What is RAID?

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is a set of technology standards for teaming disk drives to improve fault tolerance and performance.

RAID Levels
Level 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Striping Mirroring Parallel Access with Specialized Disks Synchronous Access with Dedicated Parity Disk Independent Access with Dedicated Parity Disk Independent Access with Distributed Parity Independent Access with Double Parity Name

Choosing a RAID Level
Each RAID level represents a set of trade-offs between performance, redundancy, and cost. RAID 0 -- Optimized for Performance RAID 0 uses striping to write data across multiple drives simultaneously. This means that when you write a 5GB file across 5 drives, 1GB of data is written to each drive. Parallel reading of data from multiple drives can have a significant positive impact on performance. The trade-off with RAID 0 is that if one of those drives fail, all of your data is lost and you must retore from backup. RAID 0 is an excellent choice for cache servers, where the actual data being stored is of little value, but performance is very important.

What is striping?
Striping is the automated process of writing data across multiple drives simulteneously. Striping is used to increase the performance of disk reads. When using striping, if you write a 5GB file across 5 drives, 1GB of data is written to each drive. Parallel reading of data from multiple disks can have a significant positive impact on performance, because the physical disk drive is most often the performance bottleneck. Striping is used in RAID Level 0.


If one drive in a striped set fails, all of the data in the stripe set is lost. The data must be restored from backup. Because of this, striping is often combined with the use of parity (RAID 5) or mirroring (RAID 0+1).

Performance Problems Cause by Striping
Striping, when combined with parity, can have a negative performance impact on write operations. This is because some of the data used to calculate parity may be stored on the disk already. This means that the process to write to the array is: 1. 2. 3. 4. Read the existing data Calculate the parity Write the new parity Write the new data

RAID 1 -- Optimized for Redundancy RAID 1 uses mirroring to write data to multiple drives. This means that when you write a file, the file is actually written to two disks. If one of the disks fails, you simply replace it and rebuild the mirror. The tradeoff with RAID 1 is cost. With RAID 1, you must purchase double the amount of storage space that your data requires.

What is mirroring?
Mirroring is the automated process of writing data to two drives simulteneously. Mirroring is used to provide redundancy. If one drive fails, the redundant drive will continue to store the data and provide access to it. The failed drive can then be replaced and the drive set can be re-mirrored. Mirroring is used in RAID Level 1.

Software Mirroring vs. Hardware Mirroring
Disk mirroring can be implemented entirely in software. Software mirroring can be less expensive, but it is also slower. Software mirroring requires the host computer to write the mirrored data twice. Disk mirroring can be implemented in hardware on the host I/O controller. The burden of writing each bit of data twice is placed upon the I/O controller, which is specifically designed for it. Disk mirroring can also be implemented in hardware on an external storage device, such as a RAID array. In this case, mirroring is completely removed from the hosts responsibility.


Hot Swappable Hardware
If the hardware is hot swappable, it is possible to replace a failed disk without powering off the computer. You take out the old drive and put in the new drive with no service outage. If the hardware does not support hot-swap, you must schedule a service outage, shut down and power-off the system, and then replace the drive.

Mirroring vs. Duplexing
Mirroring is the technique of using redundant disks. Duplexing is mirroring, with the addition of redundant host I/O controllers. If you are using mirroring and your host I/O controller fails, you will not be able to access your data until you replace the host I/O controller. With duplexing, your data will still be available through the redundant controller. RAID 5 -- A Good Compromise RAID 5 stripes data across multiple disks. RAID 5, however, adds a parity check bit to the data. This slightly reduces available disk capacity, but it also means that the RAID array continues to function if a single disk fails. In the event of a disk failure, you simply replace the failed disk and keep going. The tradeoffs with RAID 5 are a small performance penalty in write operations and a slight decrease in usabable storage space. RAID 0+1 -- Optimize for Performance and Redundancy RAID 0+1 combines the performance of RAID 0 with the redundancy of RAID 1. To build a RAID 0+1 array, you first build a set of RAID 1 mirrored disks and you then combine these disk sets in a RAID 0 striped array. A RAID 0+1 array can survive the loss of one disk from each mirrored pair. RAID 0+1 cannot survive the loss of two disks in the same mirrored pair.

What is ATA?
ATA (AT Attachment) is the primary standard for connecting storage to PC's. ATA replaced earlier technologies such as MFM, RLL, and ESDI. ATA currently competes with SCSI. ATA is a specification for attaching hard drives to the AT bus. The AT specification has been extended to include other storage, such as CD/DVD drives, tape drives, and Zip drives with the Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI) additions to the specification. ATA is also known as IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics).


Parallel ATA Cables
Parallel ATA cables originally had 40 wires. With the introduction of ATA-5, parallel ATA cables with 80 wires became standard. Only 40 wires are used to carry signals. The additional 40 wires exist to provide a ground wire for each signal wire. These grounding wires enable the ATA subsystem to operate at higher speeds with greater reliability.

ATA Masters and Slaves
Each ATA bus supports two storage devices. The first storage device is called the Master and the second storage device is termed the Slave. There are two methods for configuring which device is the master and which is the slave: drive jumpers and cable select. Drive Jumpers The original method for configuring Master and Slave relationships on ATA drives was to place or remove jumpers on each storage device. The jumper definitions differ among drive manufacturers and models. The jumper setting are often printed on the drive. If not, read the drive manual or visit the drive manufacturers web page. In a single drive configuration, some drives should be set to "Single Drive", while other drives should be set to "Master". In a dual drive configuration, one drive should be set to Master and the other drive should be set to Slave. Cable Select


A newer standard for configuring Master/Slave relationships on ATA drives is to allow the position of the drives on the drive cable to determine the ordering. For Cable Select to work, both of the drives and the ATA cable must support cable select. To use Cable Select, the jumpers on both drives should be set to Cable Select.

Parallel ATA vs. Serial ATA
All versions of ATA up until ATA-7 in 2004 utilized parallel transfer of data from the motherboard to the drive controller built onto the disk. The ATA-7 specification introduced Serial ATA. The most obvious change with Serial ATA is the difference in drive cables. Other differences include:
• • • •

Higher throughput Revised power connector Longer data cables Support for external drives (eSata)

What is ATAPI?
ATAPI stands for AT Attachment Packet Interface. ATAPI is a set of extensions to the ATA standards to allow ATA CD/DVD drives and tape drives.


Systems which are El Torito compatible are able to boot from ATAPI CDROM drives. Booting from an ATAPI Device Phoenix Technologies and IBM developed the El Torito Bootable CD-ROM Format Specification. Serial ATA Standards The original Serial ATA standard offered miniminal improvement over the existing 133MBps bandwidth of the existing Parallel ATA standard. visit the web page of the company which manufactured your CD-ROM drive to try to find an ATAPI driver. If you are running DOS. The ATA-7 specification introduced Serial ATA. Serial ATA standards are constantly evolving to meet higher bandwidth requirements.0Gbps 6. Early ATAPI CD-ROM drives required specialized drivers for use under DOS. you do not need to download and install an ATAPI driver if you are using one of those operating systems.5Gbps 3. ATAPI Drivers Microsoft Windows and most PC-based Unixes provide a generic driver for all ATAPI based CD-ROM devices.The ATAPI standard was originally defined by the Small Form Factor committee. Because of this. All versions of ATA up until ATA-7 in 2004 utilized parallel transfer of data from the motherboard to the drive controller built onto the disk. Serial ATA Type Bandwith Bus Speed Signal Rate SATA-150 SATA-300 SATA-600 150MBps 300MBps 600MBps 1500MHz 3000MHz 6000MHz 1.0Gbps Serial ATA Data Cables 6 . What is Serial ATA? Serial ATA is an enhancement to the ATA standard for for connecting storage to PC's. Maintenance of the ATAPI standard was later transferred to the T13 Technical Committee. The ATAPI standard ceased to exist as a separate document when it became part of the core ATA standard with the publication of ATA-4 in 1998. the group that defines the ATA standard.

