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Papers. September 9-14, 2002. Khanty-Mansiisk") The craniological materials representing the physical characteristics of ancient and modern population of Western Siberia allow to trace the main stages of formation of the formerly existed and contemporary bioanthropological types. The physical type, which was registered in the territory of Western Siberia in the Neolithic period was the Caucasoid relating to the proto-European type widely spread in Eastern Europe, Karelia, Baltic region and Ukraine. At the same time the Western-Siberian Neolithic population was characterized with certain specific features of genesis and physical appearance that were mainly a result of the added Mongoloid elementy of variois lines of descent. It is possible to distinguish this type as the Western Siberian variant of the proto-European type, consisting of two groups of population - the Western Siberian and the Upper Ob. Conventional boundary between the areas of Caucasoid and Mongoloid populations during the Mesolithic and Neolithic Time was the area of the Upper Ob region. Part of the Caucasoid population penetrated even further east, an evidence of which was the Caucasoid element in composition of the Neolithic population in Eastern Siberia [Debets 1948; Alexeev 1961; Gokhman 1980; Mamonova 1980]. Part of the Mongoloids settled in the western and southern directions. As a result of mutual contacts the populations that formed in the Upper Ob region had in their physical composition a Mongoloid component of the Outer Mongolia origin (Ust-Isha, Itkul, Vaskovo). It was, most likely, via these type of groups that the Mongoloid elements of the Outer Mongolia type penetrated into the composition of the Kelteminar population of the north of Central Asia. Reverse contacts facilitated the penetration of Mediterranean type elements into some West Siberian groups. The influence of the Mediterranean can be traced more clearly in the Middle West-Ural region. In the composition of other Neolithic groups in addition to the above mentioned component there was also the Mongoloid elements of taiga origin (Sopka 2, Protoka, Omsk site, Lebedi). With the groups of the Caucasoid populations of the proto-European type this type of component penetrated westward as well - the morphologically similar element was registered in the composition of the population of the Lyalovo culture known in the forest band of Eastern Europe [Alexeeva 1997] and in the composition of the Mesolithic population of Karelia (Yuzhny Oleny Ostrov) [Yakimov 1960]. The racial-genetic processes that took place in Western Siberia during the Neolithic and reconstructed on the basis of archeological and bio-anthropological material were in many ways related to the cultural processes. The data provide evidence of the penetration into Western Siberia of population different from the locals in their physical appearance and bringing certain innovations into the aboriginal populations [Zakh, Bagashev 1998]. For example, the inflow of the southern elements into the Western Siberian cultures in the early stages of their formation correlates with the appearance in the physical composition of the local population of the racial complexs, genetically related to the Central Asian groups that left after them the burial site Numek-Kichidgik in the Southern Aral region. In the Bronze Age the differentiation between groups of population , which had started in the previous period, grew stronger. The processes of mixing of the Caucasoid population geneticlly related to the Neolithic population and the taiga Mongoloids continued in the sub-taiga area of Western Siberia. During that time the physical characteristics typical for the population of the Krotovo culture of pre-Andronovo time and the Chernoozerye-Tomsk variant of the Andronovo cultural community was formed. However, within the composition of the latter it is possible to trace quite clearly the Caucasoid elements related to the Andronovo (Fedorovo) tribes. In the more southern areas of Western Siberia the physical type genetically related to the population of the Andronovo culture, especially it's Fedorovo variant, began to spread widely, whereas input of the Alakul type related to the Srubnaya culture tribes was quite insignificant (Samus culture, Ermak 4). Both Andronovo culture variants had genetic roots in the Neolithic population of the south West Siberia, and this territory can be excluded from the centers of their formation. Certain similarities between the types of the Neolithic population of Western Siberia and the Andronovo (Fedorovo) type result, most likely, from their ancient Paleo-Caucasoid substrate.
