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NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND AEROSPACE ENGINEERING

MANAGEMENT OF TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION

STRATEGIC INNOVATIONS PROJECT

2010-2011

Team Members

Nagalingam Chellaiah Dhanasekhar (G0803363H)

Samajdar Shantanu (G0900774J)

Senjivel Senthil Kumaran (G0900779E)


INDEX NO.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE NO.
1.
INTRODUCTION
1
2.
COMPANY PROFILE
2
2.1 TATA GROUP AND ITS SUBSIDIARIES
5
3.
ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATIONS
SYSTEM
5
3.1 PRODUCTS
5
3.2 PROCESS
7
3.3 PEOPLE
8
4
INTRODUCTION TO THE NEW PRODUCT
10
DEVELOPMENT
5.
INNOVATIONS INCORPORATED IN TATA
NANO
16
4.1 STRATEGIC INNOVATION
16
4.2 HOLISTIC INNOVATION
17
4.3 FOCUSSED INNOVATION
18
6
CHALLENGES FACED DURING THE
DEVELOPMENT OF TATA NANO
22
7
FUTURE OF TATA NANO
24
8
CONCLUSION
25
1
1. INTRODUCTION:
Seldom do we see cars that rewrite the history books even before they are seen running

around on the roads. And hardly ever do we see cars that vow to put the nation on four wheels. The

Tata Nano is one such car that has been in the news for quite a few years, for reasons good and
evil. Nano is a car which has breathed into life due to one man. Give credit to Mr. Ratan Tata for his

determination to build a low cost family car that has come true, finally. Took long it did, but the

Nano came in a beautiful form. Touted as world‘s cheapest car by a far cry, Nano has been

the talk of the town around the globe. Head honchos of big organizations have been pouring in by

numbers to have a look at this engineering master piece. Nano as a part of a "new breed of 21st-

century cars" that embody "a contrarian philosophy of smaller, lighter, cheaper" and portend a new

era in inexpensive personal transportation and potentially, "global gridlock". The Wall Street Journal

confirms a global trend toward small cars, led by the Nano. The prefix "Nano" derives from the

Greek root 'Nano‘s', meaning dwarf as with nanometer. "Nano" also means "small" in Gujarati, the

native language of the Tata family, founders of the Tata Group.

The project to create a 1 lakh rupees (3000SGD) car began in 2003, under the Chairman of

Tata Motors, Ratan Tata. The strategy behind the project was the awareness of the number of

Indian families who had two wheeled transport, but couldn't afford a four wheel car, and was based

on the company's success in producing the low cost 4 wheeled Ace truck in May 2005.
To discuss the innovation strategy for Tata Nano, we first discuss the constraints as
per which the company had to operate.
In pursuit of excellence and to keep up to the initial promise made to people that

Tata will come out with a compact, quality car within a price tag of Rs. 1 lakhs(3000 SGD), Tata

Motors came up with a design, marketing and operational strategy keeping in my mind the

constraints of:

Price

Market Scalability

Customer aspiration

Resource efficiency
2
2. COMPANY PROFILE:
Tata Motors Limited is India's largest automobile company, with consolidated revenues of USD

14 billion in 2008-09. It is the leader in commercial vehicles in each segment, and among the top

three in passenger vehicles with winning products in the compact, midsize car and utility vehicle
segments. The company is the world's fourth largest truck manufacturer, and the world's second

largest bus manufacturer.


The company's 24,000 employees are guided by the vision to be "best in the manner in
which
we operate best in the products we deliver and best in our value system and ethics."

Established in 1945, Tata Motors' presence indeed cuts across the length and breadth of India. Over

4 million Tata vehicles ply on Indian roads, since the first rolled out in 1954. The company's

manufacturing base in India is spread across Jamshedpur (Jharkhand), Pune (Maharashtra),

Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh), Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) and Dharwad (Karnataka). Following a strategic

alliance with Fiat in 2005, it has set up an industrial joint venture with Fiat Group Automobiles at

Ranjangaon (Maharashtra) to produce both Fiat and Tata cars and Fiat powertrains. The company is

establishing a new plant at Sanand (Gujarat). The company's dealership, sales, services and spare

parts network comprises over 3500 touch points. Tata Motors also distributes and markets Fiat

branded cars in India.

Tata Motors, the first company from India's engineering sector to be listed in the New York Stock

Exchange (September 2004), has also emerged as an international automobile company. Through

subsidiaries and associate companies, Tata Motors has operations in the UK, South Korea, Thailand

and Spain. Among them is Jaguar Land Rover, a business comprising the two iconic British brands

that was acquired in 2008. In 2004, it acquired the Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company, South

Korea's second largest truck maker. The rechristened Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicles Company

has launched several new products in the Korean market, while also exporting these products to

several international markets. Today two-thirds of heavy commercial vehicle exports out of South

Korea are from Tata Daewoo. In 2005, Tata Motors acquired a 21% stake in Hispano Carrocera, a

reputed Spanish bus and coach manufacturer, and subsequently the remaining stake in 2009.

Hispano's presence is being expanded in other markets. In 2006, Tata Motors formed a joint venture

with the Brazil-based Marcopolo, a global leader in body-building for buses and coaches to

manufacture fully-built buses and coaches for India and select


3

international markets. In 2006, Tata Motors entered into joint venture with Thonburi Automotive

Assembly Plant Company of Thailand to manufacture and market the company's pickup vehicles in

Thailand. The new plant of Tata Motors (Thailand) has begun production of the Xenon pickup truck,

with the Xenon having been launched in Thailand in 2008.


