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Working Group 04 of
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Study Committee 34 (Protection)

November 1991






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Working Group 04

Study Committee 34 (Protection)



November 1991
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Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations


This guide was prepared on request of the CIGRE Study Committee The working group was composed of the following individuals: Convener: Members:


G. Ziegler (Germany)
E. Bondia (Spain)

J.L. Carel (France)
P.O. Gjerde (Norway) L. Lohage (Sweden) J. Maas (Netherlands)

G. Pratesi (Italy) J.Zakonjsek (Yugoslavia)
Corresponding Members: R.G. Coney (South Africa) G.G. Correa (Brasil) D.C. Dawson (USA) M. V. Gonzalez Sabato (Argentine) A. Palamarczuk (Australia)



2- ..'-1: Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . . • ~ {.I '. ')~f': !~?':~ ! . .:\~.'I I ~z~~ .

2 42 43 44 44 I I I 45 45 43 Recent practices Protection Statistical data and trends state-of-the-art philosophy.1 4.2 4.3 Protection schemes Non-unit protection Distance protection without telecommunication Directional and non-directional earth-fault relaying Distance protection with telecommunication Directional comparison earth-fault protection Travelling wave directional comparison protection Unit protection schemes Phase comparison protection (PCP) Longitudinal differential protection Back-up Automatic protection reclosing considerations I I 4.2 4.1. 45 .2 4.1 4.3.4 4.1 4.4 4.and intercircuit-faults on multi-circuit Dissymmetries on double-circuit lines lines 14 16 19 19 19 19 23 28 29 31 4.3.3 Application range Mutual coupling effect Protection problems encountered Mutual coupling of parallel circuits Class 1 networks: Parallel circuit with common positiv and zero sequence source Impact on distance protection Setting of distance zones for parallel lines Compensation of mutual coupling Class 2 networks: Parallel circuit with common positive but isolated zero-sequence source's Class 3 networks: Parallel circuits with positive and zero-sequence sources isolated Current reversal effect Double.2.1 4.1.5 4.2.3- .3.5 33 34 35 36 36 36 39 39 40 41 4.2"1.2 4.2.1 4.3 4.2 1 4.3.I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations I I I I I I I I I I I I Contents 1 Scope and Object 7 2 introduction .3 4.1.8 3 Terminology 9 4 4.3. 1 4.1 Protection Introduction of multi-circuit transmission lines 14 14 4.

1 5.1.1 5.2.2 5.3 5.2 5.1 .TL 2) Taps without breaker (TL 3.3 5.7. lines Tapped lines Application Appendices Multi-terminal lines lnleed conditions Outfeed conditions Tapped lines.3.2 5._.3.1 5.3.1. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations 4.7 5.2 Recent practices and trends General remarks Multi-terminal.3. distance zone reach problems examples 89 87 94 95 -4- .2.1 5.7 Appendices A1 : Zero-sequence A2: A3: coupling impedance calculation charts protection 50 50 Typical zero-sequence Measurement coupling impedance 51 54 of line impedances for the setting of distance and fault locators A4: Earth-faults on parallel lines Distance measurement without mutual compensation 59 62 64 AS: Earth-faults on parallel lines Distance measurement with mutual compensation A6: Fault location on parallel lines 5 5.1.2 5.2.1 5.3 Protection of multi-terminal and tapped lines Introduction Application range Most frequent network configurations 66 66 66 67 70 70 71 71 Protection problems encountered Multi-terminal lines Tapped lines Taps with breaker (TL 5.1 5.3 5.1 5.2.1. 5.2.TL 4) Taps with (small) backfeed (TLB) Protection schemes Protection based on non-unit 72 73 73 74 74 75 principles Distance protection without telecommunication Distance protection with telecommunication Directional comparison protection Power line protection based on unit principles Phase comparison protection Longitudinal differential protection Back-up protection Automatic reclosing considerations 77 78 78 79 80 80 81 81 83 83 84 89 5.7.6 5.2 5.1.1 5.4 5.

1.3. negative fault current power lines Double circuit series-compensated Directional comparison protection Directional comparison travelling wave protection Directional residual overcurrent protection Negative sequence overcurrent protection Power line protection based on unit principles Phase comparison protection Longitudinal differential protection 122 122 122 -5- .4 6.3 7.4.1 7.4.4 6.1 7.4.2 7.3 6.4 7.3.1 6.2.3 6.1 7.3 7.1.4.' and disadvantages of series-compensation degree Locations Compensation Protection problems encountered Apparent impedances Voltage inversion (Negative voltage) Current inversion Subsynchronous Protection General Protection Protection (Negative current) oscillations and transients of the series capacitor of a conventional airgap-protected capacitor of a resistor-airgap-protected capacitor based on non-unit principles Power line protection Distance protection Underreaching and overreaching schemes Negative relay impedance.2.2 Protection Introduction Protection Protection of composite lines encountered OHL-cable feeders 97 97 97 97 98 98 99 99 100 102 102 103 problems of composite 6.5.3 7.4.2 6.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations 6 6.2.1 6.3 6.4.2 7.3.2 Protection Introduction Advantages of series compensated lines 104 104 104 104 105 106 106 108 108 109 109 109 110 111 113 113 113 114 116 117 118 118 120 121 . 7.2 7. positive fault current Negative relay impedance.4 7.4.4 7.2 7.1 7.4.2 7.1 7.5.3 7.2 Protection of transformer feeders Transformer protection Protection of the line section Overall differential protection of a transformer Distance protection of a transformer feeder Application examples Transformer-OHL feeder protection Transformer-cable feeder protection feeder 7 7.5 7.2 7.4.3 7.4.4.

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A standard situation does normally not exist.or outfeeds zero-sequence discontinuities mutual coupling (parallel lines) lines). In most cases. like distance relays must at least be specially set. schemes in combination with telecommunication must therefore be used to As a rule.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I II u Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Oonflquratlons Chapter 2 2 Introduction of complex transmission networks requires. three-terminalor parallel extensive computer studies are only needed I based on a short-circuit study that considers the named the network can be reduced to the line configurations to be line) with representative infeeds at each terminal. Directional relays may be adversely affected by possible voltage or current inversions (series compensated lines) or may sense a false fault direction due to induced voltages (parallel lines) and outfeed conditions (multi-terminal lines).g. relaying are assumed fault types. Partly sophisticated protection solve these problems. an individual consideration of each The protection application case. problems to achieve selective zone setting for (series compensated This results in a varying zone reach and causes consequently a dependable and secure fault clearance. the basics of fault analysis and protective component analysis is used to study unsymmetrical The bibliography provided at the end of this documentation contains in the first general part relevant literature. Thus.14) -8- . however protected (e. as a rule. can normally not be assumed Conventional off-the-shelf supplementary equipment protection or may even need specially modified The simple linear connection due to o • • intermediate between fault impedance and distance-to-fault (multi-terminal lines) in. For the special subject of protection provide an excellent introduction. need characteristics. the protection setting has to be influencing factors. schemes. in the exceptional case. as known. The To use this symmetrical guide. using telecommunication the relevant ClGRE Publications [13. Manufacturers' relay application descriptions can be taken as a further source for information.

Vocabulary. Figure 3.7)..1 shows the currently I I Distance Protection using telecommunication I Non-unit"! I Unit*] J 1 comparison I Phase comparison I I 1 "! I I Directional I Longitudinal differential permissive underreach permissive overreach accelerated underreach blocking overreach deblocking overreach -intertripping underreach . Telecommunication is adapted to the International Electrotechnical is a widely used means to upgrade the protection applied schemes.1: The most common protections using telecommunication -9- . for complex transmission systems. i I i 3 Terminology uses lEG recommended graphical and letter symbols [6.I overcurrent zero seq. chapter 448: Power I ! I I This document The protection terminology System Protection (8). Fig.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 3 :·1 . . 3. seq current travelling wave note: sometimes permissive overreach distance protection is called directional comparison Zero sequence current protection is also called residual current protection ")The terms "Unit" and "Non-Unit" are explained on page 13. current neg.

= abbreviations distance distance are introduced for the frequently occurring protection schemes: :i I .299 kV) lntertripping Multi-circuit transmission line Metal-oxide varistor Multi-terminal line Microwave Overhead line Over-current Pulse-code modulation Phase comparison protection Power line carrier Sender/Receiver Subsynchronous Tapped line resonance are used in this documentation: The following AR CB GT EHV FO FSK GP HV IT MCTL MOV MTL MW OHL O/C PCM pcp PLC SIR SSR TL TLB VT '" '" '" ::-. '" '" ::: :. :.: FODP :. based on the zero-sequence components components directional comparison earth fault protection. time delayed without telecommunication further abbreviations Autoreclosure Circuit breaker Current transformer Extra high voltage (300 . time delayed without telecommunication non-directional earth-fault protection.999 kV) Fibre optic Frequency shift keying Gas pressure relay High voltage (100 . second zone tripping for near-line-end with autoreclosure-controUed zone switching faults accepted during the AR dead-time) I 1 (normally the overreaching zone is switched back to underreaching intertripping underreach distance protection permissive underreach distance protection permissive overreach distance protection accelerated underreach distance protection DBODP.: CPGP :: SPCP PWDP . Tapped line with backfeed Voltage transformer . se blocking overreach distance protection deblocking overreach distance protection composite-current phase-comparison protection phase-segregated phase-comparison protection pilot wire differentia! protection fiber-optic differential protection micro-wave differential protection travelling wave protection with microwave channel travelling wave protection with carrier channel directional comparison earth fault protection. := :. == :.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 3 Readers not familiar with these terms and their meaning Protection Systems Using Telecommunication C1GAE WG34/35-05 October 1987 are referred to the CIGRE Publication: :1 I The following DPO DPZS IUDP PUDP POOP AUDP BODP :. . based on the negative-sequence directional earth-fault protection.: protection protection only.10 - . MWDP TWMP TWCP DEPZ DEPN DEP NDEP '" :.

Composite current protection of the degree (of a series-compensated line) Percentage of the equivalent series-capacitor reactance on a line in relation to the line reactance: A single-system protection operating on basis of a mixed-current measuring quantity composed weighted current sum of a three-phase system (1M = k"!a + k2'!b + k3 .g. when the circuit Simultaneous faults on two circuits of a multi-circuit line at the same location.g.g. Double fault fault clearing e. Power transmission of cableairgap e.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 3 Related to the protection of complex transmission networks the following additional terms are often used: Compensation k = Xc / XL. Evolving fault a phase-to-earth fault A fault developing to involve different phases/earth during the fault clearing time. Reversal of the fault-current on a healthy line due to non-simultaneous breakers switch-off a fault on a parallel line at sequential instants. . E. Cross-country fault higher than the capacitor is Simultaneous flash-over Current reversal to earth of two different phases in different line sections.11 - . Line-end sarles-capacltor line where the circuits belong to different power systems Series capacitor placed at the end of a power line. of two different circuits of a multi-circuit line.Ie> . a series Conventional An airgap which will flash when the voltage over the capacitor becomes designed to stand. Composite connection fine line consisting of electrically and OHL-sections. on each circuit at the same tower of a double-circuit line. Flash-over Flash-over Intercircuit fault between phase-conductors fauft line with or without involving earth (same VOltage level). Fault between the circuits of a multi-circuit Intersystem fauft Fault between circuits of a multi-circuit (voltage levels). different series connected components.

i.12 - . the fault current will have a leading phase angle against the EMF-voltage. Multi-terminal line Line configuration with three or more line terminals with substantial generation behind each. ln the protection sense this term defines normally the inductive coupling of the zero-sequence parallel lines. Mutual Coupling Inductive or capacitive interaction of parallel power systems. This inverted current is then called "negative fault current H • '. Negative reactance When the reactance from the relay location to the series-capacitor is less than the equivalent negative reactance of the capacitor.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations . H Outfeed Condition at a line terminal of a multi-terminal internal fault. systems of Negative fault voltage If the short-circuit impedance becomes negative (see "negative reactance"). Mid-line series-capacitor in the relay plan. then the total fault loop impedance becomes negative and the fault current will be inverted compared to the normal inductive case.e. the situation is called negative reactance. " Chapter 3 Une tap A connection to a line with equipment that does not feed energy into a fault on the line in sufficient magnitude to require consideration Line terminal A connection to a line with equipment that can feed energy into a fault on the line in sufficient magnitude to require consideration in the relay plan and which has means for automatic disconnection. (See also: voltage inversion and negative fault voltage) Negative fault current When the negative reactance of the series-capacitor (Xc::: -l/Ole) is larger than the sum of the sourceand line fault-reactance. then the short-circuit voltage will be inverted compared to the normal inductive case and will then be called negative fault voltage" . Multi-circuit line tn the protection sense of this paper the term defines a configuration of power lines running so closely parallel that they can influence each other and adversely affect the protection performance. Series capacitor not placed at the end of a power line. . Phase segregated A protection protection line where the shortcircuit power flows out of the line with an that operates with separate measuring systems per phase.

and even current A power transmission lumped negative short-circuit inversions and can adversely Tapped line I ! current feed-back to operate relays.e. it will be inverted compared to the normal case of an inductive short-circuit Weak-infeed Condition at a line terminal where the infeed current is not strong enough to operate (start) the protection at this terminal for an internal fault. i. reactance. line line that has series-connected capacitors for reactive power compensation.assume a lagging phase-angle against the short-circuit current. The taps have not sufficient Teed-line Three terminal line. A line having one or more terminals with substantial generation behind them and taps ·feeding only loads. Series-capacitor bank together in series and parallel to form a large bank with high capacitance Capacitor elements connected and high rated current. the remote line end circuit breaker must be tripped in case of a transformer Unit protection A protection whose operation and section selectivity are dependent on the comparison of electrical quantities at each end of the protected Non-unit protection of electrical section. the metal-oxide Secondary Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 3 resistor made of metal-oxide protecting the Normally a conventional airgap is additionally installed and considered resistor. Transformer feeder fault. In this case the short-circuit voltage will . the reactance from the relay-location to the fault point may become On series-compensated negative (see "negative reactance"). I \ ! A line connected to a power transformer without intermediate circuit breaker. can cause voltage The reactance of the series-capacitor affect protection systems. fault as a back-up to (consequential) Fault caused directly or indirectly by another fau!t. . Series-capacitor segment A series-capacitor Series-compensated can be divided into two or more segments.13 - .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Resistor airgap In this paper this term is an abbreviation for a non-linear series-capacitor. Voltage inversion tines. A protection whose operation and section selectivity are solely dependent on the measurement quantities at one end of the protected section.e. i.

B ZOM Fig. The circuits may be of The term multi-circuit are arranged on the same tower or follow the same right-of-way the same or of different voltage level(s).1. same bus at both ends point of view the simplest case is given when both systems are connected to the same makes it possible to infeed sources (busbars) in each station. The proximity of the parallel line terminals apply compensation methods against mutual coupling.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 4 4. Especially in heavily populated areas multi-circuit lines are therefore widely used with up to six systems on one tower. falling-down of broken conductors or conductor gallopping. especially on common towers. Especially for the relatively often occurring multiple earth faults on parallel lines. Faults between circuits of different voltage level are seldom (about one case in 10 years per utility according to the replies to the 1989 ClGRE-questionnaire) • but cause dangerous voltage and current strain in the lower voltage system [4. The statistics of faults involving more than one parallel circuit vary considerable between utilities and local conditions. I .1: From the protection Parallel line. This phenomenon has to be considered for the and the protection design. The lay-out of the protection to enable selective fault clearance with these multiple faults is always a chaUenging task for the protection engineer. if necessary.1 Application range Environmental and cost considerations force the utilities to use the granted right-at-ways as effectively as possible. Values of 10 to 20% seem to be normal.14 - .24]. 4. In the classical case a double circuit or parallel line exists where two equal circuits are mounted on the same towers and connect the same substations. This locally close arrangement of power lines. always bears the risk that simultaneous or consequential faults can occur on parallel systems due to back-flashover. 4. phase selective tripping and single-pole autoreclosure at each circuit should be ensured to avoid the outage of both lines at the same time. however. Due to magnetic fault calculation induction the circuits are mutually coupled.1 Protection of multi-circuit transmission lines Introduction transmission line (MCTL) is used when two or more three-phase transmission circuits on adjacent towers.

ondition is given when lines run parallel but end at different substations at both line ends. Complicated short circuit voltage.05 + j 0. 'r. r: l. bus only The most unfavorable c. 4. km For an assumed conductor distance of 20 meters the coupling impedance can be calculated as: . 4.15 wltn-a-typical ZM' I I earth resiStivity of p :: 1DOOm and a system frequency of 50Hz we get = 0. 'I I. • .. r Complex fault conditions may occur when the parallel lines belong to different power systems possibly also of different voltage levels. n I 't . -[ 1 [ n. .2: This allows the application of compensation I I L __ ~ _l I I Parallel line with one common only in one substation.and current distributions result from the mutual coupling and double faults involving both circuits.j i Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 Orten the case occurs where the lines are conducted only partly parallel and end at separate substations at the remote end. r.1445 log 930 Dab[m] 0.. separate buses at both ends of the mutual coupling effects is possible in this case.3: Parallel line.n. n I.. Fig.I I I I I I . No compensation Fig." .