5. eSATA (External SATA) allows the use of shielded cables up to 2 meters in length for external drives. 5. or 12 volts to ATA devices.Higher bandwidth requirements were pushing requirements for shorter Parallel ATA data cables.3. 7 . Serial ATA Power Cables The serial ATA power cable uses a 15-pin wafer connector to provide 3. Serial ATA reversed this trend by allowing data cables up to 1 meter in length. Serial ATA Power Cables The serial ATA power cable uses a 15-pin wafer connector to provide 3. or 12 volts to ATA devices.3.

eSATA 3G doubles that to 300MBps. What is SCSI? 8 . eSATA drives are hot-pluggable. eSATA cables can be up to 2 meters (approximately 6 feet) in length. eSATA can provide data transfer rates significantly faster than USB or FireWire. meaning that you can attach or remove an eSATA hard drive from a system without powering down the system or the drive. eSATA 1.What is eSATA? eSATA is an extension to Serial ATA standards to enable SATA drives to be attached externally. Before eSATA. external hard drives were connected via USB or FireWire.5 offers data rates up to 150MBps.

iSCSI is the transmission of SCSI commands and data over IP networks.8-bit Ultra SCSI-3. The vast majority of SCSI devices are data storage devices. A single IDE controller can control two drives.SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) is a set of ANSI standards for connecting devices to computer systems. or internet Small Computer Systems Interface. In addition. Narrow SCSI is parallel SCSI which transmits 8 bits of data at a time.5 1. What is iSCSI? iSCSI stands for internet SCSI.16-bit Ultra-2 SCSI Wide Ultra-2 SCSI Ultra-3 (Ultra160/m) SCSI 6 6 3 3 3 1. SCSI is generally considered a higher-end alternative to IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics). including FireWire and Fibre Channel. Wide SCSI is parallel SCI which transmits 16 bits of data at a time. How iSCSI Works 9 .5 12 12 12 Cable Length 5 5-10 10-20 20 20 20 40 40 80 160 Speed (MBps) 8 8 or 16 8 16 16 8 16 8 16 16 Devices Supported Narrow and Wide SCSI Many SCSI standards have options for Narrow or Wide operation. A single SCI controller can control 8 or 16 drives. but many serial SCSI variants exist. Standard SCSI is a parallel technology. SCSI usually offers greater cable length and higher length than IDE. SCSI Standards SCSI Standard SCSI-1 SCSI-2 Fast SCSI-2 Wide SCSI-2 Fast Wide SCSI-2 Ultra SCSI-3.

10 . the SCSI read command is encapsulated inside an IP packet. the encapsulation is stripped off and the SCSI read command is interpreted by the iSCSI drive.x was not fast enough to satisfy most users of external hard drives. eSATA is an extension of the Serial ATA standard which allows the use of external hard drives. The IP packet is then routed just like any other IP packet on the network. When the IP packet reaches its destination. Alternatives to iSCSI The main competitor to iSCSI is FCIP (Fibre Channel over IP). SCSI write commands are handled in the same manner. An external hard drive using an eSATA connection will not suffer a performance penalty imposed by encapsulating the ATA data inside the USB or FireWire protocols. is a popular interface for Macintosh external hard drives. What is an external hard drive? An external hard drive is any hard drive which attaches to a port on the outside of a computer case. eSATA eSATA is the newest standard for external hard drives.0 provides slightly better performance than FireWire in most applications. USB 1. FCIP is an implementation of IP on Fibre Channel hardware. FireWire FireWire. including external hard drives. almost known as IEEE 1394. USB USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a standard for connecting a wide range of devices. and became somewhat popular on PC's before USB 2. External Hard Drive Interfaces External hard drives can be connected using several popular interfaces.0 was standardized. and Sony PlayStations. USB 2. PDA's.When an application attempts to read from an iSCSI device. One external hard drive may support two or more of these interfaces. iSCSI and FCIP represent almost opposite approaches to the situation. whereas iSCSI is an implementation of SCSI on IP hardware. because the eSATA external hard drive uses the same communications protocol as the internal hard drives. External hard drives are extremely useful for backing up computers and for moving data between computers.

Early PC hard drives were supported by the PC BIOS using Cylinder/Head/Sector addressing. disk may be a hard drive.Ethernet A few external hard drives offer Ethernet connections. If you believe this has happened to one or more of your disk. it will print one of these error messages: • • • • Invalid partition table Error loading operating system Missing operating system The MBR and Boot Sector Viruses Some boot sector viruses overwrite the MBR. and its sector number. you specified the sector in terms of its cylinder number. or even a CD or DVD The Task of the MBR The normal job of the MBR program is to search the partition table for the active partition. What is LBA? LBA is Logical Block Addressing. 11 . What is the MBR? The MBR The MBR The MBR The boot drive. and transfer control over to that program. the first sector on the disk is sector zero and all sectors on the disk are simply incremented from there. its head number. is stored in the first sector of the boot disk. To read or write from a specific sector on the disk. These external hard drives are actually low-end network attached storage devices. LBA adressing uses just one number. These drives include intelligent electronics to enable them to act like file servers. is a small program which runs whenever a computer boots up. is the Master Boot Record. copy the boot sector from the active partition into memory. a floppy drive. run an antivirus tool to clean your disks. In LBA addressing. If the MBR cannot accomplish this task successfully.

NAND drives do not make any noise while functioning. These features make NAND drives an ideal choice for high capacity storage and manipulation of changing data. However. along with it's associated problems. be certain to completely back up all of your data. The `FIXMBR` command replicates the functionality of the `FDISK /MBR` command. NAND drives are superior to NOR flash memory. thus creating a product that is not only useful. NOR flash memory is considered to be ideal for applications that require less memory and perform most of the work on unchanging code (for example. it was possible to use the `FDISK /MBR` command to repair the MBR. PDAs. FIXMBR Microsoft Windows 2000/XP/2003 provide the `FIXMBR` command in the Recovery Console. NAND drives also have several noted advantages when compared with more traditional hard drives. NAND drives have several noteworthy advantages. 12 .FDISK /MBR Under DOS and early versions of Microsoft Windows. Unfortunately. cell phones. Finally. these drives have been chosen to become the latest drive preference for laptop computers (hopefully in the near future). unlike the typical flash memory that must wipe out memory blocks before writing to them. NAND drives function much faster than traditional hard drives. NAND drives also boast a longer lifespan of more erase cycles. NOR flash memory is most widely used in devices in which small programs are executed in place rather than written to Random Access Memory (RAM). FDISK has been removed Windows XP. which is essential for laptop users. This allows NAND drives to write data into the disk at a greater speed. and similar devices function with the help of NOR flash memory. What is a NAND Drive? NAND drives are high-capacity. Similar to USB flash drives. Secondly. high-speed. The term "NAND" refers to the architecture of the chip which differs it from NOR (NOT OR) flash memory. Solid-state refers to the fact that NAND drives do not have any moving parts that can break down. The solid-state nature of the drive is one of the core advantages. boot directions or operating systems). The chip is designed to allow more memory to be included into the same size space. for changing data. Before attempting to repair your MBR. FDISK was not terribly intelligent about the repair and this option would often cause more damage than it fixed. solid-state flash memory drives. NAND drives consume less power. Thanks to new advances in technology. When comparing the NAND to other types of flash memory. but also very efficient.

Compact Flash cards are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with Compact Flash slots. Compact Flash Type I cards are 43mm long. Memory Stick Duo.0 is 16MB/sec. and 2. A Memory Stick is 50mm long. The Memory Stick standard was introduced by Sony in October of 1998. serial cards. Compact Flash Plus (CF+) Compact Flash Plus (CF+) extends Compact Flash to provide functionality such as micro hard drives.11 Wi-Fi cards. The theoretical transfer speed of Compact Flash 2. 36mm wide. Current Memory Stick capacities range up to 512MB.5mm wide. This makes Compact Flash the most versatile of the flash media formats. Compact Flash Type II cards are 43mm long. An even more compact format. 13 . What is Compact Flash? A Compact Flash card is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure. Current Compact Flash capacities range up to 4GB.3mm thick. Bluetooth cards. Ethernet cards. 21. 802.8mm thick.6mm thick. modems. The Compact Flash standard was introduced by SanDisk Corporation in 1994. and 3. 36mm wide.What is a Memory Stick? A Memory Stick is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure. is 32mm long. Memory Sticks are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with Memory Stick slots. 20mm wide. and 5mm thick. and more. The theoretical transfer speed of Memory Stick is 160Mbps. and 1.

the miniSD Card. 14 . The SD Card standard was introduced by Toshiba.0 Card is 12. and 2. Current SD Card capacities range up to 1GB. modems. digital recorders.4mm thick. An even more compact format. scanners. GPS receivers.5mm wide. and 1.1mm thick.5MB/s. Bluetooth cards.11b WiFi cards. fingerprint scanners and more. 24mm wide. SD Cards are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with SD Card slots. 21. Matsushita Electric. TV tuners.What is a SD Card? A SD Card (Secure Digital Card) is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure. A SD Card is 32mm long. cameras. SDIO SDIO extends the SD Card standard to include 802. SD 1.1 is expected to raise this to 50MB/s. and SanDisk in 1999. is 20mm long. The theoretical transfer speed of a SD 1.

