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5 (1923), pp. 113-243 Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/519659 Accessed: 14/12/2010 18:27
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ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF NORTHERN AND MIDDLE EUROPE
BY IVAR HOGBOM.
he present work has a twofold object: first, to present a survey of the ancient North and Middle European inland dunes,' their regional distribution and their morphology; secondly, to inquire how far our views on the postglacial climatic development may be affected by such an exposition. Several scientists have formerly been occupied with these problems, but hardly anyone has built upon a combination of personal or foreign observations from more than a limited area. As the dunes show a rather capricious morphology, and as after only local studies they invite to widely different interpretations of their genesis, the literature of the subject displays a rich assortment of contradictory statements and theories. Besides, even the regional aspect of the duneproblem has been rather neglected, and the dunes have commonly been regarded as formations of secondary importance only, as a lusus naturae of no very general geological interest. This ought to be otherwise, as the dunes in one respect occupy a special position, since they indicate better than other postglacial formations that particular climatic conditions have prevailed at the time of their coming into existence. Our knowledge about the postglacial climatic development in Northern Europe is founded mainly on examinations of peat-bogs and plant-geographical investigations, and as the results in many points do not wholly agree, they have not been universally accepted. The purely geological researches have yielded fewer contributions to the climatological discussion, so that every new possibility offered of a geological controlling on any point of the theories otherwise arrived at, is of particular interest. The Swedish dunes have been the chief object of my studies, and my original purpose was only to review the publications of foreign geologists on the Middle European dune-districts. As the work proceeded, however, I found, that the Swedish dunes were rather easily disposed of, and that, as I have mentioned,
1 I prefer to use the term ,ancient, instead of ,fossil,, the latter term should rather be attached only to dunes of older formations, the existence of which may be observed in some sand-stones. 8 Geografiska Annaler 1923.
the foreign literature on the subject was so heterogeneous, and contained so many conflicting statements, that a mere summary could not give a clear picture of the dunes of the continent and their genetic problems. I have therefore, both by investigations of my own in the German and Hungarian dune-districts and by a critical examination of available sources, tried to produce a survey of the entire dune-problem of Northern and Middle Europe. Also I believe that the Swedish dunes, the age of which may be considered as determined beyond doubt, may afford enlarged possibilities for judging the questions associated with the Middle European dune-formations. The general climatological questions I have reserved for a separate chapter at the end of the work and devoted the first and chief part to the descriptive and morphological aspects, following the dunes regionally from the Scandinavian countries southwards. On. account of the many different theories existing in regard to the general conditions for the development of dunes and the mechanics of dune-drifting, however, I have considered it necessary to treat these questions in a special first chapter, as they are not unimportant for the comprehension of the ancient dunes.
It is an agreeable duty to me here to express my most sincere thanks to my teacher and father Prof. A. G. Hogbom, who some ten years ago proposed to me to take up the question of the dunes in Dalarna, and who later on, when I took up the inquiry anew and extended it to other dune-regions, has furthered my studies by his good advice. I am also indebted to Prof. Gunnar Andersson, who made me overcome the hesitation I felt before entering upon the investigation here presented, and who has afterwards given me many hints of value for its publication. I wish to express my thanks to the chief and officials of the Prussian Geological Survey for courtesy shown in different ways, and especially to Prof. P. G. Krause for his kindness even in accompanying me on some excursions to the dune-fields. In Hungary Prof. E. v. Cholnoky not only helped me by facilitating my excursions, but also showed his interest in my studies by discussing with me many problems connected with the dunes. To my friend Dr. A. K&zof Budapest, who accompanied me on my travels in different parts of Hungary, I am particularly indebted for the kind assistance he thus gave me during a never to be forgotten fortnight. Finally, I beg to thank Red. V. Hammarling and Lector C. S. Fearenside, who have corrected my manuscript and proofs from a linguistic point of view,
and Miss Astrid Starup, who has drawn the figures after my pencil-sketches.
is due to the labile pressure conditions on the contact-plane called forth by the relative movement on both sides of it. I find it appropriate at this place to begin with a critical review regarding the literature on the mechanics of dune-formation. wave-formation will take place at the contact plane. which Helmholtz mathematically analyzed. On the other hand. In a series of papers Helmholtz (1888-1889) has shown that. Dunes and Wave-movement. I must confine myself to mentioning only those authors who have made the most important contributions to the dunequestion in general or to the problems directly or indirectly bearing upon the interpretation of the history of ancient fields. so that a complete treatment of these phenomena cannot be expected in a geological study like the present paper. In several respects I feel bound to object to the theories and explanations of those geologists who have previously dealt with the problems of the dunes. Dune-formation and Dune-morphology. as seen from a mechanical point of view. adding to this some experiences and remarks of my own. so much confusion has been caused by wrongly interpreting dunes as sand-waves that it is not possible to pass over the question what sort of formations dunes really are. Thus. It seems thus necessary to commence even a study on ancient dune-fields with a survey of those problems which should otherwise properly be solved by special investigations in actual dune-regions. no general theories have as yet been unanimously adopted by the geologists. Even regarding the most fundamental characteristics of dunes. The wave-movement.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 115 CHAPTER I. Naturally. I will try to point out some facts of importance for the following geological and climatological discussion of the ancient dune-formations. when gaseous or liquid media of different specific gravity are moving with different velocity. Though aware of this limitation. their origin and development. the aerodynamic processes calling forth dune-building. To begin with. The . authority stands against authority on almost every important point. This is perhaps mostly due to the fact that dunes have usually been regarded as formations of no essential interest and thus have often been treated more or less superficially even by those scientists who have had the best opportunities of making detailed observations of their various morphology in recent deserts. are partly very complicated and fall within a purely physical domain of science.
but some authors on dunes have later referred to them. usually without taking into consideration the fact that Helmholtz confined himself to treating only real waveformation. Regular systems of snow-dunes are therefore very seldom to be observed. reviewing the studies of Helmholtz and Baschin. and I shall later have an opportunity to return to the Baschin paper and to the questions here touched upon. 26). and formerly proposed explanations of waves as originated by supposed irregular wind-pushes etc. gaseous or fluid. who in the dunes as well as in the ripple-marks sees >Die Tendenz zur Bildung einer Helmholtz'schen Wellenfliche>). agrees with the latter in regarding the ripple-marks and the dunes as originated by pressure-conditions on the surface. the formation of snow-dunes is far more complicated than that of sand-dunes on account of the varying physical properties of snow under the influence of temperature and packing etc. that is such as takes place in plastic media. Solger (19io. He neglects 1he difference between the intermittent leaping movement of the sandparticles. however. Certain authors. etc. By this formulation and by the reasoning upon which it is based he makes it clear that he recognizes the restricted applicability of the theories of Helmholtz to the dune-problem. for instance. are needed no longer. who has specially treated the problem of the ancient inland dunes in Germany. have given no consideration at all to the fundamental difference between waves and dunes. and on the other hand the continuous movements of the particles of a fluid. following the circular or elliptical orbits which characterize difference between the real wave-movement. who in my opinion. As is shown by Hamberg's studies. However. amplitude. p. However. he lays particular stress upon the differences due to the different kinds of material between airwaves and water-waves on the one hand and sand-dunes on the other. p.116 IVAR HOGBOM wave-movement. which are seized by the wind on the wind-side and then embedded within the dune on the lee-side. similar to those which cause water-waves. tries in every respect to adapt the consequences of the wave-theory to dunes. 419). has given one of the most impressive suggestions as to the principles of dune-formation is Baschin (1899 p. Hamberg (1907. changes this labile pressure situation into a stable one. A scientist. there are other objections to be raised against the opinion thus expressed in what regards its applicability to dunes. 7). correspond to a certain relative movement of the two media and to their physical properties. when fully developed. Certain dimensions of the waves as to velocity. Through the studies of Helmholtz the wave-movement is thus proved to be the necessary approaching to a stable situation from an unstable one. Helmholtz himself makes no application of his theories to dune-formation. Another wave-movement and the movement theoretically important of the sand in dunes is . In his work on the properties of the snow-cover in Lapland.