Tata Motors is also expanding its international footprint, established through exports since 1961. The

company's commercial and passenger vehicles are already being marketed in several countries in

Europe, Africa, the Middle East, South East Asia, South Asia and South America. It has

franchisee/joint venture assembly operations in Kenya, Bangladesh, Ukraine, Russia, Senegal and

South Africa.

The foundation of the company's growth over the last 50 years is a deep understanding of economic

stimuli and customer needs, and the ability to translate them into customer-desired offerings through

leading edge R&D. With over 3,000 engineers and scientists, the company's Engineering Research

Centre, established in 1966, has enabled pioneering technologies and products. The company today

has R&D centers in Pune, Jamshedpur, Lucknow, Dharwad in India, and in South Korea, Spain, and

the UK. It was Tata Motors, which developed the first indigenously developed Light Commercial

Vehicle, India's first Sports Utility Vehicle and, in 1998, the Tata Indica, India's first fully indigenous

passenger car. Within two years of launch, Tata Indica became India's largest selling car in its

segment. In 2005, Tata Motors created a new segment by launching the Tata Ace, India's first

indigenously developed mini-truck.

In January 2008, Tata Motors unveiled its People's Car, the Tata Nano, which India and the world

have been looking forward to. The Tata Nano has been subsequently launched, as planned, in India

in March 2009. A development, which signifies a first for the global automobile industry, the Nano

brings the comfort and safety of a car within the reach of thousands of families. The standard version

has been priced at USD 2500 (excluding VAT and transportation cost).

Designed with a family in mind, it has a roomy passenger compartment with generous leg space and

head room. It can comfortably seat four persons. Its mono-volume design will set a new benchmark

among small cars. Its safety performance exceeds regulatory requirements in India. Its tailpipe

emission performance too exceeds regulatory requirements. In terms


of overall pollutants, it has a lower pollution level than two-wheelers being
4

manufactured in India today. The lean design strategy has helped minimize weight, which helps

maximize performance per unit of energy consumed and delivers high fuel efficiency. The high fuel

efficiency also ensures that the car has low carbon dioxide emissions, thereby providing the twin

benefits of an affordable transportation solution with a low carbon footprint.


In May 2009, Tata Motors introduced ushered in a new era in the Indian automobile industry, in

keeping with its pioneering tradition, by unveiling its new range of world standard trucks called

Prima. In their power, speed, carrying capacity, operating economy and trims, they will introduce

new benchmarks in India and match the best in the world in performance at a lower life-cycle cost.

Tata Motors is equally focused on environment-friendly technologies in emissions and alternative

fuels. . It has developed electric and hybrid vehicles both for personal and public transportation. It

has also been implementing several environment-friendly technologies in manufacturing processes,

significantly enhancing resource conservation

Through its subsidiaries, the company is engaged in engineering and automotive solutions,

construction equipment manufacturing, automotive vehicle components manufacturing and supply

chain activities, machine tools and factory automation solutions, high-precision tooling and plastic

and electronic components for automotive and computer applications, and automotive retailing and

service operations.

Tata Motors is committed to improving the quality of life of communities by working on four thrust

areas– employability, education, health and environment. The activities touch the lives of more than

a million citizens. The company's support on education and employability is focused on youth and

women. They range from schools to technical education institutes to actual facilitation of income

generation. In health, our intervention is in both preventive and curative health care. The goal of

environment protection is achieved through tree plantation, conserving water and creating new water

bodies and, last but not the least, by introducing appropriate technologies in our vehicles and

operations for constantly enhancing environment care.


5
With the foundation of its rich heritage, Tata Motors today is etching a refulgent future.
2.1 TATA GROUP AND ITS SUBSIDIARIES
TATA group‘s portfolio includes wide range of businesses which are leading in their

fields. Its total revenue in 2006-07 is $ 28.8 billion which is 3.2 % of India‘s GDP. TATA‘s

business empire extends to over 80 countries across 6 continents. Similar to Jack Welch‘s opinion
that the business should either be first or second else it is better to sell the business, TATA groups

companies excel it the fields wherever they started the business. TATA group has ninety eight

companies that are basically operating in seven sectors.


3. ORGANIZATIONAL INNOVATIONS SYSTEM
Innovation in Tata Motors is not a recent phenomenon, but is a part of its legacy. The
Company‘s culture of perpetual search for excellence is highly attributed to the
Tata‘sethos
and incessant efforts of its employees in the past several decades to serve the
customers by
bringing continuous innovation in its products and processes.
The three major areas to illustrate how Tata Motors has effected innovation in the past
few
years.

1. Products

2. Processes

3. People
3.1. PRODUCTS:
Tata Motors created several breakthrough products in the past which changed the
market dynamics and helped in providing a new customer experience.
407 platform in 1980s

Japanese LCV players had made inroads into the Indian automobile market in the 1980s. Tata

Motors came out with its innovative 407 platform which was designed to suit the Indian conditions. It

quickly became the bestseller in LCVs and the platform still continues control 2/3rd of the market

even in the third decade of its existence.