What is Blu-Ray? 15 .65nm pickup aperture. HD-DVD uses a 405nm wavelength blue-violet laser and an 0. Microsoft Video Codec 1.6mm protective surface layer. The HD-DVD standard supports the following codec's: MPEG-2.4mm thick. What is HD-DVD? HD-DVD is an optical sotrage format developed by Toshiba and Hitachi. Single-layer HD-DVD disks currently store 15GB of data. volume identifiers and Advanced Access Content System (AACS). MultiMediaCard (MMC)s are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with MultiMediaCard (MMC) slots.264 / MPEG-4 AVC. HD-DVD's are coated with a 0. For security. which dual-layer HD-DVD disks are able to store 30GB of data. Current MultiMediaCard (MMC) capacities range up to 2GB. which is the same thickness used in DVD's. The MultiMediaCard (MMC) standard was introduced in November of 1997 by SanDisk and Siemens AG/Infeneon Technologies AG. A MultiMediaCard (MMC) is 32mm long. and 1. HD-DVD supports mandatory HDCP encrypted output. MultiMediaCards can be used in SD Card readers and writers. H.5MB/s.What is a MultiMediaCard (MMC)? A MultiMediaCard (MMC) is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure. The theoretical transfer speed of a MultiMediaCard is 2. 24mm wide.

Obviously the major benefit of Blu-ray DVD's is that it is able to hold more data on one disc. These two types of DVD's are fighting to see who will be the new form of media for the years to come. early types of Blu-ray discs would be contaminated by slight scratches. The disadvantages to Blu-ray discs are that they are quite expensive. both Blu-ray and HD. Blu-ray is looking to make inroads into the consumer electronics market with the Blu-ray DVD player with its Sony PlayStation. Bluray gets its name from the type of laser it uses to read and write data from and to the disc. Because Blu-ray has been developed in part with Sony. neither media type has made enough inroads to garner a champion.7 gigabytes. As of yet. The Sony PlayStation will include a basic Blu-ray DVD player which might spur sales of media and make it the de facto standard. a blue-violet laser has a shorter wavelength than the normal red lasers used today. Blu-Ray was created to store large amounts of high definition video and sound. A HD DVD. the more data can be read to give a clearer picture with more color and vividness. a new coating has been developed that makes Blu-ray discs extremely difficult to scratch. Sony has included DRM or digital rights management that will make it more difficult for people to place shift and time shift their content. For instance. One of the benefits of Blu-ray technology is that because data is so close together. players are selling at about the $1.4 total gigabytes of data. holds about 25 gigabytes of data and there are reports that test media can hold up to 200 gigabytes of data. You can also purchase dual layer DVD's that holds about 9. the color of the laser is a hue of blue-violet. which is a new DVD technology that also uses blue lasers. Due to the extreme density of these optical discs the data needs to be smaller to fit onto the disc. The Blu-ray DVD can usually hold about 50 gigabytes of data and there are also claims that test media can hold up to 200 gigabytes of data. However. most people are sitting on the sidelines to see who the winner is. A standard DVD holds about 4.000 mark and DVD discs will be more expensive than their standard DVD counterparts.Blu-Ray is an optical storage format developed by Sony and Phillips. therefore allowing high definition audio and video. There is currently a market war taking place against both HD DVD's and Blu-ray DVD's. The more data you have. Another disadvantage is that since there are two standards. Blu-Ray Technology 16 . How does Blu-ray stack up against other types of discs? Well a normal CD holds about 700 to 800 megabytes of data.

The role of the blue-green laser is to read the data encoded in the form of laser interference fringes from the holographic layer on the top. when produced in full scale. letting only the red laser pass through it to reach the servo information. HD DVD and Blu-Ray optical disk systems offer a storage capacity of 75 and 90 GB respectively. one blue-green and one red. BD+ dynamic cryptology. but neither comes anywhere near the massive storage capacity of HVD. This would. HVD Technology HVD uses a technology called 'collinear holography.85nm pickup aperture.Blu-Ray uses a 405nm wavelength blue-violet laser and an 0. ROMMark watermarking. without a doubt. For security.6GB of data. What is HVD? HVD (Holographic Versatile Disc) is the next generation in optical disk technology. are collimated into a single beam.9 terabytes (39. become a giant step in revolutionizing the disk storage industry. Microsoft Video Codec 1. it actually eliminates the possible chances of the interference that can happen due to the refraction of blue-green laser off the servo data pits. By doing so.' in which two laser rays. which dual-layer Blu-Ray disks are able to store 46. This inference is a direct reference to the enormous storage capacity HVDs offer compared to HD DVD and Blu-Ray optical disk systems. head and sector information on a normal hard disk drive). HVDs will have a storage capacity of 3. Some industry experts call HVDs a next-next generation technology. How do the laser beams selectively pass through the layers? A layer of dichroic mirrors that exists between the holographic and servo data layer reflects back the blue-green laser beam. Single-layer Blu-Ray disks currently store 23.264 / MPEG-4 AVC. a problem that had affected the efficiency of many holographic storage media in the past. The Blu-Ray standard supports the following codec's: MPEG-2. 17 . According to published statistics. H.1mm protective surface layer. both of which are yet to replace DVDs for mass optical storage.like in normal CDs . Blu-Ray disks are coated with a 0. which is at least six times more than the speed of DVD players. The servo info is meant to monitor the coordinates of the read head above the disk (this is similar to the track. HVD is still in a research phase that would phenomenally increase the disk storage capacities over the currently existing HD DVD and Blu-Ray optical disk systems. Blu-Ray supports mandatory HDCP encrypted output. and the Advanced Access Content System (AACS).3GB of data.000 GB) and a data transfer rate of 1 GB/s.near the bottom of the disk. while the red laser serves the purpose of a reference beam and also to read the servo info from the aluminum layer .

Other players exist. • HVD Adoption The biggest challenge for HVD will be in establishing itself in the commercial market. and the reader will be priced anywhere in the range of $10. which as of now seems to be a distant dream.like the ones shown in Google Earth . may cost anywhere between $100-120 (by 2006 year's end). HVDs manage to store 60. assuming that every book has been scanned in the text format.600-11. HVD Capacity The entire US Library of Congress can be stored on six HVDs. • With MPEG4 ASP encoding. It is anticipated that a single HVD. Competing Technologies In addition to HDV.900 hours of video.000 to $15. given its higher cost margins. when commercially available. that has a diameter of 500 micrometers at the top and 200 micrometers at the bottom.000 bits per pulse in the same place. which is enough for non-stop playing for a year. such as those made by Hitachi Maxell Ltd and InPhase Technologies. such as a standard CD (Compact Disc).9 TB HVD can hold anywhere between 4. the price will soon fall as R&DD costs are recouped and competitions lowers profit margins.9 TB mark by inserting a larger number of cones on each track. while similar a 300 GB disks with a data transfer rate of 20 Mbit/s is in the pipeline for Hitachi Maxell Ltd.can be stored on two HVDs. save one bit per pulse. The Library of Congress is the largest in the world and contains over 130 million items.6TB and a data transfer rate of 120 MB/s is one such device. in a truncated cone shape. a 3. How do I Install a Hard Drive? 18 .Optical Storage Most optical storage devices. However.a holographic format patented by InPhase Technologies . • The pictures of every landmass on Earth . other proprietary standards are making advances optical disk technology. Tapestry Media .000. The HVD Alliance is trying to improve the storage capacity further to touch its dream 3. like anything else associated with technology.having a storage capacity of 1.

• If another hard drive is present. • Power on the computer. and "ground" yourself to prevent electrical shock. remove it from the frame. in effect maaking one physical hard disk into several smaller logical hard disks. the computer should auto-recognize the new hard drive. While removing them. • If it is installed correctly. wait fifteen seconds. and remove any cables or wires attached to it. Most operating systems allow users to divide a hard disk into multiple partitions. Continue by unplugging the computer completely from its power source. • Remove the computers cover and place it gently to the side. this is a simple process that can be done at home.If you would like to replace your old hard drive with an upgraded drive. The main cables will be a data cable and a power cable. set your jumpers by determining which drive is the "master" and "slave" for an older drive. and screw the new hard drive into place. • Locate the screws used to anchor the hard drive to the frame of the computer case. Steps To install A Hard Drive • • Shut down the computer. • Locate the computer's old hard drive in the drive bay. On Microsoft Windows machines. • Replace the computers cover. be sure to document where they attach in order to reattach them. Reasons to Use Hard Disk Partitions A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions in order to organize his data more effectively. • Reattach the data cable and power cable which were attached to the originalhard drive. Most new hard drives will come with installation instructions to make the task easier for you. it is common to store the OS and applications on one hard disk partition and user data on another hard disk partition. • Plug all cables back into the computer. • After the old hard drive has been unscrewed. When a problem occurs with 19 . The setting can remain as "single" or "master" when one drive is installed. and unplug all accessories attached to it. What is a hard disk partition? A hard disk partition is a defined storage space on a hard drive. • Remove the screws holding the computer's cover in place.

