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RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) is a set of technology standards for teaming disk drives to improve fault tolerance and performance.
Level 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Striping Mirroring Parallel Access with Specialized Disks Synchronous Access with Dedicated Parity Disk Independent Access with Dedicated Parity Disk Independent Access with Distributed Parity Independent Access with Double Parity Name
Choosing a RAID Level
Each RAID level represents a set of trade-offs between performance, redundancy, and cost. RAID 0 -- Optimized for Performance RAID 0 uses striping to write data across multiple drives simultaneously. This means that when you write a 5GB file across 5 drives, 1GB of data is written to each drive. Parallel reading of data from multiple drives can have a significant positive impact on performance. The trade-off with RAID 0 is that if one of those drives fail, all of your data is lost and you must retore from backup. RAID 0 is an excellent choice for cache servers, where the actual data being stored is of little value, but performance is very important.
What is striping?
Striping is the automated process of writing data across multiple drives simulteneously. Striping is used to increase the performance of disk reads. When using striping, if you write a 5GB file across 5 drives, 1GB of data is written to each drive. Parallel reading of data from multiple disks can have a significant positive impact on performance, because the physical disk drive is most often the performance bottleneck. Striping is used in RAID Level 0.
If one drive in a striped set fails, all of the data in the stripe set is lost. The data must be restored from backup. Because of this, striping is often combined with the use of parity (RAID 5) or mirroring (RAID 0+1).
Performance Problems Cause by Striping
Striping, when combined with parity, can have a negative performance impact on write operations. This is because some of the data used to calculate parity may be stored on the disk already. This means that the process to write to the array is: 1. 2. 3. 4. Read the existing data Calculate the parity Write the new parity Write the new data
RAID 1 -- Optimized for Redundancy RAID 1 uses mirroring to write data to multiple drives. This means that when you write a file, the file is actually written to two disks. If one of the disks fails, you simply replace it and rebuild the mirror. The tradeoff with RAID 1 is cost. With RAID 1, you must purchase double the amount of storage space that your data requires.
What is mirroring?
Mirroring is the automated process of writing data to two drives simulteneously. Mirroring is used to provide redundancy. If one drive fails, the redundant drive will continue to store the data and provide access to it. The failed drive can then be replaced and the drive set can be re-mirrored. Mirroring is used in RAID Level 1.
Software Mirroring vs. Hardware Mirroring
Disk mirroring can be implemented entirely in software. Software mirroring can be less expensive, but it is also slower. Software mirroring requires the host computer to write the mirrored data twice. Disk mirroring can be implemented in hardware on the host I/O controller. The burden of writing each bit of data twice is placed upon the I/O controller, which is specifically designed for it. Disk mirroring can also be implemented in hardware on an external storage device, such as a RAID array. In this case, mirroring is completely removed from the hosts responsibility.
Hot Swappable Hardware
If the hardware is hot swappable, it is possible to replace a failed disk without powering off the computer. You take out the old drive and put in the new drive with no service outage. If the hardware does not support hot-swap, you must schedule a service outage, shut down and power-off the system, and then replace the drive.
Mirroring vs. Duplexing
Mirroring is the technique of using redundant disks. Duplexing is mirroring, with the addition of redundant host I/O controllers. If you are using mirroring and your host I/O controller fails, you will not be able to access your data until you replace the host I/O controller. With duplexing, your data will still be available through the redundant controller. RAID 5 -- A Good Compromise RAID 5 stripes data across multiple disks. RAID 5, however, adds a parity check bit to the data. This slightly reduces available disk capacity, but it also means that the RAID array continues to function if a single disk fails. In the event of a disk failure, you simply replace the failed disk and keep going. The tradeoffs with RAID 5 are a small performance penalty in write operations and a slight decrease in usabable storage space. RAID 0+1 -- Optimize for Performance and Redundancy RAID 0+1 combines the performance of RAID 0 with the redundancy of RAID 1. To build a RAID 0+1 array, you first build a set of RAID 1 mirrored disks and you then combine these disk sets in a RAID 0 striped array. A RAID 0+1 array can survive the loss of one disk from each mirrored pair. RAID 0+1 cannot survive the loss of two disks in the same mirrored pair.
What is ATA?
ATA (AT Attachment) is the primary standard for connecting storage to PC's. ATA replaced earlier technologies such as MFM, RLL, and ESDI. ATA currently competes with SCSI. ATA is a specification for attaching hard drives to the AT bus. The AT specification has been extended to include other storage, such as CD/DVD drives, tape drives, and Zip drives with the Advanced Technology Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI) additions to the specification. ATA is also known as IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics).
Parallel ATA Cables
Parallel ATA cables originally had 40 wires. With the introduction of ATA-5, parallel ATA cables with 80 wires became standard. Only 40 wires are used to carry signals. The additional 40 wires exist to provide a ground wire for each signal wire. These grounding wires enable the ATA subsystem to operate at higher speeds with greater reliability.
ATA Masters and Slaves
Each ATA bus supports two storage devices. The first storage device is called the Master and the second storage device is termed the Slave. There are two methods for configuring which device is the master and which is the slave: drive jumpers and cable select. Drive Jumpers The original method for configuring Master and Slave relationships on ATA drives was to place or remove jumpers on each storage device. The jumper definitions differ among drive manufacturers and models. The jumper setting are often printed on the drive. If not, read the drive manual or visit the drive manufacturers web page. In a single drive configuration, some drives should be set to "Single Drive", while other drives should be set to "Master". In a dual drive configuration, one drive should be set to Master and the other drive should be set to Slave. Cable Select
A newer standard for configuring Master/Slave relationships on ATA drives is to allow the position of the drives on the drive cable to determine the ordering. For Cable Select to work, both of the drives and the ATA cable must support cable select. To use Cable Select, the jumpers on both drives should be set to Cable Select.
Parallel ATA vs. Serial ATA
All versions of ATA up until ATA-7 in 2004 utilized parallel transfer of data from the motherboard to the drive controller built onto the disk. The ATA-7 specification introduced Serial ATA. The most obvious change with Serial ATA is the difference in drive cables. Other differences include:
• • • •
Higher throughput Revised power connector Longer data cables Support for external drives (eSata)
What is ATAPI?
ATAPI stands for AT Attachment Packet Interface. ATAPI is a set of extensions to the ATA standards to allow ATA CD/DVD drives and tape drives.
ATAPI Drivers Microsoft Windows and most PC-based Unixes provide a generic driver for all ATAPI based CD-ROM devices. The ATAPI standard ceased to exist as a separate document when it became part of the core ATA standard with the publication of ATA-4 in 1998. the group that defines the ATA standard. Early ATAPI CD-ROM drives required specialized drivers for use under DOS. Serial ATA standards are constantly evolving to meet higher bandwidth requirements.0Gbps 6. What is Serial ATA? Serial ATA is an enhancement to the ATA standard for for connecting storage to PC's. Booting from an ATAPI Device Phoenix Technologies and IBM developed the El Torito Bootable CD-ROM Format Specification. Maintenance of the ATAPI standard was later transferred to the T13 Technical Committee.0Gbps Serial ATA Data Cables 6 . visit the web page of the company which manufactured your CD-ROM drive to try to find an ATAPI driver. Serial ATA Type Bandwith Bus Speed Signal Rate SATA-150 SATA-300 SATA-600 150MBps 300MBps 600MBps 1500MHz 3000MHz 6000MHz 1.The ATAPI standard was originally defined by the Small Form Factor committee.5Gbps 3. The ATA-7 specification introduced Serial ATA. Serial ATA Standards The original Serial ATA standard offered miniminal improvement over the existing 133MBps bandwidth of the existing Parallel ATA standard. you do not need to download and install an ATAPI driver if you are using one of those operating systems. Because of this. Systems which are El Torito compatible are able to boot from ATAPI CDROM drives. All versions of ATA up until ATA-7 in 2004 utilized parallel transfer of data from the motherboard to the drive controller built onto the disk. If you are running DOS.
or 12 volts to ATA devices. or 12 volts to ATA devices.3. Serial ATA Power Cables The serial ATA power cable uses a 15-pin wafer connector to provide 3. eSATA (External SATA) allows the use of shielded cables up to 2 meters in length for external drives.Higher bandwidth requirements were pushing requirements for shorter Parallel ATA data cables.3. 7 . 5. Serial ATA Power Cables The serial ATA power cable uses a 15-pin wafer connector to provide 3. Serial ATA reversed this trend by allowing data cables up to 1 meter in length. 5.
eSATA cables can be up to 2 meters (approximately 6 feet) in length. What is SCSI? 8 .5 offers data rates up to 150MBps. meaning that you can attach or remove an eSATA hard drive from a system without powering down the system or the drive. eSATA can provide data transfer rates significantly faster than USB or FireWire. eSATA 3G doubles that to 300MBps. eSATA 1. eSATA drives are hot-pluggable. external hard drives were connected via USB or FireWire. Before eSATA.What is eSATA? eSATA is an extension to Serial ATA standards to enable SATA drives to be attached externally.