88) regards the irregularity in the intensity of the wind as the cause of dune-formation. and to seek for further special reasons for the dune-formation which certainly they would not try to apply to water-waves. What has been said above regarding dunes and wave-movement can evidently in many respects be applied also to the mechanics of ripple-marks. being characterized by determinate dimensions. but often adopted without criticism and objection even in recent and otherwise valuable works. are in no way to be regarded as embryonic dunes and that there is no transition between dunes and ripplemarks. that sand is no plastic medium. 1921) arrives at the lastmentioned opinion. regards ripple-marks and dunes only as different phases of the same phenomenon. as cited above. is most closely connected with the apprehension of dunes as sand-waves.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 117 constituted by the circumstance that in the latter case there is a real removal of material in one direction which is quite incompatible with wave-movement as physically defined. p. capable of growing bigger until the dimensions of dunes are attained. but that the movement of the sand in a dune-field is of quite different character from the wave-movement of the particles in a fluid. however. basing on experimental studies. e. has been overlooked by a number of authors. however. the tendency to the formation of a Helmholtz wave-surface. 1903) who. . both based on false premises or misunderstandings. on the other hand. Kayser (1918) reviews it. Eventually Exner (1920. whilst he thinks the ripple-marks are due to eddying processes and to the selective picking up by the wind of grains of different dimensions. The theory is adopted by some writers of hand-books. Cholnoky (1902. There are two theories on the origin of dunes. and the theory of the ripple-marks as embryonic dunes. on the other hand. pp. 57. brought even some of the scientists who accept the wave-theory to feel that something is wrong. however. and Solger expressly starts from the premise that ))Der leicht bewegliche Sand verhalt sich ahnlich wie eine Fliissigkeit>). In his earlier publications. the wave-like sand-forms can be regarded as caused by air-waves will be elucidated by the reasoning in the sequel. without taking position for or against. I 28). Haug (I. How far. 1907). states that the ripple-marks. The foremost defender of this theory is perhaps Baschin (1899. The above may suffice for the statement that dunes may be sand-waves in a more or less poetical sense of the word. The evident difference between real wave-movement and the dune-movement has. which will be criticized below. In both cases he looks upon the forms as true waves. g. viz. Theory of Ripple-marks as embryonic Dunes. Cornish in his latest work (1914. he speaks of ripplemarks as embryonic dunes. This simple fact that the sand moves only on the surface but not beneath it.
which dimensions would be characteristic of >sand-waves> because of the greater specific gravity of sand. There were. 19i11. A review of the many hypotheses which have been set forth on their origin and development would. In order to verify the last-mentioned fact I had my attention specially fixed on the junctures between some ridges. p. . while blowing always from the same direction. 151). have not made any attempt to ascertain how far the dimensions of dunes actually conform to this theory. has not yet been carried out. however.5 cm per minute. for instance. when the wind is blowing over it. a. II.118 IVAR HO0GBOM Hedin (1905. be of small importance for the problems of the ancient dunes. the velocity of the individual grains was very irregular and impossible to measure. although the wind was so varying. in characterized i. Wien_ (894. it is astonishing that those who employ a more or less modified wave-theory to account for the origin of dunes. 1906. however. I have watched the behaviour of ripplemarks for a couple of hours when the wind. The mathematical analysis of the surely unstable pressure conditions on a sandsurface. no changes as to the dimensions of the ripple-marks. Because the difference in specific gravity between two air-layers is so much less than between air and water. and no joining of different ridges was to be noticed even during the strongest pushes of the wind. there was a continual transportation. sometimes they were rolled over the windsides of the ripple-marks and embedded on the lee-sides. At Skagen. 19I I. Sometimes the wind was too faint to move the sand-grains at all. the physical difference between sand and the plastic media in other respects not taken into account. the air-waves observable as ripple-clouds are about io. p. The distances between the ridges of the ripple-marks were about 5 cm. by the triangular paths of the grains. 412) supports the theory of ripple-marks as embryonic dunes and treats both forms as due to a particular wave-movemrnent the sand. and the velocity of the ripple-marks about 2. Anyhow. when the wind was blowing at its hardest. regarding which no regular displacement in transversal direction took place. but when the wind was strongest.ooo times greater than the water-waves (Wegener 1906. The literature dealing with ripple-marks is rather voluminous. and perhaps this problem is too complicated to be generally solved. was very variable as to intensity. 1895)r has deduced the following formula for the calculation of 1 Cfr also Wegener. the grains gliding in the winddirection even down the lee-sides and across the interstices between the ripples. For further reference I mention the studies of Bertololy (1894) and Kindle (1917). For my own part I am absolutely convinced of the validity of Cholnoky's observations. Under such circumstances the question lies near at hand. thus following the sinuous curve of the surface.
the velocity of the lower layer relatively to the velocity of the waves. g. in order to prove the impossibility of regarding dunes as surface-forms in any respect connected with wave-movement. on the bottom of a river or a creek. A15 -9 cm. 0. I should thus regard only the ripplemarks. of respectively: 2io = 4 cm. and and a.2. as the product of the tendency to the forming of a wave-surface at the contact between the plastic medium air and the non-plastic medium sand. a2 the velocity of the upper. e. if due consideration In fact even these dimensions do not contradict actual 2i is taken to the difference between the marks produced e. but that regarding the A'5-= I cm. which are to be considered as the nearest genetical parallels to waves in the plastic media. It is.oo0012. In the case of sub-aerial >sand-waves>>here in question. I have confined myself to the above remarks.5 = 64 cm.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 119 wave-lengths on condition that the height of the waves is very small compared with the length: 2. striking that in both cases there is a good accordance as to the order of dimensions. With a specific gravity for the sand of 2.5. P2 the density of the upper layer. Neither the ciirrent-marks nor the aeolian ripple-marks can of course be expected to show an absolute accordance to the dimensions calculated from the formula. The equation thus gives the following value for 2.1--p2) 2/ may be neglected. and 15 m/sec. or that of the lower layer. and I m/sec. 0. when full regard is taken to the physical properties of sand and the consequent modifications in the validity of the above-mentioned formula. 1 For sub-aqueous corresponding to water-currents .2pi neglected) gives the following wave-lengths. 20. and the current-marks produced by a continuous current. This. however. p. From this it is clear that the sub-aerial sand-forms. of 20. Io. g.: = 16 cm. the terms a. Perhaps it will also prove possible to explain why the ripplemarks seem to keep their dimensions independently of at least short variations in the intensity of the wind. but not the dunes. as it pays no regard to the special physical properties of the sand.z a22o2 +-al121-g In this formula ? represents the wave-length. p1 and g (p. by the alternating currents of the swell. cited above. Naturally the equation is not applicable to the development of the first-mentioned forms. and g the acceleration. and for air of 0. Using the formulation of Baschin. are the ripple-marks. = 3 cm. . this gives a wave-length corresponding to winds of 5. however. In a preliminary note Cholnoky (1902. falling outside the limits of the present study. observations in nature.2 the same equation (a. 128) has also expressed the opinion that a connection exists between ripple-marks and waves.sand-waves. as the dunes have quite other dimensions'.