20 . Many ooperating systems also have graphical tools which accomplish the same task. You store file systems in hard disk partitions and then you store data in these file systems. The four standard partitions are often called the primary partitions. Partitions configured into an extended partition are often referred to as logical partitions. To work around this limitation. The Partition Table Partition information is stored in the partition table. This is a useful strategy if you are storing a large number of small files. a reserved area at the beginning of a hard disk. At one time this meant that a hard disk could have a maximum of four partitions. that file might only require 4KB to store. A cluster size is the smallest chunk of data which a partition can store. A large partition might have a cluster size of 16KB. Some operating systems blur the lines between partitions and filesystems. Creating Hard Disk Partitions Most operating system use the `fdisk` command to create hard disk partitions. Hard Disk Partitions and File Systems You don't actually store data in hard disk partitions. extended partitions were created. In a smaller partition. This mens that a file with one character in it will occupy 16KB of space on the disk. the OS partition can be completely formatted and reinstalled without affecting the data partition.Microsoft Windows. A user may have to split a large hard disk into multiple partitions if the hard disk is larger than the partition size supported by the operating system. you can create many more than four partitions on your hard disk. An extended partition stores information about other partitions. A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions because smaller partitions often have smaller cluster sizes. Extended Partitions A standard partition table is only able to store information about four partitions. By using an extended partition.

GNU HURD Novell Netware 286 Novell Netware 386 PIC/IX MINIX until 1. Partition Number 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0a 0b 0c 0e 0f 35 39 40 51 52 63 64 65 75 80 81 82 83 85 93 Empty DOS 12-bit FAT XENIX root XENIX usr DOS 16-bit FAT <=32M DOS Extended Partition DOS 16-bit FAT >=32 OS/2 HPFS.Partition Types When a partition is created. operating systems tend to agree on the meaning of these values. a special byte of data is written to record what type of partition it is. Linux swap Linux native Linux extended Amoeba Partition Type 21 . Because one hard disk may be shared by multiple operating systems. The table below lists some of the partition types in use. Mach. Linux Solaris X86. WinNT NTFS AIX AIX bootable OS/2 Boot Manager Win95 FAT32 Win95 FAT32 (LBA) Win95 FAT16 (LBA) Win95 Extended (LBA) OS/2 JFS Plan 9 Venix 80286 Novell Microport Unix System V.4a MINUX.

FAT32. you have no one to blame but yourself. the MBR (Master Boot Record). This is especially useful when saving hard drive partitions to CD's or DVD's. Partition Saving can copy a partition to a file. Partition Saving is intelligent enough to copy only occupied sectors to the file. Always backup your hard drive completely before using any free partition software. FAT16. Partition Saving is also able to compress data in the partition and split it into several files.94 a5 a6 a7 b7 b8 be bf c7 db e1 e3 eb fb fc f2 ff Amoeba BBT FreeBSD. NTFS or ext2. If you lose data. Free Partition Software Partition Saving Partition Saving is an MS-DOS based partition backup and recovery program. 386BSD OpenBSD NEXTSTEP BSDI BSD/386 filesystem BSDI BSD/386 swap Solaris 8 bootable Solaris x86 Syrinx CP/M DOS access DOS R/O BeOS BFS VMWare filesystem VMWare swap DOS secondary Xenix Bad Block Table What is free partition software? A wide range of free partition software is available. Partition Image 22 . if the partition is FAT12. or the boot sector. Be very careful when using any software application which writes to the partition table. BSD/386. NetBSD.

Partition Image supports ext2fs/ext3fs.) and basic ones (editors. The image file can be compressed to save disk space. Windows 98/XP.. midnight commander. XFDisk and the boot manager support more than one hard disk and even booting from logical drives. so you can fully use the four available primary partitions per hard disk. ReiserFS. If you choose to have an extended partition with logical drives on your hard disk. such as creating and editing the partitions of the hard disk. such as FreeBSD. eXtended FDisk eXtended FDisk. It aims to be very easy to use: just boot from the CD-ROM. VFAT. XFS. copy. and split into multiple files to be copied on removable media. HPFS. It includes a command line interface and a simulation mode that works with large files so that you can safely experiment before working on the real hard drive partition tables. and FreeDOS on a single disk. TestDisk 23 . It gives users high level of control for running multiple operating systems. . SystemRescueCd SystemRescueCd is a Linux system on a bootable CD-ROM for repairing your system and your data after a crash. Partition Image will only copy data from the used portions of the partition. free blocks are not written to the image file. With XFDisk you can partition your hard disk or install and configure the boot manager. and resize primary and extended partitions. network tools).. The kernel of the system supports ext2/ext3. XFDisk transparently manages the extended partition for you. ISO9660. The boot manager will not occupy a partition. Linux. is a free DOS FDISK replacement that offers more comfort and comes with a boot manager that allows you to have more than one operating system installed on your hard disk. JFS and XFS. NTFS. SystemRescueCd also aims to provide an easy way to carry out administrative tasks on your computer. SystemRescueCd contains a lot of system utilities (parted. partimage. JFS. fstools. Partition Manager can create. Samba and NFS. FAT16/32. Ranish Partition Manager Ranish Partition Manager is a powerful hard disk partitioning tool. which will be located in the first 17 sectors of your first hard disk.Partition Image is a Linux/Unix utility which saves partitions to an image file. or short XFDisk. ReiserFS. and you can do everything. For speed and efficiency.

Windows NT 4/2000/XP/2003. ext3. FAT16. GNU Parted GNU Parted is a program for creating. and the file systems on them. copying data between hard drives and drive imaging. • Is designed for both occasional use as well as large scale automated operating system roll-outs and cloning projects. reorganizing disk usage. destroying. This is useful for creating space for new operating systems. Free FDISK features include: Supports hard disks up to 128GB in size. OpenBSD. Linux Swap. Free FDISK Free FDISK is the replacement FDISK which is available in FreeDOS. NTFS. quickly and fuss-free.) XFS. and Sun Solaris. HFS and HFS+. GNU Parted supports operations on ext2.. IBM's Journaled File System Linux Ext2 and Ext3 Linux Raid Linux Swap (versions 1 and 2) LVM and LVM2.TestDisk is a tool to check and undelete partitions. FreeBSD. Command-line support is compatible with Microsoft's undocumented FDISK commands. • • • 24 . Hierarchical File System JFS. • Can be customized with an easy to use configuration file. • Comes with BootEasy. • Has extended command-line support to give you complete control over hard disk configuration from batch files. JFS. Linux Logical Volume Manager Netware NSS NTFS ( Windows NT/2K/XP/2003 ) ReiserFS 3. SGI's Journaled File System TestDisk runs under DOS/Win9x. FAT16 and FAT32 HFS.. resizing. The Partition Resizer Partition Resizer is a small DOS executable which can re-arrange your partitions safely. All operations are not supported across all file systems. ReiserFS. NetBSD.5 and 3. checking and copying partitions. UFS. and XFS.6 UFS (Sun/BSD/. Linux . Has the "standard" fdisk user interface.. TestDisk works with the following partition types: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • BeFS ( BeOS ) BSD disklabel ( FreeBSD/OpenBSD/NetBSD ) CramFS (Compressed File System) DOS/Windows FAT12. FAT32. a compact multi-boot loader.

but it can be marked as unusable. Floppy disk drives contain only one platter. but they can be marked as unusable. Once marked as unusable. MBRWork MBRWork is a utility to perform some common and uncommon tasks to the MBR/EMBR/Sectors of a hard drive. back the hard drive up immediately. When this happens. In addition. a small number of sectors will normally go bad during the lifespan of a drive. The storage capacity of the disk will be decreased by the amount of storage space in the bad sector. It is very normal for some of these sectors to be bad sectors. the Operating System will know not to attempt to 25 . If your hard drive develops a bad sector. Once marked as unusable. Hard drives usually have several platters.• • Allows the use of boot loaders from other operating systems. A 1. A bad sector cannot be repaired. the data in those sectors may be lost. The platters are the discs which are covered with magnetic material which is used to hold data. Those bad sectors can not be repaired. even when the drive is first manufactured. If the bad sector was caused by a faulty drive head. When this happens. How do I repair a bad sector? Occasionally one or more sectors on an otherwise good hard drive will go bad. What is a Bad Sector? Hard drives are contain millions of sectors. the Operating System will know not to attempt to store data in that bad sector. but the data on the rest of the disk will be unaffected and the disk is still completely usable. but the data on the rest of the disk will be unaffected and the disk is still completely usable. Each of these tracks is divided into smaller storage areas called sectors. What is a bad sector? What is a Sector? A sector is a small area on the surface of a hard drive or a floppy disk. Free FDISK is Open Source and licensed under the GNU GPL. MBRWork is a tool for power users who understand how computers work. Platters are divided into a set of concentric rings called tracks. the problem can quickly spread to other sectors on the disk.44MB floppy disk has 160 tracks. the data in those sectors may be lost. Hard drives have thousands of tracks. A sector is the smallest storage area on a disk.