What is iSCSI? iSCSI stands for internet SCSI. including FireWire and Fibre Channel. A single SCI controller can control 8 or 16 drives. The vast majority of SCSI devices are data storage devices. Narrow SCSI is parallel SCSI which transmits 8 bits of data at a time. or internet Small Computer Systems Interface.8-bit Ultra SCSI-3. Wide SCSI is parallel SCI which transmits 16 bits of data at a time.5 1. Standard SCSI is a parallel technology. SCSI Standards SCSI Standard SCSI-1 SCSI-2 Fast SCSI-2 Wide SCSI-2 Fast Wide SCSI-2 Ultra SCSI-3. SCSI is generally considered a higher-end alternative to IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics).SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) is a set of ANSI standards for connecting devices to computer systems. In addition. but many serial SCSI variants exist. A single IDE controller can control two drives.5 12 12 12 Cable Length 5 5-10 10-20 20 20 20 40 40 80 160 Speed (MBps) 8 8 or 16 8 16 16 8 16 8 16 16 Devices Supported Narrow and Wide SCSI Many SCSI standards have options for Narrow or Wide operation. iSCSI is the transmission of SCSI commands and data over IP networks. SCSI usually offers greater cable length and higher length than IDE. How iSCSI Works 9 .16-bit Ultra-2 SCSI Wide Ultra-2 SCSI Ultra-3 (Ultra160/m) SCSI 6 6 3 3 3 1.
the encapsulation is stripped off and the SCSI read command is interpreted by the iSCSI drive. FireWire FireWire. iSCSI and FCIP represent almost opposite approaches to the situation. Alternatives to iSCSI The main competitor to iSCSI is FCIP (Fibre Channel over IP). The IP packet is then routed just like any other IP packet on the network. almost known as IEEE 1394. 10 . USB 1.0 provides slightly better performance than FireWire in most applications. FCIP is an implementation of IP on Fibre Channel hardware. When the IP packet reaches its destination. and became somewhat popular on PC's before USB 2. One external hard drive may support two or more of these interfaces. SCSI write commands are handled in the same manner. whereas iSCSI is an implementation of SCSI on IP hardware.When an application attempts to read from an iSCSI device. because the eSATA external hard drive uses the same communications protocol as the internal hard drives. USB USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a standard for connecting a wide range of devices.0 was standardized.x was not fast enough to satisfy most users of external hard drives. eSATA is an extension of the Serial ATA standard which allows the use of external hard drives. and Sony PlayStations. An external hard drive using an eSATA connection will not suffer a performance penalty imposed by encapsulating the ATA data inside the USB or FireWire protocols. External Hard Drive Interfaces External hard drives can be connected using several popular interfaces. the SCSI read command is encapsulated inside an IP packet. is a popular interface for Macintosh external hard drives. USB 2. PDA's. including external hard drives. External hard drives are extremely useful for backing up computers and for moving data between computers. eSATA eSATA is the newest standard for external hard drives. What is an external hard drive? An external hard drive is any hard drive which attaches to a port on the outside of a computer case.
11 . These external hard drives are actually low-end network attached storage devices.Ethernet A few external hard drives offer Ethernet connections. its head number. and its sector number. If you believe this has happened to one or more of your disk. What is LBA? LBA is Logical Block Addressing. or even a CD or DVD The Task of the MBR The normal job of the MBR program is to search the partition table for the active partition. it will print one of these error messages: • • • • Invalid partition table Error loading operating system Missing operating system The MBR and Boot Sector Viruses Some boot sector viruses overwrite the MBR. is stored in the first sector of the boot disk. is the Master Boot Record. Early PC hard drives were supported by the PC BIOS using Cylinder/Head/Sector addressing. run an antivirus tool to clean your disks. What is the MBR? The MBR The MBR The MBR The boot drive. is a small program which runs whenever a computer boots up. copy the boot sector from the active partition into memory. disk may be a hard drive. and transfer control over to that program. you specified the sector in terms of its cylinder number. LBA adressing uses just one number. If the MBR cannot accomplish this task successfully. These drives include intelligent electronics to enable them to act like file servers. the first sector on the disk is sector zero and all sectors on the disk are simply incremented from there. In LBA addressing. To read or write from a specific sector on the disk. a floppy drive.
solid-state flash memory drives. NAND drives do not make any noise while functioning. cell phones. NAND drives consume less power. Secondly. What is a NAND Drive? NAND drives are high-capacity. Thanks to new advances in technology. NAND drives have several noteworthy advantages. These features make NAND drives an ideal choice for high capacity storage and manipulation of changing data. boot directions or operating systems). The `FIXMBR` command replicates the functionality of the `FDISK /MBR` command. Finally. Unfortunately. high-speed. NAND drives also have several noted advantages when compared with more traditional hard drives. for changing data. The solid-state nature of the drive is one of the core advantages. FIXMBR Microsoft Windows 2000/XP/2003 provide the `FIXMBR` command in the Recovery Console. However. PDAs. Similar to USB flash drives. FDISK was not terribly intelligent about the repair and this option would often cause more damage than it fixed. but also very efficient. Before attempting to repair your MBR. The chip is designed to allow more memory to be included into the same size space. When comparing the NAND to other types of flash memory. The term "NAND" refers to the architecture of the chip which differs it from NOR (NOT OR) flash memory. thus creating a product that is not only useful. Solid-state refers to the fact that NAND drives do not have any moving parts that can break down. be certain to completely back up all of your data. NOR flash memory is considered to be ideal for applications that require less memory and perform most of the work on unchanging code (for example. NAND drives are superior to NOR flash memory. NAND drives also boast a longer lifespan of more erase cycles. This allows NAND drives to write data into the disk at a greater speed. NOR flash memory is most widely used in devices in which small programs are executed in place rather than written to Random Access Memory (RAM). FDISK has been removed Windows XP.FDISK /MBR Under DOS and early versions of Microsoft Windows. which is essential for laptop users. 12 . along with it's associated problems. and similar devices function with the help of NOR flash memory. it was possible to use the `FDISK /MBR` command to repair the MBR. these drives have been chosen to become the latest drive preference for laptop computers (hopefully in the near future). NAND drives function much faster than traditional hard drives. unlike the typical flash memory that must wipe out memory blocks before writing to them.
Memory Stick Duo. and 3. Compact Flash cards are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with Compact Flash slots. 36mm wide. Current Memory Stick capacities range up to 512MB.5mm wide. and 2. and more. Memory Sticks are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with Memory Stick slots. modems.0 is 16MB/sec. This makes Compact Flash the most versatile of the flash media formats.3mm thick. The theoretical transfer speed of Memory Stick is 160Mbps. Compact Flash Plus (CF+) Compact Flash Plus (CF+) extends Compact Flash to provide functionality such as micro hard drives. and 5mm thick.11 Wi-Fi cards. The Memory Stick standard was introduced by Sony in October of 1998.6mm thick. and 1. The theoretical transfer speed of Compact Flash 2. serial cards.What is a Memory Stick? A Memory Stick is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure. 20mm wide. Current Compact Flash capacities range up to 4GB. A Memory Stick is 50mm long.8mm thick. The Compact Flash standard was introduced by SanDisk Corporation in 1994. 13 . Ethernet cards. 36mm wide. 802. Compact Flash Type I cards are 43mm long. An even more compact format. 21. Compact Flash Type II cards are 43mm long. Bluetooth cards. What is Compact Flash? A Compact Flash card is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure. is 32mm long.
5mm wide. and 2.0 Card is 12. and 1. SD 1. digital recorders.1mm thick. Current SD Card capacities range up to 1GB. and SanDisk in 1999.5MB/s. cameras.What is a SD Card? A SD Card (Secure Digital Card) is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure.11b WiFi cards. Matsushita Electric. modems. The SD Card standard was introduced by Toshiba. An even more compact format. TV tuners. The theoretical transfer speed of a SD 1. 14 . scanners. A SD Card is 32mm long. 21. GPS receivers. fingerprint scanners and more.1 is expected to raise this to 50MB/s. SDIO SDIO extends the SD Card standard to include 802. SD Cards are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with SD Card slots. Bluetooth cards. is 20mm long.4mm thick. the miniSD Card. 24mm wide.