these originate from minute aggregations of sand. Any incompleteness or misinterpretation of the experimental arrangements are thus of decisive . the wave-movement between two media and its consequences in regard to dunes. but the experimental results may be of some importance for the interpretation of the ripple-marks. the maximum dimensions obtained in the experimental box seem to correspond to those usually attained by ripple-marks in nature. As far as I can see. myself. or another prominence . Through a box-like tube he has blown air with a certain constant velocity over the sand-covered bottom. there are objections in that respect to be made which Exner himself admits.consequences for the whole theory. Theory of )the small Obstacles>. be applied to dunes. due to a purely accumulative process. not only of the physical properties of the two media and their relative velocity. and others. thus passing from the stage of ripple-marks to that of dunes. As. but also of the distance passed from the starting-point. that there are no transitional stages between ripple-marks and dunes. this is quite another phenomenon. and has ascertained that the dimensions of the ripple-marks increase from the entrance up to a certain dimension. that the dimensions of the dunes are continually increasing in the manner shown by Exner's equation and experiments on a small scale. but constructed in order to suit the experimental result. there can be found no evidence. has lately published a new hypothesis on Exner (1920). According to the equation set forth by Exner. e. and besides. caused by a stone. g. I have already pointed out the principal difference between ripple-marks and dunes. in the great deserts. as Exner himself supposes. when describing the apparatus and the results obtained. If it is often possible to observe that dunes grow bigger while wandering. In fact. The cessation at this point he ascribes to the small dimensions of the experimental apparatus. Exner's hypothesis cannot. and therefore he reckons only with the increasing dimensions at the beginning. a plant. however. the amplitude and the length of the waves (or dunes) are continually increasing during their wandering from the starting-point. the experiment does not contradict the observations made by Cholnoky. and his equation is not the result of a dynamic theory. on the other hand. According to the other theory on the formation of dunes. The dimensions of a wave would thus be a function.120 IVAR HO0GBOM latter the only factor determining the dimensions is the friction between the air and the sand-surface. Exner bases this opinion on laboratory experiments.
this theory may be termed >the theory of the small obstacles>>. may give rise to dune-formation. 63. and points out the ensuing dissimilarity in sand-accumulation. such an accidental heap is supposed to deviate the wind further. He regards especially some xerophilous plants as the ordinary cause of dune-accumulation and describes the transitional stages between the primary heaps and the fully developed barchans. In fact most examples of the influence of small hindrances as originating dunes observed in nature refer to this consequence of the action of plants. independently of these. >that. and in this case the transitional stage between the primary heap and the wandering dune is easily understood. and specially the xerophilous plants under conditions mentioned above. Hedin (1905. g. origin of the numberless great dunes of the Asian deserts in small futile obstacles. and those offered by stones etc. denies the possibility of seeking the 4o10). This transition. Although it seems undeniable that in some cases >)the small obstacles>. I believes>. with a good sense of proportions.. Penck (1894. and new shoots taking possession of the fresh sand. if the masses of sand now in the desert Tschertschen were to be spread out perfectly evenly over the desert in a layer some 3o m thick. p.). and others. Some authors have also recognized the untenability of the theory as a general explanation of the origin of dunes. Also another quality of the sandheaps accumulated because of the fixing power of vegetation should be laid more stress upon than is usually done. which are permeable to the wind.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 121 presenting a relative resting-place for the wind-driven sand. Particularly he emphasizes the essential difference between the obstacles presented by plants. the plants being forced to grow up higher. NeumayrSuess (1920). Thus the plants may be a means of continually keeping and binding the arriving sand. on the other hand. Yet more important seems to me the continued cooperation of the xerophilous plants during the process of sand-accumulation. II. Sokol6w (1894. thus offering an ever-increasing shelter for the accumulation even after the formed dune has begun its wandering and has long ago left its original rooting place. 74) gives a long description of the building up of dunes according to this theory. So e. the sand would after a certain lapse of time be rearranged by the wind in dune-accumulations pre- . Hedin says. >For my own part. Once begun. This theory on the origin of dunes has been adopted by many writers of handbooks. Pirsson and Schuchert (4915). I. Kayser (1918) already finds it antiquated. presents some difficulties for an explanation of the origin of dunes. Ramsay (1912). For the sake of brevity. and thinks that. g. there is no doubt that in general other factors are to be reckoned with. in order to reach the air. some more general laws must regulate the dune-building. whilst e. p. By an extraordinary strong wind the vegetation may be swept away. which would have arisen out of sand-accumulation behind solid obstacles.
Jentzsch has found no support for these distinctions amongst other scientists. and very beautifully at Skagen in Denmark. Walther (1912. treats dunes and ripple-marks differently although he speaks of beginning dunes hardly one centimeter high. p. but mentions also the possibility of wave-movements in the air as originating dunes: >Der Beginn der Diinenbildung ist ein flacher Sandhaufen von beliebiger Gestalt. namely. that there are irre- does (19o00.122 IVAR HO0GB0OM cisely similar to those that now exist. . rather prominent sand-heaps behind tufts or plants.> Jentzsch as necessary conditions for dune-formation. 50) not regard any obstacles in the form of plants etc. not quite easy to follow. which otherwise ought to be the result of a constant characterized by an even regional assorting of the wind. he tries to show that the dunes primarily are caused by irregularities in the direction of the sand-driving wind. Jedenfalls ist seine Gestalt sehr wechselnd und regellos. That in this case the beginning dunes mostly were of a somewhat longitudinal shape is to be ascribed to the winds radiating from the narrow openings between the >. which I am advocating on following pages in this treatise. and which would be. where on level gravel ground sand-sheets of elongated or sometimes barchan-like forms were deposited absolutely independently of any such obstacles. kleine Steinchen oder Grashalme.) sea-shore. As far as I have seen. At some places. from the coarsest to the finest in the direction of the wind. plane the irregular dunes (>klitter. The above-mentioned instance seems to me to give a good illustration. cause a disturbance of the aeolic equilibrium. on a small scale. I have myself had an opportunity of observing dunes in statu nascenti.>) It seems also too great an absurdity to think that the now quite barren great dunes in big deserts should owe their origin to occasional tufts or other obstacles of similar dimensions dating from past centuries. I was there when the westerly wind had changed to a more southwesterly one blowing out clouds of sand from on to the bare. of the usual cause of dune-formation according to the opinion.klitters>). 261) seems to believe in the theory of >the small obstacles>. bear no similarity to the small. and ripple-marks by eddies with a horizontal axis. Jentzsch material. but undoubtedly the former ones represent the regular beginning of dune-accumulation. A broader development of the sand-depositions at some distance from these gaps was also to be noticed. there are no transitional stages between the two. The sand-sheets thus formed. some hundred meters broad. the essential difference is somehow made out to be that dunes are produced by eddies with a vertical axis. he supposes. These. which are only one or two decimeters thick. In a reasoning. vielleicht sogar durch die wellenf6rmige Bewegung der Luftst6sse. p. Die Entstehung desselben kann veranlasst werden durch unbedeutende Rauhigkeiten des Bodens.
