-: DC motor control using C++ :Abstract:- This is a demo program written in C++ so that you can know how computer is used

to take control action on DC Motor. Total motion control of DC motor is given here (speed control as well as direction change). Also total GUI (Graphical User Interface) is provided (buttons, mouse interface etc.). Program controls motion of motor through LPT port with very small hardware connected to it. Note:- In this project the DC motor with following ratings max rated voltage: 12 VDC max rated current: 2 Amp max rated RPM: 3000

______________________________________________ General Description:Controller is actually a combination of two circuits = Driver + Switching circuit

Controller

Driver is the actual circuit that drives DC motor and switching circuit decides how DC motor should be driven. So actually switching circuit is the main circuit that controls the motor. Now there are two parameters of DC motor that you can control 1. Speed 2. Direction Changing the direction of DC motor is very simple just reverse the supply given to DC motor. For varying speed of motor you have to vary the applied DC voltage. One well known method to vary voltage is to use resistance (rheostat or potentiometer) in series with DC supply. Another method is to apply pulse width modulated (PWM) wave to DC motor. As the width of pulse varies average voltage applied to motor varies and so the speed of motor also varies. In this project I have used standard H-Bridge circuit as a DC motor driver and software program (written in C++) as a PWM generator. Program generates PWM wave to vary the speed of motor as well as change the direction of it depending upon user command. H-Bridge Driver:-

U1B and U3A wont conduct so bases of Q2 & Q4 will be on low logic.H-Bridge is standard. PNP darlington pair TIP127(datasheet). the circuit is made up of three major components optocoupler MCT2E (datasheet). Bases of all four darlington pairs are connected to 25 pin D-type connector through opto-couplers. Its schematic is as shown below.Q4 – Ground. U1A and U2B will start conducting and provide high logic to bases of Q1 & Q3. anode of LED and collector of phototransistor is tied to Vcc. In all opto-couplers. For this we have to apply HEX data word 0C (0000 1100) on LPT port. Connections:. this is very standard circuit and can be used to drive any industrial motor DC motor with maximum voltage of 100V and maximum current of 5A. . this will turn on Q1 & Q4 currentt will flow from supply . Function of opto-coupler is to provide good isolation between PC and H-bridge circuit.Q1 – (+Ve) terminal of motor – (-Ve) terminal of motor . cathodes are connected with respective data pins D0 to D3.NPN and PNP Darlington pairs are connected in bridge configuration as shown. NPN darlington pair TIP122 (datasheet). All the Darlington pairs have inbuilt reverse diode that is for freewheeling action. Emitters of phototransistor are connected to bases of respectiveDarlington pair through current limiting resistor 220E. Operation:now when you apply low logic to pin pins 2 & 3 and high logic to pins 4 & 5. So motor will rotate in one direction. DC motor is connected as a load to bridge circuit. well known circuit and widely used as DC motor driver.

> Software:Main function of this software is to · Switch between transistors T1-T4 and T2-T3 to change direction of motor · Generate PWM on pins (either on 2-3 or on 4-5) to vary speed of motor Software is mainly divided in three parts 1. PWM generation 3. 3. mouse interfacing Graphics:. Now rather then directly giving high logic to pins if we apply PWM wave to it then during ON period of wave both transistors are closed switch (conducts) and during OFF period they are open switch (do not conduct) so every time average voltage is fed to motor.This part generates complete view of control panel. That means it prepares whole appearance of program screen. As you go on increasing pulse width (increasing ON period and decreasing OFF period) of PWM wave the avg. 4-5 and high logic to pins 2-3. writes text like “Speed”.49V) on that . Voltage given to motor is increased and so the speed also increases.Generating PWM on parallel (LPT) port data pins (D0-D7) using C+ + is very simple. Q2 and Q3 will turn on and current will flow from supply – Q2 – (-Ve) terminal of motor – (+Ve) terminal of motor – Q3 – Ground. So motor will rotate in another direction. displays speed factor etc. For ON period you have to apply high logic (1 means 3. draws borderline. 3. For this we have to apply HEX data word 03 (0000 0011)on LPT port. displays instructions.Same way when you give low logic to pin no. It draws buttons like clockwise. Thus simply by switching the logic from high to low and low to high in between these four pins (2. voltage decreases and so the speed also decreases. generating PWM wave on these pins (2. and 5) you can change the direction of motor. speed increase/decrease. 4 and 5) as well as switching the transistors to change the direction of motor is done by software program which is written in C++ programming language. anticlockwise. “Speed factor”. Graphics 2. Here in this project. 4. PWM Generation:. Same way if you decrease pulse width (increase OFF period and decrease ON period) of PWM waves the avg.