.. If the bad sector was caused by a faulty drive head. Under Hard Disk Drives highlight the disk which you want to Open the <File> menu and choose <Properties> Open the <Tools> tab. this functionality was built into the `scandisk` and `chkdsk` utilities. Select <My Computer>. The total disk capacity will be decreased by the amount of storage space in those bad sectors.. Once the bad sector or sectors have been "repaired". Hard drives are mechanical devices and all mechanical devices will eventually fail. Where is Scan Disk in Win XP? Scan Disk has been removed from Windows 2000 and Win XP. In earlier version of Microsoft Windows and DOS. The functionality previously found in Scan Disk has been built into Explorer.. Common hard drive problems include: • • • • User errors Software errors Hard drive electronics failures Hard drive arm failures 26 . back it up immediately. Click the <Check Now. Select <My Computer>.store data in those bad sectors. Under Hard Disk Drives highlight the disk which you want to Open the <File> menu and choose <Properties> Open the <Tools> tab. scan. Click the <Check Now. the problem can spread to many other sectors across the disk. like all mechanical devices. continue to back up your hard drive on a regular basis.> button How does hard drive recovery work? Hard drives. How to "Repair" a Bad Sector in Windows XP • • • • • • Press the <Start> button. If your hard drive is experiencing a bad sector. eventually break down. Press the <Start> button.> button. How to Scan Disk in Win XP • • • • • • scan.

if the hard drive is subject to a power surge or a discharge of static electricity. In these cases. Sometimes bad spots will develop during the life of the hard drive. Hard Drive Electronics Failures When a hard drive physically fails. The hard drive will mark that spot bad and attempt to move the data to a good spot on the hard drive. This can happen. There will always be some bad spots on the platter surface. a data recovery specialist may still be able to recover data from a hard drive with a damaged hard drive arm. When you hear the clicking noises from your hard drive which signal a hard drive arm failure. there is a very good chance that it will damage the hard drive platters. back up all necessary data immediately and power the system down as soon as possible. Hard Drive Platter Failures No drive platter is manufactured perfectly. Modern hard drives automatically mark those bad spots as unusable and do not store data there. Errors cause by software are generally much more difficult for off-the-shelf data recovery software to correct. This task may require the services of a data recovery specialist. for example. Hard Drive Arm Failures Hard drive arm failures are very common. If the hard drive platters have not been damaged. This may.• Hard drive platter failures User Errors User errors include accidentally deleting or overwriting files and accidentally formatting a or deleting a partition. 27 . result in the loss of some data. sometimes the mechanical parts of the hard drive remain undamaged. When the hard drive arm fails. This should be done in a clean-room environment. to prevent dust from damaging the hard drive. it is usually possible to take the mechanical parts out of the hard drive assembly and place them into another identical hard drive unit. User errors can sometimes be resolved through the use of off-the-shelf data recovery software. Software Errors Software errors usually result from software writing data to the wrong part of the disk. or may not.

If you have unintentionally deleted or formatted pictures. XP and Windows 2000 systems. Always install and run free data recovery software from a separate drive. Sony Memory Stick. Don't put yourself at risk by not properly backing up your data. no matter . • PC Inspector Smart Recovery PC Inspector Smart Recovery is a data recovery program for Flash Card.0. Free Data Recovery Software PC Inspector File Recovery PC Inspector File Recovery is a data recovery program that supports the FAT 12/16/32 and NTFS file systems.Serious hard drive platter failures can occur as a result of hard drive arm failures. Smart Media. the hard drive platters are being scratched. IBM Micro Drive. Finds partitions automatically. such as an external hard disk or flash drive. In these cases. 28 . Your data is being scratched right off the surface of the platters! You can often hear this damage occuring. ME. What is free data recovery software? Never install free data recovery software on the drive that you are attempting to recover data from. videos or sound files on your data carrier or have pulled it out during a write operation. Secure Digital Card or any other data carrier for digital cameras. The Solution to Hard Drive Recovery: Backup The best method of hard drive recovery is to throw away the failed hard drive and restore your data from backup to a brand new drive. even when the file header is no longer available. Backing up your data is a critically important preventative maintenance task. quickly and absolutely reliably reconstruct the lost data. even if the boot sector or FAT has been erased or damaged • Recovers files with the original time and date stamp • Supports the saving of recovered files on network drives • Recovers file contents. PC Inspector Smart Recovery runs on Windows 95/98. These failures are very expensive or impossible to recover. NT 4.PC Inspector Smart Recovery can easily. Multimedia Card.

Using this method most types of files can be made useable even if some parts were not recoverable in the end. to download and use a fully functional copy of the program. The program allows you to copy files from disks with problems such as bad sectors. It does not populate user's desktop with pop-up ads or forcefully subscribe user to mailing lists. it still holds the contents of the deleted file. You need the use your camera or the appropriate card reader you normally use to transfer images from camera to PC. Unstoppable Copier Unstoppable Copier recovers files from disks with physical damage. Memory Stick. Zero Assumption Digital Image Recovery Zero Assumption Digital Image Recovery is a freeware data recovery tool. Luckily. and system sectors. Verify the effectiveness of file and disk wiping programs. Display the true drive contents by bypassing the operating system and directly reading the raw drive sectors. There exists a vast variety of digital camera and associated media types on the market. Disk Investigator Disk Investigator helps you to discover all that is hidden on your computer hard disk. clusters. In case of accidental deletion of files on a NTFS file system (used by default in Windows XP. Undelete previously deleted files. scratches or that just give errors when reading data. specifically designed to work with digital images. unless the area has already been overwritten. It can also help you to recover lost data. so it is virtually impossible to test the program with each and every hardware combination. Compact Flash. files. Due to this fact it is possible to undelete files.g. It allows you to recover digital photos accidentally deleted from digital camera memory. View and search raw directories. It is our pleasure to emphasize that FreeUndelete is free. There is no charge. SmartMedia and so on) accessible by means of operating system. Whether your hard drive has locked up or has completely crashed 29 . 2000 and NT) FreeUndelete is the utility to help. The program does not install any spyware or adware along with it. How do I recover hard drive data? Hard drive data recovery is the process of recovering lost data from a hard drive when the data cannot be readily accessed through normal retrieval methods.FreeUndelete FreeUndelete is a freeware data recovery program for deleted files. Generally. This software will attempt to recover every readable piece of a file and put the pieces together. direct or hidden. program should work with any media type (e. A deleted file is essentially an area on disk designated as free and ready to accept data (such as contents of some other file).

The hard drive is a magnetic disc which spins and has an extended arm that collected data from any area of the hard drive. However. Physical Damage Most physical damage to a hard drive. adware. it indicates that there is no hard drive activity and is generally attributed to a mechanical problem. Reasons for Hard Drive Crashes Hard drive crashes occur for a variety of reasons. 30 . In this scenario a qualified computer technician may be needed to fix problematic hard drive issues. These types of hard drive crashes can generally be recovered by reinstalling the operating system. Viruses. The recovered raw bits from the damaged hard drive are used to construct a new disk image. the physical damage can also result in the damage of the logical structures of the file system which prevents file system structures from being completely written to the hard drive. Check whether the flashing light in front of your computer case is blinking or not. then the problem may be software related. If the hard drive has any physical damage. and the logical damage can be repaired. and Trojan horses can also cause system file corruption resulting in a hard drive crash. Determining the Actual Cause of a Hard Drive Crash To determine whether your hard drive has crashed due to mechanical failure or a software related problem is relatively simple. If the light is flashing but the computer is not booting up. cannot be repaired by typical computer users. you need to seek a technical expert to assist in recovery or choose a data recovery company to recover as much data as possible. Hard drive crashes can also be caused by corrupted registry files or system files. Spyware. One of the main causes for a full blown hard drive crash is generally attributed to a hardware issues. and in most cases the cause is either virus related or due to a corrupted system file. If the arm fails to function or the motor overheats or stops spinning. such as failed motors or head crashes. Physical damage of a hard drive often results in some data loss and in most cases you may not be able to recover all the lost data. then there is a chance your hard drive will crash rendering data seemingly inaccessible from all hard drive areas.there is a good chance the data can be recovered by using a variety of hard drive data recovering techniques. If the flashing light in the front of the computer case is not blinking. Most hard drive data recovery firms utilize the latest tools like magnetometers to retrieve the lost bits from the magnetic media.