e. It is. locally checking the wind. If the primary sand-sheet is laterally extended or if several sand-shields join each other. upon the deposition of the wind-driven sand. Also this circumstance gives to wind the power of deranging the supposed even distribution. The fact that the first deposits of sand are spread out like a shield contradicts both the theories mentioned. thus producing irregularities on the sand-plain. in no way similar to the thin sheets. The influence of smaller obstacles. g. if such caused by other agencies were not to be found. gives quite different results. When entering the sand-plain. transversal dunes develop. speaks of the shield-form of the primary dune (>>schildf6rmigeUrdiine>>)without recognizing its incompatibility with his apprehension of the small obstacles as initiating the accumulations. The depositions caused by stones or tufts etc. the only result ought to be ripple-marks. or a sea. the wind has generally a vertical component. which are always present in nature and which locally lessen or strengthen the transporting power of the wind and thus ultimately are the initial causes of dune-formation. the primary sand-shield gradually is transformed into a barchan. by Davis and Braun (1911. to illustrate quite clearly the origin of dunes. 244). Walther also (1912. either because it comes from a higher or a lower foreland or from the lower surface of a river. The causes of the spreading out of these sandshields are not the small obstacles in the meaning of that term usually adopted and should be further inquired into. quite distinct from the >small obstacles>.and lee-side slopes. comparatively high tongue-form. Further any primary undulation of the sand-surface influences the wind in the same manner. The slield-form of the primary accumulation is also mentioned by some authors. The shield-formed or the laterally extended Sand-accumulations as initial Dunes. The transporting power . From what is related above it is evident that neither the theory of the >small obstacles> nor the observation of the behaviour and the development of ripplemarks gives the clue to the general cause of dune-formation. If a wind is blowing over an absolutely even sand-plain. which have actually been observed developing to real dune-forms with the characteristic wind. however. however. p. according to the tendency to produce a wave-surface already mentioned. 262). are not met with in nature. exceptional that they should be of the marked character shown at the >klitters> of Skagen. as all students of aeolian sand-accumulations have had the opportunity to observe. and local wind-pushes also cause local deflation or inflation of the sand. are always of an in the wind-direction elongated. however. As the accumulation continues. a lake. Such ideal conditions.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 123 gularities. The instance just mentioned from Skagen and similar observations seem. p.
There are two possibilities to put a satisfactory interpretation upon this phenomenon. At first sight.124 IVAR HOGBOM of the wind is thus in nature never quite constant. p. however. and needs no further comments at this place. . but not with the case. One of them is shown by the wandering away e.the wind at the surface of the ground at a certain distance from the lee-side of the obstacle. when the wind. no investigation has been made regarding the running of the stream-lines of the air. where the power of the wind is smaller than on the surrounding field. that is an elevation once more of the stream-lines. this explanation of the initial heaping up of sand seems to contradict the regularity with which dunes usually are arranged within the fields. g. There are. has a component downwards against the plain. each of which may be applied to a special type of dune-system. Thus an intensifying of the power of transportation of the wind must exist at a certain distance from the first hindrance or dune. Even the fact that the air. followed by a place where the power is lessened. This analogy is also pointed out by Exner (1921. passes a vertically erected obstacle. as they deal principally with the stream-lines enclosing a solid body moving in relation to the fluid. respectively its parallels. however. It is. especially within the great deserts. creating new possibilities for deposition of sand. however. comparable to those studied in water streaming about a body. The dynamic problem of the more complicated eddies is as yet not solved. must cause a rebounding. Obviously the dunes cannot have wandered for hundreds of kilometers keeping almost exactly the same height and the same interspace. although naturally with quickly decreasing amplitudes. and the result is an outspread accumulation over smaller or greater areas. The development of such dune-systems is often described from shore-regions.of a fluid streaming above a plain on which an obstacle is placed. The process reminds one in many respects of the depositions and excavations which take place in a meandering river. 328). Usually it is assumed. that the stream-lines on the lee-side of the hindrance asymptotically approach the surface. evident that in many cases this cannot account for the regular arrangement of dunes. without further entering upon the subject. A further reasoning on this line shows that a vertical obstacle for a wind blowing over a -plain makes the stream-lines run sinuously. It is further very possible that more complicated eddying processes develop. at least if no automatically correcting factor is supposed to regulate the wandering and to balance accumulation and deflation. blowing over a plane surface. involving a weakening of the transporting power of. after having passed the obstacle. of a shore-dune. many reasons which indicate that the process is far more complicated.' Such processes too may cause a varia1 Also these studies have not yet been advanced so far that they allow any strict comparisons. which leaves its original place and the possibilities thus offered for the formation of a following dune. As far as I have been able to find in studies dealing with dune-formation or in hand-books of mechanics.
in the case of barchans. with decreasing steepness. slowly ascending at the foot and reaching a maximum steepness at the point of inflexion at about half of the height. and others. described above or at least immediately after. It is this edge that should properly be regarded as the boundary between wind. g. and that further observations in nature or experiments and theoretical investigations. cal profile of the fully developed barchan.and the leesides of the dunes does not involve any great difficulties. 1904. In transversal dunes the profile is usually somewhat modified in so far that the edge cuts off the wind-side before its curve reaches the highest point as a b Fig. Typical profiles of a barchan. passes it with a gentle slope down to the edge. shows in the profile an almost straight line with a This is the typisteepness up to the angle of rest for sand. The explanation of the difference in steepness between the wind. These different types of dune-profiles are surely due to different conditions of accumulation or deflation not yet thoroughly investigated or explained. In this case the section is approximately triangular (cfr e. b transversal dune. P1. Contrary to what . The lee-side.and lee-side. it reaches the top of the dune more or less tangentially and. on the other hand. One of the most prominent features of a dune is the characteristic cross-section in the direction of the wind showing a gently ascending wind-side and a steep lee-side. 8o).ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 125 tion at certain points of the transporting power of the wind and thus be a means of explaining the regular arrangement of the dunes within the deserts. as is shown by the most careful measurements of Sokol6w (1894. A general equalization regarding the heights of the dunes must further result from the greater power of the wind at the highest dunes. I. Although the above lines in no way pretend to give a full explanation of the very complicated problems of the development of dune-systems. Cholnoky (1902. they may suffice to indicate that wave-like movements in the air may be the result of a hindrance once passed. carried out on this line. p. or about 33--35'. I20). and not the highest point of the dune. The former is usually curved. from where. The Dune-profile. p. 43). may probably give the clue to a fuller understanding of these hitherto unsolved problems. the exact cross-section measured by Hedin.
