance, followed by a further loss of 1.1% between September
2009 and April 2010. That is a dramatic increase in the rate at which areas are being
cleared, highlighting the threats that face this forest. Appendix VII shows four images,
highlighting the recorded clearing in Shimoni east forest in 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009.

4.6 Unsustainable Resource Use

The forests of the Shimoni area are a crucial resource for the local communities, and
one which they have an intrinsic right to use. However the rate at which the forest areas
are being depleted (through charcoal production, areas cleared for farmland, timber and
pole extraction etc.) is unsustainable. If one takes the area of land clearance from 2006
to April 2010 as an estimate of forest clearance, it can be estimated that in
approximately 33 years the whole of Shimoni east forest will have disappeared, leading
to disastrous consequences for future generations.

4.7 Poaching

Since 2006, GVI have recorded 16 snares found during disturbance surveys. This figure
does not include the many found during casual observations. Snaring wild animals is
illegal and traps and kills animals in an inhumane way.

5. Impacts and Consequences of Continued Forest Destruction

Other than the global impacts of deforestation on habitat loss, biodiversity shrinkages
and the problems of global climate change, deforestation in this area will bring many
direct, negative impacts to local communities that maintain a heavy socio-economic
dependence on natural resources.

5.1 Soil Erosion


The coral rag soils in Shimoni are very shallow and susceptible to erosion. Currently the
trees protect the soil from being washed away by rain and wind. Without sufficient
vegetation cover these soils will be vulnerable to erosion, and without a fertile top soil,
the potential for vegetation to rejuvenate here becomes increasingly unlikely.
Furthermore, eroded soil particles located near the coast-line in Shimoni East (Mbuyu
Tundu) forest will be washed into the sea, creating many problems for the health of the
adjacent protected Marine Park and its ecologically sensitive coral reef ecosystem. The
resident population of Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis), estimated at
between 20 and 25 individuals in the Wasini channel (Meyler & Felix, in press), feed
exclusively off reef fish, favouring near-shore habitats. If deforestation continues at its
current rate, increased sedimentation in the waters, in the absence of a sufficient
mangrove system to trap sediment, is likely to smother the fringing reef. This would
eliminate the dolphins’ food source, displacing the resident humpback dolphin
population. With the status of the species unknown along the rest of the Kenyan coast,
this would represent a significant failure of Kenya’s current commitment to cetacean
conservation, and impact on the dolphin-based tourism for which Shimoni and
surrounding communities are becoming increasingly economically-dependent.

5.2 Poor Drainage


Already in Shimoni, there are drainage problems during the rains, with some parts
becoming inaccessible after heavy rains. It is very likely that without vegetation cover to
absorb the rains there will be an increased amount of surface water in surrounding
villages. These temporary ponds provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes, potentially
increasing the prevalence of malaria. The recent outbreak of cholera in the Shimoni
area could be exacerbated in the future if there are large bodies of standing water. It will
also degenerate the aesthetic quality of the area for tourists.

5.3 Loss of the Kayas


Concern has also been raised for the future of the Kayas located within the forests, at
least one of which has reportedly been lost recently to development. In the absence of
responsible management and stakeholder participation, the cultural heritage of Shimoni
and surrounding communities will steadily be lost.

5.4 Loss of Natural Resources


The local people of this area have strong dependence on the natural resources of the
forest for many domestic uses including firewood for cooking, medicinal plants, food and
construction materials for homes, boats and furniture. Without sustainable management
of these resources, there will be future challenges for the ‘quality of living’ and socio-
economic status of local communities. Furthermore, if soil erosion leads to the damage
of reefs and marine life, the fish populations will be dramatically reduced, eliminating the
primary livelihood of the coastal communities.

5.5 Loss of Biodiversity


As this report has highlighted, the forest of Shimoni are a vital area for biodiversity, and
are of conservational value locally, nationally and internationally. There are many plant
and animal species that are threatened at some level, and many are not found anywhere
else in the world. The loss of these habitats will have significant impacts on their
chances of survival. East African coastal forests are often overshadowed by savannah
and marine habitats, yet are scientifically proven to be the most critical habitats for the
conservation of species in Africa.

5.6 Environmental Disruption


Forests are critical areas for environmental processes such as the water cycle. Moisture
is absorbed and retained in vegetation, and the released to form rain clouds. The loss of
large areas of forest will result in reduced rainfall across the wider region, having
significant negative effects on communities and wildlife. On a global scale, the loss of
forested areas is reducing the number of carbon sinks which lock compounds such as
greenhouse gases in their biomass, reducing the impact of climate change.

6. Actions So Far

In 2007 members of the Shimoni community who were concerned with the destruction of
the forest formed the community group Friends of Shimoni Forest (FSF). The aims of
the group are
• Continued research and monitoring
• Indigenous reforestation
• Conservation of biodiversity

6.1 Reports and Petitions


FSF have submitted the following reports and petitions to local and national
administrations:
• Conservation Status of Shimoni Forest (2007)
• Kaya Report and Petition to National Museums of Kenya (2007)
• Summary of Disturbance 2006-2009 (2009)
• Conservation Status and Threats Facing Shimoni Forest (2010)

No response has been received regarding any of the reports.

6.2 Tourist Trail


FSF have set out to create a tourist trail through Shimoni east forest. The majority of the
trail has been cut and various routes planned. The trail will start in Anziwani, where
tourists will be taken too see two of the Kayas. The trail will then follow the coast south
past the mangrove forests, and will then go south west towards the village of Shimoni
either via the road, or one of GVI’s transects. There are currently three community
members from Safe Shimoni Youth Group being trained as forest guides.

6.3 Friends of Shimoni Forest Scholarship Fund


FSF have been raising money via the website JustGiving for the implementation of their
initiatives. One of the main initiatives is the FSF-SF which is currently funding two
children through Shimoni Secondary school. FSF have a Memorandum of
Understanding with the family and the children. All applicants for the scholarship have
interviews with FSF to demonstrate their interest in conservation, and all applicants must
be an active member of their school Wildlife Club. The recipient and their family must
dedicate one day per term to helping FSF with conservation initiatives (e.g. tree planting,
trail cutting), and the recipients progress through secondary school is strictly monitored.

6.4 Tree Nurseries and Reforestation


FSF are beginning to start a project to create tree nurseries for the purpose of
indigenous reforestation. The tree nurseries will look to provide saplings that can be
replanted all across the Shimoni area, including school grounds, around villages and
within the forest. FSF are also looking to begin planting fast-growing trees that can be
harvested for poles and timber, reducing the pressure on the forest resources. In April
2010 FSF planted 32 Mbambakofi saplings in the village of Shimoni.