and is virtually self maintaining. Most will automatically create backup copies of all your files and folders reducing the worry of potential data loss. A full backup takes longer to accomplish and requires the most storage space on the backup media. so if the data recovery software you selected has a trail offer. However. What is a full backup? A full backup is a backup of every file on a file system. it may be a good idea to give it a test drive before you make a purchase. The main contexts where hard drive data recovery software is found useful include: 1. Missing file or directory Formatted hard drive Deleted file or directory Unbootable hard drive Inaccessible hard drive Recovery of deleted files and folders on FAT and NTFS hard or partitions Data recovery on damaged FAT and NTFS partitions Damaged or corrupted partition table The majority of hard drive data recovery software programs currently available is easy to install. A full backup should be performed weekly or monthly on production systems. Most software companies understand the consumer's need to be assured of value and ease of use. but it also provides the quickest restore times. 31 . accidental format. 5. A good hard drive data recovery program can recover all the important files or folders which vanish after partition loss. 4. drive 7.The Role of Hard Drive Data Recovery Software Programs Hard drive data recovery software programs play a major role in recovering hard drive data. A full backup should also be performed before any major planned changes to a system. along with daily differential backups. The alternatives to a full backup are incremental backup and differential backup. You will find several companies that offer these types of programs. software malfunction or even a virus attack. 8. it's a good idea to purchase these programs from a trusted software supplier. file or directory deletion. data recovery software can locate the lost files and recover them from your hard drive. 3. user friendly. whether that file has changed or not. 6. 2. Whether you accidentally delete the files or your computer crashes.

A differential backup requires more time to restore than a full backup. but it is faster than a full backup. The alternatives to an incremental backup are differential backup and full backup. In contrast. For most environments. However. and Wednesday. An incremental backup is the fastest backup and requires the least storage space on the backup media. A differential backup requires more storage space than an incremental backup. Incremental backups should be used only in environments where backup time or backup storage media are extremely constrained. if you perform a full backup on Sunday and a differential every night. incremental backups also require the longest time and the most tapes to restore. If you perform a full backup on Sunday along with incremental backups every night and the system crashes on Thursday. What is a differential backup? A differential backup is a backup of every file on a file system which has changed since the last full backup. If you perform a full backup on Sunday and a differential every night. and the system crashes on Thursday. you will need to restore the full backup from Sunday along with the incremental backups from Monday. In contrast. 32 . but less than a full backup. A differential backup can be an optimal middle-ground between a full backup and an incremental backup. you will only need to restore the full backup from Sunday and the differential backup from Wednesday. Tuesday. and Wednesday. The alternatives to a differential backup are incremental backup and full backup.What is an incremental backup? A incremental backup is a backup of every file on a filesystem which has changed since the last backup. when the system crashes on Thursday. but not as much time to restore as an incremental backup. A differential backup should be performed daily on production systems. when the system crashes on Thursday you will only need to restore the full backup from Sunday and the differential backup from Wednesday. Tuesday. a weekly full backup and a daily differential backip represent a better plan. if you perform a full backup on Sunday and incremental backups every night. A differential backup is not as fast as an incremental backup. you will need to restore the full backup from Sunday along with the incremental backups from Monday.

Flash memory data durability is estimated to be roughly 10 years. Veritas NetBackup. Network Backup Software Free network backup software includes Amanda. Commercial network backup software includes HP OpenView Storage Data Protector. the amount of data to be backed up.What is network backup? Network backup is any backup system where the data to be backed up traverses the network to reach the backup media. Flash memory drives are easy to plug into any PC with a USB port. they normally utilize tape autochangers to give them greater storage capacity. also known as memory sticks. These drives offer unlimited rewrite capabilities and are available in capacities ranging anywhere from 64 MB to 4 GB. What are common computer backup methods? It is a well-known fact that most computers are susceptible to hard drive crashes or virus attacks. and EMC Legato Networker. are a suitable solution for data backup when the backup amount is somewhat small. flash drives. The backup server resides on a centralized server and the backup clients reside on every system to be backed up. Bacula. including: the importance of the data. Network backup typically requires a client-server software architecture. and the funds available for backup. Because network backup systems can backup so many computers. Advanced network backup systems can manage backup media which are also connected to the backup server via a network. Flash Memory Flash memory. There are several realistic methods for backing up data. and BackupPC. or thumb drives. Another advantage of flash memory is that data stored on flash drives is not susceptible to damage caused by magnets. The best backup method for your data depends opon many factors. Here are some of the most commonly used data backup solutions. Backing up information is a practical and necessary precaution to protect one's data from being lost forever. 33 . Network backup systems are much more scalable and manageable than local backup systems where tape drives are attached to each comouter ystem.

Copying and retrieving data from separate hard drives is very easy. Single-layer DVDs can hold up to 4. and AIT. DVD+RW. DVD technology is a suitable option for storing backup data medium amounts of backup data. DVD-RAM. One drawback to keep in mind. of course backup data also. Onlien storage solutions enable people to upload their data to a reliable server located in a secure environment.5 GB. which is comparatively low. individuals and businesses are turning to hard drives as a backup option. and the DVDR. Another advantage of storing files online is that users can access these files from any location as long as they have a computer with Internet access. Online Storage Online storage is one of the newest methods of storing your files. tape backup is still the primary backup method used in business environments. Tape backups are available in numerous capacities such as 4mm helical for low-end systems. What is DLT? 34 . DVD technologies include DVD-RW. However. DLT and LTO for high-end systems. Compared to several other media solutions.7 GB of data and dual-layer DVDs can hold up to 8.DVD Backup DVD backup is a practical alternative for home users and small businesses. tape backups have become less popular and practically obsolete for home computer users. however. tape drives typically provide the highest storage capacities at the lowest cost. Hard Drives As the prices of hard drives are dropping each year. is the write speed of these drives. as well as dual layer DVD technologies. The primary disadvantages are cost and the worry that a malware attack which affects the primary hard drives could also effect the backup hard drives. Tape Backup Combined with their decreased accessibility and the advances made in the availability of such storage devices as the CD-R. 8mm helical scan technology for mid-range systems. DVD+R. DVD-R. the CD-RW.

This storage space contains data about the tape and can be read without the time required to read the magnetic tape itself. IBM. What is LTO tape? LTO (Linear Tape-Open) is a tape standard developed by HP. and Seagate as a competitor to DLT. A SuperDLT II tape can store up to 300GB of uncompressed data and can transfer as much as 36MB per second. Data bands are filled one-at-a-time. LTO Tape Generation Uncompressed Capacity Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 100GB 200GB 400GB 35 . LTO tapes contain 4KB of non-volatile memory which can be read through a non-contacting passive RF interface. DLT tapes store between 10GB and 40GB of uncompressed data. LTO tape stores data in 384 data tracks which are divided into four data bands of 96 tracks each. DLT Alternatives Alternative tape storage standards to DLT include LTO and AIT. The four data bands are bordered by bands of servo information which are written during tape manufacture. DLT tapes are 1/2 inch wide and are packaged in study plastic containers.DLT (Digital Linear Tape) is a magnetic tape format developed by DEC (now Hewlett-Packard). LTO Tape Generations The LTO tape standard is designed to last for four generations of magnetic tape technology. in a linear fashion.

LTO Alternatives Alternative tape storage standards to LTO include DLT and AIT. AIT Magnetic Media AIT uses Advanced Metal Evaporated (AME) tape.000 media uses with an MTBF of 400. AIT tapes contain non-volatile memory called Memory-in-Cassette (MIC). An AIT tape should support 30.8". This storage space contains data about the tape which can be read quickly by a tape drive. To create AME tape.0" x 0.000 hours. cobalt is vaporized and deposited directly on the base film. AME technology gives AIT tape both high-capacity and exceptional durability. Find a Great Deal on LTO Equipment on eBay What is AIT? AIT (Advanced Intelligent Tape) is a magnetic tape format developed by Sony. AIT Tape Capacities AIT Tape Specification Storage Capacity SDX125C SDX135C TAITE-20N TAIT1-40N/40C 25GB 35GB 20GB 40GB 36 .1" x 4.Generation 4 800GB LTO Tape Physical Specifications An LTO tape is approximately 4. without having to read data from the slower magnetic media.