MultiMediaCards can be used in SD Card readers and writers. MultiMediaCard (MMC)s are designed to store data and to enable the transfer of data between devices equipped with MultiMediaCard (MMC) slots. Single-layer HD-DVD disks currently store 15GB of data. Current MultiMediaCard (MMC) capacities range up to 2GB. volume identifiers and Advanced Access Content System (AACS). and 1.5MB/s.6mm protective surface layer.4mm thick. HD-DVD uses a 405nm wavelength blue-violet laser and an 0.What is a MultiMediaCard (MMC)? A MultiMediaCard (MMC) is an IC (Integrated Circuit) which is stored in a compact and rugged plastic enclosure. 24mm wide. For security. H. HD-DVD supports mandatory HDCP encrypted output. which is the same thickness used in DVD's. The MultiMediaCard (MMC) standard was introduced in November of 1997 by SanDisk and Siemens AG/Infeneon Technologies AG. Microsoft Video Codec 1. What is Blu-Ray? 15 . The HD-DVD standard supports the following codec's: MPEG-2. The theoretical transfer speed of a MultiMediaCard is 2. HD-DVD's are coated with a 0.264 / MPEG-4 AVC. What is HD-DVD? HD-DVD is an optical sotrage format developed by Toshiba and Hitachi. which dual-layer HD-DVD disks are able to store 30GB of data. A MultiMediaCard (MMC) is 32mm long.65nm pickup aperture.
A standard DVD holds about 4.7 gigabytes. The Blu-ray DVD can usually hold about 50 gigabytes of data and there are also claims that test media can hold up to 200 gigabytes of data. Blu-ray is looking to make inroads into the consumer electronics market with the Blu-ray DVD player with its Sony PlayStation. The Sony PlayStation will include a basic Blu-ray DVD player which might spur sales of media and make it the de facto standard. the color of the laser is a hue of blue-violet. Blu-Ray was created to store large amounts of high definition video and sound. However. A HD DVD. Blu-Ray Technology 16 . Obviously the major benefit of Blu-ray DVD's is that it is able to hold more data on one disc. How does Blu-ray stack up against other types of discs? Well a normal CD holds about 700 to 800 megabytes of data. One of the benefits of Blu-ray technology is that because data is so close together. a new coating has been developed that makes Blu-ray discs extremely difficult to scratch. Sony has included DRM or digital rights management that will make it more difficult for people to place shift and time shift their content. The more data you have. which is a new DVD technology that also uses blue lasers. players are selling at about the $1. most people are sitting on the sidelines to see who the winner is. For instance. Bluray gets its name from the type of laser it uses to read and write data from and to the disc. a blue-violet laser has a shorter wavelength than the normal red lasers used today. As of yet. Another disadvantage is that since there are two standards. There is currently a market war taking place against both HD DVD's and Blu-ray DVD's. the more data can be read to give a clearer picture with more color and vividness. therefore allowing high definition audio and video. Due to the extreme density of these optical discs the data needs to be smaller to fit onto the disc. The disadvantages to Blu-ray discs are that they are quite expensive.4 total gigabytes of data. neither media type has made enough inroads to garner a champion.000 mark and DVD discs will be more expensive than their standard DVD counterparts. early types of Blu-ray discs would be contaminated by slight scratches. both Blu-ray and HD. You can also purchase dual layer DVD's that holds about 9. holds about 25 gigabytes of data and there are reports that test media can hold up to 200 gigabytes of data.Blu-Ray is an optical storage format developed by Sony and Phillips. Because Blu-ray has been developed in part with Sony. These two types of DVD's are fighting to see who will be the new form of media for the years to come.
when produced in full scale.near the bottom of the disk. What is HVD? HVD (Holographic Versatile Disc) is the next generation in optical disk technology. letting only the red laser pass through it to reach the servo information. This inference is a direct reference to the enormous storage capacity HVDs offer compared to HD DVD and Blu-Ray optical disk systems.Blu-Ray uses a 405nm wavelength blue-violet laser and an 0. HVDs will have a storage capacity of 3. BD+ dynamic cryptology.3GB of data.' in which two laser rays.85nm pickup aperture. How do the laser beams selectively pass through the layers? A layer of dichroic mirrors that exists between the holographic and servo data layer reflects back the blue-green laser beam. without a doubt. The role of the blue-green laser is to read the data encoded in the form of laser interference fringes from the holographic layer on the top. both of which are yet to replace DVDs for mass optical storage. which dual-layer Blu-Ray disks are able to store 46.like in normal CDs . while the red laser serves the purpose of a reference beam and also to read the servo info from the aluminum layer . Some industry experts call HVDs a next-next generation technology. According to published statistics. HVD is still in a research phase that would phenomenally increase the disk storage capacities over the currently existing HD DVD and Blu-Ray optical disk systems. Single-layer Blu-Ray disks currently store 23. and the Advanced Access Content System (AACS). Blu-Ray disks are coated with a 0. it actually eliminates the possible chances of the interference that can happen due to the refraction of blue-green laser off the servo data pits. ROMMark watermarking. HD DVD and Blu-Ray optical disk systems offer a storage capacity of 75 and 90 GB respectively. Blu-Ray supports mandatory HDCP encrypted output. which is at least six times more than the speed of DVD players.264 / MPEG-4 AVC. H. but neither comes anywhere near the massive storage capacity of HVD. 17 . a problem that had affected the efficiency of many holographic storage media in the past.1mm protective surface layer.6GB of data. Microsoft Video Codec 1. By doing so.000 GB) and a data transfer rate of 1 GB/s. become a giant step in revolutionizing the disk storage industry. are collimated into a single beam. The Blu-Ray standard supports the following codec's: MPEG-2.9 terabytes (39. For security. HVD Technology HVD uses a technology called 'collinear holography. The servo info is meant to monitor the coordinates of the read head above the disk (this is similar to the track. one blue-green and one red. This would. head and sector information on a normal hard disk drive).
However. Competing Technologies In addition to HDV. other proprietary standards are making advances optical disk technology.a holographic format patented by InPhase Technologies . that has a diameter of 500 micrometers at the top and 200 micrometers at the bottom. when commercially available.600-11. a 3. HVDs manage to store 60. How do I Install a Hard Drive? 18 . may cost anywhere between $100-120 (by 2006 year's end).900 hours of video. • With MPEG4 ASP encoding. such as those made by Hitachi Maxell Ltd and InPhase Technologies.000. while similar a 300 GB disks with a data transfer rate of 20 Mbit/s is in the pipeline for Hitachi Maxell Ltd. such as a standard CD (Compact Disc).6TB and a data transfer rate of 120 MB/s is one such device.Optical Storage Most optical storage devices. the price will soon fall as R&DD costs are recouped and competitions lowers profit margins.having a storage capacity of 1. It is anticipated that a single HVD. • HVD Adoption The biggest challenge for HVD will be in establishing itself in the commercial market. which is enough for non-stop playing for a year. The Library of Congress is the largest in the world and contains over 130 million items. save one bit per pulse. in a truncated cone shape. HVD Capacity The entire US Library of Congress can be stored on six HVDs.9 TB mark by inserting a larger number of cones on each track. The HVD Alliance is trying to improve the storage capacity further to touch its dream 3. Other players exist. which as of now seems to be a distant dream. Tapestry Media . and the reader will be priced anywhere in the range of $10. like anything else associated with technology. assuming that every book has been scanned in the text format.000 bits per pulse in the same place. given its higher cost margins.can be stored on two HVDs.000 to $15. • The pictures of every landmass on Earth .9 TB HVD can hold anywhere between 4.like the ones shown in Google Earth .
wait fifteen seconds. • Plug all cables back into the computer. • Power on the computer. and screw the new hard drive into place. • Replace the computers cover.If you would like to replace your old hard drive with an upgraded drive. in effect maaking one physical hard disk into several smaller logical hard disks. Reasons to Use Hard Disk Partitions A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions in order to organize his data more effectively. The main cables will be a data cable and a power cable. The setting can remain as "single" or "master" when one drive is installed. it is common to store the OS and applications on one hard disk partition and user data on another hard disk partition. • If another hard drive is present. What is a hard disk partition? A hard disk partition is a defined storage space on a hard drive. the computer should auto-recognize the new hard drive. While removing them. • Locate the screws used to anchor the hard drive to the frame of the computer case. When a problem occurs with 19 . this is a simple process that can be done at home. On Microsoft Windows machines. • After the old hard drive has been unscrewed. • Remove the screws holding the computer's cover in place. Steps To install A Hard Drive • • Shut down the computer. Continue by unplugging the computer completely from its power source. Most operating systems allow users to divide a hard disk into multiple partitions. and "ground" yourself to prevent electrical shock. • Remove the computers cover and place it gently to the side. be sure to document where they attach in order to reattach them. set your jumpers by determining which drive is the "master" and "slave" for an older drive. • Locate the computer's old hard drive in the drive bay. and unplug all accessories attached to it. • If it is installed correctly. Most new hard drives will come with installation instructions to make the task easier for you. and remove any cables or wires attached to it. remove it from the frame. • Reattach the data cable and power cable which were attached to the originalhard drive.