4. some unsymmetry is unavoidable even when the Practically.4. self-impedance . Today computer programs are applied to determine as outlined in appendix 3.4J. The mutual impedance is in this case usually below 5 percent of the related self-impedance for untransposed fines and lower than 3 percent for transposed lines [4. i.Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Chapter 4 Configurations r • r' Mutual induction on three-phase transmission lines of a multi-circuit line. the effects of the conductors add to a maximum. In this case coupling exists between all conductors Under load condition and faults without earth the current-sum of one line is zero. the characteristic line impedances. • values can be measured • the I. is defined and can be measured Eoa Fig..17 - . r • • • . .' • r r r (1 • The zero sequence currents are equal and in phase in all three conductors of the three-phase line. of the multi-circuit r number and location of the earth wires which reduce the mutual coupling effect I: r- ( 11).3} Z OM = VOb :. In this case the three phase-conductors can be replaced by a representative single conductor for each parallel tine and the mutual coupling between lines and their earth wires is then reduced to a single-phase The zero-sequence mutual impedance problem [11 J.e.4J. If the distances of the conductors between the two three-phase circuits are assumed as equal then the induction of the different conductors cancel each other and the mutual coupling is theoretically zero. With the real arrangement of the conductors lines are transposed [ll. Additionally. Z M lOa between two conductors with earth return as defined above. a strong impact on earth fault relaying.' :' r> Where zM is the mutual impedance The mutual zero-sequence impedance can be as high as about 70% of the zero-sequence on the same tower. as follows: . the mutual coupling in the positive and negative sequence' system is relatively weak and can be neglected for normal protection considerations.5: Mutual coupling of two three-phase lines {4. at the tower. fI has therefore An accurate calculation of ZOMhas to consider the real spacings between the conductors line and the characteristics.:3 . when the paraltel lines are mounted The mutual coupling effect I.

4.2 4.2.4) Z= " I ph + k 0 .E units measure: Vph .1.4. a measuring error occurs. The distance relay phase-to-earth Vph .28]. phase-to-earth faults.4.E IPh ( IE phase to earth short-circuit voltage at the relay location in the faulted phase short circuit current in the faulted phase earth-current Ie XO " ZOL- ZL 3 . however. 4. 4.1 Class 1 networks: Parallel circuits with common positive and zero-sequence sources This is the normal parallel line case especially when both lines terminate at the same busbar in each substation.1 Impact on distance protection Distance relaying of ph-ph and three-phase faults is not influenced by the parallel line. ZL " ZE f ZL = earth compensation factor set at the relay . The network can in principle always be reduced to the following configuration: "" Fig.4. ZOM 13 into the fault-loop. This phenomenon has been studied in a lar?e number of pubticatlons [4.3.7: Class 1 parallel circuit - .2.6. Class 1 networks: Class 2 networks: Class 3 networks: Parallel circuits with common Parallel circuits with common positive and zero sequence sources positive but isolated zero-sequence sources Parallel circuits with positive and zero sequence sources isolated. ~or protection ~f . Protection problems encountered Mutual coupling of parallel circuits it is useful to introduce the following classes of To study the impact of this phenomenon on protection networks in accordance with reference [4].4.2.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I '1 I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 4. (lEp '" 3·!op) induces a In principle this error appears due to the fact that the parallel line earth-current voltage IEp .

6) into (4. II ZL .Zl .1 + ko ·1 .24% of lL .6) V ph . IEp lph+ ko ·/E factor ko is adjusted to the single-line If the relay earth compensation (4.66 •.E = = I ph • Z l + 3 (4.4 are calculated line Fault at the end of a parallel - IEp Fig.Z:::: ~ .20 - .7) Z :::: L . In the following. IE + 3 . Z + ZOl- 3 .4) we get: IPh (4.9) it can be deduced: I I I I I I I The error is proportional to the mutual coupling factor kOM = laM / 3'll . 4.10) b.9) and Iph ::: Ie ::: lep we get the error: (4.E Z l' (I ph + By introducing (4.5) Vph . three examples The errors in percentage are presented to illustrate the effect of mutul coupling on distance relaying.8) ZE ko= - ZL then the relay measures (4. For a fault at the remote line terminal the underreach amounts to about 25%.8 From (4. II ZOM . In appendix 4 the change in reach is shown for different fault locations on a parallel line with single infeed.I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 I I I I I I I I The short-circuit voltage can be calculated as lOM (4. + kOM • IEp ) Jph+ ko -te I I I earth current of the faulty line earth current of the parallel line Error From formula • • • • (4. The error increases with the parallel line earth current IEp in relation to the relay current Iph + ko·/e The relay underreaches when IEp is in phase with Iph and Ie The relay overreaches when lEp and iphllE have opposite signs. kOM ::: 0. using the line data of appendix 4: ko ::::·0.I =.9) Z =ZL' (. This case demonstrates the worst condition as the ratio of lep to Ie is highest.

.9) and IE . lOM 1 + 3 ko ZO For the setting and behaviour of the distance protection with earth-faults. t Fault at the end of a parallel line.24% of ZL I I Fault at the end of a parallel line Positive and zero-sequence sources at opposite line ends I I I I I I I From (4.parallel line is-'switched off and earthed at both terminals: the case is important where the Fig.21 - __ ------- .-- kOM 1 + ko ·lL == . 4.11 I I - . I !. 4. one breaker open lEp-IE Fig. .9) and Iph "" IE ::: .10 ..11) n Z "" . IEp ::: 3 (4. lL _ 40% of lL n Z::: 3' kOM . I I I I I I I I I t Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 i i: I.IEp : (4. 4.9 From (4. Iph ..12) Fig. ZL .

.::Z"-'I Iph+kO'/E ) .3_·.12 The parallel line zero-sequence (4.Jo-t.IE as I I I I I I I I I I I and lEp= By insertion of this IEp value into equation (4.ZOL -/0 current can be calculated lOM ZOL . Z = - lL ..'·1 :~:.I --- The measured difference against the single line is then (4..I I I I I I ~t.66 and kOM = 0..7) ZOM2 we get the measured relay impedance: (4.22 - . kOM' laM lOL 1 + ko -- 10% of Z L (with ko = 0..14) Z'ol '" lL· [ph +( ZOL.15) !:J. IE -'3:.__· =l.o' Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 The distance protection overreaches considerabely as the earth-impedance connection of the zero-sequence systems of both lines: is reduced due to the parallel O~-------------4 c::J -lop lOL ) laM -/0 lOL 0 c:::J 0 o~--~----------------------~--- Fig.13) lop= laM .4) I I I . -=Z. 4.O"".ZL _ __:..

= ... 4.15 In case 1 the lowest Impedance the zero-sequence systems IS measured.:::Z:. x ._·. Z L ( __ + ZOLZL +_x_ .>l_--==2c_-_.x'--__ 1 + ko Fig.------------ + ( Z OL .. i..ZL _ k OM .--'_"Z'_"L~ 1 + ko z. ph-E cases: I I I I I I I I I I I I I I (4....13 Case 2 Parallel line switched-off and not earthed or earthed only at one line end.2.17) .:. ZOM ) 3 ' Zl ZOl 1 +ko Fig. of both Jines. is measured which corresponds to the shortest reach.... Fig.Z l' __ ZOl+ --:.16) Z '" x .:3".. the configurations and the corresponding formulae for the reach calculation are given for the most important Case 1 Parallel line switched-off and earthed at both line ends... 4.3:::..1.18) Z ::.Zl ' ..=--. 4..23 - .I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 4.1. Z = x . Below...14 Case 3 Both lines in service ph-E 1 (4. ph-E \: (4.2 Setting of distance zones for parallel lines The distance protection zone reaches vary with the switching state of the parallel line configuration.e... kOM ) ... the highest reach occurs due to the parallel connection of In case 3 the highest impedance .

zone.lL 3 .523 Ohm/km :::: 0.88 I I I I I I I (4.575 The distance Case 1: zone reach is set to 90% of Zl To achieve 90% zone reach also for earth faults.."J. lOM .21) 90%lL= x : Zl--~___. The following example shall demonstrate page 18. i .20) factor ko has to be set to ko '" - kOM . I I I I the reach Irom the formula k OM ) (4. the procedure by using the characteristic data of the 380kV line of Underreaching. i. A possible setting strategy is to set the zone to e.303 Ohm/km Ohm/km 0. it shoutd avoid overreach beyond the remote line terminal in case 1. + ko where x is the unknown reach and Case 3: In a similar way we can calculate (.0.·- + lOL.I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 Setting of the underreaching zone The set zone reach should fulfill two criteria: • o it should ensure selectivity.Zl +--' 3'ZI 1 + ko 2-x As solution of this quadratic equation in x we get: x '" 62%.22) 90%ZlooX'Zl x +lOL.29.24 - . We get: x '" 71 %.e.19) = 0.523 3 .g.O~303 .. 0. ZI . ko is the set earth factor from case': ko '" 0.29 lOL Case 2: The reach in this ·case can now be calculated by the formula (4. 90% of the line length for case 1 and check afterwards if sufficient reach exists in the cases 2 and 3. at least 50% plus a safety margin in the most unfavorable case 3. it should cover as much of the line as possible. Given values: ZL zOl zOM setting '" example 0. the relay earth fault compensation (4.

is normally heavily reduced due to infeeds at the remote substation. are: I I I I I I I I I I j! Other practised • setting strategies Ii I Ii ! Avoid earthing at both ends of the switched-off line (earthing only at one side). The underreaching zone could then be adjusted to let say 85% of the single line (case 2) and a reach of 72% in case 3 could then be achieved. For cases 1 and 2 the overreach would then be higher. An overreach in this case is accepted bearing in mind that the overreach into the following lines. However. The case of the switched-off and double-earthed parallel line is assumed to occur seldom. This must be guaranteed unfavorable condition of case 3. also with this strategy.16) and (4. an adaption of the setting to the single line (case 2) could be justified.23) :: + kop factor set for the parallel line condition Where kop is the relay earth-compensation (4. It has to be considered that. Setting of the overreaching zone schemes must at least for the most The overreaching zones for back-up or permissive overreaching distance protection safely cover 100% of the tine with a safety margin of about 20%.ZL 3. Therefore.. I I " Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 t I I Summarizing comment on the underreaching zone setting: • • A setting adapted to the worst case that the parallel line is switched off and earthed at both ends guarantees absolute selectivity for all switching states. the second zone could then overlap with the second zone of a following line and endanger the zone grading selectivity. distance protection !! l! I' • j. A further possibility to solve the selectivity problems is to apply an overreaching scheme using telecommunication. considered as distance (km) . with the parallel line switched-off and earthed at both ends. in normal practice this reach extension provides no problem as the overreach lines is anyway reduced by the intermediate infeeds at the remote substation.25 - . The reach (62%) under the normal paralleillne service provides only a small (24%) overlapping with the remote end protection. i • • The choice of the strategy must finally be based on the local conditions and the service experience of the utility.24) kop = kOs + kOM ZOL. kOM' 1 lOM· (1 +-_ ) l~DI~ I I I (4. ZL kos = Earth compensation factor for the single line lOM I I Mutual coupling factor . This could be accepted as the coupling is smaller with infeeds from both ends and the remote end distance zone tends to overreach in the same case (see annex 4). The probability of a definite outage of a line due to zone overreach is further reduced when autoreclosure is practised. the measured impedances of the above defined into the following' The reach extension can be estimated by subtracting cases 3 and 1 (equations (4.18).


Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
Chapter 4


example: ZL zOL

Given values:

0.303 Ohm/km

= 0.88

Ohm/km Ohm/km



- Ztnt


This result means that in this case a second zone set to let say 150% of ZL would then have a reach of 209% of ZL. This is further illustrated by the following zone grading example.

A series connection

of a double-

and a single line is assumed.


Line 1a


ZL Line 2


line lb
Fig. 4.16: External fault on a following line

The relay R measures (series connection

the following


for a fault on line 2 in the distance

x% of ZL from station B

of the defined

cases 3 and 2).


1 + ZOL- ZL + ZL' __ -=3_·....,Z.........
1 +k~

+ 2 .lL' __

+ =.Z_,,_,OL=-+;...._;;;;Z.h_ ",,3_·-=Z . x ..... I_ l+k~ above.

Where kop is the set compensation kOp = 0.63 + 0.52 = 1.15 For the assumed equation (4.25). We get x



to the parallel line as defined

second zone setting

of Z2 = 150% ZL we can calculate

the reach x on line 2 from the

33% as reach on the following

line during the normal parallel line service. on line 2

When tine 1b is switched-off and earthed at both fine ends the retay R wilt measure an earth-fault according to the following formula (series connection of the defined cases 1 and 2):
1+ ZOL-






. ZI





1 + kop zone setting of Z2
=: =:

ZOL+ ZL + -=~--= + ZL . __ ....:o!.3_·_,Z:Jx• 1'1 + kop

For the unchanged on the following

150% of ZL and

ko adapted

to the parallel line the station

line of x

117%, i.e , the zone would reach beyond

kop we get now a reach after the next.



- 26 -



Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
Chapter 4

.I .1

Summarizing •


on Overreaching-zone


The reach setting must be adapted to guarantee back-up for at least 100% line length plus a safety margin of about 15 to 20%. For remote back-up purposes longer reaches graded to the protection of the following lines are desirable. . The earth-fault compensation factor must be adjusted to the parallel line service where the highest earth-fault impedances occurs. This requirement can be fulfilled by ko-setting when separate ko-factors can be set for the under- and overreaching zones. If the relay has a common ko-factor for all zones, the ko-factor set for the underreaching zone has to be taken over, and the overreach-zone setting (Z2) has to be adapted (enlarged) if the safety margin of
: n\.

about 15 to 20 % overreach over the next station is not achieved. In the above formulae 4.23 to 4.26. the ko-factor chosen for the first zone has to be applied instead of kop· • For the service case of one line being switched-off and earthed at both ends the appearing reach extension into the following lines has to be checked. Unselectivity in the zone grading is normally not to be expected when 'infeeds exist at the remote substation because they reduce the overreach considerably. • The series-connection of parallel lines and the impact of infeeds provide problems for the setting of remote back-up zones [4.31). Local back-up protection concepts should be preferred for these complex transmission networks.

. I.





- 27 -




.~..~ "




Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
Chapter 4




of Mutual Coupling
faults according to the formula (4.7).

The conventional

relays measure phase-to-earth

The measuring current is
/ = /ph + ko·/E

where ko is the earth-compensation

factor. of the parallel line

The induced voltage from the earth-current



' ZOM/3


IOP·ZOM to the

can be compensated by adding a relevant further term to the relay measuring current proportional earth-current of the parallel line (kOM'/Ep)' Formula (4.7) then changes

as follows:

+ ZOL-


Z = ZL'

3· ZI Jph + ko '/E

lOM IE + -'/Ep 3'ZI + kOM '/Ep the correct impedance

It is obvious that the relay measures (4,28) kO ::: ZOL- ZL 3' ZL and

ZL when:

kOM =

3' Zl

With this mutual compensation, the relays at the faulted line measure correctly. However, the relays on the healthy parallel line measure incorrectly and tend to overreach, This is demonstrated in detail in annex 5. It is therefore necessary to block the distance relays or to switch-off healthy parallel line relays, One solution is to compare compensation the earth-currents the mutual compensation on the

of both lines (earth-current


and to release the

only on the line with the higher earth-current method requires a cross-connection

which is always the faulted line. wires of parallel feeder bays in

This compensation

of the earth-current

the substation and the additional current-comparison equipment. This may be one reason why the mutual compensation is not very often applied for distance relaying. The other reason is that the problem can be normally overcome by proper zone setting or by application of command protection systems. The compensation determination. is however in any case necessary for fault locators to enable a correct distance-to-fault


- 28 -

17: Class 2 network In these network types the mutual coupling will not only influence the distance measurement but will also cause problems with directional earth fault relays in the isolated zero-sequence system of the parallel line. zero-sequence detected.2.18. The behaviour of the earth-fault relay can be analyzed in the zero-sequence when an external fault is correctly system replica. zero-sequence system Flg.1.2 Class 2 networks: Parallel circuits with common positive but isolated zero-sequence sources The following network is a typical representative of class 2 networks. A B a) External earth-fault.29 - . 4.4.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 4. single-line diagram A 10s- I I I I I b) External earth-fault. voltage Vo and current fo at each line end are as outlined in the following figure 4.18 . the phase-relations of In the case without mutual coupling. Fig.

Summarizing • CI comment on relaying of class 2 networks the comments on class 1 networks apply also here. Sensitive directional earth-fault Instead. protection with zero-sequence current..--_ ----_ .19.polarized relays can systems. For distance protection. (4.or voltage. " For an earth-fault on a mutually coupled parallel circuit without common zero-sequence" sources the replica circuit is shown in the next figure 4.19: Earth-fault on a parallel circuit with isolated" sources In the zero-sequence system I I I I I I I I I I I I The mutually induced current circulates in the isolated zero-sequence ends voltages comparable to an internal earth-fault. that sensitive system and generates at both tine From these considerations can be concluded normally not be' applied in class 2 networks. • Fig. 4. ------ I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 . phase-comparison normally not be applied in circuits with isolated zero-sequence or negative-sequence polarized relays can be recommended .30- .5J. directional zero-sequence relaying can Similar as with distance relaylnq on paralle! lines a supplementary earth-current comparison scheme could be applied to block the earth-fault relays on the line with the lower earth-current when both ends of the parallel line are accessible in the same substation.