This s convenient for businesses and home computer users alike. more people are interested in purchasing online data storage. This is the reason why Internet data storage is increasingly popular even as the costs of physical local storage devices .SDX236C SDX2-50C SDX2-50W SDX3-100C SDX3-100W SDX4-200C SDX4-200W 36GB 50GB 50GB 100GB 100GB 200GB 200GB AIT Physical Specifications AIT tapes are 95mm x 62. AIT Alternatives Alternative tape storage standards to AIT include DLT and LTO. What is Online Data Storage? Online data storage. you can simply purchase additional space for storage. and tape backups .5mm x 15.such as hard drives. Businesses that use online data storage can password protect access to business files. CD-R. the user can access data from any location with a computer and Internet connection. Online data storage not only provides an additional flexible source for storing data but also acts as a backup mechanism and provides an effective method of sharing data with others. There is no need for you to purchase and install additional storage hardware.0mm. Whenever you reach the maximum capacity limit. With broadband speeds becoming faster and bandwidth pricing dropping every year.are coming down by the day. also known as Internet data storage. This compact format is very convenient for use in 3. With online data storage. is a technology which allows people to store their data in the Internet. while home computer users can 37 . Another advantage of online data storage is that it is easy to expand.5" drive bays.

Fibre Channel supports data transmission rates of 100MBps. music. Hence taking data backups frequently would be a safe way to protect your data from getting lost forever. On the other hand. Fibre channel over fiber optic cable supports cable distances of up to 10Km. Fibre Channel supports the connection of 126 devices on a single network. then the basic online storage is an ideal one. online vendors typically use strong encryption technologies to keep user's data safe and secure during transmission over the Internet. there is no better an option than online data storage. the other for receiving. which automatically generates passwords using two factor authentication.use it for something as simple as sharing photos. If the user is looking for storage space for some non-sensitive data. Nowadays there are several vendors offering online data storage facilities. To do so. Fibre Channel Topologies Fibre Channel supports three fabric topologies: • • • Fabric Loop Point-to-Point Fiber Channel Physical Connectivity Fiber Channel supports connectivity over fiber optic cabling or copper wiring. Fibre Channel devices using fiber optic cabling use two unidirectional fiber optic cables for each connection. However. One fiber optic cable is used for transmitting. Another noted advantage of online data storage is data backup. There are several types of online data storage. or videos with their family members. Computers are susceptible to hard drive crashes or virus attacks. additional security may be required . Some vendors provide an additional measure of security by providing users with a password token. Generally online data storage vendors feature a fully managed and secure solution with 24x7 technical support and monitoring. it should be kept in mind that backup data must be stored in some other place other than the same computer or the same physical location. Further almost all Internet data storage services are secure and password protected. for sensitive data.such as data encryption or two-factor authentication. In such cases. Users typically pay fees based upon the amount of space they need. 38 . What is Fibre Channel? Fibre Channel is a set of standards for connecting storage devices in a fabric network.

A SAN is a separate network to which storage devices are attached. This differentiates Network Attached Storage devices from SAN's (Storage Area Networks). Fibre Channel Devices Fibre Channel Devices include: • • • Host Bust Adapters (HBA's) Fibre Channel Hubs Fibre Channel Switches Fibre Channel Ports Fibre Channel uses a shorthand terminology to describe different types of connections to the fibre channel network. 39 . Fibre Channel uses the term "ports" and defines seven different types of ports: Short Name N-port F-port L-port NL-port FL-port E-port G-port Descriptive Name Network Port Fabric Port Loop Port Device Type Nodes Switches Nodes Port Function Node port used to connect a node to a Fibre Channel switch Switch port used to connect the Fibre Channel fabric to a node Node port used to connect a node to a Fibre Channel loop Node port which connects to both loops and switches Switch port which connects to both loops and switches Used to cascade fibre channel switches together General purpose port which can be configured to emulate other port types Network + Loop Nodes Port Fabric + Loop Port Extender Port General Port Switches Switches Switches What is Network Attached Storage? Network Attached Storage (NAS) is a term used to describe a complete storage system which is designed to be attached to a traditional data network.Fibre Channel devices which communicate over copper cabling are limited to distances of 30m.

What is a HBA? A HBA. A HBA could be more accurately referred to as a "Host I/O controller". Network Atttached Storage Connections NAS server are typically attached to the network via Ethernet. What is LUN masking? 40 .In most cases. They may also support other storage protocols. NAS devices are also available which connect to Fibre Channel networks. Network Attached Storage Protocols NAS servers commonly support NFS (Network File System) and CIFS (Common Internet File System).11 Network Attached Storage devices are now appearing on the market. Wireless 802. a SAN can provide better performance and a larger range of configuration options. NAS devices based on ATA disks are now available. Network Attached Storage is less expensive to purchase and less complex to operate than a Storage Area Network. Network Attached Storage Drives NAS devices have traditionally utilized SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) internally. but NAS devices can be built using any disk technology. However. or Host Bus Adapter. In addition to disk storage. is the interface card which connects a host to a SAN (Storage Area Network). such as FTP (File Transfer Protocol) or SCP (Secure CoPy). NAS devices can also support magnetic tape and optical media such as CD and DVD. However.

SAN zoning may be utilized to implement compartmentalization of data for security purposes. Soft zoning uses filtering implemented in fibre channel switches to prevent ports from being seen from outside of their assigned zones. In addition. What is the OSI model? 41 . Hard zoning physically blocks access to a zone from any device outside of the zone. zone information must be updated every time a user changes switch ports. The security vulnerability in soft zoning is that the ports are still accessible if the user in another zone correctly guesses the fibre channel address.LUN (Logical Unit Number) Masking is an authorization process that makes a LUN available to some hosts and unavailable to other hosts. LUN Masking is implemented primarily at the HBA (Host Bus Adapater) level. Some storage controllers also support LUN Masking. LUN Masking is important because Windows based servers attempt to write volume labels to all available LUN's. With port zoning. What is SAN zoning? SAN zoning is a method of arranging Fibre Channel devices into logical groups over the physical configuration of the fabric. Soft zoning is zoning which is implemented in software. What is port zoning? Port zoning utilizes physical ports to define security zones. but could also be implemented using soft zoning. This can render the LUN's unusable by other operating systems and can result in data loss. Port zoning is normally implemented using hard zoning. LUN Masking implemented at this level is vulnerable to any attack that compromises the HBA. A users access to data is determined by what physical port he or she is connected to. Each device in a SAN may be placed into multiple zones. What are hard and soft zoning? Hard zoning is zoning which is implemented in hardware. port zoning does not allow zones to overlap.

Layer Six of the OSI Model 42 . virtual terminal access.The OSI model is a reference model which most IT professionals use to describe networks and network applications. The Seven Layers of the OSI Model The seven layers of the OSI model are: Layer 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical The easiest way to remember the layers of the OSI model is to use the handy mnemonic "All People Seem To Need Data Processing": Layer Mnemonic 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Application Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All Seem To Need Data Processing Presentation People Name The functions of the seven layers of the OSI model are: Layer Seven of the OSI Model The Application Layer of the OSI model is responsible for providing end-user services. The OSI model was originally intended to describe a complete set of production network protocols. but the cost and complexity of the government processes involved in defining the OSI network made the project unviable. In the time that the OSI designers spent arguing over who would be responsible for what. This is the layer with which the user interacts. TCP/IP conquered the world. such as file transfers. and network management. electronic messaging. e-mail.

Layer Three of the OSI Model The Network Layer of the OSI model is responsible for establishing paths for data transfer through the network. cable types. The OSI model is a very poor standard. Hubs and switches operate at the Data Link Layer. The Physical Layer defines items such as: connector types. Layer Four of the OSI Model The Transport Layer of the OSI model is responsible for delivering messages between networked hosts. Layer One of the OSI Model The Physical Layer of the OSI model is responsible for bit-level transmission between network nodes. and pin-outs. The OSI model was created by academicians for academic purposes. The OSI Model vs. The Real World The most major difficulty with the OSI model is that is does not map well to the real world! The OSI was created after many of todays protocols were already in production use. were designed and built around the needs of real users with real problems to solve. These existing protocols. The Transport Layer should be responsible for fragmentation and reassembly. Layer Five of the OSI Model The Session Layer of the OSI model is responsible for establishing process-to-process commnunications between networked hosts.The Presentation Layer of the OSI model is responsible for defining the syntax which two network hosts use to communicate. Encryption and compression should be Presentation Layer functions. Layer Two of the OSI Model The Data Link Layer of the OSI model is responsible for communications between adjacent network nodes. 43 . Routers operate at the Network Layer. but it's the only well-recognized standard we have which describes networked applications. voltages. such as TCP/IP.

disco. SNMP Name The difficulty with this approach is that there is no general agreement as to which layer of the OSI model to map any specific protocol. telnet. Named Pipes. fewer people will know what you are talking about! For a better description of why the OSI model should go the way of the dodo. UDP IP Ethernet Cat-5 Presentation HTTP. Plenum cable must meet two requirements to meet most fire codes: Plenum cable must not burn easily Plenum cable must not emit toxic fumes when exposed to extreme heat • • 44 . read Kill the Beast: Why the Seven-Layer Model Must Die. Plenum cable is cable which is rated to be run through plenum spaces. NETBIOS TCP. and DivX. What is plenum cable? The plenum is hidden space within a building which is used for HVAC (Heating. and Air Conditioning) and to run cables. as well as they can be mapped. Plenum space is normally above a suspended ceiling or under a raised floor. Ventilation.The easiest way to deal with the OSI model is to map the real-world protocols to the model. You could argue forever about what OSI model layer SSH maps to. Layer Common Protocols 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Application Session Transport Network Data Link Physical SSH. A much more accurate model of real-world networking is the TCP/IP model: TCP/IP Model Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer The most significant downside with the TCP/IP model is that if you reference it. SMTP. Buildings without plenum spaces will have cabling and HVAC ducts within plain view. FTP RPC.