In the Volga and the West-Ural (i. Several main components determined the specifics of the physical type of the West Siberian populations.the Irmen. of Savromatian (Sarmatian?) and Scythian populations. within the composition of which there was a component. Long time infiltration of the taiga low-faced Mongoloid elements into the forest-steppe of Western Siberia resulted in the formation of the local population type with the more brachycranial skull shape and wider horizontally flattened face bones. Another Mongoloid component of the physical structure of the forest-steppe populations (highness of the wide face bones and brachycranial type) morphologically did not differ significantly from the population type of the Serov and the Glazkov time of Eastern Siberia. but the physical features of different groups of the population were not yet sufficiently stable. the Elovka. and the type of the Andronovo (Fedorovo) series on the other. and in the Bronze Age the low faced Mongoloid component was already recorded as a significant element in the composition of the population of the Western Siberian sub-taiga zone. pre-Ural) regions in the transitional from the Bronze to the Iron Age period as a result of continued mixing of the Andronovo (Fedorovo) and the Srubnaya-Alakul groups. In some samples. . as well as in the composition of samples from the burials of the Okunevo and the Karaskul cultures of the Minusinsk Kotlovina. particulary to those populations. it was possible to register the presence of a Mongoloid component with a dolichocranial skull shape. particulary in the Irtysh region. the more charasteristic type for the local population became more elongated skull shape. wide. Within the composition of the population of the Sargat and the Gorokhovo cultures the main component was the aucasoid racial variant with meso-brachycranial skull shape. The physical composition of the population of Western Siberia of the Early Iron Age became even more complicated. It was the element of low faced Mongoloids in the Early Iron Age population that determined their morphological pecularities and served as a sufficiently reliable indicator of the degree of their relatedness. low elavation of nasal bones with the medium height of the nose bridge. lower nose bridge and a small angle of the nasal bones elavation. high nose bridge with the high nasal bones elavation angle. the Krotovo. This component left a significant imprint on the physical type of the late Bronze Age population that left sites of Elovka and Irmen cultures. another component was the Mongoloid with a wide and high face. This can be taken as indication that the features of the population of a number of cultures of the late Bronze Age in Western Siberia were formed largely as a result of their mix. It's genesis was related to the Mongoloids of Outer Mongolia. short and moderately profiled in a horizontal plance face bones. Genesis of physical type charasteristic for the skulls from the Kulai burials and the low faced brachycranial component distinguished within the composition of forest-steppe population of the Early Iron Age could be directly related to the Mongoloid low faced population of the West-Siberian taiga regions. well profiled in the horizontal plane face bones. the charasteristic features of which were the low height of the flattened face bones. and the Cherkaskul holds intermediary position between the type of the Neolithic (Krotovo) and the Chernoozerye-Tomsk skulls on the one side. Apart from the above listed components the Caucasoid complex with the high narrow face also played certain role in the racial genesis of the forest-steppe populations. as well as within the composition of the Cheraskul culture population in the West-Ural region. somewhat higher and noticeably narrower. and Irmen groups of Western Siberia. It's racial genetic influence on the tribes of the south Western Siberia could be traced from the Neolithic .e. During the Bronze Age the Outer Mongolian elements were registered in the composition of Okunev and Karaskul populations of Eastern Siberia. During the transition period from the Bronze to the Early Iron Age relatively stable traditions already formed in the archeological cultures of Western Siberia. Elovka. the relative importance of those components varied in different local groups. The Caucasoid meso-brachycranial component with a wide and low (eurymorphic) face in both variants was genetically related to the population of the Andronovo (Fedorovo) culture of the Bronze Age. as well as later. The physic features of the Kulai series (the burial site Kamenny Mys) were determined with the Mongoloid component. who slowly and gradually penetrated into Western Siberia from the early Neolithic. the roots of which went back to the West Siberian Neolithic.The morphological type of the late Bronze Age populations . Andronovo (Fedorovo).
the same [Bagashev 2000]. Contrary to Altai and Khakasia. It is also possible to admit some participation of the Sargat groups in the racial genesis of the Western Mansi. More or less significant role can be ascribed to it only in the genesis of physical features of isolated groups of the Tobol-Irtysh Tatar. the representatives of a complex of physical features charasteric for the Kulai culture populations were registered even in the earlier periods. similar components within the composition of the Novochekino series and all the Sargat samples. the traced line of genesis did not produce a noticeable effect on the formation of the physcial features of the modern ethnic groups. the archeological data also provide evidence of the influence of the southern Iranian elements on the Mansi culture [Chernetsov 1953]. but in the absence of craniological material. in general. The modern population of Western Siberia is characterized with a number of distinctive physical features. of the racial genetic ties between the tribes of Sargat cultural community and modern populations of Western Siberia (based on female materials this conclusion would be less categorical). which had more dolichocranial shape of the cranium. in every specific case the racial features of the population form certain morphological complexes tied to a particular territory. In some cases it is possible to trace the ethnogenetic ties of the modern peoples with the Caucasoid population of Early Iron Age. the Krotovo population and the Neolithic Western Siberian groups [Bagashev 2001]. However. In more recent periods a great variety of physical types was registered in the territory of Western Siberia. is not racially uniform. The morphological features of both samples of the Early Iron Age were practically identical to the morhological type