For the application of distance protection. I 4. a parallel connected zero-sequence system exists that reduces the measured fault impedance on the faulted line tends to overreach. the protection c::J o~------------~ -lop -[0 Zo 0 ZoP c::J ~ ZDS~P o~--~---------------------+--Fig. 4. Earth-current comparison at lines with different voltage levels is usually not practised. In most cases it will even technically not be possible when the lines end at different substations.e . Naturally.3 Class 3 networks: Parallel circuits with positive and zero sequence sources isolated class 3 network is shown in the following figure A representative Fig.20: Parallel circuits with isolated sources This situation does normally not occur with parallel lines of the same voltage level because transmission networks are operated as meshed systems..1.2. The difference against class 2 networks is that compensation methods can not be applied.21: Zero-sequence replica circuit of two mutually with isolated zero-sequence sources ~ Z~1P coupled lines . all the problems previously discussed for class 1 and 2 networks apply also here. Class 3 networks exist mainly where lines of different voltage levels are mounted at the same towers.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 i.21. it has to be considered that. as shown in figure 4. I i.31 - . 4.

.ZL _ 3 .30) = ZL • I ph + ( Z OL . The impact on the zone reach of distance relays has to be estimated in each individual case. Summarizing • • • • comment on relaying of class 3 networks voltage levels. !:J. Negative sequence polarization can alternatively be considered.and 10.Z:::: . ZL (ZOSlp + Zap + ZOS2p) (1 + ko) This influence has to be checked for each individual case. ZL + Zap + ZOS2p) + ko ·/E The measured (4. lf we insert lop into equation (4. Vo.29) lop:::: - ZOM ZOS1p + ZOP + ZOS2p .32 - .31) impedance .21: '/0 (4.7) we get a similar formula as {4. ZL{ZOSlp Iph ) • IE (4. Class 3 mutually coupled lines belong normally to power systems of different Compensation methods' can usually not be applied.I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I The parallel line zero-sequence current can be determined from figure 4. difference against a fine without parallel circuit is then ZOM2 .polarized directional earth-fault relaying cannot be applied.. Z OM 2 3 . protection can be recommended as these protection versions are safe against mutual coupling.14}.Zl 3. Differential or phase comparison. I I I . The zone setting must be adapted like with class' parallel lines.

therefore. If now the directional relay has not changed to reverse direction before the signal is received. The following figure demonstrates the problem. release signal from the remote end relay.4). ~j " .--Line 1 Ie 10 Line 2 after opening of the C8 in B . -: Situation flows from C to 0 on the healthy line.22 In the initial situation after fault inception the fault-current b} . :I Non-simultaneous fault clearance on parallel transmission circuits can cause fault current reversal on healthy lines. A A Ie a} 'Initial situation after fault inception Fig.4.e. l I:: ' . The relay in 0 initially sees the fault in reverse direction and. relay 0 will issue a false trip. This phenomenon can cause a racing between protection directional and carrier signals and can result in a false operation in the worst case.! " .. Current Reversal Guard) is necessary. I .forward direction remote end.2 Current reversal effect . When the current reverses.. ij Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 :1: !I . the relay in 0 will send an enable signal to C. If now the release signal from relay C still hangs-on. A permissive scheme will behave as follows: but does not trip as no signal is received from the The relay in C initially sees the fault in. ltcan now occur that breaker B opens before breaker A because the protection in B operates faster due to the higher short-circuit current or because the fault is out of the underreaching zone of the protection in A.1. j.2.33 - . 4. To avoid false operation under these conditions. In this case the fault current on line 2 reverses.i'.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I '. I. a false trip will occur. before the current reversal can occur. does not trip though it receives a When the current reverses. ·i. the directional decision of relay 0 changes from reverse to forward. Short parallel lines provide the worst condition because the relative overreach of the tripping zone is highest in this case. " Ii \. This can cause racing problems in directional comparison protection schemes. The situation is further aggravated when the parallel line is series compensated (see 7. 4. a so called TRANSIENT BLOCKING function (also called This feature allows fast tripping for a short time interval (about 40ms) after fault inception but slows down or blocks the protection before breaker B opens..

For the protection engineer the most frequently appearing double earth-fault circuits is more interesting. 4. In this case the protection behaviour is practically unforseeable and can normally only afterwards be analysed by computer studies (4. When lightning hits such a transmission system. Further reasons for multiple faults are conductor galloping or broken wires. values up to 50% have also been reported (4..23. one measuring unit per phase must be available.g.. these extreme fault situations are seldom and only one or two cases in 10 years per utility have been reported. with footing points at different -!-ph a-E -!Fig.34 - . This can cause quite unusual fault current distributions which have a partly uncalculable impact on protection systems I- [9. At full scheme distance protection schemes the phase-to-phase units must be inhibited in this case. 20%) for phase selection.I I I I I I I '1{. Naturally. that is when a short-circuit occurs between two transmission systems of different voltage levels._ ~~~'. that is at least a three-system distance relay must be used. However. Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 4.and intercircuit-faults on multi-circuit lines where the multiple-circuits Double faults that involve the two circuits of a parallel line occur predominantly are mounted on the same tower. In this case flash-over faults can occur that short-circuit the conductors of two parallel circuits with or without earth-connection. I I I I I I I I I I I The worst condition is given with so called intersystem faults. Available statistics and replies to a C1GRE-questionnaire of 1989 show that about 10 to 20% of all line-la-earth faults involve two circuits of a parallel line.g. The time between separate faults is only a few milliseconds. The probability Thus.211. .3 Double. e. It is better to use distance zones with a short overreach (e. The standard situation is shown in the following figure 4. and increases as the footing of double faults depends widely on the tower construction resistance increases. 4. these double faults can be considered as simultaneous.23: ph b-E Double-fault on a parallel line A phase-selective tripping and automatic reclosure is desirable in this case to keep one complete three-phase transmission system in service to maintain system stability.!. by the earth-current selection.2. detector.24).8). to prevent an adverse effect on the phase . severe voltages appear on all insulator strings and one or more can flash over. flying debris or bush fire under the line. creating single or multiple line-to-earth faults. The phase selection for tripping should therefore not be controlled by the protection starting elements because they have a high reach and will normally see both faults at the same time and consequently initiate a three-phase tripping of both lines. Fortunately.

is rather complex. however.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 If the two earth-faults are located at a tower close to the remote nne terminals they can both be detected also by the overreaching distance zones and phase selective tripping will then not occur. The unbalanced insertion of series-capacitor banks can aggravate this unbalance even more.35 - . .4 Dissymmetries on double-circuit lines The dissymmetries of non-transposed transmission lines cause circulating currents in a multi-circuit-line configuration. a phase-segregated suitable. The treatment of this subject is beyond the scope of this application guide which is aimed at the application engineer. especially when different fault types are combined. However. Negative to positive sequence current ratios of more than 25% have been reported [4.20]. This dissymmetry effect is amplified by the series compensation of lines. EHV lines may also induce circulating zero sequence currents in parallel Load currents on untransposed HV-systems if they are mounted on the same tower .3]. To get phase selectivity for a hundred percent of the line length for this kind of double-fault. 4.Sensitive earth-fault protection may be adversely affected when the HV system is highly resistive or resonantly earthed. Special solutions may be necessary under these circumstances [4. The theorically interested reader is referred to the available publications [9. Negative and zero-sequence currents in the order of 5% line-Ioadcurrent can appear. protection scheme must be applied.2. Either non-unit or unit protection schemes are The analysis of further simultaneous faults on multi-circuit lines.8. are available to study the protection behaviour under such conditions. Sensitive earth-fault relays have to be set above these unbalance currents to avoid false pick-up. 4. Computer programs. They are normally not considered for the practical design and selection of the protection system. due to the positive or zero sequence infeeds at the remote substation this is very unlikely in meshed transmission networks.24J . 4.

.1.g. experience with practised cost.24..':- 4.1 Non-unit protection and all directional and non-directional earth-fault This kind of tine protection comprises all distance protection relays with or without telecommunication.24: Distance protection with AR-controllcd zone 5witchlng .~ -e- Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 . 4.I I I I I I I I I I I . Thus. 400ms}. It has.3. due to the mutual coupling effect.3. available Signal transmission autoreclosure practice channels.1 "_'. The zone setting is shown in the following fjgure 4. A Zwof Line 1a Line 2 Line 3 Line 1b Line 4 line 2 Fig. During the AR-dead-time the zone is then switched-back to underreach. the 1st zone can be considerably reduced. philosophies. protection It is therefore natural that a wide variety of solutions exist for the problems discussed in the previous chapter.1 Distance protection without telecommunication _ i- I I I I I I I I Signalling links can be saved when no severe stability problems exist and end-line faults can be cleared in second zone time {e. . To achieve fast fault clearing the distance protection is in some countries operated with zone-extension controlled by the autoreclosing scheme (AR).36 - .. at the expense of a short line outage. The 1 st zone is extended to overreach the remote line terminal when the autoreclosure is ready. all transient faults can be cleared instantaneously.s . (single-. In the following it will be decided between non-unit and unit-protection schemes as defined in chapter 3. 4. however. 4. 3-pole). to be considered that.3 Protection schemes scheme for multi-circuit lines is controlled_ by a larger number of' The selection of a suitable protection decision factors like • • • • • necessary operating fault clearing time.

the distance relay OA extends and may trip desirably also.1. The coupling eHect is then small and a good overlapping of the underreaching zones of relays DA and DB is given. from the neighbouring bay of the parallel line as mentioned in 4.e.26: The zero-sequence Mutual coupling. Such devices are offered by some manufacturers.1.37 - . the earth current on line 1 is relatively small when the zero-sequence source impedances in A and B are of the same order of magnitude. extremely low as the overreach of ZlO is heavily reduced by the usually existing infeeds in station B. equal sources mutual coupling If the fault occurs near the middle of line 2. The zone setting for phase-to-earth faults has to be carefully chosen as outlined in section 4. overreach condition current now ftows in opposite directions in both lines.25: Mid-line fault. A B i Ii !I II ! lOM Fig. the mutual coupling phenomenon also justifies the decision normally not to compensate A Line 1 lop 0 IEA-- ZOM 2 = B ZOM 2 -lEB Fig. however. Thereafter the situation of the figure 4.26 occurs.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 It has to be considered that the distance protections in station A can also perform an autoreclosure for an external fault on line 2 just behind the remote station 8 in location Fl. This however would require crossconnecting the earth-current The following effect.2. . In this case. l. 4. The probability for this unnecessary AR is. That means that the mutual coupllng impact is only effective for faults near the line terminals. however. the protection nearer to the fault will trip and open the circuit breaker. 4.1. A longer reach of Zw could be achieved by using a mutual compensation supplement for the distance protection.

ZQM 2 Z 20n 12 0. Protection DA at the other line-end will initially see the fault and trip or trip in cascade. This is in many cases acceptable. This is illustrated in the following figure 4..27. adapted to the condition of the parallel line being switched off and earthed at both ends.plus CB-time).28. as an alternative way.1 'Io Z 12 40n ZOSA 0.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configu~ations Chapter 4 In this case the fault is cleared in a cascaded tripping with an additional delay in the order of about lOOms (protection. that is about 60 10 70% ZLl a dependable fault clearing is ensured. 10GVA A ph-E 8 SK" := 1GVA 380kV lolll =1 1:= 100km lOL'" 120n ZOM :::: son 10 3S0kV lOll 1 :::: 1 =f 0.4 '10 ZQL . Mid-line ph-E-fault with unequal zero-sequence sources At the weak zero-sequence terminal the line currents flow in opposite directions.38 - . Cases where the parallel lines do not end at the same busbar at both line ends need special consideration because the distance protection can overreach under certain conditions. This is demonstrated in figure 4. IF~ SK" . to avoid this double earthing.27: Parallel line.1 . ln cases where the zero-sequence source impedances are of a different order of magnitude. 4.g. Probably the most frequent practice is to set the underreaching zone to about 75 to SO%of the single-line impedance and to rely on the zone reduction due to remote infeed when the parallel line is switched off and earthed at both line terminals or. . Relay DB at this line-end wilt therefore overreach and trip safely.laM 400 - 400 Zose 1500 Fig. As a summary of the above discussion it can be developed that even with a short setting of the underreaching zone (e. at least in a cascaded tripping. 10 150 - ZOL .ZQM 2 2Qn 0. the mutual coupling is also effective for mid-line faults as zero-sequence current flows from the weak to the strong source line side on the parallel line.6 '10 - - ZQL .

A better solution is to use a permissive overreaching or blocking distance protection scheme. when lines of different power systems run parallel.2 Directional and non-directional earth-fault relaying This kind of protection is used in many cases as back-up protection with definite or inverse time delay. overreaching schemes .1. For the underreaching telecommunication. In cases where the mutual coupling effect cannot be clearly estimated. When the lines terminate at separate buses the directional sensing may be adversely affected. The relay DA 1 therefore overreach.51.2.28: Distance protection of mutually coupled at the same bus at both terminals lines not ending The earth-currents in line A-8 and A-D flow in opposite directions. to about 70% line length in order to avoid overreach in any case. 4. Compensation of the mutual coupling may also be tried where the lines have a common bus at least at one end.3. Overreaching protection schemes similar mutual coupling considerations apply as for distance relays without methods are in principle the better solutions against mutual coupling problems. the operation Zone packaged distance protection schemes are desirable in this case with an additional independent underreaching zone. the higher the overreach. study could be feasible.39 - . 4. The situation can be even worse when the mutually coupled lines have different In these cases a reduction of the underreaching zone according to a short-circuit tends to sources at both ends. are to be preferred. that is when the parallel line is not commonly bussed at both ends or even worse.2.I I I I. The latter could be set relatively short. However. then depends completely on the signal transmission channel.1. 4. The weaker the infeed in A is compared to D.3.g. Less sensitive setting or the use of negative 4.1. Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Fig. sequence directional sensing may be a solution [4. This has then to be investigated according to the rules outlined in section 4. The application on parallel lines with common bus at both ends provides normally no problems.4. e.3 Distance protection with telecommunication protection schemes can be applied when the Alf'types'of"underand overreaching command (transfertrip) parallel line is commonly bussed at both ends.

--.2. The pick-up level of the earth-fault detectors should not be set too sensitive to avoid spurious operation circulating unbalance-currents or charging current. The zero-sequence relays).h XOC = . for parallel lines with a common bus at polarizing quantity can be I I I I I I I I I I I or current or both (dual polarized polarization The zero-sequence both ends.40 . phase I' I 4.1.3). Negativevoltage or zero-sequence directional relays are in use.2. more frequent segregated schemes could become more popular. As the polarizing zero-sequence falsely sense an internal fault. application of optical fibres.5]. The following figure 4.~- .~.29: The zero-sequence on directional earth-fault relaying current j~'/a lop is approximately XOM Xoc' 4 currents • lop ~ Consequently . Phase segregated non-unit distance protection schemes would be the best solution. Consequently a zone acceleration scheme is preferable to an underreaching scheme that uses the starting zone as the permissive function. :.1.J-._ j 2 . 4.1 weo the zero-sequence on the faulty and on the non-faulty voltage is the same for both circuits. This is on one hand expensive and on the other hand the band width is normally not available with power line carrier transmission systems. I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 As discussed earlier (see section 4.J_ -1.3. parallel line have the same the healthy Une relays will direction. seldom applied as three signal channels have to be provided in each direction per line.. IOF on zero-sequence current of an unfaulted parallel ' 10 10 Zso Uo t I rap . . Both types are in principle suitable also for parallel lines.4 Directional comparison earth-fault protection This protection type combines the directional decision of earth fault relays at both line terminals through a signal transmission channel in a permissive or blocking mode. the phase-selection for tripping should not be controlled by starting elements or zones (when single-pole autoreclosure is practised on parallel lines) ._--_ . Instead distance zones with short overreach should be used for this purpose. can be applied without restrictions Parallel circuits with isolated zero-sequence sources can create problems with zero-sequence polarization as explained in section 4. --- I.J. They are.3.. Ua t Zso I Fig. however. In the case of radio-links or with the future. Xoc f0 Wit . Impact of charging current rap _. Negative-sequence directional relays should then be chosen [4.J_ ~. .. .29 shows the effect of the capacitive line on directional-earth relay operation.