20 . This is a useful strategy if you are storing a large number of small files. Many ooperating systems also have graphical tools which accomplish the same task. Some operating systems blur the lines between partitions and filesystems. To work around this limitation. Partitions configured into an extended partition are often referred to as logical partitions. The four standard partitions are often called the primary partitions. A user may have to split a large hard disk into multiple partitions if the hard disk is larger than the partition size supported by the operating system.Microsoft Windows. At one time this meant that a hard disk could have a maximum of four partitions. A large partition might have a cluster size of 16KB. Creating Hard Disk Partitions Most operating system use the `fdisk` command to create hard disk partitions. This mens that a file with one character in it will occupy 16KB of space on the disk. Hard Disk Partitions and File Systems You don't actually store data in hard disk partitions. Extended Partitions A standard partition table is only able to store information about four partitions. In a smaller partition. You store file systems in hard disk partitions and then you store data in these file systems. the OS partition can be completely formatted and reinstalled without affecting the data partition. An extended partition stores information about other partitions. a reserved area at the beginning of a hard disk. A user may decide to split a hard disk into multiple partitions because smaller partitions often have smaller cluster sizes. A cluster size is the smallest chunk of data which a partition can store. By using an extended partition. you can create many more than four partitions on your hard disk. The Partition Table Partition information is stored in the partition table. that file might only require 4KB to store. extended partitions were created.
Partition Number 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0a 0b 0c 0e 0f 35 39 40 51 52 63 64 65 75 80 81 82 83 85 93 Empty DOS 12-bit FAT XENIX root XENIX usr DOS 16-bit FAT <=32M DOS Extended Partition DOS 16-bit FAT >=32 OS/2 HPFS. Linux Solaris X86.4a MINUX. a special byte of data is written to record what type of partition it is. Mach. WinNT NTFS AIX AIX bootable OS/2 Boot Manager Win95 FAT32 Win95 FAT32 (LBA) Win95 FAT16 (LBA) Win95 Extended (LBA) OS/2 JFS Plan 9 Venix 80286 Novell Microport Unix System V. The table below lists some of the partition types in use. GNU HURD Novell Netware 286 Novell Netware 386 PIC/IX MINIX until 1. operating systems tend to agree on the meaning of these values. Linux swap Linux native Linux extended Amoeba Partition Type 21 . Because one hard disk may be shared by multiple operating systems.Partition Types When a partition is created.
386BSD OpenBSD NEXTSTEP BSDI BSD/386 filesystem BSDI BSD/386 swap Solaris 8 bootable Solaris x86 Syrinx CP/M DOS access DOS R/O BeOS BFS VMWare filesystem VMWare swap DOS secondary Xenix Bad Block Table What is free partition software? A wide range of free partition software is available. FAT16. you have no one to blame but yourself. if the partition is FAT12. Free Partition Software Partition Saving Partition Saving is an MS-DOS based partition backup and recovery program. NTFS or ext2. or the boot sector. BSD/386.94 a5 a6 a7 b7 b8 be bf c7 db e1 e3 eb fb fc f2 ff Amoeba BBT FreeBSD. Partition Saving is intelligent enough to copy only occupied sectors to the file. FAT32. NetBSD. This is especially useful when saving hard drive partitions to CD's or DVD's. the MBR (Master Boot Record). Partition Saving can copy a partition to a file. Always backup your hard drive completely before using any free partition software. Be very careful when using any software application which writes to the partition table. If you lose data. Partition Image 22 . Partition Saving is also able to compress data in the partition and split it into several files.
Partition Image is a Linux/Unix utility which saves partitions to an image file. JFS. Partition Image will only copy data from the used portions of the partition. partimage. network tools). XFDisk transparently manages the extended partition for you. With XFDisk you can partition your hard disk or install and configure the boot manager. NTFS. The boot manager will not occupy a partition. VFAT. Windows 98/XP. and resize primary and extended partitions. or short XFDisk.) and basic ones (editors. JFS and XFS.. Partition Manager can create. XFDisk and the boot manager support more than one hard disk and even booting from logical drives. Ranish Partition Manager Ranish Partition Manager is a powerful hard disk partitioning tool. which will be located in the first 17 sectors of your first hard disk. such as FreeBSD. ReiserFS. It gives users high level of control for running multiple operating systems. midnight commander. FAT16/32. TestDisk 23 .. is a free DOS FDISK replacement that offers more comfort and comes with a boot manager that allows you to have more than one operating system installed on your hard disk. The image file can be compressed to save disk space. and split into multiple files to be copied on removable media. SystemRescueCd SystemRescueCd is a Linux system on a bootable CD-ROM for repairing your system and your data after a crash. XFS. copy. HPFS. such as creating and editing the partitions of the hard disk. free blocks are not written to the image file. For speed and efficiency. SystemRescueCd also aims to provide an easy way to carry out administrative tasks on your computer. fstools. and FreeDOS on a single disk. and you can do everything. so you can fully use the four available primary partitions per hard disk. SystemRescueCd contains a lot of system utilities (parted. It aims to be very easy to use: just boot from the CD-ROM. Linux. It includes a command line interface and a simulation mode that works with large files so that you can safely experiment before working on the real hard drive partition tables. The kernel of the system supports ext2/ext3. If you choose to have an extended partition with logical drives on your hard disk. Samba and NFS. Partition Image supports ext2fs/ext3fs. ISO9660. . eXtended FDisk eXtended FDisk. ReiserFS.
• Comes with BootEasy. resizing. Has the "standard" fdisk user interface.. quickly and fuss-free. GNU Parted supports operations on ext2. FreeBSD. GNU Parted GNU Parted is a program for creating. Linux . HFS and HFS+. a compact multi-boot loader. Linux Logical Volume Manager Netware NSS NTFS ( Windows NT/2K/XP/2003 ) ReiserFS 3. Free FDISK features include: Supports hard disks up to 128GB in size.5 and 3. FAT16. Command-line support is compatible with Microsoft's undocumented FDISK commands. UFS. • Has extended command-line support to give you complete control over hard disk configuration from batch files. This is useful for creating space for new operating systems. ReiserFS. ext3. The Partition Resizer Partition Resizer is a small DOS executable which can re-arrange your partitions safely.6 UFS (Sun/BSD/. reorganizing disk usage. destroying.TestDisk is a tool to check and undelete partitions. • • • 24 . • Can be customized with an easy to use configuration file.. SGI's Journaled File System TestDisk runs under DOS/Win9x. TestDisk works with the following partition types: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • BeFS ( BeOS ) BSD disklabel ( FreeBSD/OpenBSD/NetBSD ) CramFS (Compressed File System) DOS/Windows FAT12. All operations are not supported across all file systems. checking and copying partitions. • Is designed for both occasional use as well as large scale automated operating system roll-outs and cloning projects. FAT16 and FAT32 HFS. NTFS. Hierarchical File System JFS. OpenBSD. Linux Swap. and XFS. FAT32. and Sun Solaris. NetBSD. Free FDISK Free FDISK is the replacement FDISK which is available in FreeDOS. JFS.) XFS. and the file systems on them. copying data between hard drives and drive imaging.. Windows NT 4/2000/XP/2003. IBM's Journaled File System Linux Ext2 and Ext3 Linux Raid Linux Swap (versions 1 and 2) LVM and LVM2.
When this happens. Floppy disk drives contain only one platter. The storage capacity of the disk will be decreased by the amount of storage space in the bad sector. Once marked as unusable. If the bad sector was caused by a faulty drive head. Each of these tracks is divided into smaller storage areas called sectors. the problem can quickly spread to other sectors on the disk. It is very normal for some of these sectors to be bad sectors. the data in those sectors may be lost. but it can be marked as unusable. Free FDISK is Open Source and licensed under the GNU GPL. back the hard drive up immediately. The platters are the discs which are covered with magnetic material which is used to hold data. When this happens. Those bad sectors can not be repaired. MBRWork MBRWork is a utility to perform some common and uncommon tasks to the MBR/EMBR/Sectors of a hard drive. How do I repair a bad sector? Occasionally one or more sectors on an otherwise good hard drive will go bad. Platters are divided into a set of concentric rings called tracks. Hard drives have thousands of tracks. Hard drives usually have several platters. the Operating System will know not to attempt to store data in that bad sector.• • Allows the use of boot loaders from other operating systems. Once marked as unusable. but they can be marked as unusable. What is a Bad Sector? Hard drives are contain millions of sectors. even when the drive is first manufactured. the data in those sectors may be lost.44MB floppy disk has 160 tracks. the Operating System will know not to attempt to 25 . but the data on the rest of the disk will be unaffected and the disk is still completely usable. A bad sector cannot be repaired. MBRWork is a tool for power users who understand how computers work. In addition. but the data on the rest of the disk will be unaffected and the disk is still completely usable. If your hard drive develops a bad sector. What is a bad sector? What is a Sector? A sector is a small area on the surface of a hard drive or a floppy disk. A sector is the smallest storage area on a disk. A 1. a small number of sectors will normally go bad during the lifespan of a drive.