6.5 Alternative Charcoal


FSF are committed to eliminating the production of charcoal from the forest, and are
therefore researching forms of alternative charcoal. They have successfully managed to
get a charcoal briquette press donated and sent from the USA, and are now in the
process of planning the experimental stage. Once a sound method is established, with
readily available raw materials, FSF will set up training workshops specifically aimed at
charcoal burners. In time, this will hopefully replace the use of traditional charcoal and
make a huge step towards conserving what remains of the forest.

7. Recommendations and Requirements

7.1 Gazetting / Protection of Shimoni Forests


At present, none of the forested areas around Shimoni have any form of protective
status, which has allowed the unregulated sale of land and unmonitored destruction. If
some form of protective status is not granted, then the vital coastal forests of the
Shimoni area will be lost forever, seriously jeopardising Kenya’s flora and fauna and the
socio-economic status of the local communities. National administration and
governmental bodies must use all avenues possible to protect what is left of these
forested areas immediately, to safeguard the future of this unique area and its people.

7.2 Community Management


The local communities must be given the opportunity and the resources to become key
stakeholders in the preservation of Shimoni’s forests. If effective community
management status were obtained, research can be used to suggest management
protocols whereby resource use is acceptable at specified levels, and re-plantation
initiatives are utilised to ensure the long-term sustainability of forest resources for both
the human and wildlife communities. Additional forms of income may also be derived
from the forest through responsible tourism, the Angolan black and white Colobus
representing just one of the possible charismatic flagship species. Guided tours through
the forest would provide a source of sustainable revenue to supplement the successful
community fund initiatives of the Shimoni Slave Cave Committee.
Grassroots advocacy for conservation can help to prevent theft, invasion, encroachment
or development of sites with biodiversity value (Gordon & Ayiemba 2003). Many
excisions have in recent years been made in the name of squatters in the local
community, while the land was subsequently allocated to the well-connected. In such
situations, community protests can be more effective than the lobbying of city-based
NGO's. Local communities are also effective watchdogs, since they live next to
biodiversity sites and know most about what is going on in them.

7.3 Assistance in Continued Conservation and Community Initiatives


FSF and other community groups have demonstrated admirable determination and
responsibility with regards to initiatives covering conservation, wildlife, sanitation,
healthcare, education and income generation. More assistance should be provided for
the continuation and expansion of such activities, through access to funding, grant
applications, training, personnel, equipment and logistical support.

8. Contacts

Friends of Shimoni Forest:


• Mshemanga Hamisi Riziki
Chairman of Friends of Shimoni Forest
0728836784
• Athumani Fadhili Ali
Treasurer of Friends of Shimoni Forest
0721114559

GVI
• Graham Corti
Regional Director
graham@gviworld.com
• Andrew Hayes
Base Manager
Mkwiro@gviworld.com
• Zeno Wijtten
Terrestrial Science officer
Shimoni@gviworld.com

9. Bibliography

Anderson, J., Rowcliffe, J.M. & Cowlishaw, G. (2007). The Angola Black and White
Colobus (Colobus angolensis palliatus) in Kenya: Historical Range Contraction and
Current Conservation Status. American Journal of Primatology 69, 664-680.

Anderson, J. (2001) Status, Distribution and Conservation of the Angola Black and White
Colobus (Colobus Angolensis Palliatus) in Coastal Kenya. A report for Wakulazu,
Friends of the Colobus Trust, Diani Beach, Kenya

Bennun, L. & Njoroge, P., 1999. Important Bird Areas in Kenya. Published by Nature
Kenya. 318p.

Brooks, T.M., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Rylands,


Konstant, W.R., Flick, P., Pilgrim, J., Oldfield, S., Magin, G. & Hilton-Taylor, C. 2002.
Habitat Loss and Extinction in the Hotspots of Biodiversity. Conservation Biology 16:909-
923.

Clarke, G.P, Vollesen, K. & Mwasumbi, L.B., 2000. Vascular Plants. In The Coastal
Forests of Eastern Africa. Burgess N.D. & Clarke G.P eds. IUCN: Cambridge and Gland.
Pp 129-147.

Criticial Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF) Ecosystem Profile: Eastern Arc Mountains
and Coastal Forests of Tanzania & Kenya. Final version, July 2, 2003 (Updated March
2005). 118p.

Fimbel, C., Vedder, A., Dierenfeld, E., Mulindahabi, F. 2001. An ecological basis for
large group size in Colobus angolensis in the Nyungwe Forest, Rwanda. African Journal
of Ecology. 39, 83-92.
Gordon, I. & Ayiemba, W., 2003. Harnessing butterfly biodiversity for improving the
livelihoods and forest conservation: the Kipepeo Project. The Journal of Environment
and Development 12:82-98.

Hoffman, R.L. 2000. Millipedes. In The Coastal Forests of Eastern Africa. Burgess, N.D
& Clarke, G.P., eds. IUCN: Cambridge and Gland. Pp 211-218.

Karczmarski, L., Cockcroft, V.G and McLachlan, A. (2000). Habitat use and preferences
of Indo-pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in Algoa Bay, South Africa. Marine
Mammal Science 16:65-79.

Luke, Q., 1999. Vegetation and Floristic Baseline Study for Proposed Ship Loading
Facility in Shimoni, and Dongo Kundu. For Tiomin Resources Inc.
CFCU Report. 15p.

Metcalfe, 2009. Sacred sites as hotspots bor biodiversity; the Three Sisters Cave
complex in coastal Kenya. Fauna and Flora International, Oryx 44 (1), 118-123

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R.A., Mittermeier, C.G., da Fonseca, G.A.B., Kent, J. 2000.
Biodiversity hotpots for conservation priorities. Nature. 403, 853 – 858.