----1 SR --+-_--G block tripping 40ms 18 RD --------------~ = forward direction RD = SR = tB = reverse direction release signal received transient blocking time from the remote end I I I I I I I I Fig. A less sensitive setting is then not the appropriate In case of very long lines (300 to 400km) a supplementary device can help that compares the earth-currents in both circuits of the parallel line and blocks the relay with the lower earth-current which is always the healthy line. U x .. logic is shown in figure 4.U: prefault voltage minus fault voltage t::. thus avoiding mutual coupling problems. it can by principle not detect simultaneous circuits of a parallel line.4. I I I seals-in for a certain time..1. An independent main or back-up faUlt-types.2. to the minimum fault I I I I I current. or sequential faults that involve both must there tore be provided for these . It has however to be considered that power system faults will also induce travelling waves on parallel lines due to the mutual coupling effect.30: Transient-blocking logic circuit 4. 4..5 Directional comparison travelling wave protection These relays use the sudden changes in voltage and current at fault inception to determine the fault directon (see also section 7.1): Directional criterion: . In principle this protection type can also be used with multi-circuit lines.1 minus fault current . Directional comparison schemes must be equipped with a transient blocking function to avoid false operation in case of current The usual function reversals (see section 4.30. As the travelling wave protection senses the first sudden changes of the short-circuit protection quantities and then i" :I .I I For long transmission Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 lines this capacitive current can be relatively high compared solution.I : prefault current The directional decisions are then used to set-up a directional comparison scheme via a signalling link in the conventional way.6..2. Another philosophy is to apply the travelling wave protection only for phase-to-phase faults.2).6.or negative-sequence directional earth-fault protection. FD -..6. and to supplement a separate zero.3. The pick-up sensivity of the directional detectors must theretore not be set too sensltive. These relays measure very fast (below a quarter-cycle) and the total scheme operating time can be well below one cycle if fast signal transmission channels are available.41 - .

types do not have such restrictions and are therefore ideally suitable for multi-circuit Advantages of phase segragated • • • unit protection schemes for the application with parallel lines: Instantaneous clearance also of double faults involving both circuits. Safe against mutual coupling effects.. Further.. Both types are available as composite current or as phase segregated version._-------. They need a more expensive wide-band signalling channel and their reliability depends completely on it._. Phase-segregated lines. that involves different phases on both circuits.... Some sort of distance or overcurrent relay is therefore additionally necessary in any case. _-----...3. however. When a phase segregated protection is used as main protection... unit protection does not provide back-up for faults out of the protection range defined by the CTs at both line ends. I I I ------ . the second or back-up protection should also be set-up phase selective or should be time-delayed for earth-faults to avoid a probable cancelling of the correct phase selection.. Hundred percent phase selective for all kinds of single and multiple faults. . It must however be mentioned that unit protection schemes also have disadvantages against distance protection schemes. then the relay operation depends on the condition whether the internal fault is on a higher or lower weighted phase and of the total fault-current distribution... If a double fault occurs on a parallel line.42 - - .. The composite type relays further need an additional phase-selector when single-pole autoreclosure is practised.. undervottage or impedance measuring system. as previously discussed with distance relays..and out-flowing currents of a line either as phase-comparison or as differential protection.- .___. It can be an overcurrent. --_ .. Non of these selectors.2 Unit protection schemes This kind of protection compares directly the in. This different weighting of currents implies that a fixed phase preference exists. can guarantee a secure phase-selection in the case of simultaneous faults that involve both circuits of a double-circuit line.. The composite-type uses a measuring quantity which is a weighted mixture of the phase currents (1M::: Kt·1a + k2-/b + K3'[c) or the symmetrical components (1M:: kl'/1+K2 -[2+kO·/0).. I I I 'I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 4... The case -may occur that the protection on one line can not operate before the protection on the parallel line has operated and one fault point is cleared.----- ------------ ---- -----------.

2. . The better solution is to transmit the command and measuring signals combined in one VOice-pius channel and to cross the signals for a parallel line as follows. the channel requirement is moderate. ----------------- .I 4. I I I I I This type of protection can be used together with power line carrier channels up to about 300km as composite current version and up to about 2QOkm as phase-segregated version. the three tones of a phase segregated PCP can easily be transmitted in a .1 Phase comparison protection (PCP) Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations I Chapter 4 ~I J ~i t . Protection signalling for a parallel line signal1lng channels or optical fibre cables can be applied protection I a high bandwldth for numerous I I I I I Thus. i' 'j 1" .e.) DP = distance protectIon Fig. for a composite-type PCP needs only about 1kHz. 'I . 1\.31: Where radio-links is available. : : . 011 .l I: ". . In the latter case the reach is reduced as 3 tones have to be transmitted and this requires a nine-fold carrier sending power for the same signal to noise ratio. the so called. Hi II ·1 Ii' ".. where a second main protection is provided. voice-plus 'i In some cases.e . i. Due to the fact that only phase positions. One rectangular-wave comparison signal needs only about 1kHz bandwidth. This allows transmitting channel.3. phase-segregated should be preferred.43 - I f. ti i.1. i: :j . standard 4kHz voice-frequency The single-signal transmission channel. r: \ I I i i . current zero-crossings must be transmitted. I " I~! additional command signals in the same 4kHz. III Ii I I I I I II: \I!: II!' I! 'I II . 1: . 4. t. it is accepted that the signals of the two circuits of a parallel line are transmitted through one common channel.

Seauential reclosing is practised an resistance grounded HV-double lines: In case of multiple faults.5 Automatic reclosing considerations lines. a 64kbitls channel is required to transmit the sampled current values as digital encoded numbers in a serial protocol. Thus. A supplementary From Japan.2 Longitudinal differential protection This type of unit protection could formerly only be used with pilot wires and the length of the protectable line-section was therefore limited to about 20km. 4. It has. If single pole AR is practised. (4. Some companies block the three-pole AR when the parallel line is out of service to avoid rectostno at a large voltaqe difference angle. So lines have been reported called Multi-Dole autorec1osure is performed on EHV lines with phase segregated unit protection: Only the faulted conductors of the parallel line are tripped and reclosed as long as at least two out of six conductors remain healthy. lines. This is discussed in paragraph 4. not been frequently used.2. two special forms of autoreclosure on multi-circuuit synchrocheck relay is preferrable. affecting both line circuits.------------ ---------------- I I' I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 4. metering and telephone {151. This opens the possibility to apply phase segregated differential protection on these lines and to use their above named advantages [5. . to be considered that the mutual coupling effect reduces the reach of the back-up zones in case of earth-faults when the parallel line is in service while they are prolonged when the parallel line is switched off and earthed at both terminals. however.2. The combined impact of remote infeeds and mutual coupling normally prevent a reasonable grading of back-up Zones. the proper The standard equipment can also be used for multi-circuit phase-selection-in case of double faults has to be guaranteed.9].1 .2.2. Pulse-code modulated standard devices (PCM 30) are available for micro-wave or optical fibre transmission.1 .32]. Optical fibre transrntsston is now also interesting for longer lines.3. the tripping and reclosing of the line with a single phase-to-earth fault is delayed until the other line has been reclosed. Local back-up philosophies are therefore recommended. therefore. These devices have an extremely high band-width of some MBd which is normally shared between protection and other services like remote control. Typically. The phase segregated version needs three pilot-pairs (or at least two pairs with a phantom-Circuit).4 ln principle. Links of more than 100km without intermediate repeater are in service. I I .3..44 - . Digital relays now operate with serial interconnections between the two line terminals. It is therefore often difficult to find a selective zone grading with sufficient line coverage as demonstrated in paragraph 4. Back-up protection there is no difference for back-up relaying of multi-circuit lines compared to single-circuit I I I I I I It has. the simultaneous outage of both line circuits shall be avoided. 4. This can however only be considered as an exception.

2 Statistical Data lines of the same voltage is not uniform and varies between 0 and 100%. It is.- I 'I 4. These utilities represent 1900 lines> 250kV. I I I I I I . 400 and 220kV) occur in some countries (DE. to protect multi-circuit lines. The other half of the II ii 'I ! I I I I I I in case of double faults affecting different phases of With reference to fault statistics. number of single-phase-to-earth faults per 100km and Year. Parallel lines with circuits of different voltage level (e.6 Recent practices and trends a summary ! -'! " Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 ~: . the replies to the questionnaire show that the utilies can provide information on fault rates as mean values. Only 37% require selective tripping and autoreclosure parallel lines.: Current differential protection is used to some extent with pilot wires.35 to 10. the protection philosophy introduced for normal single-lines supplements if necessary. is also kept. . OK. with some I: Ii I' ~ Ii !I • • Distance relays most frequently with telecommunication in various forms of command protection (blocking or permissive schemes) are still in predominant use (87% on 400kV.------------------_. however. state-of-the-art can be drawn from the answers: II The following general conclusions • It seems that the utilities adhere to the classical protection concepts that have on one hand proved successful in practice since years. e. the known weak points are more or less accepted because of their low probability of occurrence (e. 3300 lines 150 to 250kV and about 7500 lines 100 to 150kV. though it is a bit surprising that these figures vary considerably from country to country (1 -Ph-E faults from 0. In most -cases.g.4 on the 200kV level).I 'I! 1· !I 'r I I In the following. microwave or optical fibre links are the exception. multiple faults) or because time delayed fault clearance or non selective tripping can be accepted to a certain extent (calculable risk).0 for 300kV and above.05 to 8. Here. 0.45 - . About 45% of the replies state that mutual coupling is considered and that remedies are applied (lower zone setting to about 75 to 80% line-length or use of protection with telecommunication). used to provide protective II I! il • • No mention is made that digital methods or equipment would be specifically solutions for the problems of complex transmission networks. however. CH) with up to 50% share in the number of multi-circuit lines. 85% on 200kV and 92% on 100kV) .1 Protection philosophy. It was circulated in 19S9 and answers were -received from 49 utilities. 4.6. most applications seem to be trial installations except in Japan where the latter type of wide band communication has been widely applied for some years.g.I I I 4.g. of the replies to a CIGRE-questionnaire is given.6. difficult to get comparable figures specificaUy for complex networks. where the main application areas are Europe and Japan. On the other hand. replies stated that it is not considered. The percentage of multi-circuit The mean value is close to 50%.

0 2.4 0. .. 0.16 min. Faults between circuits of different voltage levels seem to be extremely rare (1 to 3 cases within 10 years per utility as an average.64 min. l-Ph-E-Faults min.77 mIn.39 min.3: Fault rates (Faults per 100km and year) .05 300 kV 2.0 -'. . the information on double faults on multi-circuit lines is mainly based on the information of only 12 replies. max. 0.11 min.004 min. lower footing resistance) and line construction may cause a wide variance as stated also above for the single-fault statistic.005 min. practi- > 300 kV Total number of lines (49 utilities) Parallel lines same voltage level Parallel lines different voltage level 1684 47% 8% 200 . 0. The corresponding year. 9.56 min. 0.150 kV 9277 35% 5% ·i Table 4.0 0.4 100 .0 max.2 max.0 2.0 ca.0 max.2: Existing parallel lines ·i > . 1.250 kV 3438 43% 13% laO .004 min.01 max. 0. ca. 0. max. max. 0. max.0 0. It should. however. 0.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 . 0.0 0.g. A maximum value of 10 was stated by one company. be mentioned that two countries (Belgium and France) delivered detailed statistics.~ Table 4.O 200 . ..46 - .06 min. B.12 0. max. 0.35 0. They show that the fault rate of double faults on multi-circuit lines is about lata 20% of the comparable single-fault values stated above.7 max. 0. ~. average fault rate for intersystem faults is extremely low: 0.13 max.~ Therefore.05 ca. 0. 2.05 Double faults (Simultaneous faults on the two circuits of a parallel line) Intercircuit faults (Faults between systems of different voltage level) ·. 0.0 0. : ~ The following tables 4. The reply from one US-utility and further available publications name higher values up io 50%. This again indicates that the local conditions (e. 2.005 faults per 1 QOkm and ". 0.2 to 4. 10.150 kV 2. but this seems to be abnormal).65 min. 2.0 max.B 2-Ph-E-Faults 0.7 show the summary of the CIRGE-SC 34 survey on current protection ces of 1989.0 0.250 kV 2. 0.

33". 80% 39% 24% 28% 9% 3% 14% 19% 57% EP 72% OEP2:28% DEPN. pOOP:33'Y.I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 I i' . applied protection schemes .4: Zone acceleration Permissive underreaching Permissive overreaching Blocking overreaching Composite current type Phase segregated type Pilot wire Fibre optic Microwave Earth-faUlt protection. BODP:17% CPCP.250 kV 26% AUDP:45% PUDP. zero-sequence Directional comparison. 67% EP 70% DEP2:30% DEPN: - I I I I I I I I Legend: AUDP PUDP POOP BODP CPCP SPCP PWOP: FODP: MWDP: EP DEPZ DEPN Table 4.70% PWDP:50% FODP:33% MWOP:17"1.22% DEPN:14% 200 . negative sequence Parallel lines. PUDP:170/.150 kV 74% AUDP.21% poOP: 16% BOOP:18% CPCP:40% SPCP. . time delayed Directional comparison.60% PWOP.IOO% SPCP: PWDP:66% FOO?:17% MWDP:17% I I > Distance protection without telecommunication Distance protection with telecornrnunlcatton Phase comparison protection Differential protection Travelling wave protection Sensitive earthfault protection 50% 97% 300 kV 15% AuDP:43% PUDP.I 11 I' 'I I I [i I! % of utilities use on parallel lines I I I I I I il 100 .47 - .15% POOP: 0% 2 BODP: 0% 2 CPCP:30"1. SPCP.60% FODP:10% MWDP:30% 7% EP : 64% DEP2.

48 - --------- - .I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 • Is phase selective tripping and single pole AR required in the following case? j j- cllA-E <ll8-E 37% 46% 27% Yes No No statement: • If "Yes".No statement I I I 10% 70% Table 4.Use a teleprotection scheme and accept 3-phase tripping of both lines for near-line-end faults .. _-- . simultaneous faults I I I I I .Phase segregated unit protection .Distance protection with AR-controlled zone reach . what are the applied measures? 6% 4% 10% .5: Parallel line protection.Phase segregated non-unit protection .

or zero .by nQ1 earthing at QQ1h line ends . 70% average 80% max.) 4% .no answer • The reduced zone setting is: 50% min.by a teleprotection scheme 30% 28% 4% 34% . mutua! coupling effect • How is overreach prevented in the case of a switched-off and earthed parallel line? l .by reduced zone setting .Use a teleprotection scheme and accept 3-phasetripping of both lines for near-line-end faults No statement 10% 70% Table 4. Table 4.7: Parallel line protection. di8tanCQ zone grading I .I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 -r: • Is mutual coupling considered ? Yes I No No statement 45%} 49% 6% of utilities • Are measures - applied to avoid the adverse effects of mutual coupling ? 12% 33% I I I I I I I I I I I I I Parallel tine compensation of the distance protection of the fault locator only Application of a phase-segregated teleprotection scheme 4% 10% Using directional earth fault-relaying (negative .by mutual compensation ( only possible with line side CTs.49 - .6: Protection of parallel lines.sequence) .

8 Approximate values of KOM (50Hz) .6 xl0-4 x log (0) D.54 0.1 Table 4.7 Appendices coupling impedance calculation the zero sequence mutual coupling reactance XOM can be Appendix 1: ZerQ-sequence For overhead lines without earth conductors.61 0.Dca!· Deb".5 10 15 20 0.64 0.51 30 0.6.XOM = j 2 f: XOM: XL: Network frequency Mutual coupling reactance 'IT X fx 4.Dec' I I I For lines with earth wires a simple formula does not exist but a specialized program must be used to compute the zero sequence mutual impedance.4 100 200 400 600 0.50 - .29 0.41 !l/km Xo zero sequence d distance line impedance: 1.06 0.6. or the real values have to be measured. Example: Approximate values of kOM = 3~O~L are given in the following table Xl line positive sequence line impedance: 0.23 il/km I I I I I between the parallel lines in meter d kOM 5 7.XLl .45 50 0. '" 9 . estimated by the following formula: (Xo .: Geometric mean distance between one conductor and conductors of the other line I .71 0. Line positive sequence Line zero sequence reactance reactance of the same line D: Geometric mean distance between conductors D=~ dl • d2 • d3 .18 0.Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations I I I I I I Chapter 4 4.-------------------------------------------Daa '> Dab'> Dac '> Dba'» Obb'· Dbc".

._ o II) I i .20 ..51 - .·1 :! I I I I I I I I I I I I I Appendix 2: TYl2ical zero-sequence coupling impedance i charts 14 6._ <D C) I a) 400kV b) 110kV 1 I I I I I I Fig. 4.I I " J 01 ! Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 ...20 10...32: Typical tower configurations .20 ~r- 6. II II I I .20 -I (JJ 10.

52 - .. .34: Typical mutual reactances for 400 kV lines..7 0.5 0.. without earth wires with earth wires on one system with earth wires on both systems X 'X.. 'x..5 0.33: Typical mutual reactances for 400 kV lines. ""'""-_ -X-----i( _~--...=~-j~~-.7 0. ~ '-.6 \ \ 0.2 O':1-~~~==:=:=~=:~~~-~~-==... -.4 0.._ O~~~~~~~~--~~~~~~~-~· 100 200 300 --_ ~---400 -.3 0. p '" 100 Om (50H~ values) . . I I I I I I XOM [O/kmj 0.4 0.--~---600 700 800 900 1000 d [rn] 500 Fig._ 'x-_ X.8 0.-. o x.I I I I :f ji Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 XOM [O/kmj 0. I I I \.. <... -"x... -.1 without earth wires with earth wires on one system with earth wires on both systems I I I I I.2 0.. 4..-. p ::: 300 Om (50Hz values) " <..8- 0...3 0.6 0. 4.___ <.-- - -'! .-~~ o 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 d [rn] Fig.