deflation is taking place on the side facing the wind. 261) that loosely packed sand covers not only the lee-sides of the dunes but also often the nearest zone of the valleys. interfering with the dune-system by attacking the loose and steep lee-sides of the dunes. on the other hand. In the first place we might examine the most simple process. passes a certain point on the wind-side of the dune. All the displaced sand has to pass the edge. Especially when it is blowing hard. Although of less immediate importance for the discussion of the ancient dunes. It explains also why dunes have often been practically stationary although sand-storms are not infrequent in the region in question. without being embedded in the lee-sides of the dunes. there is a continual transportation of sand following more or less the sinuous current of the wind. on the back-side. is directly proportional to . in the diagram Fig. that is without accumulation of more sand or deflation on thile lee-side. the sand flies from the tops or the edges of the dunes (cfr e. 271). also in this case some complications which should be mentioned. when a strong wind is blowing. As Walther (1912. p. this means that a mass of sand. however. the section may be regarded as triangular. 271) points out. and the moving sand falls down as soon as there is no supporting plane for it to move on. the sand-grains must have a considerable velocity when passing the edge. g. in order to simplify the discussion. but may be transported further through the air.126 IVAR HOGBOM can be said about almost every other question regarding dune-formation. although they are of less importance for the development of the dune-profile. is detached from the windside and replaced on the lee-side as the broader strip BH. only half of it passes a point half-way Thus the amount of sand which during a certain lapse of time up the wind-side. not touching the ground before they reach a place where the wind is strong enough to drive them further. and do not fall quietly over it. There are. Walther. Furthermore. there seems on this point to be a general agreement even about the principles. namely that of a wandering dune with a constant profile. The development may in short be said to be as follows. p. I. The observation of Hedin (1904. g. some further remarks on the mechanics of dune-drift may be allowed in this connection. the most formidable sand-storms are due to irregular winds. The result is that. 1912. whilst e. When the dune wanders a certain distance A. thus there are instances known where for several years no change has been observed in the waterplaces of the caravans at the foot of a certain dune. p. 2 represented by the strip AH. gives another evidence for the way of sand-flight mentioned. in order to give a truer conception of the processes in question. Because of the deviation of the stream-lines over a sand-heap. the lines are diverging from the surface. This is in fact often observed in deserts.
As all deposition was supposed to take place along the slope of the lee-side. if from the stratification in the cutting of a dune any conclusion is to be drawn as to the direction of the winds which have caused it. If any stratification could be observed. chiefly depending upon the intensity of the wind. Schematic profile of a dune in moving. The difference in inclination between wind.and lee-side. in relation to the body of the dune. The track of a AH Fig. when the wind is driving sand from another dune or from the frontal plain against the wind-side of the dune in question. lying above the altitude of the edge. are more complicated. the way of accumulation within a dune with a profile of the only. The conditions prevailing. is . In this case accumulation takes place even on the space between the highest point of the dune and the edge. if the profile is supposed not to alter during the wandering of the dune. the base of which varies in length from that of the base of the dune down to zero.or lee-side stratification. From the above it is evident that. however. the stratification shows the gentle slope against the wind characteristic of wind-sides. as the accumulation may take place either on the wind-side. would be gently declining in the direction of the wind. may be illustrated. The thin layer A-H is blown away from the wind-side and accumulated on the lee-side as the thicker layer H-B. In the case of accumulation on the wind-side. The dunes met with in nature have not an exactly triangular section which implies some modifications in the above reasoning. the stratification in the dunes in this case shows a run parallel to the steep leeside slope. however. regarding barchan type.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 127 the altitude of the point in question. sand-grain. or on both of them. is thus a triangular one. Again. from the foot of the dune up to the top. One consequence be too complicated to be followed up in this place. These would. this in the part of the dune. the intensity of the wind must increase in some degree (naturally not directly proportionally) to move the respective quantities of sand. the leeside. 2. one has first to make out whether it is a case of wind. These observanda seem to be of some importance as well for the understanding of the wanderings of the dunes as for the study of the ripple-marks on them.
the dune-form would move backwards. In the places where I have made observations. directly reflect the intersections of the ripple-marks is of course due to the continual overblowing.as far as the indistinct diagonal stratification permits observation at all . very complicated and difficult to follow in detail. This is evidently not the case in nature. 403). A similar diagonal stratification is also met with in some aqueous formations. If there arose a combination of accumulation on the wind-side and deflation on the lee-side. this diagonal stratification seems to be only the traces of overblown ripple-marks. as a rule. or the stream-lines of the wind follow the slope downwards. there has been little consideration given to its origin. the distances between the supposed ripple-marks have also .128 IVAR HOGBOM always so great that this meets with no difficulty. so far as I know. In fact this combination seems to be very probable when moderate winds are blowing. where it is certainly to be considered as the traces of sub-aqueous ripple-marks. and the sand might even be transported further on the level ground. would produce a more gentle slope. different conditions of accumulation. p. which does not allow a fixation of a definite stage during the wandering of the ripple-marks. As a rule. The process is. and over I5' to the lee-side. cooperating with gravity. If. especially as in nature we have to count with variable winds and.corresponded to the dimensions typical of actual ripple-marks. though. it may be assumed that an inclination of less than say 150 corresponds to the wind-side. Either there is a backward eddy to be reckoned with. naturally. although naturally the sand would be transported with the wind. both because of the relatively greater influence of gravity in this case and also because eddies do not develop until a certain intensity of wind is attained. In this connection a question of great importance for the understanding of the wanderings of dunes should be mentioned. therefore. in the second case the wind. As a matter of fact. coming from the latter direction. in a cutting there is found both a steeper stratification declining to one side and one of gentle slope towards the other side. it is characteristic that the distances between the successive banks in this case are other than inaeolic depositions (Haug. has been of varying intensity. showing the characteristic stratification of wind-side accumulation with the comparatively gentle wind-side slopes. In a later chapter I shall also have an opportunity to mention actual observations in nature of dunes. this must theoretically mean that an absolute calm is reigning on the leeside. 1907. . The stratification of the sand in dunes is often described as diagonal. although diverging from each other. this may only mean that the dune-driving wind. In the first case the wind operating against gravity would theoretically tend to produce a steeper lee-side. namely regarding the possibility of deflation from the lee-side. If the lee-side has the slope of sand at angle of rest. That it does not. as a consequence.
the influence of the eddies. leaning towards the wind. a dune-system is developed by a strong wind. another wind coming from the same direction but with less intensity may be unable to move as well the sand on the wind-sides of the dunes because of the gravity. this must be stronger. might be mentioned.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 129 In good accordance with the brief description given above are the interesting calculations of Exner (1920) regarding the wanderings of dunes. as yet unknown as to their relative importance. that even with the help of great approximation the problem involves too many factors. In the valleys or on the level places between the dunes the wind has less power. earlier touched upon. at least under certain conditions. a dune. to allow a definitive mathematical treatment. g. The section shown by a dune is really the result of a counteraction between the influences of wind and gravity. a factor which is almost universally overlooked by all other writers on dunes. as the sand between the dunes because of the reduced power of the wind when passing over the dune-valleys. the same wind may nevertheless be able to move the sand evenly spread out over a plain. As far as I have found. the general mechanics of which are as yet dynamically unsolved. Besides those pointed out by Exner himself. whilst. From this it is clear that. . When e. as already mentioned. whilst on the wind-side it is so hardly packed that the foot-prints go down only one or two centimeters. 9 Geografiska Annaler 1923. One of Exner's most important contributions to the furtherance of the understanding of dune-mechanics is the full consideration he gives to the importance of the gravity of the sand. but here it has also to drive the sand upwards. This difference in the packing of the sand is due to the previously exercised pressure of the overlying masses within the dune. They show. The wind blowing over a series of dunes has its greatest power on the wind-sides. Regarding the more complicated conditions on the lee-side slopes some remarks have been made above. if a sand-particle is to be moved. which compress the sand. it is easily moved by winds from the opposite direction. One consequence of the gravity of the sand and its r6le in an existing dunesystem may be mentioned in this place. than if the plain is horizontal and no component of the gravity is directed against the wind. On the lee-side of a moving dune the sand is so loose and slipping that a walker sinks down almost to the knee. On a plain. but also less resistance to overcome when transporting the sand. the sand seems to be palpably looser on the crest of the dunes than on the lower parts of the wind-side. The sand in a dune-system thus can be said to be arranged in a way offering resistance to transportation by the ruling winds.field offers greater resistance to the transportation of the sand than would be the case if the sand were spread out evenly. however.