10. Appendices

Appendix I- Plants (Luke, 1999)

00 POLYPODIACEAE
Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm.f.)Pichi Serm.
008 ANNONACEAE
Annona senegalensis Pers. ssp senegalensis
Asteranthe asterias (S.Moore)Engl. & Diels ssp asteria
Monanthotaxis fornicata (Baill.)Verdc.
Monodora grandidieri Baill.
Ophrypetalum odoratum Diels
Sphaerocoryne gracilis (Engl. & Diels)Verdc.
Uvaria acuminata Oliv. forma?
Uvaria welwitschii (Hiern)Engl. & Diels
Uvariodendron kirkii Verdc.
Xylopia parviflora (A.Rich.)Benth.
023 MENISPERMACEAE
Cissampelos pareira L. var hirsuta (DC.)Forman
Tiliacora funifera (Miers)Oliv.
Tinospora oblongifolia (Engl.)Troupin
Triclisia sacleuxii (Pierre)Diels
036 CAPPARACEAE
Capparis viminea Oliv.?
Cladostemon kirkii (Oliv.)Pax & Gilg
Ritchiea capparoides (Andr.)Britten
Thilachium africanum Lour.
037 MORINGACEAE
Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn.
040 VIOLACEAE
Rinorea arborea (Thou.)Baill.
042 POLYGALACEAE
Carpolobia goetzei Guerke
Polygala kilimandjarica Chod.
056 PORTULACACEAE
Portulaca quadrifida L.?
063 AMARANTHACEAE
Aerva lanata (L.)Schultes
Psilotrichum sericeum (Roxb.)Dalz.
071 BALSAMINACEAE
Impatiens walleriana Hook.f.
072 LYTHRACEAE
Pemphis acidula J.R. & G.Forst.
074 SONNERATIACEAE
Sonneratia alba Sm.
081 THYMELAEACEAE
Synaptolepis kirkii Oliv.
093 FLACOURTIACEAE
Bivinia jalbertii Tul.
Grandidiera boivinii Jaub.
Ludia mauritiana Gmel.
101 PASSIFLORACEAE
Schlechterina mitostemmatoides Harms
103 CUCURBITACEAE
Eureiandra sp A of FTEA
Momordica henriquesii Cogn.
114 OCHNACEAE
Ochna macrocalyx Oliv.?
Ochna thomasiana Engl. & Gilg
118 MYRTACEAE
Eugenia capensis (Eckl. & Zeyh.)Sond. ssp multiflora
Verdc.
121 COMBRETACEAE
Combretum illairii Engl.
Combretum paniculatum Vent. ssp paniculatum
Terminalia boivinii Tul.
Terminalia sambesiaca Engl. & Diels
122 RHIZOPHORACEAE
Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.)Lam.
Ceriops tagal (Perr.)C.B.Robinson
Rhizophora mucronata Lam.
126 GUTTIFERAE (CLUSIACEAE)
Garcinia volkensii Engl.
Vismia orientalis Engl.
128 TILIACEAE
Carpodiptera africana Mast.
Corchorus olitorius L.
Grewia forbesii Mast.
Grewia plagiophylla K.Schum.
Grewia villosa Willd.
130 STERCULIACEAE
Melhania velutina Forssk.
Sterculia rhynchocarpa K.Schum.
Waltheria indica L.
131 BOMBACACEAE
Adansonia digitata L.
132 MALVACEAE
Abutilon zanzibaricum Mast.
Hibiscus physaloides Guill. & Perr.
Hibiscus vitifolius L. ssp vitifolius?
Sida acuta Burm.f.
133 MALPIGHIACEAE
Acridocarpus zanzibaricus (Loud.)A.Juss.
Triaspis mozambica A.Juss.
135 ERYTHROXYLACEAE
Erythroxylum emarginatum Thonn.
Nectaropetalum kaessneri Engl. var kaessneri
136 EUPHORBIACEAE
Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. var fruticosa
Acalypha neptunica Muell.Arg. var neptunica
Alchornea laxiflora (Benth.)Pax & K.Hoffm.
Bridelia cathartica Bertol.f.
Dalechampia scandens L. var cordofana (Webb)Muell.Arg.
Erythrococca kirkii (Muell.Arg.)Prain
Euphorbia tirucalli L.
Excoecaria madagascariensis (Baill.)Muell.Arg.
Flueggea virosa (Willd.)Voigt ssp virosa
Mallotus oppositifolius (Geisel.)Muell.Arg. var
oppositifolius forma ?
Mildbraedia carpinifolia (Pax)Hutch. var carpinifolia
Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn.
Phyllanthus reticulatus Poir.
Pycnocoma littoralis Pax
Ricinus communis L.
Suregada zanzibariensis Baill.
Synadenium pereskiifolium (Baill.)Guill.
Tragia furialis Bojer
144 DICHAPETALACEAE
Dichapetalum madagascariense Poir. var madagascariensis
Tapura fischeri Engl.
146 CAESALPINIACEAE
Caesalpinia bonduc (L.)Roxb.
Chamaecrista mimosoides (L.)Greene
Piliostigma thonningii (Schumach.)Milne-Redh.
Senna occidentalis (L.)Link
Senna siamea (Lam.)Irwin & Barnaby
Tamarindus indica L.
147 MIMOSACEAE
Albizia versicolor Oliv.
Dichrostachys cinerea (L.)Wight & Arn.
Leucaena latisiliqua (L.)Gillis
148 PAPILIONACEAE (FABACEAE)
Canavalia sp
Crotalaria laburnoides Klotzsch var laburnoides
Dalbergia vacciniifolia Vatke
Desmodium tortuosum (Sw.)DC.
Desmodium triflorum (L.)DC.
Erythrina sacleuxii Hua
Indigofera tanganyikensis Bak.f. var paucijuga Gillett
Indigofera trita L.f.
Millettia usaramensis Taub. ssp usaramensis var
Ormocarpum sennoides (Willd.)DC. ssp zanzibaricum
Brenan & Gillett
Sophora tomentosa L. ssp tomentosa
154 BUXACEAE
Buxus obtusifolia (Mildbr.)Hutch.
167 MORACEAE
Antiaris toxicaria Leschen. ssp welwitschii
(Engl.)C.C.Berg var usambarensis (Engl.)C.C.Berg
Ficus bubu Warb.
Ficus exasperata Vahl
Ficus lutea Vahl
Ficus natalensis Hochst.
Ficus polita Vahl ssp polita
Ficus scassellatii Pamp. ssp scassellatii
Ficus sur Forssk.
Ficus sycomorus L.
Ficus tremula Warb. ssp tremula
Milicia excelsa (Welw.)C.C.Berg
169 URTICACEAE
Urera sansibarica Engl.
173 CELASTRACEAE
Elaeodendron schweinfurthianum (Loes.)Loes.
Maytenus undata (Thunb.)Blakelock
173 HIPPOCRATEACEAE (CELASTRACEAE)
Indet
Salacia elegans Oliv.
Salacia erecta (G.Don)Walp.
Salacia stuhlmanniana Loes.
180 SALVADORACEAE
Azima tetracantha Lam.
185 LORANTHACEAE
Agelanthus sansibarensis (Engl.)Polh. & Wiens ssp
sansibarensis
Oncella curviramea (Engl.)Danser
190 RHAMNACEAE
Lasiodiscus pervillei Baill. ssp pervillei
Ziziphus mucronata Willd. ssp mucronata
193 VITACEAE
Cissus integrifolia (Bak.)Planch.
Cissus phymatocarpa Masinde & L.E.Newton
Cissus quinquangularis Chiov.
Cissus rotundifolia (Forssk.)Vahl var rotundifolia
Cissus sciaphila Gilg
Cissus sp aff integrifolia (Bak.)Planch.
Cissus sylvicola Masinde & L.E.Newton
Cyphostemma adenocaule (A.Rich.)Wild & Drummond ssp