.-. x.__ "'%. Fig..-. i l XOM Inlkm] 0. ~! 'I I ..8 0. __ --x.53 - .I I I I I I I I I I '1 I I I I I I I I ..7 0.-.. 4.-~-----x800 ----) 900 1000 d Irn] Fig.--. ----- --------~ 'ol--.36: Typical mutual reacctances for 110 kV lines.5 0.9 0..==:=:==:~::~~~-~-~~~~--~--~---~~--~~ o 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 dIm] -Typlcal mutual reactances for 110 kV lines.5 'X 0. p :: 100 ilm (50Hz values) --x._ --'7?-.35: XOM !ntkm] 1 0. . 4. "X-_ O.4 0.1· • :'Ii · I I I ~ ~ Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 \ ·.~l_~~~--.==:=:==:=~=:~==.::-~-.~-~-~-~.8 without earth wires with earth wires on one system with earth wires on both systems 0. p :: 300 . "- 'x.3 0. o 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 -_ ~----._.~~~-~~..-. X 0.6 0.2 O1 \. .3 0.2 .9 0...4 'x "x.6 0..7 0._ without earth wires with earth wires on one system with earth wires on both systems x.. -*------ -.om (50Hz values) ...

b) Another voltage source is the substation auxiliary supply. In this case.(S) l ~2. regulated (stabilized) and adjustable.Q-.-...1} Set-up of the measuring diagram circult : Schematic r-------------l I 1-<::>-. 10A. This accuracy must have been checked recently in a laboratory where reference equipment is available. The" current" 300V I I I I I rating of the ammeter and wattmeter should generally be matched to 2. where X L·w and w ~ 2·1T·f...1. from the HV network. • • The accuracy class of the measuring equipment must be 0. Measuring • equipment voltmeter and wattmeter is generally 250V I The "vottaqe ~ rating of the most appropriate or 500V. SA... Impedance measurement Z R + j·X. 4.. In this case. = = ..... Generally. Note: It is necessary to make a preliminary calculation of the order of magnitude of the line impedances to be measured in order to match the supply (8) voltage to the ratings of the measuring equipment.54 - .5%. if necessary.2) (S): LV supply at 50 or 60Hz system frequency Normally a source voltage of 220V is used to comply with the measuring Note: There are two possible cases. this supply is equipment ratings. They are then suitable for medium or long lines. it will be necessary to ensure that the supply has a harmonic content of less than 2% for the harmonics H3 and HS and of less than 1% for higher harmonics.-c -I ::r I I I t-u---t-----------.37 1. J 8 = voltage _j source M = measuring equipment Z '" line impedance to be measured Fig. a) The supply (8) can be an isolated (transformer) and. as the supply is obtained conditions for low harmonic contents..-. f is the network frequency (50 or 60Hz)..3) eM). 220V/380V three-phase with earthed neutral.1 A I 1--.. -4-0- Z = R + jX . Measurement of line imoedances for the setting of distance protection and fault locators 1) 1..I I I I I I I I Il I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 Appendix 3. 5A.. I I it generally satisfies the 1.

2) The phase-to-earth comparing I Zph-E = (2Z1 +Zo)/3. laE. there will be differences between the three measurements for the same group. in addition to measuring IR' to check the current values for the three phases a.2. and c and to evaluate any dispersion with respect to lR/3. The values are then used to deduce the positive. II . it is also advisable.1 .2) will modify These measurements are performed to determine the average values of Zph-ph and Zph-E.2. • For a flag conductor line.1) measurement measurements: Three phase-earth One zero sequence Note: E.1 separately by a single measurement: Z1 = (Zab + Zbc + Zca)/2x3 impedance Zo is determined u I I = 3VollR: lR:= residual current !I I For a dissymmetric non-transposed line. we will obtain: lab and lab ZaE f'>j lbE = leE > lb = Zbe < Zea (the difference can reach 8 to 10%) we obtain For a line in which the conductor = lbc = lca and Za = Zc layout is similar to an equilateral· triangle. For a horizontal bundle line. by the average measured value Zph-E := (ZaE + ZbE + ZeE) 13 and the theoretical value should not exceed 2%. dissymmetry will be obtained both for lph-ph or steel guard-wires and lph-E the measured The presence of one or two steel-aluminium impedances and also the dissymmetry. lbe.: • • measurements: measurement: lbE. impedance measurement lph-E will be used for a verification check. line comprises seven distinct lea measurements: 2. If the line structure is dissymmetric and not transposed. X and :f I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 2) Modulus of Z: IZI = VII :f := arc cos P/(V' I) X Z· sin :f R = Z· cos :f = VII x P/(Vxl) := PII2 Verification: Z2 = R2 + X2 = Line Impedance The complete Three ph-ph measurements of a three-phase lab. R.g. Calculation of Z.and zero-sequence line impedances: impedance per phase: '1 I 2. with or without guard wires. leE lo. The difference .1 1 2. b. 2.1) Positive sequence The zero sequence Zo = Vollo Note: .55 - .I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 Reading of the measuring values: I in Amps V in Volts P in Watts.

2. but a value of Zo = 0. resulting in: Xo/X1 =2 to 2.7 to 0.45 Ohm/phase Argument :t. Zca/2 .4 Ohm/phase R. and without earth wires. Argument:to = 80 to 850 75° XO/km XO/X1 = 4 earth wires.8 Ohm/phase. The validity of the measured values can further typical orders of magnitude: be estimated by comparing them with the known For a HV fine with a small cross-section single conductor per phase and without guard conductor.XOM Argument :tOM in degrees.Z.2).4 Ohm/phase R.4 to 0.2..Zbc/2 - Z1.I = 70 to 75° Xo/X. = 50 to 75° Argument :fo 0. with two aluminium-steel and :t1. the For an EHV Hne with four large cross-section results will be approximately (at 50Hz): XlIkm 0. deviations and in particular the fault can be determined to estimate the protection measurement locator measurement deviations for different fault-types. ZOM/km '" ROM + j. R1 + j.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 2.0 to 1.27 to 0. 2.. The values found above can be compared with the values obtained from a theoretical calculation on basis of the line geometry. the results will be approximately (at 50Hz): XlIkm XO/km 0.9 to 1.""'. the kilometric line parameters are obtained: Z1/km ZO/km .56 - . This demonstrates that the effect of the earth wires decreases the zero sequence impedance by almost half.5 .32 Ohm/phase 1.4) Kilometric line impedances If the impedances calculated above are divided by the exact length of the line in km.I Argument :t. the differences Zab/2 - Z1' . 3 conductors per phase.1.X1 Argument Argument Argument :tl in degrees '" Ro + j·Xo :fo in degrees :t ph-E in degrees to calculate the mutual kilometric Zph-E/km = Rph-E + j·Xph-E For a double line or a parallel line. we find approximately the same value for Z1 For the same line.3) Calculation of the dissymmetry With respect to the average values calculated above. :. it will also be necessary impedance (see section 4.:.

the three conductors a.38 • Important Note: short-circuit of phase c with phases a and b. At A. 3. At A..40 At 8. 4.___-'b~ O-I a Fig.-. The supplementary However. the short-circuit at B cannot be made through the line earthing-switch. 4. the same remark applies as above.__ ----'0. them to the line and large cross-section Earthing rods with jaws connecting flexible cables can be used.2) Measurement of Zo A c b 8 a Fig. b.4) General Remark AI! the line links must be made with low resistance conductors. 3.57 - . This means that in this case. any supplementary short-circuits of phases band c will have no effect on the measurement.Qu1 earth must be used at B. 4.b. or not.. the supplementary short-circuit to earth at 8 can only be used if supply S is isolated from earth. c must be short-circuited and connected to the substation high voltage earth: the short-circuit can be made by the earthing-switch. it will also be necessary to use a link to a substation high voltage earth conductor cases. .3) whether the supply S is isolated or not. of ZaE (ZbEr ZeE) in all Measurement A o---_--"'c:.39 • • At 8.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 3) 3. makes no difference.1} Connection Measurement diagrams of Zab (Zbc. Zea) A 8 O~--=~"--------O-I a Fig. 8 . With an earthed supply S a phase-to-phase short-circuit Yill. 3.

It is also possible to check that there is no noise current at the short-circuited line.58 - .XOM of line characteristic data measured with a low voltage source 5) Remarks on the validity To ensure that the measurements are valid. such as of a nearby electrified railway line. After opening the earth isolating switches and providing power from supply (S).1) 4. sequence impedance measurement at the other line would otherwise be incorrect. When inductive voltage reducers are used. of V' 0 is made between the three phases connected V'ollo = 3V'oIIR = ROM + j.safety conditions With the line isolated. Measurement of the mutual zero sequence impedance ZOM c' b' a' 8 ~ ) ZOM c b a Fig. the busbar isolating switches are to be locked in the open position so that an accidental operation of the circuit breaker is ineffective. At B. The measurements shall only be performed by authorized qualified personnel completely familiar with substation installations and the safety regulations Attention: There is danger of life by possibly for working at HV-lines. 4. readings are to be made on the equipment without touching the conductors. it will be necessary to check that there is no interference from an energized or on-load adjacent line. high voltage! • • • induced . or any other source.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network' Configurations Chapter 4 4) Double circuit line the zero 4. 6) Measuring in substations • • . the measurement ZOM'" and the three phases are earthed. The measurement or short-circuit connections are to be prepared with closed earth isolating switches. It has to be verified that the open line (without infeed) is free of interference voltages.41 The same .connectlon is used for one line as for the measurement of Zo (see 3. These measurement operations are forbidden if there is any risk of a storm arising on the line path. the secondary fuses are to be disconnected to avoid any risks of voltage return by substation circuitry.2) It is absolutely necessary that the parallel line is completely isolated at both ends. the parallel Hne is short-circuited At A. together and earth.2).

== 12 = 10 I.59 - i .!sl! compensation A x a} A ZSA' ZSA2 Ie lL B fA ) 10M " Single line diagram I' B ZSB' ZSB2 le1 /C2 [A' Z I I -IA2 b) Positive and negative sequence network diagram A IcO c) Zero sequence network diagram Fig.--111"" I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 Appendix 4: Earth-faults on parallel lines Distance measurement without !!ll!!J.I I = (2-X)ZSBO + (l-x)(ZSAO + ZLO + ZOM) 2 (ZSAO + ZS80) + lLO + lOM 10 (2) !I i ! I I . 4.42 B For a single phase to earth fault: 1.1 I I ( ! ! I I . lA' == (2-X)ZSB' + (l-X}(ZSAl + ZLl) 2(ZSA1 + ZSB'} + Zu IA2 lAO (1 ) = IA1 :I .

4.:1 Calculation ZS81 example: Parallel line.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 ! .leo impedance is Zs The measured Ze =:!.A.43 Phase currents: Residual currents: ZI k _ OM- I(1) and (2) ko= ZIO - 1.60- .. 3 ZLl • For relay PA the measured impedance is ZA kOM I x 2-x 1 + ko I Measuring error For r~lay V PB: lao = . IA '" (I-x) ZL (1 . single infeed = ZS82 = ZSBO = co A Ie B x - Fig.--I kOM 1 + ko Measuring error I ...

Protection PCB) overreaches Measured fault impedance with a constant amount of 25%.. the P(A) zone 1 has to be set to about 150% of the single-line impedance in order to keep a safety margin of 20%..__ -. .__ -~ 50 60 ---...___ /"--J ~ P(AI 7___ ~ .---mutual ..44: Distance protection without compensation Notes: A commonly practised underreach schemes).--" .:. ~./ ~ . ..." c:.44 below shows the protection reach for a parallel line with the characteristic kOM :::: 0.¥'"": 1 6.L.. but it is necessary to provide this compensation ..... l. ZLO lAO point: + ZOM leo .7 . :. 1 f i It can be seen that protection P(A) experiences an underreach that increases with the fault distance and amounts to a maximum of 25% for a fault at the line end in B.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 Voltage and current VA:: 2(1Al'ZU) at the measuring . The figure 4.. ....... there is always an overlapping The overreach of PCB) is not a problem because when it occurs for external faults the fault must lie near B on the paratlelline and the fault current must flow in reverse direction in B.. _.--l.I I IA :: 2lAl + lAO data ko...A V ..::::r. it is normally not necessary to compensate for the etrect of the zero sequence in a fault mutual impedance locator. .! : --~- ~ ~ 90 o o 10 20 30 40 70 80 Fault location - 100% 1 I I i Fig. ll: q OJ i 100 -----_ ~.61 - .J.. - ~ .e...4..66 and i .I I: 11.. overreaching setting for the 1st zone is 80% (without signalling scheme or in permissive Due to the fact that one protection is underreaching and the other one is that allows a fast trip at least at one end. 4.. .... -- " I.> "\ --. In a permissive overreach scheme or in a blocking scheme the Z 1 coverage must always overreach the line impedance and must take into account the reach reduction.. In this case. Consequently. in a distance relay.- L I~ Zsl -r- --t_ p( 50 ---. 0. .... the protection anyway blocks as the fault is seen in reverse direction.

/RC VA phase currents residual currents phase-to-earth voltage Is + ko . iRe + kOM .:. IRS (1) and (2) Mutual compensation being exact: A leo Fig.. (1 + ko) + kOM x . IRS measured Impedance ZPA2 = lc by relay PA2: = = . IRS Without source in B ~~ iells :~:~ } = x/(2-x) ~ A . V (2) + ko .45 Impedance ZPA1 = measured V by relay PA 1: + kOM • iRe (1) lB.:..46 B with A . Ie lRB. 4.x. IRe + kOM • lRC tc + ko .:. Is + ko . IRe + kOM .-__.__ (1 + kO) x 2 _ x + kOM ..I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I r Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations ~:. Chapter 4 Appendix 5: Earth-faults Distance on parallel lines with mutua! compensation on the measurement Although the distance protection with mutual compensation measures the correct distance-ta-fault faulted line it may not operate correctly on the healthy parallel line. 4. A X --lc ZL B ) ZOM Is Fig._:::.62 - .2c.

>-> :i! I:' -.> ..«: / V . 11 If n . 1\ <n • ZL. that means x .n) +n.66.26 x2 - 2.495 The non-selectivity of PA2 exists for fault locations in the range of a < x < 0.63 - !I L II .64 > 0 (7) II :1 :1· 1 1 Solutions are: x· = 0.312 x + 0.34 To avoid false tripping of the healthy line. countermeasures must be taken. ZL . Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 i 111 . Zl is the 1st zone setting of PAl and PA2.8 i I! 80% of ZL. Distance Measured fault impedance (in %) Protection with mutual compensation . non selectivity of PA2 will be experienced condition: ZpA2 under the II . F i x" ::: 1. A < n delivers the following equation: This condition Ii i' I I I x2(1 + ko .47: Distance protection with mutual compensation.e.KOM) Example: . A <_n .' PA1 (faulty line) / ~ V 10 a o 1 20 30: 34% 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 (in %) Fault location Fig. 1st zone setting kOM = 0.x . ZL or x . The most common one is to compare the magnitude of the zero sequence currents of both lines and to perform the. it • 1.4 n = 0.:: a (6) 1 ko ::: 0. kOM .compensation only in that line where the zero sequence current is higher by a certain amount compared with that of the parallel line.n. measured fault Impedances i \1 .:. [(1 + ko)(2 .------ ---- ---- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I.·100 (calculation example) 80 60 40 20 // )~ ~~ / / ""'!I ~ ~ k-+-" PA2 (healthy line) I I ! ~ I I I .4.34 (not relevant) I. i. kOMl +2.

Their measured distance-ta-fault is accurate for faults up to point N. 4. if the distance display of the fault locator (FL) A 1 is greater than the distance AN.. only the display of fault locator FL B is accurate. substations: 2} Partly parallel lines ending in different B A tRAG c Fig. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 Appendix 6. The fault locators at substation A are provided with mutual compensation. Fault location on parallel lines 1) Parallel lines ending at the same substation As mentioned above it is necessary to compensate the zero sequence mutual coupling impedance to obtain accurate measurement of the distance from the substation to the fault.1) Lines with power generation at each substation The lines run parallel from substation A to point N._---_. Fault locators must be installed at each terminal. without mutual compensation. no generation in S: We call: Lc the display of the fault locator with compensation L the display of the fault locator without compensation. Lc is the correct fault location. On the other hand if the FL A 1 display is less than the distance AN.48 2._--_ . D = L + dAN' (1-ULc) If Lc is greater than dAN the distance to fault is given by the formula: ..64 - ----. 2. For a fault on line AS. one with mutual compensation.---.2) Lines without power generation at the remote terminal in 8 or C and the other one Two FLs must be installed in A at each feeder. --_ . . -------_.. For example. the distance displayed at A 1 is correct and the display of FL 8 should not be read. If Lc is less than the distance AN (dAN)..