which have led to different opinions as to the mechanics of dune-wandering and. to different interpretations of the history of the ancient dunes of Central Europe. On shores the latter deformation is due to the irregular run of the shore-line. Usually the opinion is advocated. Basal Forms of Dunes. but tends to become bow-formed. The sinuosities of the dunes have a twofold influence upon the transporting .130 IVAR HO6GBOM That the lee-sides of the ancient dunes are less steep than those of living ones may partly be due to a subsiding of the looser sand under the influences of changes in temperature etc. It is easy to show. regarding this problem no great differences of opinion have appeared. In nature. and then the dune gets the shape of a barchan. that the sinuosities are accentuated when the dune is wandering forward that is to say. seemingly contradictory observa- Fig. this may really be the case. and partly to erosion. 3. Of more interest for this treatise. furthermore. turning the opening against the wind. Regarding this. the straight transversal form of a dune cannot remain. because the former are lower and thus contain a lesser quantity of sand to be transported. tions have been made in nature. however. Sketch showing schematically the deviation of the stream-lines of the wind when passing a curved dune-ridge. As regards a single relatively short dune with the highest point in the centre. however. things are mostly not so model-like. is the question of the development of the basal forms of the dunes. that the wings of the dune move faster than the central part. and as dunes often develop in open bays the bend often turns its concave side against the wind from the beginning. and the initial transversal dunes show irregularities such as an uneven accumulation of the sand-masses in different parts of the dune and a more or less sinuous basal form. It is of great importance for the judgment of this question to establish the changes in form which a primarily transversal dune undergoes when wandering further. On the preceding pages the development of the dune-profile has been discussed.
. and that the former are characteristic of regions where the sand-supply is great. regards the barchans as the final forms into which also transversal dunes normally divide. In extreme cases. where the elongated dune-flanks often show only insignificant differences in the inclination of the slopes on both sides of the ridge. a great wave-like movement of the air is developed. the typical barchan develops. local supply or to conditions offering a more local initial resting-place for sand which otherwise would have been blown further. there are instances of systems of straight and very long transversal dunes. giving rise to a purer system of transversal dunes. Such are e. through lateral interference. of regions where vegetation plays a r6le. As such are not characteristic of the fields here to be dealt with. In regions which are half-fixed by vegetation and where wind-furrows cut through the dune-ridges. Unlike Cholnoky. who. According to the above. under special conditions. From the interior of great deserts. 3). described by Hedin from Asia. g. where the initial conditions play a subordinate r6le. or. the sand is transported along the flanks. in the centre of the curves the wind passes the dune-ridge perpendicularly. Where sand is deposited in patches which may be due to limited. I should thus believe that transversal dunes are as good forms as barchans. it is deviated not only vertically. so to speak. in the way it does in some of the Hungarian fields. when the horse-shoe form of the dune is fully developed. feeding the centre with new material. if occurring at all on free dunes. as funnels for the wind. while the flanks get the character of longitudinal dune-ridges. Amongst the dune-fields mentioned in the sequel only that of Nyirseg in Hungary in some places shows almost straight dune-ridges. this development. strengthening its power in the central parts of the curves and lessening it in the parts protruding against the wind (cfr Fig. it is not necessary to enter further upon their development. the remaining parts may. on the other hand. Furthermore. depending upon the character of the vegetation and the type of the sand-field. As the wind strikes the dune at different angles in the middle of the curve and on its flanks.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 131 power of the wind. however. so that the sand has there a shorter distance to pass from the wind-side to its resting-place on the lee-side. the curve-flanks of the dune serve. is at least limited to the cases when the sand-mass is not great enough to permit a continual wandering of the whole dune undivided. The formation of this kind of dunes has been fully described and analyzed by Cholnoky (1902). It seems as if in these cases. but also horizontally. These forms are often met with in the German fields. the latter of regions where the sand-supply is insufficient to build up continuous ridges. get barchanlike forms as well as longitudinal forms.
has led Solger to suppose that the German inland dunes have primarily been driven by east-winds. All these observations. Several scientists have observed and described the changes of profile caused by a shifting of the wind to the opposite direction. and thus barchans develop where a weaker wind would have produced transversal dunes. If strong wind is blowing. A. The absolutely fundamental difference in shape between the barchans and all sorts of dunes which have developed out of transversal ones needs no further comment than this reference to the illustrations. 262). B. io6). but that later west-winds have reversed wind-sides and lee-sides. U. however. in fact. In order to show the difference in the basal form of barchans and bow-formed transversal dunes. however. Illustrations of different forms of transversal dunes. transversal dunes as being essentially the same forms. basal form of a great barchar. Besides.and V-formed ones. almost straight ones. in my opinion. Among the many problems yet unsolved there is one which would be of particular importance for the comprehension of the climatic conditions giving rise to the ancient dune-formation. will be found in the sequel in the description of the different fields. p. it is obvious that the wind too plays a r6Ie. and other authors have nevertheless without reservation Fig. the sand may be transported so quickly that a relatively small quantity of sand falls within a unit of the dune-bearing area. basal form of a small regarded the typical barchans and the bow-formed barchan (Walther 1912. of the influence of variations in the direction of the wind on the shape of dunes. namely. and thus concluded that also the winds driving the (Cholnoky 1902. must result from a confounding of transversal dunes and barchans . the question. 4. latter have come from the convex side. How especially the basal form adjusts itself under the influence of winds .132 IVAR H O GBOM If thus. It is astonishing. Solger. I reproduce in Fig. that Tutkowski. It is also very possible that winds of different intensity produce differences in the shape of the barchans or the transversal dunes. Baschin (1903) gives an illustration of the changes in the basal form of a barchan under the same conditions. p. bow-formed. The incompatibility of the basal form indicating winds coming from one direction and the profile indicating winds coming from the opposite direction . 4 two barchans from actual deserts. the amount of the detached sand in the first place determines the form of the dunes. A Influence of alternating Winds.which. but no investigations in this respect have yet been carried out. refer to the ephemeral stage after a temporary shifting of the wind.