of the Medieval Narym Ob population and the modern Narym Selkup. that left the sites of the Kulai archeological culture. There is a significant physical similarity between series of skulls from the burial site Kamenny Mys and the Mongoloid type skulls with eurymorphic face bone structure. and hence to the tribes of the Andronovo (Fedorovo) culture [Bagashev 1999]. since the analysis of the physical composition of the Western Mansi allowed to identify a number of components n their composition. In the West Siberian south taiga area the ethnogenetic ties between various chronological sections of the bio-anthropological pattern can be clearly traced. It had the greatest similarity with the Ob-Ugrian populations. can justifiably be considered as the main race component of the Selkup genesis. second. However. but the base morphological type of their physical structure and the specific features of the dolichocranial variant were. has complex physical composition. though in a dispersed way. The craniological type of the skulls from the Kulai burials. The first sample reflected the racial features. that the decorative art of Western Mansi assimilated a significant component related to the south Iranian traditions [Rydina 1995]. in principle. therefore. in the origin of which a certain role could be ascribed to the population of the Sargat community. and the territoral variance of the racial features of some of the modern groups is sometimes quite high. Therefore. were morphologically more distant. in the territory of Western Siberia there existed the populations.In the taiga zone of Western Siberia during the Middle ages the ethnogenic situation remained stable. of the population. in the physical features of which a number of charasteristics were determined not so much by the added Mongoloid and/or Caucasoid elements. Here we speak of the racial component identified in the composition of the Chernoozerye-Tomsk variant of the Andronovo cultural community. also had analogues among the Western Siberian population. we can only assume this on basis of indirect data reflecting the racial features of the modern Ob-Ugrians.all those were in many respects similar to the morphological type of the Middle Age populations of the south-taiga Irtysh region (Ust-Ishim culture) and the Narym Ob region (ancient Selkup). there was a significant weakening. It is interesting to note. also provided information on the physiological features of the people of this cultural community. However. The population of the Kulai culture. which relation to the modern ethnic groups is sufficiently proven. related to them low faced Mongoloid component within the composition of the Krotov series of the burial site Sopka 2 and the series from the burial site Elovka 2 of the Bronze age. in . in the composition of which the added Samoyed elements were registered. as well as the component of the bio-anthropological structure of the Neolithic groups of the proper Western Siberian type . on the verge of almost break. Apparently. but by the specific combination of the racial charasteristics. Those Ugrian samples. The Mongoloid racial complex identified in the Early Iron Age materials. the situation was similar also in the northern part of Western Siberia.
they were formed not as a result of the mixing. are the evidence of the former unity of these groups. but as a result of preservation of the ancient protomorphologic type. 1958. the differences between them are insignificant and are determined by the various proportion of the South Siberian component (the populations of the Ob-Irtysh physical type). The racial specifics and inner similarities of the populations of the Ural and the Ob-Irtysh types caused by a common race-forming factor in the common territory. though in some groups the Samoyed component was registered. they are combined and distinguished as a separate West Siberian race [Bagashev 1998. Within the composition of the Ugrian populations of the Middle and Lower Ob region there was a significant share of undifferentiated elements. i. Therefore. even before the period of formation of clear Caucasoid and Mongoloid features. no South Siberian or North Altai elements. 1965.climatic conditions. Moiseev 1999]. the Turks and the Selkups of the Tomsk-Narym Ob region. and it is ancient proto-Asian formation. 1980].e. 1998a]. Among the Western Siberian groups several super-population communities tied to particular territories can be distinguished. a lot of similarities of the ethnogenetic processes. it occured in time. starting with the mesoNeolithic time it is possible to speak of it's differentiation into the tertiary centers. According to his theory. than ethnical or bio-anthropological. and both are characterized with a sufficiently clear type of morphology. V. which occured here in approximately the same nature. this is the feature that determined the uniqueness of the ancient and the modern population of Western Siberia. the uniting role in physical pattern was played by a complex of undifferentiated (populations of the Ural physical type).. which lost ties with the main racial trunks quite long ago. The Ural type is represented by Khanty and Mansi of taiga and forest-tundra zones.e. Turkics) of the Tobol-Irtysh and Baraba regions. High diversity of the Ob-Ugrian populations reflected rather territoral. Moiseev. disintegration among Ugrians. Most likely. The Ob-Irtysh physical type is represented by Narym Selkup and Turkic groups of the Western Siberian plain in the south taiga and forest-steppe zones of the middle and the southern parts of Western Siberia. which only partially resembled the Mongoloid [Bunak 1956. Moiseev 1995. Another view on the mechanism of formation of the Western Siberia and Ural peoples was put forward by V. Eventually.which the normal historical correlation was distorted. when divergence of the Uralic population of Western Siberia into Ugrian and Samoyed branches began. The time of formation of the Western Siberian secondary center can be referred to the period. Combination of Caucasoid and Mongoloid traits of Western Siberia and Ural population invetably leads researchers to the conclusion of a metis character of it's formation. in the population of Western Siberia there are two main physical types. Bunak. Thus. it's common in the northern part of Western Siberia. when genetic bridge between the Mongoloids of Asia and North America still existed. . These are Turks (i. Kosintsev 1998. which indicates the traces of pre-differentiation. This theory gained a strong support in the studies of the discrete-variable charasteristics of the skulls of the Uralic groups [Kosintsev.
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