.= z(ILA + ko IRA + kOM IRAC> + ko IRA + kOM IRAC> + dNP z(lLA + kg IRA) z • (lLA + ko IRA + kOM .. dAWA + dND Lc = dAN + dNO/A = A.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 4 This can be developed L .65- . (ILA + ko \ z: dAN: dND: VA: ILA: IRA: IRAC: line positive sequence impedance (ntkm) distance from terminal A to point N distance from point N to the fault (D). z(ILA With as follows: = dAN z(" A + kO IAA + kOM IRAe) Z• + V kO IRA) + dND Z(lLA + kg IAA) IRA) . IRAd If we write A ... Ph-E-voltage in A Line current in A Residual current in line A-8 at A Residual current in line A-C dAN z(lLA Lc = V ------=-----. ULc Then: L Lc I' I . iLA + kg IRA + kQM ISAC ILA + ko IRA we get: L.

selectivity .1 Application range directly to the high voltage line.1. etc. The taps do not have sufficient current feed-back to operate relays. On the other hand protection problems may be introduced. Tapped lines are lines having one or more terminals with substantial generation behind them and taps feeding only load. or. 5.g. in the case of tapped lines. In this case the terminal has to be treated like a tap.66 - . e. A relaying scheme without telecommunication is therefore not an appropriate sequential tripping may lead to unacceptable long fault clearing times.!:: ~ Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5 5. 0.1 Multi-terminal Protection of Multiterminal and Tapped Lines Introduction lines are lines having three or more terminals with substantial generation behind each. . especially when distance protection is used: high apparent impedances may be measured due to intermediate infeed. However. solution in this case: The recent practice shows that there is no general tendency to apply these network-configurations more often on all voltage levels. in t 10/150kV-networks. no additional substation and circuit The main reasons for applying these network configurations are cost saving or environmental protection. tapped lines are becoming more and more wide-spread. Therefore. in the neighbourhood of power stations fault clearing times longer than e. By connecting a branch or transformer breakers are required. by a weak-infeed supplement to the line protection.g. for the protection scheme with respect to fault For example. A terminal may part-time be without or only with weak back-feed when generation is switched-off. The tap may in this case be treated like an infeed-terminal for the layout of the earth-fault protection. a close cooperation between system designers and protection en"gineers in an early stage is System design may also lead to special requirements clearing times. discrimination between line and transformer faults may be difficult. The feed-back at a tap will only appear in the zero-sequence system when an earthed transformer is connected to a line without generation behind it.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . advised.2s may be intolerable because of the risk of instability.

__ .67 - I I .4: Mutually coupled MTL .3: Two short legs MTL 4 mutual coupling Fig.1._--- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Applicatloni Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5.2: One short leg MTL 3 S/W 8 ZB ZA~C 8 S/W S/W Fig. 5. 5. 5.1: Equal legs MTL 2 S/W 8 ZA ZB 8 S/W ~c S/W Fig. 5.--_.2 Most frequent network configurations are (S: Strong source: W: Weak source) The typical multiterminal line (MTL-)configurations MTL 1 S/W Zc Z8 S/W S/W Fig.

. (Zo-tap infinite) .68 - .6: Tap with non-earthed Less frequent are: Neutral not earthed transformer (Zo-tap infinite) TL 3 ± Fig.7: Tap without circuit breaker and earthed transformer TL 4 -!Fig.former . 5.8: .5: X: Circuit-Breaker Tap with earthed transformer TL 2 1 Fig. 5. t Tap without circuit breaker and non-earthed trl'ln.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I r~:. " 'J' . 5. 5. Application GUide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 The most typical tapped line {TL-)configurations are: TL 1 ± Fig.

5.9: Tap with long line The number of taps per line vary between 1 and more than 10. Fig.1 I~ • '1 TL 5 long line '.10: Tap with weak back-feed Also here the number of taps may vary between 1 and more than 10. I I .69 - i: I l: : . !~ I ! . I I I I I t I i . Taps with backfeed are in general industrial or hydro plants directly connected to a HV-line. 5. !I .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I :! u Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 II. Tapped lines with backfeed (TlS) may be considered as special cases of multi-terminal lines especially when the back-feed fault current is too smart to activate normal line protection TLB s s Fig. .

The infeed problem makes it almost impossible to cover the major part of the line by zone 1 without being unselective with respect to adjacent lines. the protection infeed and different Another protection problems with multi-terminal lines are related to reach problems.T 11. This setting is called the "FACTOR TWO FORMULA" method. the distance relay at terminal A "sees" an apparent impedance ZmA which is larger.and time-setting is required to maintain selectivity: For the example of fig. due to the intermediate infeed from terminal D.2 Protection problems encountered The main difficulties with distance relays are the different line lengths to the tap point and the different source impedances behind the terminals'.).11 . intermediate to feeder lengths. Different infeed conditions at the terminals and different feeder lengths make the protection problem even more complex to solve with distance protection. The fault seems to be farther away than it rea1!y is. the setting of zone 1 of the distance relay at A may then be chosen 0. Section 5. 5. guarantee a secure selectivity of the time grading.1. But. 5. If there are no telecommunication facilities available.2· (ZAC + 2ZBc) to guarantee also clearing of faults close to the remote terminal.5) for the more detailed theoretical background. In general.g. 5.11: Multi-terminal line In the case of a three-phase shortcircuit at F a distance relay at A will measure an impedance ZmA dependent of the current ratio 10/1A: UA ZmA '" ZAC . {5. The tripping time of zone 2 should be chosen longer than in the rest of the network (e.7.7sec.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ]!'{I.' C leo ZAC F f la ZaF Zac> Zco Fig. " J:" ··1 I' :~. problem with respect to rnutti-terrrunat lines is the so called "outfeed" condition: .1 Multi-terminal lines line: B fA IA +10 10 ZCF D Take for example the following three-terminal A '.8· (ZAC + ZeD) and the setting of zone 2 at least 1.70- .6-0. lA + ZCF(IA +10) '" UAllA '" ZAC + ZCF + lollA . Analogous settings should be chosen for terminal Band D.: Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 " 5.7 and ref. See also section 5.1 provides a detailed guide for the zone setting and the necessary calculation procedures. 0.2. special distance zone. ZCF The true impedance between terminal A and the fault is ZAC + ZeF.

Statistics show that they exist in practice lines. . [5..5J for the more theoretIcal background. it is assumed that that make it possible to use a For the solution of these protection problems a current transformer and circuit transformer is a decisive advantage.7 and ref..2.13: Protection of a tapped o line..I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 A IA ZAC 8 C lA-to ZCF f F IB +10 . See also section 5. 5.2 • • • Tapped lines problems with distance relays are in this case related to: faults. so that short-circuit current can flow out of terminal 0 and contribute to the short-circuit current of terminal B._. 5..___. But there are some exceptions for which solutions have to be found.2.12: Outfeed condition This situation may occur in the case of a weak terminal D. interconnected externally to terminal B._ D L I I I io - I I Fig..I The main protection discrimination between line faults and transformer Control of the tap-autoreclosure. Under these circumstances directional or phase comparison relays at terminal 0 may fail to operate because the fault is seen in the reverse direction. current transformers (CTs) are installed at both sides of the tap-transformers dedicated transformer differential protection. 5. zero sequence infeed from an earthed tap-transformer.-: ZSF ZCO 10 . with circuit breaker at the tap .71 - . 5.1 Taps with circuit-breaker (TL 1.2. breaker at the HV-side of the in almost all cases of tapped Generally... Current Transformers I I I Fig. TL 2) I -~--------I I C A B ·1 ! --e.

If single-phase autoreclosure is applied at terminal A and S. TL 4) c ____ __.J o Fig. an earth-current flows from the tap to the fault point that is not seen (measured) at the opposite line terminal.blocking of autoreclosure via blockinq links to the line terminals.- '1~. Independent of the applied reciosure scheme it is always better to decisively trip the breaker at C to prevent reclosing on transformer faults.. • A solidly earthed tap-transformer presents a zero-sequence current source. then a current contribution from terminal C to the earth-fault in the line will be maintained by the healthy phases through the tap-transformer during the autoreclosure dead time. this configuration should also be treated.g. 5. Le. e. Solutions are: . Therefore. 5. : . This tripping of taps may be performed by intertripping or by local criteria. or applying delayed autoreclosure disconnector) .7). This risk • (motor-operated . .B (see section 5..14: Protection of a tapped line without circuit breaker at the tap Although seldom applied on transmission disadvantage is that line and transformer • line level. or a combination of both (permissive intertripping). and in case of three-phase AR it is always possible that reclosure on a transformer has to be weighed against the cost saving of a circuit breaker.2 Taps without circuit-breaker (TL 3. This can cause fault detection problems for earth-fault relays. The main cannot be separately tripped and consequently. undervoltage relays..72 - .2. may cause problems for phase-to-earth faults on line A .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I E~ ~. • Due to earth current infeed from the tap (in the case of an earthed HV-neutral) the problem of high apparent impedances.~ (I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 Possible protection • • When transformer problems: faults occur.2. single-phase autoreclosure will not be possible: the arc of the line-to-earth fault is sustained from terminal C by infeed via the healthy phases through the transformer windings. measured by distance relays at terminals A and B.This problem does not occur if 3-phase autoreclosure is applied because the infeed from terminal A and B to terminal C across the healthy phases is then interrupted. the breaker at C must also be tripped to make deionization of the arc possible. after automatic opening of the tap-isolator fault occurs. there is a risk that both line and transformer will be switched off.

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application.3 Taps with (small) backfeed (TLS) . In this case distance and directional or non-directional over-current protection provided that selectivity can be achieved by proper zone. tap with small backfeed Normally there is a breaker at the tap point. • Instantaneous fault clearing (e.2. This requirement can generally only be fulfilled by applying communication channels..2. Alternatively unit protection schemes like phase-comparison or differential protection can be planned provided that sufficient bandwidth is available. may be suitable. may be encountered here: or a combination of both).g.15: Tapped line protection.73 - .2. < 100.2.: I -1'"---------I I C ___ I o Fig.1 5. I' I' I. Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5. tripping by local criteria. The following difficulties • • • Infeed problems Fault detection and selectivity problems with weak backfeed can make it difficult to trip the tap in case of line faults (intertripping. These channels are used to set up command protection schemes with distance or directional earth fault relays.. (taps with breaker).and time-setting. Further problems as mentioned under paragraph 5. 150ms) is required.3 Protection schemes scheme depends mainly on the critical fault clearing time: The selection of the suitable protection • Delayed fault clearing (e. 5. < 1s) and sequential tripping is acceptable.g. II .

~f 1.I.1. relays (delayed to allow the In the case of taps without breakers. <U '. Proper coordination necessary feed motor detailed relay can be used as of the pick-upfdrop-out values and provision of an adequate time delay is.l. ~~ . If a fault occurs near the farthest terminat. and there is a risk that the relays will not operate at all due to the high transformer impedance.·[ines The instantaneous zones are set to underreach the distance from any terminal to the closest remote terminal (as mentioned in 5. ln practice the terminals with reverse current will then only be tripped after at least one of the other terminals has opened (sequential tripping).'.: . not be admissible because of the danger of instability due to prolonged fault clearing times. levels. A to prevent overfunction load. This may result in sequential interruption.1 \':.3J. Tapped lines The problem of distinguishing between line and transformer faults is difficult without telecommunication.: :i'. Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 t.. " Protection based on non-unit principles This kind of protection comprises distance~ and directional Ole-relays and the various forms of permissive. certainly not if the source impedances at these terminals are high and the distances to the tap point are very short. . . Fault clearing times may then be long. ·r 5. non-permissive or blocking type command protection schemes. thisdeflciency can in many cases be accepted as the probability of transformer faults compared to line faults is'·low. however.3.74 - . selective protection without telecommunication is applicable.2. 'ie. and/or Taps with backfeed can be separated from the line during line faults by means of local under-voltage directional relays. it may not be seen from the other terminals.2..3. The tripping of the tap circuit breakers can be realized by local under-voltage main line protection to operate first). However. The outfeed problem is difficult to handle only with distance protection (without communication links). infeed at the tap (earthed transformer) a distance With substantial zero-sequence protection against earth faults. 5.1). These application description on external faults and to allow a sufficient cases prevail on lower voltage voltage drop when the taps {S. lines. mainly on distribution problem and relaying solution can be found in references 5. transformer faults should be covered by zone 2 or 3 of the relays at the main terminals.. Local undervoltageor power directional criteria are sometimes additionally necessary to increase selectivity or to ensure complete isolation of the faulty network section.1 Distance protection without telecommunication Multi-termina\. tripping with delayed fault clearing and consequential consumer supply [f this can be accepted.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I l~". 5.:1 . however. Its application in the neighbourhood of power stations may.

1 . But in general. Then. overcurrent or undervoltage. provided there is a breaker at the tap. Otherwise undervoltage criteria or direct intertripping would have to be applied. Zones 2 or 3 provide back-up protection in the case of a telecommunication failure and for faults on the adjacent network sections. 5.2 (ZAC + 2· lac) with a time delay of 0. for example the setting of zone 1 of the relay at terminal The setting of zone 2 may be 1. Tapped lines With telecommunication it is possible to be more selective in distinguishing between line and transformer faults. if no special measures are taken to distinguish between line and transformer faults. This requires however that the zone 1 time of the main line relays must milliseconds to allow the secure arrival of the blocking signal.6 to 0. with intertrip signals to improve the security . the relays of the other terminals may be set to underreach the distance to the remaining remote terminal each.13) prevents these relays from tripping the be delayed for some line.3. Time-coordination with the zone 2 times in the rest of the network is important to ensure selectivity.8· (ZAC + lco). schemes are not All schemes using directional overreaching or blocking zones as well as zone acceleration suitable at terminals with possible outfeed conditions. the local criteria and the received signals from the other terminals can be combined to enable high speed tripping for aU terminals (permissive underreach/overreach. then it can be intertripped for faults on the main line. It is also possible to reclose the breaker again.7s.2.12: if 10 is high enough to start the .75 - . to the closest remote terminal: A in fig. For example in fig. Permissive local criteria for tripping the tap breaker. may be used in combination (especially in cases of weak infeed).2) . is necessary.11 may be 0.2 Multi- Distance protection with telecommunication lines terminal The periormance of distance relays can be considerably improved if telecommunication channels are available. 5. coordination of the fault detection shaped impedance sensivity and the maximum load transmission capacity characteristics may be required. relay at 0.8· (ZAC +Zsd· In blocking overreaching schemes the reach of the reverse looking blocking zone must be set large enough to detect all reverse external faults that can be seen by the overreaching trippir:9 zones of the remote line ends. The relays are normally set to underreach the distance If this is critical. the start criterium and the trip enable signals from the terminals A and B can be combined to get tripping at terminal D.7. In case of a transformer fault a blocking signal from the transformer protection to the relays at terminals A and B (fig. for example during maintenance. If one terminal is open (circuit-breaker switched off) for some time. the reach of zone 1 of the relays at A and B could be 0. If there is a breaker at terminal C. it is better to decisively trip the tap breaker. As compared to two-terminal lines a higher setting may be necessary due to the infeed-effect through the third terminal (calculation procedure similar to 5. blocking overreach and accelerated underreach protection). See fig.2 times the maximum apparent impedance to the farthest terminal or the setting mentioned in 5.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5.11: if terminal 0 is open. Outfeed situations are better dealt with by an underreaching scheme with a non-directional permissive criterium like underimpedance. 5. Especially in the case of high source impedances at the terminals.1. like under-voltage. 5.1: Z2 = 1.

This risk of damaging a transformer must be weighted against the cost saving of protection and telecommunication equipment. High-speed tripping of the taps during line faults is also important for succesful fast autoreclosure: (5. zones the ~FACTOR TWO FORMULA" method is recommended (see Shaped distance zone characteristics may be necessary to limit the reach in resistive direction and to avoid liability to load encroachment and power swing. relays is recommended - . application of separate earth-fault schemes. Signal link to block the main line protection Breaker-failure intertrip links. relays). to prevent infeed from the tap. 5.15) it is advisable to intertrip the transformer breaker from the protection at both line ends during line faults. Under-voltage and/or directional power relays at the taps themselves can also be applied as back-up against communication failures. This depends largely on the individual utility's practical experience. Tapped line protection especially • • • • Intertripping applied on the EHV-Ievel can require quite a high number of communication is applied (5. If high resistance earth-faults (directional over-current relay zones in directional are likely to occur. autorectosore may be a risk with this line configuration because of the chance to reclose onto a transformer fault.25J: links. 5. blocking or accelerated schemes for terminals A and B with intertrip signals to terminal C. when single phase autoreclosure links per phase from each line terminal to the tap if single phase AR is practised.1. Possibly reclosing .1 5) may be solved in a similar way like with multi-terminal lines. by applying permissive.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ".76 - . For the setting of the overreaching 5. Time-setting and voltage setting of under-voltage relays have to be carefully chosen to be selective with external faults (5. They can be used alternatively or in parallel with overreaching distance comparison For tapped lines with backfeed (fig. tn general. Application of permissive intertripping is advised to improve security.2).2. A permissive or accelerated scheme is recommended to cope with these problems.14) transformer faults should be cleared by sending intertripping and autoreclosure blocking signals from the transformer protection to the breakers at terminals A and B.2J. In the case of taps without breakers (fig.1) . Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 The settings of the distance zones at terminals A and B correspond to the normal two-terminal rest of the network. unless special measures are taken to block reclosure by means of signals from the transformer protection or from a directional blocking device at the tap. tines in the Distance reach problems may arise for single-phase-to-earth faults due to the earth current source of the tap transformer. 5. links. it must be ensured that the fault arc extinguishes and the arc path is deionized The infeed problems of taps with backfeed (fig. 5. in case of a transformer fault.