Indica in the late 90s-
This was the first indigenously designed passenger car in India and it was innovative in
6
the sense that it provided more value for money in terms of internal space (comparable
to the
Ambassador which was the benchmark in the country for internal space), contemporary
features (comparable to Maruti Zen) and all that at a very competitive price.
ACE
Ace was India‘s first mini-truck launched in 2005. While heavy trucks ply on the
Highways, research showed the need for a small sub one-ton truck for intercity and truck terminal-to-

nearby locations connectivity. The vehicle offered 4 wheeler functionality at 3 Wheelers price. The

unconventional design features used in the vehicle were:

 I n n o v a t i v e 2 c y l i n d e r

I n d i c a e n g i n e

 S e m i - m o n o c o q u e b o d y t o

w i t h s t a n d a b u s e

 R i g i d f r o n t a x l e a n d r e a r

w h e e l d r i v e f o r l o w c o s t

 F l a t f a c e v s . s e m i - f o r w a r d

f a c e t o e n h a n c e t h e l o a d i n g

s p a c e .
NANO
The target price itself became the source of innovation, as you all must have read that
the big names in the industry just rubbished it as false claims and commented that it
was
impossible to make a ―CAR‖ at that price. However, you all know that the promise was
kept.
This was made possible through series of innovative ideas which led to acquisition of 37
patents by Tata Motors.

 E n g i n e w a s p a c k a g e d o n t h e

r e a r s i d e .

 2 c y l i n d e r e n g i n e

( c o n v e n t i o n a l l y t h e r e a r e 3 - 4

c y l i n d e r e n g i n e s )

 I d e n t i c a l h a n d l e s a n d

m e c h a n i s m s f o r l e f t a n d r i g h t

s i d e d o o r s
 I n s t r u m e n t c l u s t e r i n t h e

m i d d l e o f t h e d a s h b o a r d

 U n c o n v e n t i o n a l s e a t s

 I n t e r i o r s p a c e w a s

m a x i m i z e d b y p u s h i n g w h e e l s

t o t h e c o r n e r s a n d p o w e r
train below the rear seat.
Product created was very contemporary and
 I t h a s s u f f i c i e n t S p a c e
i n s i d e t o a c c o m m o d a t e 4
p e r s o n s
comfortably.

 H i g h l y f u e l e f f i c i e n t

 E x c e e d s t h e c u r r e n t S a f e t y

r e q u i r e m e n t s

 C o m p l i e s w i t h t h e c u r r e n t

e m i s s i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s .
7
WORLD TRUCK

The new generation range of trucks which would match with the best in the world in

performance at a lower life-cycle cost is being unveiled in just a few hours from now. It will create a
new benchmark in India in terms of power, speed, carrying capacity, operating economy and trims

and a new experience for the drivers in terms of drivability and comfort.
3.2. PROCESS:
Sustainability of innovation in products needed to be complemented with innovative
changes in the organizational processes too. Some examples are:
1. Adoption of the Tata Business Excellence Model (TBEM)

It is based on Malcolm Baldridge Award for business excellence and Balance Score Card.

This has created a culture of exploring various innovative ways to achieve excellence in all the

organizational processes.
2. Use of IT systems:
It has been a benchmark and highly leveraged in the organization throughout the
VALUE CHAIN.
3. Supply Side
Free-Markets for e-Sourcing, Supplier Relationship Management(SR M).
4. Product Development Process.

Institutionalized Stage Gate process in the organization is a benchmark in itself and

ensures development of right product for the market and also an effective and efficient program

management. Transition from in-house product development to a collaborative product development,

utilizing the capabilities of suppliers, design houses, subsidiaries and associate companies

specializing in different verticals. Internalization philosophy of Tata Motors made some major global

acquisitions like TDCV, JLR, Hispano, etc. Unlike many other Japanese / US players, they followed

an innovative approach to be seen as a local company in the country of operation, i.e, as a South

Korean player in South Korea and as a Spanish Player in Spain. This has helped them to appreciate

the need and importance of all the stakeholders and they achieved this in four stages. This involves

– ―Initiating‖, by understanding the language and basic facts of the country,

―Familiarization‖ with their


culture, ―Harmonization‖ and finally ―Synergizing‖ by sharing the best practices and
work
ethics.
8
3.3. PEOPLE:

The changing business environment and increasing complexity of business posed a huge

challenge in achievement of business plans. Tata Group, of which Tata Motors is a part of, is well
known for identifying and nurturing leaders. Tata Motors in the past has adopted several innovative

means to leverage its human resource capabilities for achieving extremely challenging goals.
• I d e n t i f y i n g l e a d e r s
t h r o u g h a s s e s s m e n t
c e n t e r s –

This process has been effectively utilized by Tata Motors to identify young managers with

very high potential. This process was started some 20 years back and has progressively created a

pool of very strong and effective leaders who have proven their capabilities in some very challenging

assignments given to them. This process has now been replicated by many other organizations too.
• P u t t i n g t h e m i n t o
c h a l l e n g i n g a s s i g n m e n t s
a n d g i v i n g t h e m
I n t e r n a t i o n a l
exposure
Key projects like ACE and NANO are examples of some challenging
projects which constituted of young leaders and engineers.
• B r e a k i n g t h e
f u n c t i o n a l s i l o s b y
s h i f t i n g f r o m a
h i e r a r c h i c a l
o r g a n i z a t i o n t o a
more CFT approach

All these experiences have helped us to redefine the way we have looked at innovation. And

while innovation is normally understood as introduction of new and radical ideas in the area of

products and services, our experience says there are several other areas that also require

innovation in tandem, so as to effect an innovation in a company. Three of them I have already

mentioned, that is, product, process and people.