like all mechanical devices. Click the <Check Now. Common hard drive problems include: • • • • User errors Software errors Hard drive electronics failures Hard drive arm failures 26 .> button. How to "Repair" a Bad Sector in Windows XP • • • • • • Press the <Start> button. How to Scan Disk in Win XP • • • • • • scan. continue to back up your hard drive on a regular basis.> button How does hard drive recovery work? Hard drives. Under Hard Disk Drives highlight the disk which you want to Open the <File> menu and choose <Properties> Open the <Tools> tab. If the bad sector was caused by a faulty drive head. scan. back it up immediately... Once the bad sector or sectors have been "repaired".. If your hard drive is experiencing a bad sector. Select <My Computer>. In earlier version of Microsoft Windows and DOS.store data in those bad sectors. Click the <Check Now. Select <My Computer>. this functionality was built into the `scandisk` and `chkdsk` utilities. Hard drives are mechanical devices and all mechanical devices will eventually fail.. Where is Scan Disk in Win XP? Scan Disk has been removed from Windows 2000 and Win XP. eventually break down. The functionality previously found in Scan Disk has been built into Explorer. The total disk capacity will be decreased by the amount of storage space in those bad sectors. the problem can spread to many other sectors across the disk. Under Hard Disk Drives highlight the disk which you want to Open the <File> menu and choose <Properties> Open the <Tools> tab. Press the <Start> button.
When the hard drive arm fails. result in the loss of some data. Modern hard drives automatically mark those bad spots as unusable and do not store data there. This may. for example. The hard drive will mark that spot bad and attempt to move the data to a good spot on the hard drive. When you hear the clicking noises from your hard drive which signal a hard drive arm failure.• Hard drive platter failures User Errors User errors include accidentally deleting or overwriting files and accidentally formatting a or deleting a partition. 27 . This task may require the services of a data recovery specialist. if the hard drive is subject to a power surge or a discharge of static electricity. a data recovery specialist may still be able to recover data from a hard drive with a damaged hard drive arm. it is usually possible to take the mechanical parts out of the hard drive assembly and place them into another identical hard drive unit. This can happen. If the hard drive platters have not been damaged. Errors cause by software are generally much more difficult for off-the-shelf data recovery software to correct. Hard Drive Electronics Failures When a hard drive physically fails. sometimes the mechanical parts of the hard drive remain undamaged. In these cases. User errors can sometimes be resolved through the use of off-the-shelf data recovery software. there is a very good chance that it will damage the hard drive platters. There will always be some bad spots on the platter surface. Hard Drive Platter Failures No drive platter is manufactured perfectly. or may not. Sometimes bad spots will develop during the life of the hard drive. Software Errors Software errors usually result from software writing data to the wrong part of the disk. Hard Drive Arm Failures Hard drive arm failures are very common. to prevent dust from damaging the hard drive. This should be done in a clean-room environment. back up all necessary data immediately and power the system down as soon as possible.
NT 4. Smart Media. • PC Inspector Smart Recovery PC Inspector Smart Recovery is a data recovery program for Flash Card.PC Inspector Smart Recovery can easily. XP and Windows 2000 systems. ME. the hard drive platters are being scratched. quickly and absolutely reliably reconstruct the lost data. What is free data recovery software? Never install free data recovery software on the drive that you are attempting to recover data from. Secure Digital Card or any other data carrier for digital cameras.Serious hard drive platter failures can occur as a result of hard drive arm failures. 28 . In these cases. Always install and run free data recovery software from a separate drive. If you have unintentionally deleted or formatted pictures. The Solution to Hard Drive Recovery: Backup The best method of hard drive recovery is to throw away the failed hard drive and restore your data from backup to a brand new drive. even if the boot sector or FAT has been erased or damaged • Recovers files with the original time and date stamp • Supports the saving of recovered files on network drives • Recovers file contents. These failures are very expensive or impossible to recover. Free Data Recovery Software PC Inspector File Recovery PC Inspector File Recovery is a data recovery program that supports the FAT 12/16/32 and NTFS file systems. even when the file header is no longer available. such as an external hard disk or flash drive. Your data is being scratched right off the surface of the platters! You can often hear this damage occuring. Backing up your data is a critically important preventative maintenance task. Don't put yourself at risk by not properly backing up your data. PC Inspector Smart Recovery runs on Windows 95/98. Sony Memory Stick.0. Multimedia Card. no matter . IBM Micro Drive. Finds partitions automatically. videos or sound files on your data carrier or have pulled it out during a write operation.
to download and use a fully functional copy of the program. program should work with any media type (e. Luckily. It can also help you to recover lost data. Whether your hard drive has locked up or has completely crashed 29 .g. so it is virtually impossible to test the program with each and every hardware combination. In case of accidental deletion of files on a NTFS file system (used by default in Windows XP. Undelete previously deleted files. This software will attempt to recover every readable piece of a file and put the pieces together. unless the area has already been overwritten. There exists a vast variety of digital camera and associated media types on the market. A deleted file is essentially an area on disk designated as free and ready to accept data (such as contents of some other file). Generally. Due to this fact it is possible to undelete files. View and search raw directories. Memory Stick. files. clusters. Unstoppable Copier Unstoppable Copier recovers files from disks with physical damage. direct or hidden. It allows you to recover digital photos accidentally deleted from digital camera memory. How do I recover hard drive data? Hard drive data recovery is the process of recovering lost data from a hard drive when the data cannot be readily accessed through normal retrieval methods. You need the use your camera or the appropriate card reader you normally use to transfer images from camera to PC. Disk Investigator Disk Investigator helps you to discover all that is hidden on your computer hard disk. The program does not install any spyware or adware along with it. scratches or that just give errors when reading data. The program allows you to copy files from disks with problems such as bad sectors. Using this method most types of files can be made useable even if some parts were not recoverable in the end. It does not populate user's desktop with pop-up ads or forcefully subscribe user to mailing lists. Display the true drive contents by bypassing the operating system and directly reading the raw drive sectors. There is no charge. it still holds the contents of the deleted file. Zero Assumption Digital Image Recovery Zero Assumption Digital Image Recovery is a freeware data recovery tool.FreeUndelete FreeUndelete is a freeware data recovery program for deleted files. and system sectors. Compact Flash. specifically designed to work with digital images. It is our pleasure to emphasize that FreeUndelete is free. 2000 and NT) FreeUndelete is the utility to help. Verify the effectiveness of file and disk wiping programs. SmartMedia and so on) accessible by means of operating system.
In this scenario a qualified computer technician may be needed to fix problematic hard drive issues. Spyware. and in most cases the cause is either virus related or due to a corrupted system file. These types of hard drive crashes can generally be recovered by reinstalling the operating system. Most hard drive data recovery firms utilize the latest tools like magnetometers to retrieve the lost bits from the magnetic media. If the arm fails to function or the motor overheats or stops spinning. Reasons for Hard Drive Crashes Hard drive crashes occur for a variety of reasons. Viruses. and the logical damage can be repaired. Determining the Actual Cause of a Hard Drive Crash To determine whether your hard drive has crashed due to mechanical failure or a software related problem is relatively simple. and Trojan horses can also cause system file corruption resulting in a hard drive crash. If the flashing light in the front of the computer case is not blinking. However. If the hard drive has any physical damage. it indicates that there is no hard drive activity and is generally attributed to a mechanical problem. Physical Damage Most physical damage to a hard drive. then the problem may be software related. One of the main causes for a full blown hard drive crash is generally attributed to a hardware issues.there is a good chance the data can be recovered by using a variety of hard drive data recovering techniques. such as failed motors or head crashes. The recovered raw bits from the damaged hard drive are used to construct a new disk image. cannot be repaired by typical computer users. Check whether the flashing light in front of your computer case is blinking or not. Hard drive crashes can also be caused by corrupted registry files or system files. the physical damage can also result in the damage of the logical structures of the file system which prevents file system structures from being completely written to the hard drive. Physical damage of a hard drive often results in some data loss and in most cases you may not be able to recover all the lost data. then there is a chance your hard drive will crash rendering data seemingly inaccessible from all hard drive areas. The hard drive is a magnetic disc which spins and has an extended arm that collected data from any area of the hard drive. If the light is flashing but the computer is not booting up. 30 . adware. you need to seek a technical expert to assist in recovery or choose a data recovery company to recover as much data as possible.