may thus be taken as indicating that sideward winds. possibly interfering with each other. in certain cases. consequently. on the other hand. which indicates only the resultant of the different winds. have played a very subordinate part. based upon the orientation of the dunes. but a simple dune-system ensues. Of course an investigation of the stratigraphic conditions. According to Hedin these two systems correspond to the two main wind-directions which alternate at different seasons. only to the wind-direction predominant among them.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 133 of alternating directions. that such double systems of dunes come into existence only if the frequency maxima of two sufficiently separate wind-directions are rather marked. one must generally be content with conclusions as to the predominant winds during the sand-drift season. but not the constancy of the wind. the great transversal dune-ridges are not oriented quite perpendicularly to the prevailing ENE-winds but somewhat obliquely. or. corresponding to the different winds. There is a priori no reason to suppose that the shape of the dunes will be the same. we are able to form plausible conclusions in this respect also. would also throw light upon the variations in the direction of the sand-driving winds. however. Either there are formed two dune-systems. however. Very long dune-fields. which thus fall within the meshes produced by the two systems of dunes. be formed regarding the frequency of the dune-driving wind. This seems in fact to be the case. with their steep lee-sides to the WNW. There is every reason to suppose. is entirely undetermined. Thus Hedin describes (1904. 349) a very fine double dune-system from the Tschertschen desert. oriented according to the resultant of the winds and showing forms more or less similar to those caused by a constant wind. A closer acquaintance with these questions would perhaps render possible a more correct reconstruction of the wind-conditions and. however. on the other hand. Regularly developed large transversal dune-banks run here in the direction NNW-SSE. separate the deepest hollows. if exposed to a constant wind corresponding to a resultant of various winds. than is now to be attained. Similar interfering systems caused by changing gusts of wind are also often on a minute scale shown by ripple-marks. the angle between the wind-directions is not so great or the winds vary more evenly without two distinct frequency maxima. This Hedin ascribes to different supply of sand in the northern and the southern parts of the field. as mentioned. Certain general conclusions may. by Hedin named >thresholdsv. the >bajirs>. There are two essentially different possibilities for the influence of shifting winds upon the formation of the dunes. As it is. on the other hand. such a double system cannot arise. if the two wind-directions are sufficiently divergent. which would otherwise have broadened the field. especially in the wings of the horse-shoe dunes. extended in the wind-direction. I. If. of the climatic conditions at the time of ancient dune-drift in Europe. p. However. . Lesser ridges.
According to Cholnoky. killing the vegetation leewards and thus enabling the deflation to continue. the wind-furrows and the garmadas. it operates in a peculiar way. This process might thus. who has also introduced the corresponding terms into the literature (I902. Not having myself had the opportunity to . which are not interwoven with root-fibres or chemically cemented. Often such a wind-furrow is terminated by a special sort of a dune. The section is cupular because the surface-layers offer harder resistance to the wind than the lower layers. be regarded as similar to that above (p. Thus garmadas usually are found on the lee-sides of the heaps cut through by the wind-furrows or in places where the ground inclines in the direction of the wind. Beyond the general speculations already mentioned about the supposed importance of vegetation as a necessary condition for the formation of dunes. In Nyirseg I have followed a wind-furrow for more than 6oo m. but only in certain spots. as it is often of theoretical importance to find out whether secondary dune-drift has been active as a destructive force within the ancient fields. The wind-furrows have sometimes a considerable length. may have that effect. it runs in bow-form with the concave side against the wind. for instance. Sometimes several garmadas develop in one and the same wind-furrow. the aeolian action in half-fixed regions and the resulting topographical features had been almost entirely neglected. in this case part of the sand is obviously transported over the garmada. The difference in shape between dunes which have developed freely and dunes which have resulted from the counteracting powers of sand-driving wind and sand-fixing vegetation merits special attention. until Cholnoky (I9o02) took up the problem and advanced a systematic distinction between different dune-forms. 123). These two forms. p. a garmada. The garmadas develop at the ends of the wind-furrows. As a particular instance he mentions that the groove between two barchans lying close to each other may develop into a wind-furrow and a garmada. When for some cause or other the wind does not attack a sand-heap or a dune uniformly. 130) described as causing the horse-shoe forms. although proceeding on a narrower scale. if the wind has not the power to transport the material further. have first been described and subjected to detailed study by Cholnoky. When an edge is developed on the garmada. The trampling of cattle. wind-furrows and garmadas may also develop in duneregions where vegetation is entirely wanting. The usual cause of the development of wind-furrows is that the vegetative covering is incomplete or that it has been locally destroyed in some way or other. cutting out a wind-furrow running in the direction of the wind.134 I VAR H O GB O M Secondary Dune-forms.
I feel. These are characterized by the cup-shaped excavations which the wind is always working out where the vegetation causes a particular resistance in the superficial sand-layer. 1918. If this is not the case. The most conspicuous features in a partly overgrown dune-region. 262). 138. and when the wind is variable in direction no garmadas. the causes of which. 235) regard the first-mentioned forms as the result of sand-drift in half-fixed regions. The wind must be regular. 130) regarding the development of bow-formed dunes from straighter transversal ones. the further drifting of the sand in the unfixed parts must be rather capricious and cannot give rise to such regular development on broad fronts. Braun. g. however. Walther. which has been exposed to such irregular destructive influences of the wind. Contrary to the opinion which I have set forth (p. are the remaining witnesses of the old dunes. Jessen. It seems to me more probable that this is the case if two barchans join each other laterally. some authors (e. and Holland. in this case. consequently. in German named )>Kupsten>). The first fixation of dunes by vegetation and. a smoothing out of irregularities takes place. p. the lower flanks of the dune-ridges will in the first place be more or less fixed by vegetation. this hypothesis as a general explanation is also contradicted by the model-like symmetry and regularity of consecutive trains of bow-formed dunes met with in many places. g. and the sand-heaps which are to be cut through must be of sufficient extension in the direction of the wind. on the contrary. for instance on the North Sea coasts of Denmark. Germany. if the vegetation has been strong enough to check a complete breaking through. I am not able to form any certain opinion of my own about the probability of this development. and thus by the wanderingfurther of the central parts the dune-ridge will become bow-formed. described above. The finest examples of this kind of dune-topography are to be found in some coast-regions inside the outermost shore-dune. in which the wind works in half-fixed regions and there causes quite other alterations on the existing dune-ridges. on account of which the moving will there be slackened. It is evident that the explanation I have given of the formation of the horseshoe dunes cannot be applied if the primary bends are too narrow. According to their views. Cup-shaped excavations often appear also on the crests of the dunes. Maps showing barchans grown together in present-day deserts also support this opinion (e. For the development of the typical long wind-furrows two conditions are obviously necessary.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 135 observe any barchans in such a position. Besides the very typical way. or only incomplete ones will develop. rather inclined to regard wind-furrows as characteristic only of half-fixed regions. fig. . p. I912. 1911. but without the forming of long furrows. breaches will occur in quite the same manner.