How to change a MAC address under MacOS Instructions for changing the MAC address on a Macintosh can be found at MAC Spoofing on the Macintosh. How to change a MAC address under Microsoft Windows Under Windows. you can change the MAC address with the `ifconfig <interface> <ether> <address>` command. To change a MAC address. find that key with `regedit` and change it. plenum cable is usually more expensive than non-plenum cable. At times. Plenum cable is also more stiff and difficult to work with than regular network cable. or you can use the GNU MAC Changer.Because of these requirements. you can change your MAC address with `ifconfig <interface> hw <class> <address>`. Most plenum cable is covered with Teflon or PVC. you may want to change this MAC address to one of your own choosing. you can change your MAC address with the `ifconfig <interface> link <address>` command. Of course. How do I change a MAC address? Every Ethernet card has a MAC address burned-in at the factory. 45 . Microsoft keeps moving the location of the key around! Windows XP adds an option to change the MAC address on some network cards under the Advanced tab in the network adapter's Properties menu. A much easier and more reliable method to change a MAC address under Windows is to use a software utility program designed to do this for you. the MAC address is stored in a registry key. The procedures to change a MAC address are specific to each operating system. How to change a MAC address under Solaris In Solaris. How to change a MAC address under Linux Under Linux. How to change a MAC address under FreeBSD In FreeBSD. Macshift is a free utility that you can use to spoof your MAC address under Microsoft Windows.

you can change the MAC address in SAM by selecting Networking and Communications. by default. HP-UX refers to the MAC address as the "station address". VoIP plans do not charge a per-minute fee for long distance. Modify. The Economics of VoIP VoIP has become popular largely because of the cost advantages to consumers over traditional telepone networks.c. the monetary savings to the consumer from switching to VoIP technology can be enormous. How to change a MAC address under HP-UX Under HP-UX. For International calling.How to change a MAC address under OpenBSD OpenBSD does not. The success of IP in becoming a world standard for data networking has led to its adaption to voice networking. Advanced Options. allow you to change the MAC address. then Action. In addition. Most Internet connections are charged using a flat monthly fee structure. then selecting the interface. Using the Internet connection for both data traffic and voice calls can allow consumers to get rid of one monthly payment. The Internet Protocol (IP) was originally designed for data networking. Most Americans pay a flat monthly fee for local telephone calls and a per-minute charge for longdistance calls. It is possible to change the MAC address under OpenBSD with sea. VoIP calls can be placed across the Internet. What is VoIP? VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is simply the transmission of voice traffic over IP-based networks. VoIP Telephones There are three methods of connecting to a VoIP network: • • • Using a VoIP telephone Using a "normal" telephone with a VoIP adapter Using a computer with speakers and a microphone 46 .

*.0.0.0.Types of VoIP Calls VoIP telephone calls can be placed either to other VoIP devices.1. Calls from a VoIP device to a PSTN device are commonly called "PC-toPhone" calls.0.1 is the most commonly utilized address for localhost.*.1? 127. Firewalls are most commonly specially configured Unix systems.0..1 is localhost. if your system was named "joker".1 is you. and you attempted to telnet to 127.. or to normal telephones on the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network). For example.0. including systems designed specifically for use as firewalls.0. This means that if you try to connect to 127.0.0. 127. ftp. The most common commercial firewall today is CheckPoint FireWall-1.* range should also function in the same manner. Connected to joker Escape character is '^]'. to 127. Calls from a VoIP device to another VoIP device are commonly called "PCto-PC" calls.0.0. any IP address in the 127. even though neither device may be a PC Changing a MAC Address in Hardware Speed Demon Adapters sells network cards which give you the ability to change the MAC address stored in their EERPROM. What is you are connected to your own machine.0.0.1 Trying but firewalls have also been built out of many other systems. 47 . but competitors such as Cisco's PIX are quickly catching up on CheckPoint. Another name for 127. In other words. Although 127.1.0. If you telnet. you are immediately looped back to your own machine. etc..1 is the standard IP address used for a loopback network connection..0.0.0. This can give you the ability to change your MAC address under any operating system that supports either the PCI bus or PCMCIA Type II cards. you would see: # telnet 127. Convincing newbie's to connect to 127.1 is a frequent joke on the Internet. even though the VoIP device may not be a PC. What is a firewall? A firewall is a system that is set up to control traffic flow between two networks.0.

The Application-Gateway Firewall 48 . Dropping packets instead of rejecting them greatly increases the time required to scan your network. Routers are a very common form of packet filtering firewall. the firewall "remembers" conversations between systems. It is then necessary to fully examine only the first packet of a conversation. there is a potential that an application-proxy firewall can prevent unknown attacks based upon weaknesses in the TCP/IP protocol suite that would not be prevented by a packet filtering firewall. With this enhancement.Many people disagree on the definition of a firewall. it sends a message back to the sender letting him know that the packet was rejected. the Network Layer. Application-proxy firewalls operate on Layer 7 of the OSI model. The Application-Proxy Firewall Another type of firewall is the application-proxy firewall. If the packet passes the examinations. The Packet Filtering Firewall One type of firewall is the packet filtering firewall. the packet will either be allowed through. If the packet was dropped. the firewall simply does not respond to the packet. an FTP proxy for file transfers. and in this discussion I will use the term loosely. The packet is then examined and compared to the rules configured into the firewall. Packet filtering firewalls operate on Layer 3 of the OSI model. An improved form of the packet filtering firewall is a packet filtering firewall with a stateful inspection engine. Because each packet is destroyed and re-created. In a packet filtering firewall. a Gopher proxy for Gopher traffic. it is re-created and sent out. the Application Layer. etc. The drawback is that a separate application-proxy must be written for each application type being proxied. rejected. In a proxying firewall. If the firewall rejects the packet. You need an HTTP proxy for web traffic. or dropped. the firewall examines five characteristics of a packet: • • • • • Source IP address Source port Destination IP address Destination port IP protocol (TCP or UDP) Based upon rules configured into the firewall... The sender must wait for the communications to time out. every packet is stopped at the firewall.

meaning that the antenna can move constantly. SOCKS firewalls requires specially modified network clients. Common Wireless Network Types 49 . A typical application-gateway firewall is a system where you must telnet to one system in order telnet again to a system outside of the network. Where normal application-proxy firewalls do not require modifications to network clients.11. PDC-P. Some wireless data networks run over wireless voice networks. Wireless networks which run over other wireless networks often utilize the lower layer networks to provide security and encryption. Bluetooth is an example. multiple layers of security and encryption may be desirable. Stand-alone wireless networks either provide their own security and encryption features or rely upon VPN's (Virtual Private Networks) to provide those features. Application-gateway firewalls exist for only a few network applications. CPDP. The SOCKS Firewall Another type of application-proxy firewall are SOCKS firewalls. A few wireless networks are intended only to connect small devices over short distances. this can be as easy as swapping a few DLL's. meaning that antennas do not move frequently. instead of an inherent limitation of the wireless network specification. such as mobile telephone networks. Other wireless networks are mobile. Other wireless networks run on their own physical layer networks. LMDS. This means you have to modify every system on your internal network which needs to communicate with the external network. What are the types of wireless networks? Wireless data networks exist in such number and variety as to be difficult to categorize and compare. Wireless networks may operate on licensed or unlicensed portions of the frequency spectrum. utilizing anything from antennas built into handlheld devices to large antennas mounted on towers.Application-gateway firewalls also operate on Layer 7 of the OSI model. and MMDS are examples. and GPRS are examples. This is sometimes a feature of the specific implementation and antenna design. 802. HSCSD. On a Windows or OS/2 system. Some wireless networks are fixed. In many cases.

Major types of wireless networks include: CDPD HSCSD PDC-P GPRS 1xRTT Bluetooth IrDA MMDS LMDS WiMAX 802.11 Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service Local Multipoint Distribution Service Worldwide Interoperability for Wi-Fi Microwave Cellular Digital Packet Data High Speed Circuit Switched Data Packet Data Cellular General Packet Radio Service 1x Radio Transmission Technology Access 50 .

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