The relays are generally started or released by over-current or underimpedance criteria.3 Directional comparison protection With this type of protection the direction of current or the direction of the short-circuit power of all terminals is compared. must be added. a directional comparison scheme is also entirely suitable. an internal fault is detected. 5. In the case of fig. 5. because there is earthed. A blocking element at the (ow voltage side would have to be added. with earthed HV-neutral. If the Hv-rieutrat tap. Multi-terminal lines For multi-termina! lines.- -----. Tapped lines For tapped lines. tripping should always be three-phase because these taps would feed current into earth-faults and would prevent arc extinction as just mentioned above. It may therefore be sufficient to provide the tap transformer with over-current earth-fault relays at the HV-side. in which terminals A. At taps without a breaker. A high set current element is provided to enable tripping. The protection scheme is very similar to the permissive overreach distance protection scheme.3. The relay at C should be set to overreach the farthest of the terminals The transformer is protected locally by its own protection that trips the allocated Taps wlthout a breaker (fig. The low set element should have picked-up before tripping is released at any line end. it is an external fault.15) may also be equipped with a directional comparison scheme. blocking can also be realized by deriving a blocking signal when these protections operate. It has to be considered that a larger setting difference margin is necessary for 3-ended lines compared to two-ended lines. 8 and C are included. B and the relays at B should be set to overreach A and B. this protection scheme would consequently faiL The star:ting relays should be set to overreach the remotest terminal under the worst circumstances with respect to short-circuit power and infeed. such schemes have low set current starters for the release of the directional measurement and the initiation of the signal transmission. infeed from the tap can only take place when earth-faults occur on the HV-Ievel. an autoreclosure scheme may be admitted by adding a blocking device at the !. The direction signs are transmitted to the other terminals. criterion.13. In case of low infeed from the tap an under-voltage faults. If currents or powers flow out of the protected area at one or more terminals in case of an internal fault. If a separate transformer differential relay or gas pressure protection is available. -77- .--------------------- ------------ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I -j Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 ::1 . Normally. If at any terminal equality of all signs is established.14) can be selectively protected by applying directional relays at terminals A and B. as with passive taps. This scheme covers also two..and three-phase infeed from the tap. For directional earth-fault relays sensitive settings are possible as the load current does not need to be taken into account. overreaching the transformer.1.5. If aU measured directions point into the protected area. If one or more currents or powers flow out of the protected area. This device consists of a directional over-current or a power relay that blocks autoreclosure if the fault is located in the transformer. Taps with small backfeed exists adequate (fig. The relays at A should be set to overreach terminal terminal A. 5. they should not start at the highest possible load current. tripping of this terminal will follow. circuit breaker. directional comparison protection is successfully applicable unless outfeed conditions can occur.


Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations




Power line protection

based on unit principles
In the normal case.the

principles that compare analogue measuring values from all terminals of the line configuration

enable absolutely selective protection schemes less sensitive to infeed conditions. measuring quantities are transmitted from each terminal to all other terminals.

Pilot wire differential protection has been limited to distances in the order of 20km. By applying wide band telecommunication. like microwave or optical fibre links. it is now also possible to protect long HV-lines up to the order of 100km with unit type protection [4.22).

Phase comparison protection

This protection ... principle is based on the measurement of the phase angle difference between the line currents of the ~ifferent terminals. If the phase angle difference exceeds a certain stabilizing angle. tripping of the line will occur. Two kinds of protection are available: segregated and non-segregated autoreclosure is being applied. recommended as it provides phase-selectors. then a segregated system. absolute phaseand zone phase comparison. each phase independent If single pole separately. is of additional

protecting selectivity

The phase comparison protection has moderate requirements as only current phase-positions sufficient for a non-segregated Multi-terminal lines

on the band with of the transmission-channel

(square waves) have to be transmitted. A one kHz slot of a voice channel is protection. Segregated protection needs about 4kHz.

Phase comparison protection is by principte suitable for multi-terminal

lines. It needs, however. infeed from

all terminals (In the case of a weak-infeed terminal. the "Infeed" condition must-be simulated by generating a release signal if the PCP-starting elements do not operate). Basically this protection is designed for comparing two quantities. So there is normally a problem of mixing the phase-information of three or more quantities. Moreover. one must be sure that no outfeed condition can occur at any terminal that would block the relay. The reason is that the phase-angle of the current would change in this case by 180 when outfeed occurs, no matter how small the current is, thus simulating an


fault. For these reasons phase comparison


is seldom used on multt-terrninal


Tapped lines In the case of fig. 5.13 (tap with breaker). the terminals A. Band C can be equipped with phase comparison relays. Together with the transformer protection a selective unit protection scheme for the tapped line configuration can then be achieved. A segregated protection system should again be preferred if single pole autoreclosure is practised.

Tapped lines without a breaker (fig. 5.14) may be equipped with phase comparison relays only at terminals A and B. It has, however. to be guaranteed that under load and through-fault conditions the load current at the tap will not cause a phase shift between IA and 16 that exceeds the set blocking angle of the PCP. For faults in the tap-transformer or at the low voltage side, the PCP may however operate. protecti<2n can prevent unwanted

Blocking signals from a blocking device at the tap or from the transformer tripping and reclosing in this case.

- 78 -


Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission
Network Configurations
Chapter 5

Autoreclosure must be three-phase, maintained during earth faults. Phase comparison



the voltage

on the faulted

phase would be

protection would also be applicable for taps with small backfeed

(fig. 5.15). The relays be of the phase

should be located at terminals A, 8 and C. The protection segregated type if single pole autoreclosure is applied.


system should preferably

For the same reason as for multi-terminal lines (ouUeed condition) the PCP is practically not often used on lines with high load taps.




This protection principle is based on the vectorial summation of the currents of all terminals. To achieve this, momentary or phasor quantities of the currents are measured and' transmitted. For load or through-fault conditions the sum of the currents is nearly zero. The relay operates when the sum exceeds the set threshold level. Segregated and non-segregated systems are also available. Single pole autoreclosure is possible if each phase is separately protected by its own differential protection system. In case of a composite type relay additional phase selectors would be necessary. The phase segregated zone-selectivity. Multi-terminal lines type should be preferred for single pole AR as it provides equally phaseand

From the protection point of view (selectivity, speed), probably the best protection system for multi-terminal lines is longitudinal differential protection. It even widely covers outfeed conditions, as not only the phase-angle information, but also the current magnitude is used. See section 5.7 for more background information. Tapped lines Longitudinal differential summation. protection may also be applied on tapped lines, if the tap current is included in the

This means for the configuration in fig. 5.13 (tap with breaker) that relays should be installed at the terminals A, 8 and C. In' this way line and transformer can be protected separately. For applying single pole autoreclosure a segregated advantage of strict selectivity and voltage transformers system should be preferred. This type has the for phase selection are not required at the tap (s) ,

Tapped lines without breaker (fig. 5.14) should also be protected at terminals A, Band C, if a separate transformer protection is installed with intertripping links to the breakers at A and B. Single pole autoreclosure is not possible in this case as the fault would be fed by the healthy phases through the tap transformer. Another way to protect this configuration is by installing differential relays at terminals A, 8 and D.

Autoreclosure should be blocked then if there is a fault in the transformer. This may be realized by a blocking device at terminal C ( reverse current or power). The protection scheme would then, however, have to be stabilized against the inrush current Longitudinal differential should be located protection of the tap transformer. (fig. 5.15). The relays be of the

is also suitable for taps with small backfeeds is to be applied.

at terminals

A, 8 and C. The protection

system should again preferably

segregated type if single pole autoreclosure

II - 79 -

\: ;1



t,l· "

Iti' :


.:.~ I

Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
Chapter 5



Back-up protection
protection especially as

Multi-terminal and tapped lines require careful consideration of the back-up concerns fault detection sensivity and provision of intenripping links.

Remote back-up may create problems due to the more critical infeed problem. As a consequence of the three-terminal configuration two intermediate infeeds exist for external faults. In addition to the remote-terminal infeed an "in-line" infeed has to be taken into account (see fig. 5.16)




----tine with remote back-up

Fig. 5.16: Three terminal

Therefore. the zone reach is two-fold reduced and may not be sufficient to provide reasonable line coverage. In the worst case the back-up zone may not even reach the remote terminals. In this case local back-up protection is indispensable. Intertripping links have additionally to be provided to both remote terminals,


Automatic reclosing considerations
and tapped lines

In general it can be stated that automatic reclosing can be applied both on multiterminal

without problems. There is only one limitation: If the breaker at the tap cannot be tripped by the protection or if there is no breaker at the tap, then single pole autoreclosure cannot be applied because of the coupling of voltage from tfie' healthy phases to the faulted phase through the tap transformer. Lines in the neighbourhood of power stations may be excluded from three phase reclosing at the generator side of these lines to prevent very high generator shaft torques at reclosing on close-in two- and three-phase faults.

This is, however, generally valid and must not be considered as a special case of multiterminal or tapped lines. It is only mentioned here because power plants are often branched-in through line taps.

- 80 -

5.79% 1025 11. like microwave and optical fibre.05% 1 or 2 1 to 4 1 to 8 ·1 ill ·1 . In general there is no tendency to apply multi-terminal and tapped lines more often with exception of '10/150kV-networks.51% kV 1684 40 2.-1 Yes No Yes No 8 23 3 23 Yes No Yes 10 21 Yes No Yes 8 19 TL? No 7 21 No 16 11 Table 5. where tapped lines seem to be wide-spread.38% 100 -150 9277 233 2. at all voltage levels.43% 96 2.1 to 5. is the future trend also for protection > Total number of lines (49 utilities) MTL TL Number of taps tendency to apply more often MTL? 300 xv 200 .3): • • • The use of multitermlnal and tapped lines is common in most countries.6) brought forward in this case the following (see tables 5.1 Recent practices General remarks and trends The replies to a CIGRE questionnaire circulated in 1989 (see also section 4.250 kV 3438 185 5.81 - 1_ .1: Existing multi-terminal lines (MTL) and tapped lines (TL) i . Wide band communication purposes.37% 41 2.5 5.__________ - --------------------- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5.

82 - . what kind? Different feeder lengths Distance-zone reach problems Weak infeed conditions Outfeed conditions Failure of telecommunication Reason not named Number of answer 8 7 10 3 4 2 • Intention to use more often Wideband channels: Yes No No answer 48% 19% 33% { Microwave Optical fibre Both :14% :17% :17% Table 5.2: Multi-terminal and tapped lines.150 kV MTL 40% TL 54% 62% 50% 71% 65% 40% 38% 7% 5% 14% 4% - 8% 23% 25% 5% 20% 25% 38% 48% 40% 38% Table 5. protection aspects .3: Multi-terminal lines {MTL}.250 kV MTL '14% TL 26% 100 . applied protection schemes • Selectivity problems with MTl ? Yes No No statement 31% } 27% 42% of utilities • If "Yes H.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 0/e of utilities use on multiterminal lines (MTL) and tapped lines (TL) > 300 kV MTL Distance protection without telecommunication Distance protection with telecommunication Phase comparison protection Diff erent iaI protection Sensitive earth fault relays 8% TL 25% 200 .

different feeder lengths and weak infeeds. .1. Tripping of taps is most frequently intertripping from the main terminals.3 • • • • • • • • • -Tapped lines . realized by under-voltage relays with or without permissive have taps with backfeed.1. 62% of the companies over-currentor power relays. On lower voltage levels manual local or remote reclosure prevails.------------------- ----------------- ----- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex TransmissIon Network Configurations Chapter 5 5. • The number of companies having selectivity problems with their protection schemes is about equal to the number of companies having not. the higher the number of utilities that do not trip the taps. The major reported problems are reach problems. The taps are in most cases tripped by directional On higher voltage levels reclosing of taps is often performed by dedicated autorectosino devices at the tap. are TL 1 and TL 2 (chapter 5.5.2). 5. Most frequently applied is distance protection with telecommunication. 33% of the companies use shaped relay characteristics to cover increased apparent fault impedances and to avoid problems with load encroachment and power swing. Practically all companies use distance protectlon with telecommunicatton. on lower voltage levels three phase autoreclosing is the rule. Almost all companies The most frequently have taps with circuit-breakers applied configurations at the HV-side of the tap-transformer.83 - ..5.2 • Multi-terminal lines considered The protection schemes used do in general not depend on the network configurations (chapter 5. On higher voltage levels single phase autoreclosinq is frequently applied. The lower the voltage level.2). The number of taps per line varies from 1 to 11. 80% of the companies apply autoreclosing on tapped lines. The same is valid for complex multi-terminal lines.

example' Erotection of multi-terminal System voltage: 225 I kV length: [2-140[ km length: I 2-80 I km 0.I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Confi~urations Chapter 5 5. 5.) short circuit power of the infeed I 7500 I I Fig.1-301 km 10.8-321 short' ) circuit power: impedance: 1 0.17 MVA 3phase MVA lphase I I I I I I I 7500 I Brief description of the applied protection systems: Primary (Main 1-) Protection: Today: distance protection Near future: Current differential Secondary (Main 2 or back-up) Distance protection Under voltage supplement as permissiive criterium for weak-infeed conditions protection Protection: .6 Application examples lines.84 - .06-12·1 impedance: n short' ) circuit power: .8-561 n lrnpedancerj n MVA 3phase MVA 1phase short' ) circuit power: MVA 3phase MVA 1phase length: type of ' comm. links: PLC 10.

there is very strong mutual coupling between the lines. links: impedance: n PLC short" ) circuit power: ~ MVA 3phase MVA 1phase .~ n short") circuit power: CD ~ MVA 3phase MVA lphase MVA 3phase MVA 1phase I 9190 I I 4890 I length: ~km ~ type of comm. including that of switching out and earthing both ends of the parallel line. example 2 System voltage: 500 I kV length: Gkm length: ~km short") circuit power: impedance: n impedance·1D.18 Brief description Primary of the applied protection systems. . while zone 2 is set to 200% Zl to protect the lines under all conditions that may exist. As there are two parallel lines on the same tower.85 - . zone 1 is set to 50% ZL. 5.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 protection of multi-terminal lines.) short circuit power of the infeed @] Fig.05I . (Main 1-) Protection: Distance protection operating in an overreaching blocking mode in conjunction with power line carrier communication links. Same settings apply as for Main 1 Protection. As a result. Secondary(Maln 2 or back-up) Protection: I I I Distance protection operating in an overreaching permissive intertrip mode in conjunction with a power line carrier communication link.

Z2 ( 1.56)Ohm (0.38 Z2::: 1.20(5.) short circuit power of the infeed short circuit power'): ~ ~ MVA 3phase MVA 1phase Fig.170hm l3 ::: 1.).821 km impedance: I j 2. 5.3 .56 + 2x23. Z2 ( 1. with prolonged 1st zone equal to Z2.7s) Zl ::: 22.7s) (0. 1 s) 3: Z1 ::: 23.3 .20(23.7s) (0.19 Brief description of the applied protection systems: Primary Protection: POOP using telecommunication Distance protection Secondary Terminal 1: Terminal 2: Terminal Protection: DPZS Z2 ::: 1.3.1 s) Z3 ::: 1.20(22. see page 91) ..170hm Zl ::: 22. Z2 ( 1.400hm + 2x22. links: PLC length: 156.33 Z2 ::: 1. example 3 only.3 .56 In I I I I I I I I I I 3 .56)Ohm + 2x23.:~..I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 Protection of multi-terminal . 1s) Z3 ::: 1.86 - .961 km length: ~ km 2 impedance: ~ short circuit power 6500 5400 n impedance:1 j 5.33 n short circuit power '): MVA MVA 3phase ~ 1phase I I I I '}: MV A 3phase MVA 1 phase 1 4600 I type of cornrn. dead tlme « single-pole autoreclosing 220 1s System voltage: I kV length: 153.38)Ohm (Setting calculations with the FACTOR TWO FORMULA. " lines.

5. example 1 System voltage: 400 I kV length: 140-1501 km short circuit power. links: us.c.20 Brlef description of the applied protection systems: Primary Protection: Differential Secondary protection Protection: without telecommunication Distance protection Tap Protection: Under-voltage protection (PIT) i ! I ii . . MW I I I I I I I I I I 90/63 Fig.87 - I.: EJ kV MVA % FO.I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 Protection of tapped lines. impedance: B n impedance:[3 n short circuit power: I I I ~ 1250001 MVA 3phase MVA 1phase rated power MVA 3phase MV A 1 phase j 250001 j 250001 ~ type of comm.

time delayed without telecommunication Directional .I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of ccmptex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 Protection of tapped lines.88 - ..: [] % MW 25 kV Fig. 5. 1phase MVA 1phase I 7000 I I I I I I I I I I I I type of comm. links: us.21 Brief description Primary of the applied protection systems: Protection underreach distance protection with intertripping signal to the tap Accelerated Secondary Protection: earth fault protection. example 2 System voltage: ~ kV length: 241km length: short circuit impedance: I 10 power: In impedance:0 n short circuit power: [ 7500 [ 7600 I MVA 3phase MVA 3phase ~ rated power ~ MVA IMVA .c.