What is a full backup? A full backup is a backup of every file on a file system. so if the data recovery software you selected has a trail offer. whether that file has changed or not. software malfunction or even a virus attack. A full backup takes longer to accomplish and requires the most storage space on the backup media. A good hard drive data recovery program can recover all the important files or folders which vanish after partition loss. 5. The alternatives to a full backup are incremental backup and differential backup. it's a good idea to purchase these programs from a trusted software supplier. drive 7. 4. it may be a good idea to give it a test drive before you make a purchase. 8. Most software companies understand the consumer's need to be assured of value and ease of use. 31 . 3. and is virtually self maintaining. data recovery software can locate the lost files and recover them from your hard drive. user friendly. but it also provides the quickest restore times. A full backup should also be performed before any major planned changes to a system. Missing file or directory Formatted hard drive Deleted file or directory Unbootable hard drive Inaccessible hard drive Recovery of deleted files and folders on FAT and NTFS hard or partitions Data recovery on damaged FAT and NTFS partitions Damaged or corrupted partition table The majority of hard drive data recovery software programs currently available is easy to install. A full backup should be performed weekly or monthly on production systems. along with daily differential backups. However. accidental format. 2. Most will automatically create backup copies of all your files and folders reducing the worry of potential data loss. The main contexts where hard drive data recovery software is found useful include: 1.The Role of Hard Drive Data Recovery Software Programs Hard drive data recovery software programs play a major role in recovering hard drive data. Whether you accidentally delete the files or your computer crashes. 6. You will find several companies that offer these types of programs. file or directory deletion.
For most environments. A differential backup is not as fast as an incremental backup. but not as much time to restore as an incremental backup. when the system crashes on Thursday you will only need to restore the full backup from Sunday and the differential backup from Wednesday. you will only need to restore the full backup from Sunday and the differential backup from Wednesday. If you perform a full backup on Sunday and a differential every night. if you perform a full backup on Sunday and incremental backups every night. and Wednesday. a weekly full backup and a daily differential backip represent a better plan. If you perform a full backup on Sunday along with incremental backups every night and the system crashes on Thursday. 32 . A differential backup requires more time to restore than a full backup. The alternatives to a differential backup are incremental backup and full backup. incremental backups also require the longest time and the most tapes to restore. you will need to restore the full backup from Sunday along with the incremental backups from Monday. A differential backup requires more storage space than an incremental backup. Tuesday. but it is faster than a full backup. Incremental backups should be used only in environments where backup time or backup storage media are extremely constrained. An incremental backup is the fastest backup and requires the least storage space on the backup media. The alternatives to an incremental backup are differential backup and full backup. but less than a full backup. A differential backup should be performed daily on production systems. you will need to restore the full backup from Sunday along with the incremental backups from Monday. Tuesday. A differential backup can be an optimal middle-ground between a full backup and an incremental backup. However. and the system crashes on Thursday. In contrast.What is an incremental backup? A incremental backup is a backup of every file on a filesystem which has changed since the last backup. when the system crashes on Thursday. and Wednesday. if you perform a full backup on Sunday and a differential every night. In contrast. What is a differential backup? A differential backup is a backup of every file on a file system which has changed since the last full backup.
These drives offer unlimited rewrite capabilities and are available in capacities ranging anywhere from 64 MB to 4 GB. The best backup method for your data depends opon many factors. Flash memory drives are easy to plug into any PC with a USB port. they normally utilize tape autochangers to give them greater storage capacity. and EMC Legato Networker. Veritas NetBackup. What are common computer backup methods? It is a well-known fact that most computers are susceptible to hard drive crashes or virus attacks. Bacula. Backing up information is a practical and necessary precaution to protect one's data from being lost forever. There are several realistic methods for backing up data. Here are some of the most commonly used data backup solutions. also known as memory sticks. Because network backup systems can backup so many computers. Network backup systems are much more scalable and manageable than local backup systems where tape drives are attached to each comouter ystem. Flash Memory Flash memory. and the funds available for backup. and BackupPC. Network backup typically requires a client-server software architecture. or thumb drives. flash drives.What is network backup? Network backup is any backup system where the data to be backed up traverses the network to reach the backup media. including: the importance of the data. Another advantage of flash memory is that data stored on flash drives is not susceptible to damage caused by magnets. Commercial network backup software includes HP OpenView Storage Data Protector. Advanced network backup systems can manage backup media which are also connected to the backup server via a network. are a suitable solution for data backup when the backup amount is somewhat small. The backup server resides on a centralized server and the backup clients reside on every system to be backed up. the amount of data to be backed up. 33 . Flash memory data durability is estimated to be roughly 10 years. Network Backup Software Free network backup software includes Amanda.
Single-layer DVDs can hold up to 4. What is DLT? 34 . Hard Drives As the prices of hard drives are dropping each year. and the DVDR. which is comparatively low. tape drives typically provide the highest storage capacities at the lowest cost. tape backups have become less popular and practically obsolete for home computer users.DVD Backup DVD backup is a practical alternative for home users and small businesses. and AIT. DLT and LTO for high-end systems. is the write speed of these drives. Tape Backup Combined with their decreased accessibility and the advances made in the availability of such storage devices as the CD-R. Compared to several other media solutions. however. One drawback to keep in mind. The primary disadvantages are cost and the worry that a malware attack which affects the primary hard drives could also effect the backup hard drives. individuals and businesses are turning to hard drives as a backup option. DVD technology is a suitable option for storing backup data medium amounts of backup data. Onlien storage solutions enable people to upload their data to a reliable server located in a secure environment.7 GB of data and dual-layer DVDs can hold up to 8. DVD technologies include DVD-RW.5 GB. tape backup is still the primary backup method used in business environments. DVD-RAM. DVD+RW. as well as dual layer DVD technologies. of course backup data also. DVD-R. DVD+R. However. Tape backups are available in numerous capacities such as 4mm helical for low-end systems. the CD-RW. Copying and retrieving data from separate hard drives is very easy. Another advantage of storing files online is that users can access these files from any location as long as they have a computer with Internet access. 8mm helical scan technology for mid-range systems. Online Storage Online storage is one of the newest methods of storing your files.
A SuperDLT II tape can store up to 300GB of uncompressed data and can transfer as much as 36MB per second. DLT Alternatives Alternative tape storage standards to DLT include LTO and AIT. DLT tapes store between 10GB and 40GB of uncompressed data. This storage space contains data about the tape and can be read without the time required to read the magnetic tape itself. What is LTO tape? LTO (Linear Tape-Open) is a tape standard developed by HP.DLT (Digital Linear Tape) is a magnetic tape format developed by DEC (now Hewlett-Packard). in a linear fashion. Data bands are filled one-at-a-time. The four data bands are bordered by bands of servo information which are written during tape manufacture. DLT tapes are 1/2 inch wide and are packaged in study plastic containers. IBM. LTO Tape Generations The LTO tape standard is designed to last for four generations of magnetic tape technology. and Seagate as a competitor to DLT. LTO tapes contain 4KB of non-volatile memory which can be read through a non-contacting passive RF interface. LTO tape stores data in 384 data tracks which are divided into four data bands of 96 tracks each. LTO Tape Generation Uncompressed Capacity Generation 1 Generation 2 Generation 3 100GB 200GB 400GB 35 .
AIT Tape Capacities AIT Tape Specification Storage Capacity SDX125C SDX135C TAITE-20N TAIT1-40N/40C 25GB 35GB 20GB 40GB 36 .Generation 4 800GB LTO Tape Physical Specifications An LTO tape is approximately 4. AIT tapes contain non-volatile memory called Memory-in-Cassette (MIC). An AIT tape should support 30.8". without having to read data from the slower magnetic media. cobalt is vaporized and deposited directly on the base film. AME technology gives AIT tape both high-capacity and exceptional durability.0" x 0. Find a Great Deal on LTO Equipment on eBay What is AIT? AIT (Advanced Intelligent Tape) is a magnetic tape format developed by Sony. AIT Magnetic Media AIT uses Advanced Metal Evaporated (AME) tape.1" x 4.000 hours. To create AME tape. This storage space contains data about the tape which can be read quickly by a tape drive.000 media uses with an MTBF of 400. LTO Alternatives Alternative tape storage standards to LTO include DLT and AIT.
With broadband speeds becoming faster and bandwidth pricing dropping every year.5mm x 15.are coming down by the day. is a technology which allows people to store their data in the Internet. AIT Alternatives Alternative tape storage standards to AIT include DLT and LTO. Another advantage of online data storage is that it is easy to expand. CD-R. There is no need for you to purchase and install additional storage hardware. also known as Internet data storage. you can simply purchase additional space for storage. the user can access data from any location with a computer and Internet connection. What is Online Data Storage? Online data storage.0mm.SDX236C SDX2-50C SDX2-50W SDX3-100C SDX3-100W SDX4-200C SDX4-200W 36GB 50GB 50GB 100GB 100GB 200GB 200GB AIT Physical Specifications AIT tapes are 95mm x 62. more people are interested in purchasing online data storage. Whenever you reach the maximum capacity limit. With online data storage. This s convenient for businesses and home computer users alike. This is the reason why Internet data storage is increasingly popular even as the costs of physical local storage devices . and tape backups . while home computer users can 37 . Businesses that use online data storage can password protect access to business files.5" drive bays.such as hard drives. Online data storage not only provides an additional flexible source for storing data but also acts as a backup mechanism and provides an effective method of sharing data with others. This compact format is very convenient for use in 3.
