You are on page 1of 8

c V       

c c c 
c c
 c

a 

- Transmission of information from one or more source.

- To one or more destination over the same transmission medium (facility).

R
  a 

- Unsophisticated form of multiplexing that simply constitutes propagating signals from

different sources of different cables that are contained within the same trench.

 

- Considered as transmission medium.

R

- Form of phase-division multiplexing (PDM) where to date channels (the I and Q)

modulate the same carrier frequency that has been shifted 90ƕ in phase.

  
 

- Modulates a sine wave carrier.

  
 

- Modulates a cosine wave carrier.

a  a  R




- Time-Division Multiplexing

- Frequency-Division Multiplexing

- Wavelength-Division Multiplexing

  a 

- Transmissions from multiple sources occur on the same but not on the same time.

a

- Most prevalent encoding technique used for TDM digital signals.

R  


- Use an 8-kHz sample rate and an eight-bit PCM code, which produces a 64 kbps PCM

line speed.

2  

   


 
   2
c  


c

c
c V       
c c c 
c c
 c

a 

- Simply an electronically controlled digital switch with two inputs and one output.

 a 


- One eight-bit PCM code from each channel (16 total bits).


 

- Time it takes to transmit one TDM frame.


 
 R

- A communications system that uses digital pulses rather than analog signals to encode

information.

  
 

- Specifies a digital carrier system using PCM encoded analog signals.

!"" #$  !""" #$

- Voice band channel bandwidth.

 %

- Special conditioned cables.


 

- Used to maintain frame and sample synchronization between TDM transmitter & receiver.


 
 
&

- PCM encoders & decoders with a seven-bit magnitude.

R


- Supervision between telephone offices, such as on hook, off hook, dial pulsing, and so

forth.

R
 


- Only seven-bit resolution.

' R  
 


- Consist of 24 193 bit frames, totalling 4632 bits, of which 24 are framing bits.

2  

   


 
   2
c  


c

c
c V       
c c c 
c c
 c

( ) *  ( 


   &+

- Used for an error detection code.

O 

- Signalling bit in frame 6.

 

- Signalling bit in frame 12.

 

- Signalling bit in frame 18.



- Signalling bit in frame 24.



R  , - 
 R  ,

- Digital interface that provides the physical connection to a digital carrier network.

a  -  

- Upgrade from one level in the hierarchy to the next higher level.


   

- Provides a convenient place to make patchable inter connects and perform routine

maintenance & trouble shooting.

R
  

- Provides frequency shifting for the master group signals.

   

- Low quality video transmission for use between non-dedicated subscribers.

  

- Identify when transitions occur in the data and whether that transition is from a 1 to a 0 or

vice versa.

O 

- First bit of the code.

2  

   


 
   2
c  


c

c
c V       
c c c 
c c
 c


 % ' 

- Converting standard logic levels.

,


- Involves the transmission of only a single nonzero voltage level.




- Two nonzero voltages are involved (a positive voltage for a logic 1 and an equal-

magnitude negative voltage for a logic 0 or vice versa).

  

- Categorize the type of transmission.

.    /

- Maintained the entire bit time.

(   /

- Less than 100% of the bit time.

 0


- Produces a condition in which a receive may lose its amplitude reference for optimum

discrimination between received 1¶s & 0¶s.


 


- Popular type of line encoding that produces a strong timing component for clock recovery

and does not cause dc wandering.




- Uses one cycle of a square wave at 0ƕ phase to represent logic 1 and one cycle of a

square wave at 180ƕ phase to represent logic 0.


 a

- Used for encoding SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Tele vision Engineers) time-

code data for recording on videotapes.


2  

   


 
   2
c  


c

c
c V       
c c c 
c c
 c


 %

- Commonly called the Manchester Code and specified in IEEE standard 802.3 for

Ethernet local area networks.

a 

- Forms of delay-modulated codes where logic 1 condition produces a transition in the

middle of the clock pulse, and logic 0 produce no transition at the end of the clock

intervals unless followed by logic 0.

 


- Used for the transmission of PCM-encoded time-division multiplexed digital signals.

O - '1
$

- Filters and shapes the incoming digital signal and raise its power level so that the

regenerator circuit can make a pulse-no pulse decision.

  &

- Recovery circuit reproduces the cocking information from the received data and provides

the proper timing information to the regenerator so that samples can be made at the

optimum time, minimizing the chance of an error occurring.

(
 (


- A threshold detector that compares the sampled voltage received to a reference level and

determines whether the bit is logic 1 or logic 0.

' %

- Different version of T carriers used in Europe.

 R "

- Used for frame alignment pattern and for an alarm channel.


2  

   


 
   2
c  


c

c
c V       
c c c 
c c
 c



 
  $


- Added-Digit Framing

- Robbed-digit framing

- Added-channel Framing

- Statistical framing

- Unique-line code framing

a  
 a 


- Bit Interleaving

- Word Interleaving

R

   a 

- Used more often for the transmission of data when they are called asynchronous TDM,

intelligent TDM, or simply stat muxs.

 '

- Large-scale integration (LSI) chip designed for use in the telecommunications industry for

private branch exchanges.

    

- Analog Sampling;

- Encoding / Decoding;

- Digital Companding

 R R2  

- Used to gate the PCM word onto the PCM highway when an external buffer is used to

drive the line.

  a

- Data are input and output for a single channel in a short burst.

3

2

(
 a

- Allows for a flexible data input and output clock frequency.

2  

   


 
   2
c  


c

c
c V       
c c c 
c c
 c

R ( a

- Data from the PCM highway are clock into the codec on the next eight consecutive

negative transitions of DCLKR.

1    a 

- Multiple sources that originally occupied the same frequency spectrum are each

converted to a different frequency.

R
&

- Process is accomplished without synchronization between stations.

a
 


- Basic building block of the FDM Hierarchy.

  - R

- Separate signals with different wavelengths in a manner similar to the way filters

separate electrical signals of different frequencies.

0 a ( 

- Direct signals of a particular wavelength to a specific destination while not separating all

the wavelengths present on the cable.

0 a  

- Enable more efficient utilization of the transmission capabilities of optical fibers by

permitting different wavelengths to be combined and separated.


   0 a  

- Diffraction Grating

- Prism

- Dichroic Filter

R   


 .4&

- Multiplexing system similar to conventional time division multiplexing.


2  

   


 
   2
c  


c

c
c V       
c c c 
c c
 c

RR

- Has a 51.84-Mbps synchronous frame structure.

 56

- Second level of SONET multiplexing.

2  

   


 
   2
c  


c