Cyphostemma buchananii (Planch.)Wild & Drummond
Cyphostemma duparquetii (Planch.)Descoings
194 RUTACEAE
Toddalia asiatica (L.)Lam.
Vepris simplicifolia (Verdoorn)W.Mziray
Zanthoxylum holtzianum (Engl.)Waterm. ssp holtzianum
195 SIMAROUBACEAE
Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv.
196 BURSERACEAE
Commiphora africana (A.Rich.)Engl.
Commiphora edulis (Kl.)Engl. ssp boiviniana
Commiphora lindensis Engl.
197 MELIACEAE
Azadirachta indica A.Juss.
Trichilia emetica Vahl
Turraea floribunda Hochst.
Turraea nilotica Kotschy & Peyr.
Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lam.)Roem.
198 SAPINDACEAE
Allophylus rubifolius (A.Rich.)Engl. var stachyanthu
Blighia unijugata Bak.
Chytranthus prieurianus Baill. ssp longiflorus
Haplocoelum inoploeum Radlk.
Lecaniodiscus fraxinifolius Bak. ssp vaughanii
Lepisanthes senegalensis (Poir.)Leenh.
Macphersonia gracilis O.Hoffm. var hildebrandtii
Majidea zanguebarica Oliv.
205 ANACARDIACEAE
Lannea schweinfurthii (Engl.)Engl. var stuhlmannii
Lannea welwitschii (Hiern)Engl. var ciliolata Engl.
Mangifera indica L.
Ozoroa insignis Del. ssp reticulata (Bak.f.)Gillett
Rhus natalensis Krauss
Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.)Hochst. ssp caffra
221 EBENACEAE
Diospyros abyssinica (Hiern)F.White ssp abyssinica
Diospyros squarrosa Klotzsch A185
222 SAPOTACEAE
Inhambanella henriquezii (Engl. & Warb.)Dubard
Manilkara sp aff discolor (Sond.)J.H.Hemsl.
Manilkara sulcata (Engl.)Dubard
Sideroxylon inerme L. ssp diospyroides (Bak.)J.H.Hemsl.
229 OLEACEAE
Jasminum meyeri-johannis Engl.
Olea woodiana Knobl.
230 APOCYNACEAE
Ancylobotrys petersiana (Kl.)Pierre
Baissea myrtifolia (Benth.)Pichon
Dictyophleba lucida (K.Schum.)Pierre
Hunteria zeylanica (Retz.)Gardn.
Pleiocarpa pycnantha (K.Schum.)Stapf
Saba comorensis (Bojer)Pichon
Tabernaemontana elegans Stapf
231 ASCLEPIADACEAE
Cryptolepis hypoglauca K.Schum.
Cynanchum gerrardii (Harvey)Liede
Omphalogonus calophyllus Baill.
Pleurostelma cernum (Decn.)Bullock
Schizostephanus alatus K.Schum.
Secamone parvifolia (Oliv.)Bullock
Secamone punctulata Decne
232 RUBIACEAE
Chazaliella abrupta (Hiern)Petit & Verdc. var abrupta
Coffea pseudozanguebariae Bridson
Guettarda speciosa L.
Keetia zanzibarica (Klotzsch)Bridson ssp zanzibarica
Meyna tetraphylla (Hiern)Robyns ssp comorensis
Oxyanthus zanguebaricus (Hiern)Bridson
Pavetta crebrifolia Hiern var crebrifolia
Pentodon pentandrus (Schum. & Thonn.)Vatke
Polysphaeria multiflora Hiern ssp multiflora
Polysphaeria parvifolia Hiern
Psychotria capensis (Ecklon)Vatke ssp riparia
Psychotria punctata Vatke var punctata
Tarenna nigrescens (Hook.f.)Hiern
Triainolepis africana Hook.f. ssp hildebrandtii
Tricalysia ovalifolia Hiern var ovalifolia
Tricalysia pallens Hiern
Vangueria randii S.Moore ssp acuminata Verdc.
238 COMPOSITAE (ASTERACEAE)
Pluchea sordida (Vatke)Oliv. & Hiern
Psiadia punctulata (DC.)Vatke
Solanecio cydoniifolius (O.Hoffm.)C.Jeffrey
Tridax procumbens L.
Vernonia hildebrandtii Vatke
249 BORAGINACEAE
Bourreria nemoralis (Guerke)Thulin
Cordia goetzei Guerke
Cordia subcordata Lam.
250 SOLANACEAE
Solanum incanum L. s.l.
Solanum zanzibarense Vatke
251 CONVOLVULACEAE
Evolvulus alsinoides (L.)L.
Hewittia malabarica (L.)Suresh
Ipomoea eriocarpa R.Br.
Ipomoea shupangensis Bak.
257 BIGNONIACEAE
Fernandoa magnifica Seem.
Markhamia zanzibarica (DC.)Engl.
259 ACANTHACEAE
Asystasia gangetica (L.)T.Anders. s.l.
Barleria setigera Rendle
Barleria whytei S.Moore
Blepharis maderaspatensis (L.)Roth
Ecbolium amplexicaule S.Moore
Justicia inaequiifolia Brummitt
Pseuderanthemum hildebrandtii Lindau
263 VERBENACEAE
Avicennia marina (Forssk.)Vierh.
Clerodendrum cephalanthum Oliv. ssp cephalanthum
Clerodendrum glabrum E.Mey. var glabrum
Clerodendrum sansibarense Guerke ssp sansibarense
Lantana camara L.
Premna chrysoclada (Boj.)Guerke
Premna hildebrandtii Guerke
Premna resinosa (Hochst.)Schauer ssp holstii
(Guerke)Verdc.
Vitex ferruginea Schum. & Thonn. ssp amboniensis
(Guerke)Verdc. var amboniensis
264 LABIATAE (LAMIACEAE)
Hyptis suaveolens Poit.
Ocimum gratissimum L. var macrophyllum Briq.
Plectranthus flaccidus (Vatke)Guerke
Plectranthus tenuiflorus (Vatke)Agnew
293 AMARYLLIDACEAE
Scadoxus multiflorus (Martyn)Raf. ssp multiflorus
293 ASPASPARAGACEAE
Asparagus africana Lam.?
Asparagus falcatus L. var falcatus
Asparagus setaceus (Kunth)Jessop
293 COLCHICACEAE
Gloriosa superba L.
293 HYACINTHACEAE
Dipcadi longifolium (Lindl.)Bak.
Ledebouria kirkii (Bak.)Stedje & Thulin
302 ARACEAE
Amorphophallus maximus (Engl.)N.E.Br.
Gonatopus boivinii (Decne)Engl.
Gonatopus marattioides (Peter)Bogner
Stylochaeton salaamicus N.E.Br.
Zamioculcas zamiifolia (Lodd.)Engl.
311 DIOSCOREACEAE
Dioscorea asteriscus Burkill
Dioscorea quartiniana A.Rich. var quartiniana
Dioscorea sansibarensis Pax
313 DRACAENACEAE
Sansevieria kirkii Bak.
314 PALMAE (ARECACEAE)
Borassus aethiopum Mart.
Hyphaene compressa H.Wendl.
Hyphaene coriacea Gaertn.
321 TACCACEAE
Tacca leontopetaloides (L.)O.Ktze.
326 ORCHIDACEAE
Aerangis kirkii (Reichb.f.)Schltr.
Angraecum dives Rolfe
Eulophia petersii Reichb.f.
Microcoelia physophora (Reichb.f.)Summerh.?
Nervilia petraea (Pers.)Summerh.
331 CYPERACEAE
Bulbostylis sp
Cyperus rotundus L. ssp?
Fimbristylis cymosa R.Br.
Mariscus dubius (Rottb.)Hutch. var macrocephalus
Queenslandiella sp aff hyalina (Vahl)Bullock
332 GRAMINAE (POACEAE)
Cyrtococcum trigonum (Retz.)A.Camus
Enteropogon sechellensis (Baker)Th.Dur. & Schinz
TOTAL RECORDS : 273