Nowadays there are several vendors offering online data storage facilities. online vendors typically use strong encryption technologies to keep user's data safe and secure during transmission over the Internet. or videos with their family members. additional security may be required . If the user is looking for storage space for some non-sensitive data. it should be kept in mind that backup data must be stored in some other place other than the same computer or the same physical location. music. Some vendors provide an additional measure of security by providing users with a password token. Fibre Channel supports data transmission rates of 100MBps. for sensitive data. Generally online data storage vendors feature a fully managed and secure solution with 24x7 technical support and monitoring. To do so. There are several types of online data storage. Further almost all Internet data storage services are secure and password protected. Another noted advantage of online data storage is data backup. Computers are susceptible to hard drive crashes or virus attacks. Users typically pay fees based upon the amount of space they need. there is no better an option than online data storage. then the basic online storage is an ideal one. which automatically generates passwords using two factor authentication. Fibre Channel devices using fiber optic cabling use two unidirectional fiber optic cables for each connection. Fibre channel over fiber optic cable supports cable distances of up to 10Km.use it for something as simple as sharing photos. Hence taking data backups frequently would be a safe way to protect your data from getting lost forever. One fiber optic cable is used for transmitting. Fibre Channel Topologies Fibre Channel supports three fabric topologies: • • • Fabric Loop Point-to-Point Fiber Channel Physical Connectivity Fiber Channel supports connectivity over fiber optic cabling or copper wiring. the other for receiving. However. What is Fibre Channel? Fibre Channel is a set of standards for connecting storage devices in a fabric network. 38 .such as data encryption or two-factor authentication. Fibre Channel supports the connection of 126 devices on a single network. In such cases. On the other hand.
A SAN is a separate network to which storage devices are attached. Fibre Channel Devices Fibre Channel Devices include: • • • Host Bust Adapters (HBA's) Fibre Channel Hubs Fibre Channel Switches Fibre Channel Ports Fibre Channel uses a shorthand terminology to describe different types of connections to the fibre channel network. This differentiates Network Attached Storage devices from SAN's (Storage Area Networks). Fibre Channel uses the term "ports" and defines seven different types of ports: Short Name N-port F-port L-port NL-port FL-port E-port G-port Descriptive Name Network Port Fabric Port Loop Port Device Type Nodes Switches Nodes Port Function Node port used to connect a node to a Fibre Channel switch Switch port used to connect the Fibre Channel fabric to a node Node port used to connect a node to a Fibre Channel loop Node port which connects to both loops and switches Switch port which connects to both loops and switches Used to cascade fibre channel switches together General purpose port which can be configured to emulate other port types Network + Loop Nodes Port Fabric + Loop Port Extender Port General Port Switches Switches Switches What is Network Attached Storage? Network Attached Storage (NAS) is a term used to describe a complete storage system which is designed to be attached to a traditional data network. 39 .Fibre Channel devices which communicate over copper cabling are limited to distances of 30m.
However. is the interface card which connects a host to a SAN (Storage Area Network). In addition to disk storage. NAS devices based on ATA disks are now available. A HBA could be more accurately referred to as a "Host I/O controller". but NAS devices can be built using any disk technology. or Host Bus Adapter.11 Network Attached Storage devices are now appearing on the market. Wireless 802. Network Atttached Storage Connections NAS server are typically attached to the network via Ethernet.In most cases. a SAN can provide better performance and a larger range of configuration options. However. They may also support other storage protocols. NAS devices are also available which connect to Fibre Channel networks. Network Attached Storage Protocols NAS servers commonly support NFS (Network File System) and CIFS (Common Internet File System). Network Attached Storage is less expensive to purchase and less complex to operate than a Storage Area Network. Network Attached Storage Drives NAS devices have traditionally utilized SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) internally. What is a HBA? A HBA. NAS devices can also support magnetic tape and optical media such as CD and DVD. What is LUN masking? 40 . such as FTP (File Transfer Protocol) or SCP (Secure CoPy).
zone information must be updated every time a user changes switch ports. What is the OSI model? 41 . LUN Masking is important because Windows based servers attempt to write volume labels to all available LUN's. A users access to data is determined by what physical port he or she is connected to. Some storage controllers also support LUN Masking. port zoning does not allow zones to overlap. What is port zoning? Port zoning utilizes physical ports to define security zones. Hard zoning physically blocks access to a zone from any device outside of the zone. but could also be implemented using soft zoning. What is SAN zoning? SAN zoning is a method of arranging Fibre Channel devices into logical groups over the physical configuration of the fabric. Each device in a SAN may be placed into multiple zones. Soft zoning is zoning which is implemented in software. In addition. This can render the LUN's unusable by other operating systems and can result in data loss.LUN (Logical Unit Number) Masking is an authorization process that makes a LUN available to some hosts and unavailable to other hosts. Port zoning is normally implemented using hard zoning. What are hard and soft zoning? Hard zoning is zoning which is implemented in hardware. The security vulnerability in soft zoning is that the ports are still accessible if the user in another zone correctly guesses the fibre channel address. SAN zoning may be utilized to implement compartmentalization of data for security purposes. With port zoning. LUN Masking implemented at this level is vulnerable to any attack that compromises the HBA. Soft zoning uses filtering implemented in fibre channel switches to prevent ports from being seen from outside of their assigned zones. LUN Masking is implemented primarily at the HBA (Host Bus Adapater) level.
In the time that the OSI designers spent arguing over who would be responsible for what. Layer Six of the OSI Model 42 . electronic messaging. The Seven Layers of the OSI Model The seven layers of the OSI model are: Layer 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Name Application Presentation Session Transport Network Data Link Physical The easiest way to remember the layers of the OSI model is to use the handy mnemonic "All People Seem To Need Data Processing": Layer Mnemonic 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Application Session Transport Network Data Link Physical All Seem To Need Data Processing Presentation People Name The functions of the seven layers of the OSI model are: Layer Seven of the OSI Model The Application Layer of the OSI model is responsible for providing end-user services. but the cost and complexity of the government processes involved in defining the OSI network made the project unviable. and network management. such as file transfers. This is the layer with which the user interacts. TCP/IP conquered the world.The OSI model is a reference model which most IT professionals use to describe networks and network applications. e-mail. virtual terminal access. The OSI model was originally intended to describe a complete set of production network protocols.
but it's the only well-recognized standard we have which describes networked applications. The OSI model is a very poor standard. The Transport Layer should be responsible for fragmentation and reassembly. Routers operate at the Network Layer. such as TCP/IP. Encryption and compression should be Presentation Layer functions. Hubs and switches operate at the Data Link Layer. Layer Three of the OSI Model The Network Layer of the OSI model is responsible for establishing paths for data transfer through the network. Layer Two of the OSI Model The Data Link Layer of the OSI model is responsible for communications between adjacent network nodes. The OSI model was created by academicians for academic purposes. and pin-outs.The Presentation Layer of the OSI model is responsible for defining the syntax which two network hosts use to communicate. Layer Four of the OSI Model The Transport Layer of the OSI model is responsible for delivering messages between networked hosts. voltages. Layer Five of the OSI Model The Session Layer of the OSI model is responsible for establishing process-to-process commnunications between networked hosts. The Physical Layer defines items such as: connector types. cable types. The Real World The most major difficulty with the OSI model is that is does not map well to the real world! The OSI was created after many of todays protocols were already in production use. Layer One of the OSI Model The Physical Layer of the OSI model is responsible for bit-level transmission between network nodes. 43 . These existing protocols. The OSI Model vs. were designed and built around the needs of real users with real problems to solve.