Four other areas of innovation

Source of inspiration/ Purpose from which the concept emanated, which stresses upon the

fact that agility and understanding the unstated/ unfulfilled need of customers is the most important

source of innovation. Tata Nano: In this case the idea struck in the mind of our Chairman when he

saw a family of four (a man, his wife and two kids) riding on a scooter on a rainy day. He felt that

there was an unfulfilled need of safe, affordable and an all weather alternative.
9
Price: The price of Nano got fixed at Rs 1 lakh (2500USD). The achievement of price
target

was definite to create a major disruption in the car market as it fell midway between the price of a

scooter and the cheapest car available which was priced at Rs 2(5000USD) lakh. Product design
was choked for options because of the price target. Hence the setting the price as target triggered a

series of innovation which involved:


Target Cost approach– which involved breaking down the cost targets to sub-system
and
then to component level.
Suppliers were challenged with the stringent cost target given to them, but they
accepted the
same and the result is in front of you.
Promotion: Innovation lies in reaching the right customers always and communicating in
a

simple and effective manner. Tata Motors in case of Nano developed a portal, which got as high 30

million hits even before the launch of the car. After the launch there were another 30 million hits in

less than a month. This helped the customers in becoming more aware of the product features. They

received around 2 lakh(.2 million) applications, which is a good response by all standards.
Place/Reach:

Conscious of the fact that demand for such cars would be substantial from the remotest corner of

the country, the sale of form for booking were facilitated through several banks. New insurance

schemes were co-designed with the insurance companies, and now we are in the process of

enhancing the sales and service network for better reach and service to the customers.
To summarize the experience, path breaking ideas, conceived and implemented in one
or more of the 7 Ps, leads to INNOVATION.

 P u r p o s e

 P r o d u c t

 P r i c e

 P l a c e

 P r o m o t i o n

 P e o p l e

 P r o c e s s
10
4. INTRODUCTION TO THE NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT:
Before the introduction of a product into the market, it goes through several stages of
development. The stages of the product development includes the following

Idea Generation

Idea Screening

Concept Testing and Development


Market Strategy

Business Analysis

Total Sales Estimation


Estimation Costs and Profits


Product Development

Test Marketing

As far as Nano is concerned, it falls new to the world products in the context that it has made a

history for the cheapest car ever made without compromising on quality. i.e. best way value analysis.
Category
Players
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
A
Maruti 800
28
24
21
14
10
7
B
Alto,WagnorR,Santro
,Indica
33
41
47
57
64
75
C
Esteem, Swift,
Indigo, Ikon, Ascent
12
15
18
22
26
33
D
Mercedes-C, Skoda
Superb
1
2
3
4
P/L
Mercedes-E, BMw
1
1
1
1
1
1
74
81
88
96
104
120
Average Monthly Category Sales
4.1. IDEA GENERATION

The main idea behind TATA NANO was perceived by the chairman of TATA group himself

who saw a family of four going on a scooter in rain he wanted to develop a transport which was

affordable, safe and could face all types of weathers. This turned out to be the most ambitious

project of Tata motors till date when Mr Ratan Tata told this to one of his managing directors Mr.

Ravi Kant he was also interested about the idea. Mr. Ravi Kant had learned from his experience

that ―People want to move from two-wheelers to four-wheelers


but they cannot afford it‖. More and more can, but Indian car buyers today represent a
11

tiny slice of a potentially giant market India has just seven cars per 1,000 people. India's auto

industry has grown an average of 12% for the past decade, but just 1.3 million passenger vehicles
were sold in India in the fiscal year ending March 2006. That means a billion Indians buy about the

same number of cars in a year as 300 million Americans buy in a month. If four wheels cost as little

as two wheels, that could change fast. About 7 million scooters and motorcycles were sold in India

last year, typically for prices between 30,000 rupees and 70,000 rupees, about $675 to $1,600. Tata

is targeting a price of 100,000 rupees one lakh, in Indian 19 terms of measurement or about $2,500

at current exchange rates, for its small car. That sounds impossibly cheap in the West but remains

three times higher than India's annual per capita income. The average pay for factory workers at

Tata Motors is just $5,500 a year.


4.2. IDEA SCREENING

The next step was screening of ideas. There were many ideas like to make a scooter with

two extra wheels at the back for better stability, A three wheeled car like a closed auto- rickshaw but

the market requirement was a car, the car should be such that it doesn‘t convey
a message that it‘s just an extension of a scooter it should be a proper car and likewise
should

also give the feel of a actual car. Trying to build a car cheap enough for motorcycle buyers seems to

make sense now but seemed unachievable several years ago when Mr. Ratan Tata, chairman of

Tata Motors had first mentioned his dream of building a one-lakh car in

2003 at that time the whole world thought that this gamble will never work out but ironically the whole

world is now talking of small cars as $5,000 or $7,000 after TATA NANO was launched in 2009.
4.3. CONCEPT TESTING AND DEVELOPMENT

After surveying customers the end result was that people wanted a four wheeler which was

cheap, dependable and strong enough to carry a load of 1 ton additionally four wheelers also

increased the social status of the person who owns it .Four wheels not only practical appeal but also

had a emotional appeal. Thus the new product was now to be developed but the following

considerations would have to kept in mind when developing it-


 T h e c a r s h o u l d b e b u i l t o n
a d i f f e r e n t p l a t f o r m t h a n
c o n v e n t i o n a l o n e s .
 I t m u s t b e m e e t i n g a l l t h e
s a f e t y a n d r e g u l a t o r y
r e q u i r e m e n t s .
12
 I t h a s t o b e b u i l t o n a
s c a l e w h i c h s h a l l b e m o r e
t h a n d o u b l e t h e e a r l i e r
l a u n c h e s o f
similar products and the ramp up must be smooth.
 T h e c a r h a s t o b e d e s i g n e d
s o t h a t i t c a n b e e x p o r t e d t o
o t h e r c o u n t r i e s a s t h e
d o m e s t i c
demand may not materialize as per projections.