POSSIBLE KENYAN ENDEMICS : 4

POSSIBLE Z-I REGIONAL ENDEMICS : 54 PERCENT REGIONAL


ENDEMICS : 20%
===============================
TOTAL RECORDS RARITY = R or R? : 4

TOTAL RECORDS RARITY = RK or RK? : 14

TOTAL RECORDS RARITY = RKC or RKC? : 6

NB: Collectors – L = Luke WRQ, L&a = Luke WRQ, Lubke RA and


others, M = Mbinda J, R = Robertson SA, S = Saidi C.

GVI 2006-2009
Species list of flora from Shimoni area, by Class, Order, Family,
Phytogeographical region, and IUCN Red List (IUCN, 2009) or
Coastal Forest Survey (CFS, Robetson & Luke, 1993) status.

Phytpgeographic IUCN, CFS status


al region 1 2
Species
Class Liliopsida, Order Amaryllidales
Family Amaryllidaceae
Scadoxus multiflorus

Class Liliopsia, Order Commelinales


Family Commelinaceae
Commelina spp.

Class Liliopsida, Order Dioscoreales


Family Dioscoreaceae
Dioscorea asteriscus burkill

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Annondes


Family Annonaceae
Asteranthe asterias
(coastal
Monanthotaxis fornicata kenya)

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Asterales


Family Asteraceae
Vernonia cinerascens
Vernonia spp.

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Burserales


Family Anacardiaceae
Harpephyllum caffrum

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Burserales


Family Burserceae
Commiphora edulis

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Celastrales


Family Celastraceae
Salacia spp.
Class Magnoliopsida, Order Celastrales
Family Dichapetalaceae
Dichapetalum spp.

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Euphorbiales,


Family Euphorbiaceae
Acalypha fructicosa
Bridelia cathartica
Mallotus oppositifoliuis PT
Mildbraedia carpinifolia
Ricinus communis U

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Fabales,


Family Caesalpinoideae
Caesalpinia insolita
Delonix regia

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Fabales,


Family Fabaceae
Millettia usaramensis
Rhynchosia congensis

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Fabales,


Family Leguminosae
Angylocalyx braunii ZI-E VU
Tamarindus indica PT

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Hypericales


Family Clusiaceae
Vismia orientalis

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Lamiales,


Family Chalcidoidea
Ocimum spp.

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Lamiales,


Family Lamiaceae
Hoslundia opposita PT
Leonotis nepetifolia
Class Magnoliopsida, Order Lamiales,
Family Verbenaceae
Lantana camara PT
Premna hildebrandtii
Priva curtisiae

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Linales


Family Erythroxylaceae
Erythroxylum emarginatum

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Magnoliales,


Family Annonaceae
Uvariodendron kirkii ZI-E VU
Uvaria acuminata
Uvaria lucida LC

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Malpighiales


Family Alpheoidea
Alchornea laxiflora PA

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Malvales,


Family Bombacaceae
Adansonia digitata PA

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Malvales,


Family Malvaceae
Abutilon spp.
Coastal
Gossypioides kirkii Kenya
Hibiscus spp.

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Malvales,


Family Sterculiaceae
Waltheria indica

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Malvales,


Family Tiliaceae
Carpodiptera africana
Grewia bicolor
Grewia ectasicarpa
Grewia forbesii

Class Magnoliopsida, Order


Menispermales
Family Menispemaceae
Anisocycla blepharosepala ZI-E

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Ochnales


Family Ochnaceae
Ochna thomasiana

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Polygalales,


Family Malpighiaceae
Acridocarpus zanzibaricus

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Rhamnales,


Family Vitaceae
Cissus spp. U

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Rosales


Family Cannabaceae
Trema orientalis

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Rubiales,


Family Pyraloidea
Tricalysia ovalifolia
Tricalysia pallens

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Rubiales,


Family Rubiaceae
Guettarda speciosa coastal Kenya
Polysphaeria parvifolia PA
Vangueria randii ZI-E
Tarenna spp. U

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Rutales


Family Rutaceae
Teclea simplicifolia
Vepris eugeniifolia

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Rutales


Family Simaroubaceae
Harrisonia abyssinica

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Sapindales,


Family Anacardiaceae
Lannea schweinfurthii ZI-E
Lannea welwitschii ZI-E
Sorindeia madagascariensis PT

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Sapindales,


Family Meliaceae
Azadirachta indica PT AI
Trichilia emetica PT
Trichilia sp.