Named Pipes. Ventilation. You could argue forever about what OSI model layer SSH maps to. Plenum cable must meet two requirements to meet most fire codes: Plenum cable must not burn easily Plenum cable must not emit toxic fumes when exposed to extreme heat • • 44 . and Air Conditioning) and to run cables. Buildings without plenum spaces will have cabling and HVAC ducts within plain view. read Kill the Beast: Why the Seven-Layer Model Must Die. NETBIOS TCP. A much more accurate model of real-world networking is the TCP/IP model: TCP/IP Model Application Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer Network Interface Layer The most significant downside with the TCP/IP model is that if you reference it. Plenum cable is cable which is rated to be run through plenum spaces. fewer people will know what you are talking about! For a better description of why the OSI model should go the way of the dodo. What is plenum cable? The plenum is hidden space within a building which is used for HVAC (Heating. and DivX.The easiest way to deal with the OSI model is to map the real-world protocols to the model. as well as they can be mapped. UDP IP Ethernet Cat-5 Presentation HTTP. disco. SNMP Name The difficulty with this approach is that there is no general agreement as to which layer of the OSI model to map any specific protocol. SMTP. FTP RPC. Layer Common Protocols 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Application Session Transport Network Data Link Physical SSH. Plenum space is normally above a suspended ceiling or under a raised floor. telnet.
A much easier and more reliable method to change a MAC address under Windows is to use a software utility program designed to do this for you. Plenum cable is also more stiff and difficult to work with than regular network cable. you can change your MAC address with `ifconfig <interface> hw <class> <address>`. How do I change a MAC address? Every Ethernet card has a MAC address burned-in at the factory.Because of these requirements. you may want to change this MAC address to one of your own choosing. The procedures to change a MAC address are specific to each operating system. Most plenum cable is covered with Teflon or PVC. plenum cable is usually more expensive than non-plenum cable. find that key with `regedit` and change it. the MAC address is stored in a registry key. 45 . At times. To change a MAC address. Of course. How to change a MAC address under Microsoft Windows Under Windows. How to change a MAC address under Solaris In Solaris. Microsoft keeps moving the location of the key around! Windows XP adds an option to change the MAC address on some network cards under the Advanced tab in the network adapter's Properties menu. How to change a MAC address under FreeBSD In FreeBSD. How to change a MAC address under MacOS Instructions for changing the MAC address on a Macintosh can be found at MAC Spoofing on the Macintosh. you can change the MAC address with the `ifconfig <interface> <ether> <address>` command. Macshift is a free utility that you can use to spoof your MAC address under Microsoft Windows. or you can use the GNU MAC Changer. How to change a MAC address under Linux Under Linux. you can change your MAC address with the `ifconfig <interface> link <address>` command.
Most Internet connections are charged using a flat monthly fee structure. VoIP calls can be placed across the Internet. The success of IP in becoming a world standard for data networking has led to its adaption to voice networking. Advanced Options. It is possible to change the MAC address under OpenBSD with sea. What is VoIP? VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) is simply the transmission of voice traffic over IP-based networks. In addition.How to change a MAC address under OpenBSD OpenBSD does not. then selecting the interface. then Action. Using the Internet connection for both data traffic and voice calls can allow consumers to get rid of one monthly payment. HP-UX refers to the MAC address as the "station address".c. How to change a MAC address under HP-UX Under HP-UX. by default. Modify. The Internet Protocol (IP) was originally designed for data networking. Most Americans pay a flat monthly fee for local telephone calls and a per-minute charge for longdistance calls. you can change the MAC address in SAM by selecting Networking and Communications. VoIP Telephones There are three methods of connecting to a VoIP network: • • • Using a VoIP telephone Using a "normal" telephone with a VoIP adapter Using a computer with speakers and a microphone 46 . allow you to change the MAC address. the monetary savings to the consumer from switching to VoIP technology can be enormous. The Economics of VoIP VoIP has become popular largely because of the cost advantages to consumers over traditional telepone networks. For International calling. VoIP plans do not charge a per-minute fee for long distance.
Connected to joker Escape character is '^]'. to 127. even though neither device may be a PC Changing a MAC Address in Hardware Speed Demon Adapters sells network cards which give you the ability to change the MAC address stored in their EERPROM.0.. 127.0.1 is the standard IP address used for a loopback network connection. Another name for 127.1 is the most commonly utilized address for localhost.0. If you telnet.1? 127. This can give you the ability to change your MAC address under any operating system that supports either the PCI bus or PCMCIA Type II cards.*. For example. you would see: # telnet 127. Firewalls are most commonly specially configured Unix systems..0. you are immediately looped back to your own machine.0. Calls from a VoIP device to a PSTN device are commonly called "PC-toPhone" calls.0.0. 47 .1 is localhost.0. Although 127.0. even though the VoIP device may not be a PC.0.0. if your system was named "joker". The most common commercial firewall today is CheckPoint FireWall-1.0. but firewalls have also been built out of many other systems. What is 127. In other words. ftp.0.0.1 is you. or to normal telephones on the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network).1. Convincing newbie's to connect to 127.0.*. but competitors such as Cisco's PIX are quickly catching up on CheckPoint.0.0. you are connected to your own machine.0. including systems designed specifically for use as firewalls. any IP address in the 127.* range should also function in the same manner.1. This means that if you try to connect to 127.1.1 is a frequent joke on the Internet. Calls from a VoIP device to another VoIP device are commonly called "PCto-PC" calls.1 Trying 127.0. What is a firewall? A firewall is a system that is set up to control traffic flow between two networks.0.0.0.1.. and you attempted to telnet to 127. etc.Types of VoIP Calls VoIP telephone calls can be placed either to other VoIP devices..
the firewall examines five characteristics of a packet: • • • • • Source IP address Source port Destination IP address Destination port IP protocol (TCP or UDP) Based upon rules configured into the firewall. Routers are a very common form of packet filtering firewall. In a proxying firewall. Dropping packets instead of rejecting them greatly increases the time required to scan your network. rejected. The Application-Proxy Firewall Another type of firewall is the application-proxy firewall. You need an HTTP proxy for web traffic. the firewall "remembers" conversations between systems. It is then necessary to fully examine only the first packet of a conversation. Because each packet is destroyed and re-created. every packet is stopped at the firewall. In a packet filtering firewall. or dropped. and in this discussion I will use the term loosely. Packet filtering firewalls operate on Layer 3 of the OSI model. The Application-Gateway Firewall 48 . an FTP proxy for file transfers. If the packet passes the examinations.Many people disagree on the definition of a firewall. it is re-created and sent out. the firewall simply does not respond to the packet.. The Packet Filtering Firewall One type of firewall is the packet filtering firewall. it sends a message back to the sender letting him know that the packet was rejected. the Network Layer. the Application Layer. The packet is then examined and compared to the rules configured into the firewall.. An improved form of the packet filtering firewall is a packet filtering firewall with a stateful inspection engine. there is a potential that an application-proxy firewall can prevent unknown attacks based upon weaknesses in the TCP/IP protocol suite that would not be prevented by a packet filtering firewall. a Gopher proxy for Gopher traffic. the packet will either be allowed through. The sender must wait for the communications to time out. If the firewall rejects the packet. Application-proxy firewalls operate on Layer 7 of the OSI model. If the packet was dropped. etc. The drawback is that a separate application-proxy must be written for each application type being proxied. With this enhancement.
meaning that the antenna can move constantly. such as mobile telephone networks. Other wireless networks are mobile. Common Wireless Network Types 49 . and GPRS are examples. In many cases. multiple layers of security and encryption may be desirable. CPDP. A typical application-gateway firewall is a system where you must telnet to one system in order telnet again to a system outside of the network. instead of an inherent limitation of the wireless network specification. On a Windows or OS/2 system. Wireless networks may operate on licensed or unlicensed portions of the frequency spectrum. SOCKS firewalls requires specially modified network clients. The SOCKS Firewall Another type of application-proxy firewall are SOCKS firewalls. Some wireless data networks run over wireless voice networks. Wireless networks which run over other wireless networks often utilize the lower layer networks to provide security and encryption. 802. A few wireless networks are intended only to connect small devices over short distances. Application-gateway firewalls exist for only a few network applications.Application-gateway firewalls also operate on Layer 7 of the OSI model. What are the types of wireless networks? Wireless data networks exist in such number and variety as to be difficult to categorize and compare. Bluetooth is an example. Stand-alone wireless networks either provide their own security and encryption features or rely upon VPN's (Virtual Private Networks) to provide those features. This is sometimes a feature of the specific implementation and antenna design. meaning that antennas do not move frequently. This means you have to modify every system on your internal network which needs to communicate with the external network. Where normal application-proxy firewalls do not require modifications to network clients. HSCSD. PDC-P. this can be as easy as swapping a few DLL's. LMDS. Other wireless networks run on their own physical layer networks. utilizing anything from antennas built into handlheld devices to large antennas mounted on towers. and MMDS are examples.11. Some wireless networks are fixed.
Major types of wireless networks include: CDPD HSCSD PDC-P GPRS 1xRTT Bluetooth IrDA MMDS LMDS WiMAX 802.11 Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service Local Multipoint Distribution Service Worldwide Interoperability for Wi-Fi Microwave Cellular Digital Packet Data High Speed Circuit Switched Data Packet Data Cellular General Packet Radio Service 1x Radio Transmission Technology Access 50 .
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