There were three main requirement of the new vehicle: it should be low cost, adhere to the

regulatory requirements, and achieve performance targets such as fuel efficiency and acceleration

capacity. Nearly 500 engineers were involved in the development of the vehicle and everyday they

had meeting so that the decision taking and the problem solving process could be accelerated. Each

engineer represented a different part of the car: engine and transmission, body, vehicle integration,

safety and regulation, and industrial design. The body of the vehicle had to go under a number of

iterations because the Mr.Ratan Tata wanted that a person whose height is over six feet can also fit

into the car without any discomfort and finally the length of the car had to be increased by 100mm

but eventually. The hard work of designing the car paid off and the designers were successful in

their attempt to design an actual car which did not look shabby and inexpensive but looked sleek

and sophisticated.
4.4. BUSINESS ANALYSIS:
COST:Since the car had to be built within a cost of Rs. 1 Lac, no conventional design
would
work as the costs shall be higher and so the entire car has to be redesigned.

The design has to question the need of each and every component from the point of view of its

necessity of existence and also the minimum requirements of its functionality. Value Engineering

concepts have to be deployed to finalize the minimum requirements.


DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGY:
It‘s a technology which brings radical change by introducing new ways of doing
things.
Technology that is

 S i g n i f i c a n t l y c h e a p e r t h a n

e x i s t i n g T e c h n o l o g y .

 M u c h h i g h e r p e r f o r m i n g ?

 H a s g r e a t e r f u n c t i o n a l i t y

a n d

 I s m o r e c o n v e n i e n t t o U s e .

 B r i n g s t o m a r k e t a t o t a l l y
d i f f e r e n t V a l u e p r o p o s i t i o n

t h a n t h e o n e a v a i l a b l e
and can change the Paradigm about a product.
13
The Guiding factor was that the cost has to be minimized for each component yet
maintaining
its basic functionality. The Alternatives are:

 R e d u c e C o n s u m p t i o n o f

M a t e r i a l b e i n g u s e d .
 A l t e r n a t e S u p p l i e r s t o g e t

s a m e m a t e r i a l a t f e w e r

p r i c e s .

 U s e a l t e r n a t e m a t e r i a l s .

 E l i m i n a t e u s e o f M a t e r i a l .

 E l i m i n a t e a p r o c e s s O r a

C o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e a b o v e .
COST REDUCTION PARADIGM:
Value Engineering Alternatives:

The target was very clearly defined that, within the given cost structure all the components

have to be allocated and the same had to be achieved using the available alternatives.
The Guiding factor was that the tax structure on materials and manufacturing must
support
the final cost. Decisions were

 E s t a b l i s h f a c t o r y i n a t a x

f r e e z o n e .

 G e t t h e t a x a d v a n t a g e s o n

i n f r a s t r u c t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t .

 G e t t h e s u p p l i e r s t o

e s t a b l i s h b a s e n e a r t h e

f a c t o r y .

 G e t s p e c i a l c o n c e s s i o n s

f r o m S t a t e G o v t .
In short select a manufacturing location where all the advantages could be achieved.
4.5. TOTAL SALES ESTIMATION:
The total sales had been estimated based on the following decisions
 I t w a s e s t i m a t e d t h a t t
h e
d e m a n d f o r t h e p e o p l e ‘ s c a r
s h a l l b e a t l e a s t t w i c e t h e
demand for Maruti 800, the lowest end car.
 I n i t i a l p r o j e c t i o n s w e r e a t
a b o u t 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 c a r s p e r y e a r .
 T h e b a s i c r e a s o n w a s t h e
c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e t a r g e t
p r i c e s h a l l r e d e f i n e t h e 4 -
w h e e l e r
segment.
 T h e p r i c e d e c i s i o n o f R s 1
l a k h i s d e f i n i t e l y g o i n g t o
m a k e a l o t m a n y p e o p l e
t r a n s i t
to
4-wheeler fold and that shall explode the demand.
 O n l y 1 0 % c u s t o m e r s o f 9
M i l l i o n t w o w h e e l e r m a r k e t
t r a n s i t t o 4 - w h e e l e r s i t
shall amount to 50% of the passenger car market share.
14
 I t w a s d e c i d e d t o s e t u p
p l a n t s w i t h 5 l a k h s c a r s p e r
a n n u m c a p a c i t y a n d r a m p t h e
same up in stages, in line with increase in market demand.
4.6. MARKETING:
Product:
Tata has a very wide range of products it has passenger cars, utility vehicles, Trucks,
Commercial passenger Carriers and Defense Vehicles.

Nano received media attention due to its targeted low price.


The Tata Nano is a rear-engine, four passenger ,city car built by Tata Motors,

It was first presented at the 9th annual Auto Expo on 10 January 2008, at Pragati
Maidan in New Delhi, India.

Aimed primarily at the Indian market.


Price:

The prices of Tata motors are generally affordable acceptable by the general public at large.