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Sapindales,


Family Sapindaceae
Majidea zanguebarica

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Sapindales,


Family Sapotaceae
Sideroxylon inerme PT

Class Magnoliopsida, Order


Scrophulariales,
Family Acanthaceae
Baleria whytei KCE R
Ecbolium amplexicaule

Class Magnoliopsida, Order


Scrophulariales,
Family Bignoniaceae
Fernandoa magnifica ZI+1
Markhamia zanzibarica PA

Class Magnoliopsida, Order


Serophulanales
Family Acathaceae
Barleria setigera

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Solanales


Family Solanaceae
Physalis angulata
Solanum incanum
Solanum nigrum

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Urticales,


Family Moraceae
Antiaris toxicaria PA
Ficus sansibarica
Ficus sur
Ficus sycomorus PT
Ficus thonningii

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Urticales,


Family Ulmaceae
Celtis mildbraedii

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Violales,


Family Flacourtiaceae
Rawsonia lucida PA

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Violales,


Family Violaceae
Rinorea arborea ZI+1
Rinorea subintegrifolia

Class Magnoliopsida, Order Vitales


Family Vitaceae
Cissus sciaphila
1
. PA, Pan African; PT, Pan Tropical; ZI-E, Zanzibar-Inhambane Endemic; ZI+1,
Zanzibar-Inhambane + one other region; KCE, Kenya Coast Endemic; U, Unassigned

2
. VU, Vulnerable; NT, Near Th reatened; LR/NT, Lower Risk Near Threatened; LC,
Least Concern (not a Red List status but rather ndicates that the species has RK,
Rare Kenya; RKC, Rare Kenya Coast; AI, Alien Invasive; EXS, Exotic Species
(Robetson & Luke, 1993). been assessed and is not under any threat of extinction);
DD, Data Defi cient (IUCN, 2001). R, Rare;

Appendix II – Butterflies (GVI)

Family Species
Charaxinae Charaxes brutus
Charaxinae Charaxes varanes vologeses
Charaxinae Charaxes candiope candiope
Charaxinae Charaxes cithaeron nairobicus
Charaxinae Charaxes hansali baringana
Charaxinae Charaxes jahlusa kenyensis
Charaxinae Charaxes protoclea azota
Charaxinae Charaxes violetta maritimus
Charaxinae Charaxes Achaemenes
Charaxinae Charaxes ethalion kikuyuensis
Charaxinae Euxanthe wakefieldi
Charaxinae Cymothoe coranus
Satyrinae Bicyclus safitza safitza
Satyrinae Melanitis leda
Nymphalinae Eurytela dryope angulata
Nymphalinae Hypolimnas misippus
Nymphalinae Neptis saclava marpessa
Nymphalinae Junonia oenone oenone
Nymphalinae Euphraedra neophron littoralis
Nymphalinae Byblia ilithyia
Nymphalinae Byblia anvatara acheloia
Nymphalinae Phalanta phalanta aethiopica
Nymphalinae Phalanta eurytis eurytis
Nymphalinae Junonia natalica natalica
Lipteninae Baliochila hildegarda
Lipteninae Pentila tropicalis
Lipteninae Teriomima subpunctata
Lipteninae Pentila pauli clarensis
Papilionidae Papilio constantinus constantinus
Papilionidae Papilio dardanus tibullus
Papilionidae Papilio dardanus polytrophus
Papilionidae Papilio ophidicephalus ophidicephalus
Papilionidae Papilio demodocus demodocus
Acraeinae Acraea eponina eponina
Acraeinae Acraea anemosa
Acraeinae Acraea zonata
Acraeinae Acraea acrita
Acraeinae Acraea insignis insignis
Acraeinae Acraea sykesi
Coliadinae Graphium antheus
Coliadinae Graphium colonna
Coliadinae Graphium philonoe philonoe
Coliadinae Graphium porthaon mackiei
Coliadinae Catopsilia florella
Pierinae Coloits euippe omphale
Pierinae Nepheronia buqueti buqueti
Pierinae Belenois thysa thysa
Pierinae Eurema floricola orientis
Pierinae Eurema senegalensis
Danainae Amauris niavius niavius

Appendix III – Birds (GSK, Birdlife International, GVI)