So the time period is 50 millisecond (ms).09V) for OFF period of pulse.You can increase the speed factor till you reach to min limit of OFF time period (5 ms). Mouse interfacing:. kanitkar. Note:. In same manner you can’t further decrease speed factor when you reach min limit of ON period (5 ms). Same manner when you decrease speed factor ON time will decrease and OFF time will increase again frequency remains same. int r. I am not discussing about whole theory here but giving you the reference. 2 &3 or on pin no. This you can easily understood with these waveforms. User can do his/her all task by mouse click. 4 & 5). To understand how mouse is interfaced in this program you have to go through whole theory of hardware interfacing using C++. program generates square wave of 50% duty cycle (25ms ON period and 25ms OFF period) on two parallel port pins (either on pin no. resmptr(int p. You can refer the chapter “mouse interfacing” in book named “Let Us C” by Mr. So as you increase this factor the ON time period will increase and with the same factor OFF time period will decrease (suppose d=5 then ON time is 30 and off time is 20) so the base frequency 200Hz will not change.data pin and low logic (0 means 0. In this program there are four functions that handles mouse event 1. int q. This speed factor is added to the ON time period (25 + d) and subtracted from OFF time period (25 . First when speed factor (d) is zero.This is the most interesting part in whole program. initmouse() 2. When you reach this limit program will display message “Min Speed”. The base frequency over which PWM is generated is 200Hz. int s) . After that there won’t be any further increment in speed factor and program will display a message “Max Speed”.d).

increase the speed factor and also displays it on screen. Main program decides on which position click event has happened and if it happened on any button (clockwise. int *v) performs two tasks. Now run “DC-Speed. For example you click on speed increase button. Connect DB25 connector with PC’s LPT port. Apply 12V supply to supply terminals and connect the DC motor with its terminals. It determines whether mouse button is pressed or not and it captures current mouse pointer position from screen. So program displays message “mouse driver is not loaded” and also it shuts the program screen off using exit( ) function.exe” on your computer. Resmptr(int p. showmptr() 4. Whenever there is a mouse click instantly getmpos() function captures x and y co-ordinates of mouse pointer and pass it to the main program. How program works ? Until and unless you press any key you can see the program screen displaying control panel for DC-Motor speed and direction control. And int86 function will shows mouse pointer on screen Getmpos (int *t. int s) function restrict mouse movement within the boundary specified by the four variables passed to it. anticlockwise etc. int q. int *u. int *u. In this function we are passing 0 value through input union REGS to int86( ) function. program gets the co-ordinate and directly switch to that IF loop. We pass all these boundary limits through input union REGS to int86 () function. it means mouse driver is not loaded. If this function returns value zero (0). This function will return some nonzero value through output union REGS to main program.) Then performs the desired task. getmpos(int *t. So int86( ) function will restrict the mouse movement out of this boundary. int r. Showmptr( ) function displays mouse pointer on program screen. This function will returns the x and y co-ordinates of mouse pointer and also returns value 1 if mouse button (left) is pressed or 0 if button is not pressed. How to rotate DC Motor First prepare the hardware as shown in schematic.3. We have to pass the value 3 through input union REGS to int86 () function. For this just we have to pass the value 1 through input union REGS to int86 ( ) function. int *v) initmouse function loads mouse driver in to the program. You can prepare it even on bread board also (no need to solder) because there are only 8 components (4 optocouplers and 4 darlington pairs). You will see control . Program continuously checks for mouse click event.

Sweet sound is generated and speed factor will be incremented/decremented and displayed on screen.panel on your screen. If you press clockwise button and motor rotates anticlockwise then just reverse the terminals of motor To increase/decrease the speed of motor just press speed increase/decrease button with left mouse button once. . Motor will rotate in desired direction till the button is pressed and you will also hear a sound. To rotate motor clockwise/anticlockwise press and hold clockwise/anticlockwise button with left mouse button. Pressing these buttons more then one time will increase/decrease the speed factor by same amount. Now switch on the 12V supply. Motor will stop rotating when you release button. Move your mouse pointer to any button.

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