Zoio for the relay at A can be derived: . 5.7.1 3-phase Multi-terminal lines Infeed conditions seen from the line-terminals in case of a fault. Ii " ~. Prefault load is neglec- + fo)ZCF :: E .22 The sources are assumed to have the same voltage E and the same phase-angle. to get a feeling for the problems. formulas for the current distribution are developed. Herewith the following equations are valid: UA :: fAZAC + (fA Ua ::::laZSF Uo '" foZco From expr. In the following.. 5. .f. ~.ZAfA '" E . . . expressions are derived for the fault-impedances A fA ZAC Zco fo 0 8 C fA.89 - .7.7 Appendices In these appendices some examples are given for the calculation of relay settings and really measured impedances.1. In practice there are various computer programs available for this purpose.1 5.: 5) into 4) we get: 5) ZAC + (1 I ZA + ZAC Zo + Zco )ZCF 6) In the same way expressions can be found for Ualls and Uollo. ) 2) + (fA + fO)ZCF 3) 4) 1) the following measured impedance Subtracting 3) from 1) delivers: IA(ZA + ZAd = io(Zo + Zco) [olIA :: (ZA + ZAc)/(ZO + Zco) By introducing UAIIA. .) fa ZCF F f ZSF Zco < ZAC < ZSC E Fig. ted. +1. Further. s - ----_ -----------------------------------_._---- I" I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i I I ~ . \'. These calculations are made by hand. Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5.Za1a = E .


Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
Chapter 5

These measured apparent impedances must be compared reach problems can occur due to the infeed effect: Setting of zone 1:

with the setting of the relays to determine


Measured impedances


(first zone)

O.85(ZAC O.85(Zec ZmO

+ +

Zco) Zco)

7) 8) 9}





+ (1 + Zo + Zeo )ZCF ZA + ZAC


+ Zco)

The above settings are chosen for the case that Zco Substituting fA 5) in 1) results in a formula for fA: E





= -----......:::..------

ZA + lAC + (1 + ZA + ZAC )ZCF Zo + Zco In the same way Ie and 10 can be derived: E fe = 'Ze + lSF


11 )

10 =

E -------='--------Zo + Zco + (1 + Zo + lcp )lCF lA + ZAC


It can be seen from the expressions 7. 9, 10 and 12 that the worst case with respect to reach problems will occur if: • • • The leg BCi~ very long compared to the legs AC and CD. The source impedances ZA and Zp are very high. A fault occurs in the neighbourhood of substation B.

If we assume for example that ZA + ZAC Zo + Zco and that ZCF 3ZAC 3lco, then the relays at A and 0 will see an apparent impedance of 3.5{lAC + Zco). This corresponds to about four times the setting of the 1st zone. The currents at terminal A and 0 are EI (lO + 7Zco). These minimum fault currents must be compared with the highest possible load currents when the setting of ole fault detectors is considered.








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• I

Application Guide on Protection
of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
Chapter 5




of the overreaching

zones (FACTOR TWO FORMULA) of the multi-terminal line.

The overreaching

zones should at least see a fault near the farthest line-end Fault





IA + 10

8 lac> lAC and Zac > Zco

Fig. 5.23
For example, a fault at B should at least be seen by Relay RA or Ro.!f one relay trips, the other relay will also see the fault and trip because the intermediate infeed at point C is removed. The relays RA and Ro measure the fallowing impedances:


ZmA == ZAC +~

I. + lr, fA

. Zac = ZAC + lac + ~

. Zac

Error A lmO == lco /~ fo . lac

= lco

+ lac + ...l..A

. Zac


Error O· The errors A and 0 can not be larger than Zac at the same time, because either 101lA or IAllo is smaller than 1. The worst case is given when fA and 10 are equal. In this case the error is lac for both relays. In order to enable at least one relay to see the fault near B, the following minimal setting can be deduced (20% safety margin):



(ZAC + 2 . Zac) (Zco + 2· Zac)

1.2 1.2

lRD ==

In general we get the following formula for the setting of the overreaching ZOR == (Zx Where


2 . Zy)

. 1.2 from the relay to the junction from the junction point (C) farthest other terminal. point (C) to the impedance-wise

Zx == impedance Zy == impedance

This setting approach

is called the "FACTOR TWO FORMULA ~ method.

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Application Guide on Protection

of Complex Transmission Network Configurations
Chapter 5


for single-phase-to-earth


In the same way calculations may be carried out for single-phase-to-earth faults. In this case the zero sequence impedances and the zero sequence infeeds have a strong influence. Additional reach problems may arise due to mutual coupling with parallel circuits. For sing!e-phase-to-earth faults the apparent impedance is not only determined by the relative length of infeeds and the Zo/Zl ratio of sources and legs.

the legs, but also by the zero-sequence

Moreover. the ko-factors are very sensitive to the state of the parallel circuits (in service or out of service and earthed). This effect is treated in section .2). Example: (see fig.5.24) Suppose that there is a single-phase-to-earth fault in location F. The impedances measured by the relays sequence-networks as demonstrated in the at A. 0 and B can then be derived from the series-connected following figure"5.24.

- 92 -

We have to calculate in this network the voltage UA.24a A B F I.f I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I r l Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 A c o JI 1-Ph-E-Fault B Fig. UA2 r i " I' A lAO ZACO C F 0 10 B UAO Fig.:..>oO!. the phase-current UA IA IAE = = U AO + UA 1 + U A2 lAO + I A 1 =' 3/AO + I A2 The measured impedance is: ko = Z..-----=. 5.- _ (ZO and Z. Z.93 - .Z. IAl c E 10 A = 11 = 12 = Isc/3 IA2 ZAC2.L"l -3 . 12 B I.24b IA and the earth-current rAE: Consider for example the relay at A. are data of line A-B) . l > .. 5.

.1. (IB + Io)lBF (fA . follows: .1)lcF lmo =.Iolco . A directional or phase comparison scheme will not operate correctly under outfeed conditions.sign' in equation 16). .Io)lcF = = lmA 1mB - Io)lcF ..ult and will fast trip after having received signals from A and 8. however. sequential tripping will occur again. 8 and D will give a positive result.lslB Us + foloB 13) 14} 15) From these equations .: E . UoJlo The underreach for the relay at A chanches into overreach because of the' . -'"1 I _j 't 10 1lOB f lo Fig. (unless there are two independent telecommunication channels). then it depends on the value of the current at D if this relay will detect the fa. be considered that under outfeed conditions the differential stabilized than under normal infeed conditions: IS " I.: I I.. A differential scheme will probably be the best solution to protect three-terminal lines with possible outfeed situations. the relay at 8 measures the correct distance.. III I IA I + I IB + 10 I+ ( -10 I = IA + Is + 210 (compared to fA + Is) channel Distance relays as back-up protection remain necessary for the case that a telecommunication fails..2 Outfeed conditions so that the fault current is This situation occurs if one terminal is much weaker than the other terminals.: lAC + {1 .: J IA + (fB + 10) + (-10) I = I IA + Is I 19) protection is more highly It should.7. The summation of the currents at the terminals A.-0 . If we use a permissive underreaching scheme.. .. 5. after that the current at D will reverse and the relay at D will trip (sequential tripping).lA/A E . If not..94 - ..: .I 1 .loll A} lCF 16) 17) 18} UA"A UsIUB +10) lSF = -lco + (lAllo .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5.... the relay at D assumes a fault in reverse direction... independent of the fault location on the three terminal line:" I D.. .25 IAlAC + U». If no telecommunication is provided the relays at A and B will trip first. flowing out of this terminal during an internal line fault: A B c lCF lco 10 f lBF ..

5.26 los b) Tapped line. distance zone reach problems faults if One of the main difficulties with the protection of tapped lines is dealing with single-phase-to-earth the HV-neutral of the tapped transformer is earthed.E) I I I I I I I I I I I I a) Tapped line. Take the next configuration: A fA B C IA+fc Ic ZOCF ZICF ZOA llA ZOAC ZIAC 4ZOT f F IS ZOBF l18F F(Ph .7. single fine diagram A IAI " 'i E.l.I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 5 5.2 Tapped lines.95 - . diagram of symmetrical UAO VAl UA2 :: = :: UFO + ZOCF(JAO + lOT) + lOAC lAO VF1 + llAF fAl fA2 UF2 + ZlAF with UFO + UFl VA fA = = + UF2 = 0 and lOAC + ZOCF = lOAF we get: lOT lOAF 'AO lAO + fAl + lOCF + fA2 + llAF(JA1 + IA2) 20) 21) .. fo:: 11 :: 12 Isc/3 = A A lAO ZOAC C lOT fAO+loT B VAO t lOT t components Fig.

S n 3 n ZOB = Z16 =12.C.96 - .:. 5. The underreach faults..5.sn·0. ::: 12 at the fault location must be calculated by solving the series-connected network.65kA O.so Zo ::: 0.. = 3 n C IA+/c Zo ::: 7..( Z"-.2kA} ::: B11 Positive sequence Error = 2fl: fault impedance ZlAF ::: 611. in this example is about 33%.3kV/(1..3kY 1.3D 12 ::: 110kV/y3(10 10 Isc IAO+/oT I.:.4kA + 7. Z. 7SflIkm . Take for example a tapped line configuration as follows: sequence • • • 110kV-line. lAO ::: lAO IAl = lOT ::: 1.-T.---.33 10 + 611·' AkA ::: UA IA ::: 15D·0.7 kA 19. line length 30km.SOO and 1OOOMV A ::: Z2A ::: 2Sn ::: Z2B ::: iz. tapped 10km from A. 1. we can find an optimal setting for the relays at A and B for single-phase-to-earth .5 10 O..+_Z=.5 Ie Z. = 3 n 8 . IAE ::: 3 .BkA 22) 23) 20) 21 ) ::: 0.n n Isc f F Zo'''' 18 z. + /2 0.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Confiquratlcns Chapter 5 For the component-currents ZOT lOT we get: ZOB + ZOBF ----------~~~~~------------ + ZOA +ZOAC l08 +..27 lOF ZlF ::: 10n =·.2kA 0. Z 08 F + Z OCF + _Z=. = Z2 ::: O. Zo ::: 7. = "7.1kA 10 + I.BkA 19.O"-..6SkA. UK '" 10%.0SkA O..O.A:>.7kA = :: + 0.3 kA 1.. + 2 • 10. lOT::: Zn :::l2T • A single phase fault occurs at line A-B.S[} Fig.f2F ee ::: :: = :: ::: :: 10. the apparent fault location is 6.5 .4kA + 2·0. Sources ZOA ::: Z'A ZOB = Z18 of'...4kA. ::: 20n. kO ::: 0.A.. 20km from A and 10 km from B: A fA ZOA::: ZlA ::: 250. IA2 6.3Wkm.O"..7 km farther away than the real fault location. Transformer.3)n :: 2. 60MVA. By repeating the calculation with different fault locations and varying source strengths.5 Z.):__ lOT + ZOA +ZOAC 23) 10 22) The current 10 ::: I.

as they are strictly selective and. In many cases CTs or even VTs are provided at the junction points to enable the setup of independent protection schemes for the different sections. Transformer inrush currents may adversely affect the line protection of transformer feeders. The of fault impedances from the fault. This is achieved by providing a separate selective cable protection that sends brocking signals to the ARschemes at both line ends when the fault occurs at the cable section. Current differential protection or PCP are suitable for this purpose. requires always the tripping of the complete composite line. channel etc. of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 6 Protection of composite lines Introduction j.I : tL .I In a larger number of cases power system elements like transformers. 6. Fault clearance. do not require VTs (fig.1 Application Guide on Protection . either when an overhead line is conducted into when certain obstacles in the landscape (river. _ _] Fig. • • Remote breakers have to be intertripped with minimal expenditure for signalling-links.i .1: Protection of a composite OHL-cable feeder .1).2 Protection problems encountered is this lack of circuit breakers between the protected at the needed locations: elements and the The normal origin of difficulties current or voltage transformers • • Autoreclosure transformers The absence transformation is wanted for OH-lines but must be prevented under aU conditions for faults on cables or of CTs or VTs may necessitate grading distance zones across transformers. AR is normally only allowed with OHL faults. Such composite OHL-cable combinations protection.e.) have to be passed. 6. with autoreclosing AR has to be ensured.3 Protection of a composite OHL-cable feeder a substation or This arrangement appears relatively often. overhead lines or cables are connected together without intermediate circuit-breakers. however.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 6 6. 6. Selective transient Only in connection normally provide no problems for the selection and layout of the (AR) special provisions are necessary. additionally. and therefore i.to the relay-side in magnitude and phase-angle has then to be considered. 6. Cable faults are not require definite tripping and blocking of the AR.97 11 .

The Special surge-proof relays are used at the receiving end. 6.for intertripping bank While it is always necessary to trip the transformer-line system as a whale for faults on either or both components.-disturbances application of these d. A special switch is used to put a fault on the line side of the transformer bank. or carrier frequency systems are used for this purpose. links is limited to short distances of up to about 5 km. directly on pilot wires. at the remote line end The following possibilities • d. . Intertripping: Frequency shift or coded voice frequency channels.4. The remote end short circuit protection will then see the fault and trip its line circuit breaker. e.c. both have to be protected [n cases where a line includes a transformer as a unit. • fault throwing: In some cases fault-throwing switches are used on lower voltage levels to save transmission channels. distance relay.98 - . They trip the local bus breaker directly and the remote line breaker via an intertripping link.c.4 Protection of transformer feeders bank without a breaker inbetween. The selection of the protective wing conditions: • • • Length of the feeder (OHL or cable) equipment for such composite arrangements depends mainly on the follo- Availability of CTs and VTs on the line side of the transformer Availability of pilot links: . insensitive to a.1 Transformer protection The transformer bank is normally equipped with sensitive differential protection and gas pressure relays. it is normally preferred to set up independent protection schemes that can selectively indicate the fault location in the transformer or on the line section.c.g. initiated by the local protection.I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configuration Chapter 6 6.for differential protection for command protection systems with distance protection . • a. • unbalancing Some the line differential protection protection: schemes provide an integrated intertripping function by a forced voice frequency circuit that normally serves line differential unbalancing of the measuring system or the supplementary for pilat supervision.c. intertripping exist: via pilot wires: [5J. The latter is necessary because light internal transformer faults will probably not produce enough current increase or voltage drop to operate the short circuit protection.

The current in the pilot wires can be reduced via intermediate burdens.g.3: Transformer feeder. overall differential protection .I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 6 6. A transformer differential relay can be applied as outlined in fig.J I I . This is normal. The differential protection must be inrush-stabilized in this case._. to 100mA) to lower the CT rl BaCk-: r--I I r--L. The line section can be protected between transformer and line.4.2: Selective . 6. i----r-----i ~_U£. I__ ~----- ' J][ ~ __ 0 !~ ~ __ l J[ ~ ¥.!£.ire_!____j : < tkrn l Fig.99 - . as the transformer bank lies within the protection range. 6.J I Ba~k-h I -------0.2).~£._ feeder _l 6.3.-t.-.-~--!! ! .. especially in the case of transformer-cable r--L.3 Overall differential protection of a transformer feeder {below about 1km).4. an overall differential protection can be used as a In the case of very short line sections cost saving solution when no CTs are provided between transformer and line.2 Protection of the line section by an independent line differential protection when CTs are provided feeders (fig... auxiliary CTs (e.J I I BaCk-I- I :l L Fig. 6.__ differential protection __ of a transformer . 6. .

J L~E. the impact of the tapchanger has to be considered.XTR) [12]. I I I I I I I must at least cover 100% of the maximum secondary ohms according to the variati- .100 - . protection of the line section CTs and VTs. where the distance relay has to be connected to the bus-side measurement includes the impedance of the transformer bank. This latter protection can be spared if there is no infeed from terminal A. Further. A correct distance measurement through the transformer bank is possible with three-phase faults. The reach of the underreaching the overreachinq-zones on range of the.5).4: Transformer feeder.-- (PUDP) (PUDP) r--I Back-: I I I I L~£'.dep changer zone must be adjusted to about 90% of the minimum secondary ohms while (fig.4 Distance protection of the transformer feeder At the transformer remote line end the instaneous zone of the distance relay can be set to reach about 50% into the transformer. 6.-- . Normal zone grading is possible for the distance relay at the transformer bank when it can be connected to CTs and VTs at the line side (fig. 6.l .4). thus covering 100% of the line section.J Fig. But.-- . the setting of a selective underreaching zone can only be achieved when the line reactance is considerable higher than the transformer reactance (XL> 2. the distance In the case.4. 6.. 1----A B I l___ r--I Back-l I _1 __ 1 .I I I I I I I I I I I I Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configuration Chapter 6 6.

~ FSK ~ . of the transformer feeder will cause the typical inrush effect of faults on the line section..I I! '. I. -voltages. this would lead to an underreach of the zones and delayed clearance When fast tripping for all kind of faults on the transformer tion must be supplemented blocking modes The energizing by a teleprotection scheme.'_ -. etc. The usual permissive under- with transient magnetizing currents. Normally.__.e. i..-. The fault-currents. I. _ . _.--_..5: Transformer feeder. The setting of the distance relay should take care of the fact.9 ZTr + ( ~ ( ~2 )2mln ' ZL . or feeder has tobe guaranteed.l----~ Microwave Zlst zone SIR (POOP) < ZTr + 0.~ . I.. can be applied.l . the starting elements should not be set more sensitive than necessary. and -impedances on the bus-side of the transformer bank are influenced by the winding connections (Y-Y. ~ ~·---f .I ! ii . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1\\ Application Guide on Protection of Complex Transmission Network Configurations Chapter 6 I .Y-D. ..J. 1 L_ (POOP) ! . ..I I. the distance protecor overreaching.) and the earthing conditions of the transformer starpoint(s) [6. impact of the tap changer on the zone setting Further problems are presented by unsymmetrical faults and earth faults on the line section. 6. _ .51.·I·~------LJ-· ._-_ . . ZL Z2nd zone> U )2max Fig.101 - .. J I ..

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