Genus Species Common name
Accipiter m. melanoleucus Great Sparrowhawk
Accipiter minullus Little Sparrowhawk
Accipiter tachiro African goshawk
Actitis hypoleucos Common Sandpiper
Alcedo cristata galerita Malachite Kingfisher
African Open-billed
Anastomus Lamelligerus Stork
Zanzibar Sombre
Andropadus importunus Greenbul
Anthreptes collaris garguensrs Collared Sunbird
Uluguru Violet-backed
Anthreptes neglectus Sunbird
Anthreptes reichenowi plain-backed sunbird
Amblyospiza albifrons Grosbeak Weaver
Apalis Melanocephala Black-headed apalis
Apaloderma narina narina Narina trogon
Apus affinis Little swift
Aquila rapax Tawney Eagle
Ardea c. cinerea Grey Heron
Ardea melanocephala black-headed heron
Batis mixta ultima Forest batis
Batis soror Pale batis,
Black and white shrike
Bias musicus flycatcher
hagedash
Bostrychia brevirostris Hadada Ibis
Bradornis pallidus murinus pale flycatcher
bubo africanus spotted eagle-owl
Common (Steppe)
Buteo buteo vulpinus Buzzard
Green-backed or
Butorides striatus atricapillus Striated Heron
Bycanistes bucianator Trumpeter hornbill
Silvery cheeked
Bycanistes brevis Hornbill
Grey-backed
Camaroptera brachyura camaroptera
Campephaga flava Black Cuckoo Shrike
Campethera mombassica mombasa woodpecker
Campethera nubica Nubian woodpecker,
albus
Casmerodius melanorhynchos Great Egret
Centropus superciliosus White-browed Coucal
Eastern Bearded
Cercotrichas q. quadrivirgata Robin
Ceryle r. rudis Pied Kingfisher
Yellowbill (Green
Ceuthmochares aereus Coucal)
Charadrus marginatus tenellus White-fronted Plover
Yellow bellied
Chlorocichla flaviventris Greenbul
Chrysococcyx caprius Diederik Cuckoo
Ciconia episcopus Woolly-necked Stork
Circaetus cinereus Brown snake eagle
Southern-banded
Circaetus fasciolatus Snake Eagle
Colius striatus Speckled Mouse Bird
Coracias caudata Lilac-breasted Roller
Coracias g. garrulus Eurasian Roller
Corvus albus Pied Crow
Red-capped Robin
Cossypha natalensis Chat
Cuculus canorus Eurasian Cuckoo
Cuculus poliocephalus Lesser cuckoo
Cuculus solitarius red-chested cuckoo,
Cypsius parvus African Palm Swift
Dendropicos fuscescens Cardinal woodpecker
Dicrurus adsimilis Common Drongo
Diomedea cauta Shy Albatross
Dryoscopus cubla Black backed puffback
Egretta dimorpha Dimorphic Egret
Black-winged Red
Euplectes hordeaceus Bishop
Euplectes nigroventris Zanzibar Red Bishop
Eurystomus glaucurus Broadbilled Roller
Falco tannumculus Common Kestrel
Guttera pucherani Crested Guinea Fowl
Gypohierax angolensis Palm-nut Vulture
Brown-hooded
Halcyon albiventris Kingfisher
Halcyon c. chelicuti Striped Kingfisher
Haliaeetus vocifer African Fish Eagle
Hedydipna pallidigaster Amani sunbird
niveoguttatul
Hipargos macrospolotus Peter's Twin Spot
Hirundo aethiopica Ethiopian swallow
Hirundo angolensis ethiopean swallow,
senegalensis
Hirundo saturatior Mosque swallow
African pygmy
Ispidina picta Kingfisher
Kaupifalco m. monogrammicus Lizard buzzard
Laniarious aethiopicus Tropical boubou
Lamprotornis corruscus Black-bellied Starling
Larus Hemprichii Sooty Gull
Lophaetus occipitalis Long crested eagle
Lonchura bicolor Black & White Manikin
Lonchura fringilloides Magpie manikin
Brown-breasted
Lybius melanopterus Barbet
Mocatilla aguimp vida Africa Pied Wagtail
White- throated Bee
Merops albicollis Eater
Merops nubicus Carmine Bee-Eater
Merops pusillus Little Bee-Eater
Milvus migrans Black kite
Monticola saxatilis Common rock thrush
caerulescens
Muscicapa cinereola Ashy Flycatcher
Muscicapa striata Spotted Flycatcher
Mycteria ibis yellow-billed stork
Nectarinia amethystina Amethyst Sunbird
Nectarinia bifasciata purple banded sunbird
olivacea
Nectarinia changamwensis Olive sunbird
Purple-breasted
Nectarinia purpureiventris Sunbird
Scarlet-chested
Nectarinia senegalensis Sunbird
Neocossyphus rufus rufus red-tailed ant thrush
Nicator gularis eastern nicator,
Numenius p. phaeopus Whimbrel
Numida meleagris Helmeted Guineafowl
Onychognathus walleri Waller's starling
Oriolus chlorocephalus
amani Green-headed oriole
Eurasian Golden
Oriolus o. oriolus Oriole
Oriolus auratus notatus African golden oriole
Oriolus larvatus rolleti Black-headed Oriole
Oxylophus jacobinus black and white
cuckoo
Pachycoccyx audeberti validus Thick-billed Cuckoo
Passer griseus Grey-headed Sparrow
Phoeniculus purpureous green wood hoopoe
Ploceus bicolor Dark backed Weaver
Ploceus bojeri Golden Palm Weaver
Ploceus cucullatus Black headed Weaver
Ploceus golandi Clark's weaver
Ploceus intermedius lesser-masked weaver
Ploceus ocularis spectacled weaver
subaureus African Golden
Ploceus aureoflavus Weaver
Phoenicopterus roseus Greater Flamingo
Phyllastrephus fischeri Fischer's Greenbul
Phyllastrephus terrestris Terrestrial brownbul
Pluvialus squatarola Grey Plover
Poeoptera kenricki Kenrick's starling
Poicephalus cryptoxanthus Brown headed parrot
Yellow-rumped
Pogoniulus bilineatus Tinkerbird
Polyboroides t. typus African Harrier-Hawk
Prionops retzii Retz's helmet shrike
Chestnut-fronted
Prionops scopifrons Helmet-Shrike
Pyconotus barbatus Common Bulbul
Quelea erythrops Red-headed Quelea
cyanomelas
Rhinopomastus schalowi Common Scimitarbill
Scopus u. umbretta Hamerkop
Serinus mozambicus Yellow-fronted canary
Stactolaema o. olivacea Green Barbet
Sterna dougalli bangsi Roseate Tern
Streptopelia semitorquata Red-eyed Dove
Tauraco fischeri Fischer's Turaco
Telecanthura ussheri stricilaema Mottled Spinetail
Terathopius ecaudutus Bateleur
African Paradise
Terpsiphone viridis Flycatcher
Threskiornis a. aethiopicus Sacred Ibis
alboterminatus
Tockus geloensis Crowned Hornbill
Treron calva gebberifroms African green pigeon
Turdoides jardineii arrow-marked babler,
African bare-eyed
Turdus tephronotus thrush
Emerald-spotted
Turtur chalcospilos Wood Dove
Turtur tympanistra Tambourine Dove
Red-cheeked Cordon
Uraeginthus bengalus Bleu
Vidua macroura Pin-tailed Whydah
Xenus cinereus Terek Sandpiper

Appendix IV – Mammals (GSK & GVI)

Genus Species Common name


Angolan Black and
Colobus angolensis palliatus White Colobus
Cercopithecus nictitans albogularis Sykes monkey
Papio cynocephalus Yellow Baboon
Cercopithecus aethiops Vervet Monkey
Galago senegalensis Lesser Bush Baby
Otolemur garnettii Short eared galago
Genet (common or
Genetta spp blotched)
Felis aurata African golden cat
Ichneumia albicauda White-tailed Mongoose
Mungos mungo Banded mongoose
Hystrix cristata Crested porcupine
Cephalophus harveyi Harvey's Duiker
Madoqua kirkii Kirk's Dik-dik
Neotragus Batesi Dwarf Antelope
Neotragus moschatus Suni

Tragelaphus scriptus delameri Bushbuck


Rhynchocyon petersi Zanj Elephant Shrew
Heliosciurus undulatus Zanj sun squirrel
Red bellied coast
Paraxerus palliatus squirrel
Thryonomys swinderianus Cane Rat
Cricetomys gambianus Giant pouched rat
Taphozous hildegardeae Hildegaard's Tomb Bat
Myotis spp Hairy bat
Potamocherus spp Bush pig

Appendix V – Reptiles (GSK & GVI)

Genus Species Common name

Hemirhaggerrhis nototaenia Bark Snake


Bitis arietans Puff adder
Causus defilippil Snouted Night Adder
Chamaeleo dilepsis Flap-neck Chameleon
Dendroaspis Angusticeps Green mamba
Dendroaspis polylepsis Black mamba
Dispholydus typus Boomslang
Gerrhosaurus spp. Greater Plated Lizard
Hemidactylus mabouia Tropical house Gecko
Kenixys spekii Speke's Hinged Tortoise
Kinixys belliana Bell’s hinged tortoise
Lygodactylus luteopicturatus Yellow headed dwarf gecko
Mabuya maculilabris Speckled lipped Skink
Mabuya varia Variable skink
Naja mossambica Mozambique Spitting Cobra
Philothamnus punctatus Speckled Green Snake
Psammophis subtaeniatus Striped sand snake
Bearded/Short-tailed
Rhampholeon brevicaudatus Pygmy-chameleon
Thelothornis capensis Vine snake
Varanus salvator Nile monitor lizard
Gerrhosaurus Flavigularis Yellow-throated plated lizard
Thelotornis mossambicanus Eastern twig snake
Python sebae Central African rock python

Appendix VI – Kaya Shrines and Monuments

1. Panga za Ngamba

This Kaya is located on the coastline of the Shimoni and Anzwani forests. The name means
‘flippers of the turtle’ as it is known that turtles come and nest on the beach- protection of the
Kaya will also be conservation value. Many caves located on this coastline are sacred Kaya’s.
This is a peaceful place and used for prayers. Gifts for the ancestors are left at the Kaya when it
is visited by the Digo elders.