Tata always have something for the lower class people with Nano being their trump card. Giving

discount every month and special promotion for certain type of vehicle also one
of the strong strategy use by Tata Motors. Discount can be made from Company‘s profit
or
from dealer‘s profit at certain range.
Pricing strategies:

Penetration pricing

Low pricing policy with minimum profit margin.


Though the one lakh price tag is not fixed by TATA group, it was the word of mouth of people which

fixed that range. This expectation of people creates a big challenge for the company.
Place:

Tata Motors has an extensive dealer network covering Indian and International markets.

Wherever you are, there is a Tata Motors Sales and Service dealership close to you. The channel of

distribution, physical location, and dealership method of distribution and sales is generally adopted.

The distribution of vehicle must be in a very systematic way,


15
from the plant to dealership and to end user. This is not only in India itself but also to
the
world-wide dealership.
Promotion:
Tata motors promote their products via Advertising and after sales services.
• E n o u g h u s e o f o n e o f
t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t
e l e m e n t o f p r o m o t i o n
m i x , p u b l i c i t y r e d u c e s
the necessity of other promotional devices for Nano.
• Publicity as ―One lakh car‖ by mouth to mouth.
• A u t o e x p o 2 0 0 8 , N e w
D e l h i & G e n e v a
• P u b l i c i t y t h r o u g h p r i n t
& e l e c t r o n i c m e d i a

For other type of promotional activities, cost factor that is 1 lakh price tag is to be keep in mind, nano

watches, nano T-shirts available in retail clothing stores. Advertising: - TV & other mass media will

be less effective, thus too much money will not be invested in this regard. Mainly word of mouth

advertising will get more emphasis. Internet will be a major media for advertising.
People:Tata Motors owe their success to the highly motivated and talented staff. There

recruitment division picks the crème-de-la-crème from premier universities, management and

engineering institutes in India. They put them through rigorous training programmes to hone their

entrepreneurial skills and impart comprehensive product knowledge.


Processes:
Tata motors follow Balanced Scorecard Collaborative, Inc for achieving excellence in
overall Company performance.
Physical Evidence:

The management of the company has managed to keep their hopes alive even in this

recession and hoped that the worse is behind Tata Motors recently launched the most awaited car of

the year, Tata Nano and the company had already received 203,000 booking that are fully paid and

70 percent of the applicants are ready to wait till the end of 2010 for the car to be manufactured.
16
5.INNOVATIONS INCORPORATED IN TATA NANO:

At this moment, a fair amount of information on how the Nano was brought to its intended

price tag without compromising its design brief - 'a proper car'. The report attempts to study the

tactics and policies adopted byTata‘s under the enlightened approach to innovation.

Strategic Innovation

Focused Innovation

Holistic Innovation
5.1 Strategic Innovation:

Some of the innovations that Tata Motors followed during the process of coming out with Nano

were not only concerned with the only the car as the product, but extended itself to the whole

organizational thought process. Starting from the team formation to product delivery, everything was

thought keeping in mind the promise of bringing out a quality car within a price tag of Rs. 1 lakh that

would fulfill the latent demand of the Indian middle class who could not afford even the lowest priced

car at that time.


The whole idea was radical and required fresh thinking and challenging of age old principles of

product designing and manufacturing technologies. Inline with this, the engineering team in charge

with the designing and production of Nano was very young with the average age being only 28.

Tata Motors were not shy to unlearn and re-learn the processes and they were open to take in ideas

from their strategic partners also. During development, the company reinvented and minimized the

manufacturing process, brought in innovative product design, and asked component manufacturers

to look at current work and design approaches in a different perspective to produce logical and

simple solutions.

The strategy behind the project was the awareness of the number of Indian families who had two

wheeled transport, but couldn't afford a four wheel car, and was based on the company's success in

producing the low cost 4 wheeled Ace truck in May 2005. The company management learnt and

improved on the design procedure of Ace truck and used this know-how to come up with the best

design for Tata Nano. Also, since both the vehicles were similar in their basic design and component

requirement, the supplier base was also easier to be put in place.


17

Even after successfully launching the petrol and diesel variants of Nano, Tata Motors have not

rested on the laurels. They have taken one step further in coming out with an electric version which

enables them to position it as an environment friendly car of the future. This shows the
foresightedness of the management to sense future demand and also the company culture to

continuously innovate and improve.


Tata Motors set their retail price target before they designed the car. Doing so let them establish

their demographic. Setting the price and working backwards also required a fundamental shift in the

way the car was designed, since many costs are fixed once the design is set.

Workers at the Tata Motors factory have been trained in Japanese manufacturing
techniques that call for continuous improvement.
5.2 Holistic Innovation:

Tata Motors worked in collaboration with their suppliers very early in the process - so early in fact

that they were able to provide functional goals for many parts rather than technical specs (i.e. wipe

water from windshield vs. windshield wiper must be x mm by y cm and work at z cadence). This

approach tapped the ingenuity of the supply chain, who delivered parts that met the functional

requirements and extremely low prices.


Another cost cutting strategy – ‗Tata Motors‘ distributed assembly model, where they ship

the parts to local manufacturers for final assembly. The next strategic thinking Tata Motors have to

undertake to check if the policy can be applied to all the other car models to allow them to be

customized as per the local customer needs.


Working closely with the sourcing team led to many interesting inputs on what was possible and

what was not. The driving instrument cluster is uniquely placed in the centre, giving the car an open

look and enabling everyone in the car to look at it. It also makes the dashboard equally amenable to

left hand and right hand driving.