2. Pua za Ngamba

This Kaya is located 100m west of the previous Kaya and is also a coastal cave. Its name means
‘nose of the turtle’ due to the presence of turtles and the shape of the cave. The cave is a
peaceful place and used for prayers. It has been a known Kaya for as long as the elders can
remember.
3. Pangani Shrine

This shrine is located within the mangrove forest near to where the forest ends, close to Anzwani
village. The ‘owner’ of the shrine is a black snake. This snake is a god in animal form and takes
on many different forms depending on why you have visited the shrine. He can be very scary at
times. Offers are left for the ‘owner’ of the shrine in the form of money, bottles containing rose or
honey water. The age of the shrine is shown by how old the glass bottles, some are not made
anymore. Animals including goats were made as sacrifices at this shrine.
The shrine is used when someone has betrayed you or your family. People would ask for people
to be killed as they were bad people and were causing bad things to happen to their family or
village. This person would then become ill. To prevent themselves from dying, they would have to
go to the Kaya and ask the gods for forgiveness by gifts or sacrifices. This person would then
realise the badness he has caused and become good.

4. Msegeju Kibanda Hongo

This shrine is located within coral rag of the mangrove forests. It is located where mangrove poles
are harvested. Many mangrove poles are taken from this area and it is claimed that this is
regulated by the forestry department. The local people don’t believe it is regulated effectively or
enforced.
The Kaya is for praying only and no sacrifices are made here. It is a very peaceful, but powerful
place. Although mangroves are harvested here, the mangrove trees located within the Kaya are
not. If anybody tries to cut mangroves from within the shrine the gods become angry. The person
who cuts the mangrove begins to get sick and dies. A few years ago, it was told that a man from
another village cut a tree down from within the shrine to repair his boat. A few days later he
became sick from a mysterious illness and died within a week. No one has cut a tree down from
this area since.

5. Gizani Shrine

This shrine is located between Anzwani and Shimoni forests and is very difficult to locate. It is a
coral rag cave that offered the local community shelter in times of colonial war. When war hit, the
community would run down into the cave, where the cave would hide them and keep them safe.
The shrine is used for prayers. Because it offered safety to the ancestors, people pray at this
Kaya to ask for help in times of drought or bad harvest. Sacrifices in the form of goats were also
made here.

6. Kwadege Shrine

This Kaya is located deep within the northern side of the forest and is the central power of all the
Kayas within the area. The Kaya has three flags, one red, one white and one blue to show the
location of this Kaya. It is the most powerful of all Kayas and one of the most important.
To the west of the Kaya is a large tree called Mukundi. This showed the entry point to the Kaya
and the point where you are to remove your shoes in terms of respect for the ancestors and
because it is a holy place.
This Kaya should never be entered alone, an elder must always accompany the young. The
Kayas have strong powers and there are ways to enter a Kaya and pray. This Kaya is more than
100 years old and the elders hold great respect for the area.
7. Mjimwiru Shrine

The shrine’s name means ‘black village’ as many year’s ago a village resided here. The Kaya
contains a very deep well which was the village’s water supply. Legend has it that if you enter the
well you come to large beach, where lives the owner of the shrine. The owner of this Kaya is a
large female snake with long plaits. To get help from the Kaya you must enter the well and meet
face to face with the snake, this can be very overwhelming and the person must prepare
themselves before entering. You can ask her for strength and motivation to invent or start a
business.
This shrine is used by the Mijikenda tribes, and the village that used to reside here was called
Milongeni village.
Shoes were removed before entering the shrine and a ritual cleansing process had to be followed
before entering the shrine. This consisted of splashing water from the well onto your feet with
leaves and chanting a prayer by the mzee;
“These are our visitors, they are just visiting, when they go back give them fair well, good health,
don’t make them suffer, these are good people and our friends”.
You then chew on a small amount of mud from the well and spit it out as part of the cleansing
process.
There was also an entry point to the Kaya called Mvungunya. It is not allowed for women to enter
if she is menstruating and bleeding as she is declared unclean.

8. Kiliko cha nfani

This Kaya is located at the mangrove forest edge. The name means ‘the path of the monkey’, as
the sykes monkeys and the yellow baboons are seen crossing through the trees. The Kaya is
used for prayers.

9. Jiwe la chambi

This Kaya is located within a cave in the coral rag in the mangrove forest. It is a peaceful place
and used for prayers and gifts.

10. Waga Village

Many years ago, a village called ‘Waga’ resided within the forest. The village consisted of the
Digo tribe ancestors and they still come here to pay their respects to their ancestors.

11. Kaya ya Waga


The Kaya was named as the people of Waga village would use this place for prayers. It is a very
beautiful place and known for its many butterflies.

12. Ancient Burial Ground

Many burial grounds are located throughout the forest. They are now sacred places where the
spirits of the ancestors are worshipped and respected.

13. Ziwani

A Kaya located on the southern coastal edge of the forest. The Kaya is used for prayers.

14. Kizwiani
A cave Kaya located on the southern coastline.

15. Mhazi and Maumbi


These two Kayas are also caves located on the coastline. They were unable to be reached at the
time due to the incoming tide but are known to be used regularly.

16. Shunzulanzi
This Kaya is an island located off the southern coastline. The Kaya is made up of two parts; the
island itself, and a cave opposite. The island is known as Jabali cage, as it is the devils
judgement area. This is used for prayers to ask for forgiveness and protection from the devil.

17. Ukunbi Mkuu

18. Kwa Gopha

19. Mwauomba
The three shrines above are also located within the Shimoni forest, however were not visited on
this occasion as there was not enough time. In addition to the Kaya’s the elders were asked
about their forest and the importance of it to them.
Appendix VII - Recorded Clearings in Shimoni East Forest

2006

2007
2008

2009