The top management, even Mr. Ratan Tata was actively involved in the designing
phase of the car. Inputs from all the teams were taken to come up with the best design.

Manufacturing planning: The interesting challenge here was that aiming for a very low cost car

meant the entire organisation had to be leaned down– not just manufacturing, but materials, design,

human resources, and so on. The team has taken


18
the benefit of best practices from other industries such as cycle manufacturing or PC
manufacturing that involves mass manufacture and assembly.

Quality systems have been thought about, put in place and well documented well in advance; so

implementation becomes easier. The maintenance practices - failure mode analysis and
development– had all been completed. This ensured all this during the planning phase itself and this

reduced the breakdowns when the project started and cut down unexpected challenges once the

actual implementation started.


Suppliers located within 50 kms of the main manufacturing plant which reduces
transportation cost and fosters just in time procurement strategy.
5.3 Focused Innovation:

The Nano has 21% more interior space and 8% smaller exterior, when compared with its closest

rival, the Maruti 800. The car will come in different versions, including one standard and two deluxe

variants. The deluxe version will have air conditioning, but no power steering.

The use of a rear mounted engine to help maximize interior space.


The Nano complies with Bharat Stage-III and Euro-IV emission standards.

Fuel economy : 20 kilometres per litre


The car conforms to environmental protection, and will have the lowest emissions in India. Thus it

douses the fear in the mind of the environmentalists about it being the reason of shooting up

emission limits for mass adoption as well as the perceived notion of cheap products being of bad

quality. The Nano will also replace many overloaded and worn-out two-stroke polluting vehicles, both

two and three-wheeled.


With a length of 3.1 metres, width of 1.5 metres and height of 1.6 metres, with adequate ground

clearance, it can effortlessly manoeuvre on busy roads in cities as well as in rural areas.

Its mono-volume design, with wheels at the corners and the power train at the rear, enables it to

uniquely combine both space and manoeuvrability, which will set a new benchmark among small

cars.

The lean design strategy has helped minimise weight, which helps maximise
performance per unit of energy consumed and delivers high fuel efficiency.

With an all sheet-metal body, it has a strong passenger compartment, with safety
19
features such as crumple zones, intrusion-resistant doors, seat belts, strong seats and
anchorages, and the rear tailgate glass bonded to the body.

Tubeless tyres further enhance safety.


The high fuel efficiency also ensures that the car has low carbon dioxide emissions, thereby

providing the twin benefits of an affordable transportation solution with a low carbon footprint.

The mono-volume design establishes a sea of change from the two-box layout of the 800. What it

ensures the Nano with is extremely short overhangs and tight packaging. For a car of this size and

image, the Nano is an extremely sexy looking car with futuristic design cues. The bonnet line is

steep and unites together with the bumper in a seamless way.


How could Tata Motors make a car so inexpensively?

No Radio, Power windows, air conditioning, anti lock brakes, air bags, remote locks
or power steering.

Rear wheel drive: manually actuated 4-speed trans axle that gives the car better fuel
efficiency

Wheel Bearing: Wheel bearing is strong enough to drive the car at 72kmph but would
quickly wear out at higher speeds.

Analogue speedometer, odometer and fuel gauge.


Single windscreen wiper


Fundamentally, the engineers worked to do more with less. The car is smaller in overall dimensions

than the Maruti, but it offers about 20 per cent more seating capacity as a result of design choices

such as putting the wheels at the extreme edges of the car.


20
Car
Maker
Introduction
HP
Price(USD)
Model T
Ford
1908
20
19700
Beetle
VW
1956
24
11333
Mini
Cooper
1961
34
11777
Nano
Tata
2008
33
2500
Nano-Lowest ever

Modular Design Revolution:


One of the most significant dimensions of innovation is its modular design. The Nano

is constructed of components that can be built and shipped separately to be assembled in a variety

of locations. In effect, the Nano is being sold in kits that are distributed, assembled, and serviced by

local entrepreneurs. The company could produce the mass items and ship it to them as kits.

Open Distribution Innovation:

Tata have called this 'open distribution' innovation because it mobilizes large numbers of third

parties to reach remote rural consumers, tailor the products and services to more effectively serve

their needs, and add value to the core product or service


21
through ancillary services. Three innovations in products and processes come together
to support‗Open distribution':
1. Increased modularity (both in products and processes)
2. Aggressive leveraging of existing third-party, often non-commercial, institutions in
rural areas to more effectively reach target customers
3. Creative use of information technology, carefully integrated with social institutions, to
encourage use and deliver even greater value
4. Modular designs combined with creative leverage of local third-party institutions help
participants to get better faster.

Welcoming users back into the design loop:

The Tata Motors/Nano approach contrasts with the strategy of most other manufacturers. For more

established automakers each new model represents an advance in tight integration, with more and

more of the functionality deeply embedded in electronics that truly represent a 'black box' to the

customer. The days of customising cars to personalise them and push their performance limits are

rapidly receding into distant memory for the average customer.


Vendor Management Policy:

Tata Nano got some car parts from vendors who did their own research and development for them

to reduce cost. Some vendors developed products with Tata Motors, and quite a few were given

designs by Tata Motors. The company even helped some vendors find international partners to

make products that met the company's requirements. Some vendors who supplied parts to Tata

Nano did competitive buying of material from countries like China and Thailand. This is very similar

to leveraging an onsite offshore model in IT.


6. CHALLENGES FACED DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF TATA NANO:

After much speculation, Tata Motors announced on May 19, 2006 that it will be

manufacturing Tata Nano from Singur, Bengal. However, within a week protests were started by a

few farmers in the area against the acquisition of their lands by Tata. The cause was taken up by

Mamata Banerjee, the leader of Congress. The situation escalated withTat a‘s threatening to pull

out and disruption of compensation for farmers who had volunteered to sell their land by anti-

acquisition activists. This was followed by a state-


22

wide strike by Trinamool Congress in October. The government banned political parties from holding

meetings or processions at Singur and installed a huge police force there. There was widespread

violence in the clashes between the police and the farmers on December 2, 2006.
The Key concerns are

Safety

Emissions

Congestions
1. Question of Safety

The Nano has an all sheet-metal body made from Japanese and Korean steel, with safety

features such as crumple zones, intrusion-resistant doors, seat-belts, strong seats and anchorages,

and the rear tailgate glass bonded to the body. Tires are tubeless
2. Mass Motorization

As the Nano was conceived and designed around introducing the automobile to a sector of

the population who are currently using eco-friendly bicycles and motorcycles, environmentalists are

concerned that its extraordinarily low price might lead to mass motorization in countries like India

and therefore possibly aggravate pollution as well as increase the demand for oil. The ecology

focused German newspaper die tageszeitung feels that such concerns are "inappropriate" as the

Tata Nano has lower emissions compared to the average Volkswagen, and that developing

countries shouldn't be denied the right to motorized mobility when industrialized countries should be

looking to reduce their emissions and usage of cars. Die Weltre ports that the car conforms to

environmental protection, and will have the lowest emissions in India.

In crowded metropolitan cities like Mumbai, Ratan Tata has conceived a scheme to only offer the

Nano to those individuals who do not have an automobile already. The Nano will also replace many

overloaded and worn-out two-stroke polluting vehicles, both two and three- wheeled. According to

Anumita Roychowdhury, associate director of the Centre for Science and Environment in New Delhi,

"the low-cost cars will be disastrous" in the current policy and regulatory framework.
23
3. Used car market effects:

The Nano is alleged to have severely affected the used car market in India, as many Indians

opt to wait for the Nano's release rather than buying used cars, such as the Maruti 800 (a rebadged
Suzuki Alto), which is considered as the Nano's nearest competitor. Sales of new Maruti 800s have

dropped by 20%, and used ones by 30% following the unveiling of the
Nano. As one automotive journalist summarizes; ―People are asking themselves—and
us—
why they should pay, say, 250,000 Rupees for a Maruti Alto, when they can wait and get
a
brand new Nano for less in a few months‘ time, a car that is actually bigger‖.
4. Cases of Fire

There have been 7 cases where the Nano caught fire, with the first three attributed to an

electrical fault in the steering column. Tata Motors has since replaced the OEM supplying the fire

retardant material as well as the steering column assembly. In March 2010, a new case of a Tata

Nano catching fire was reported, in which the car was being delivered from the dealership to the

owner's house. This case is currently under investigation.


5. Competitors
Rival
car
makers
including Bajaj
Auto, Fiat, General

Motors,

Ford Motor, Hyundai and Toyota Motor have all expressed interest in building small cars in India that

are affordable to more middle-class consumers in emerging markets. The bulk of demand there is

for small cars because people are much more sensitive to fuel prices. Honda and Toyota are leading

the way on so called cleaner gasoline-electric hybrids, and some environmentalists argue getting

prices down on these technologies is where efforts should be concentrated. Inexpensive and eco-

friendly electric-cars like Tara Tiny (which has an engine producing 4 hp compared to Nano's 33 hp),

Oreva Super (both reportedly even cheaper than Tata Nano) and REVA pose even more significant

danger to Nano. There are also rumors of Maruti Suzuki introducing a lower priced version of Alto to

counter Tata Nano.

24
Maruti 800
Tata Nano
bike
Engine
796 cc
623 cc
100 cc
Price(OTR)
Rs 225,000
Rs 120,000(88%)
45,000
DP
Rs 10,000
Rs 10,000
Rs 5000
EMI(60m)
Rs 3583
Rs 1833(95%)
Rs 667
Kmpl
15
20
50
Nano vs Maruti 800 Vs Bike- Ownership Cost
7. FUTURE OF TATA NANO:

Emerging markets are a fertile ground for innovation. The challenge of reaching dispersed, low

income consumers in emerging markets often spurs significant innovation.


As customers gain more power, they will demand more tailoring and value added services to meet

their need. Companies which innovate on this dimension are likely to be richly rewarded.

World is getting tougher day by day being unique is a competitive advantage.


Expectations to Tata Nano have proved this.

After 100 years to Henry Ford, Tata has not only proved him again not only he came
out of the expectations but also came out with a platform for Indian auto sector.
25
CONCLUSION:
In the conclusion we can say that Nano has truly lived up to its expectations and
shattered the
following myths

Cheap means unsafe- physically validated crash test results on 1 vehicle and plans
more tests in the future

Rear- engine cars are unsafe- Ferrari, Porsche, VW and Lamborghini do it why can‘t
Tata?

The Nano will pollute the planet- 623cc engine produces less CO2 than average Eu
small car.

The Nano will have no storage space-Sufficient storage space, under the bonnet and
over the rear parcel tray, rear seats fold to dramatically increase storage space.

Report on TATA NANO


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