Characteristics and Forms of the Dune-fields. Instances of that kind are met with almost everywhere in the dune-bearing coast-regions. and if the wandering of the dunes is not checked by the decreasing power of the wind. Evidently the existing vegetation has very small influence. the dunes continue their wandering so that the fields get their extension in the direction of the wind even if the sand-drift comes from a river bed. It is true that the influence of a coast or a river usually involves a primary development of transversal dune-ridges running parallel to the shore-line. but must not be taken in a morphological sense. This is particularly the case with some of the ancient fields in Germany. as the different dune-forms are not bound to their different geographical positions. although the dune-sand out of which they are built up primarily may have been furnished from the cuttings of rivers in sandy deposits. This development of the dune-drift can be traced on some of the ancient fields in Germany and Poland. This classification indicates the regional occurrence of the dunes. if the sand-drift continues for a sufficiently long time. When. I shall have an opportunity to return to this question and to illustrate it by some typical maps. the dune-drift goes on in a more arid region. In this connection some few words should also be dedicated to the dunes invading vegetation-covered ground. must be sought for in some physical processes. Besides. This seems in fact to be the normal development of all fields. but in other cases the dune goes on wandering until the wind-side becomes overgrown. When describing the German fields. only if the dune is invading a forest the trees may be a means of weakening the winds and checking the dune-drift.136 IVAR HO0GBOM therefore. however. but extensive dune-fields are often termed inland dune-fields. Sometimes the dune-fields are extended in the direction of the prevailing wind. I have thus preferred to use the term inland dunes as including all dunes which are not genetically bound to present or former coastregions. Dunes are often described as shore-dunes. The shape of the dune-fields often indicates certain conditions under which the dune-drift has taken place. by the vegetation or by topographical conditions. river-dunes and inland or continental dunes. . but on the other hand well-developed systems of transversal dunes are found within great deserts. it is often impossible to ascertain how far the formation of a dune-field has been due to the action of a river. as I have done above. just as barchans sometimes occur within the regions of coast-dunes. These factors determine the width of the coast-dune zones. From a genetical point of view this terminology may be used as indicating the sources of the dune-driven sand.
The lower limit for the size. near the borders of the fields a general striking of the dune-ridges often develops. of aeolian and aquatic sand.2 and 0. . Generally the dune-sand consists of quartz-grainsintermixed with some few percent of grains of other minerals. as the grindingtakes place underthe influence of the wind. depends upon the finest material being transported further by the wind and deposited as loess. sometimes they are quite lacking. because of the characteristic The upper limit for the size of the grains is determined by the limited transporting power of even strong winds (supposing that coarser sand is available in the primary deposit). This is manifestedby a tendency of the dunes near the sides of the dune-zone to arrange themselves obliquely and finally. According to examinations of samples of dune-sandfrom very differentregions of the earth. the grinding has been too insignificant to allow a distinction of the aeolian sand from the sand of aquaticdepositions. the orientation of the dune-ridges mostly seems to be to a certain degree dependent upon their place within the field. which are the subject for this treatise. The Dune-sand. on the other hand. in the latter case.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 137 In such dune-fields. the waves outwash the finest material of the sand before it is made available for the direct action of the wind. if such are to be found in the primary deposits. Even the dust produced by grinding during the wandering of the dunes is blown away. (I894. at the very border of the field. However. In this case the sand contains also a considerable amount of other minerals than quartz. is usually far less completely assorted than is the dune-sandof the great deserts or of the coast-regions. p. and even those of 1-2 mm play an insignificant r6le. where. I shall have an opportunity to illustrate this development when describing some of the ancient dune-fields. and sometimes they amount to one or a couple percent of the sand-mass.extended in the direction of the sand-drivingwind. however. Notwithstanding this. and not in dunes. longitudinally in relation to the wind. following a curve similar to that of a simple horse-shoe dune. and most determinationsof other authors accord with them. Thus. Usually the quartz-grainsare rounded on account of the grinding process during the sand-drift.5 mm. 132). The average size of the grains is in most samples between 0. grains of more than 2 mm section are only exceptionally met with in dune-sand. the sand of the ancient inland dunes. These figures are mentioned by Sokol6w. a microscopical analysis often shows the differencebetween samples dimensionsof the former. In dunes which have not wandered any considerable distance.
. Lapland ... Kom.. instead of averages of a greater number of less reliable ones.. only weighing some ten grams. Kdm. noting the amount of sand which passed the o. ... Nyirseg.. as the sieving was then practically completed in half an hour.. the taking of samples must be done very carefully.... Because of the bedding within the dunes... Pest .. The 0......o 4...... For the moving of the sieve I therefore used an electrically moved cradle by which the sieve was pulled 6 cm horizontally to and fro 150 (?. Pusztaszentimre............o 3...6 87.. The bottoms of the three upper ones are perforated with circular holes........ and so the samples are of less value from this point of view. . ......2 <-0. Merasjarvi............. Lapland .............. Szabolcs ......138 IVAR HO0GBOM The following table gives the percentage of some characteristic sand-samples I have taken on different ancient dune-fields.6-0... Evidently it could be greatly improved by a denser perforation.... . Dalarna .....2 25...1 o 9.. Pilis. .... Szabolcs .7 84....2 mm sieve during each five or ten minutes from the starting.... For the mechanical analysis I have used the series of sieves constructed by Atterberg.... ....8 4..5 89. 2....... Prussia.5 87.2 mm sieve used by me had only some 1......... x11....2 Size of the grains Sweden: The Mora Field.........1 in mm: 2-0...3 2... the diameters of which are 2 mm... this often shuts up the holes and makes a repeated cleansing necessary................ o... Germany: M elchow...4 82..... Tulusjirvi.. Baden....... Mostly cuttings allowing such a procedure are not available.... which I have used for the determination of the coarseness of the sand-grains...6 1i0.......0 8. Nyirseg.0 90............ If the sample contains very fine dust...6 14.. 10.. Seckenheim. ... and 0.4 74.. In order to get an idea of the time necessary to move the sieve for determining the percentage of the finest grains.. consist of four cylindrical steel-vessels which can be attached one above the other..4 1......... whilst the diameter of the sieve-bottom was 95 mm............4 o....9 87.... if good averages are to be got of the percentage of grains of different dimensions... riddled according to his classification of sand (Atterberg 1903)......8 31.. 1The sieves constructed by Atterberg.2 mm respectively.........6 0..... Lapland ..o 66........2 mm sieve....... I carried out some series of sievings. small samples from the same dune may give widely differing results if they are not taken across a suite of beds.........6 0 3.o o......7 % 12...5) times per minute...... In fact..4 o..................... In the above table I have thus preferred to give the results of some representative samples.....0 Hungary: Mairia Pocs... It proved most advantageous to use small samples........... .....4oo holes.....3 Rietschen..6 mm.. ......7 6... Kom.......0 88.... A great disadvantage of this apparatus lies in the time it takes to sift the finest particles through the 0. Prussia....... Tiirendo....
showing lower figures for the to the values found by maximum sizes.5 S11. In the first place the dimensions available for wind-transportation must be considered.56. The results of his investigations in that respect are given in the following table (the wind measured at four inches above the ground): Force of wind. size of grains.5 mm +. are of a very restricted purport because of the influence of other factors than the power of the wind.o 1.79. This accordance is in fact astonishing. In fact. over sheets of equal-sized sand. The slightly modified. the residual covering of coarser sand on deflation surfaces affords these conditions. Sokol6w has found the figures mentioned by z • 8 10 observing sand consisting of grains of different 0 1Z. Diagram showing the relation rent intensity. 2.8-11. the grains shield each other and are thus less exposed to the wind.4 0. however. which thus have to be taken into consideration as a means of checking further deflation. but in the case of assorted sand of the maximum size. pp. 4.4-13. Fig. At the distal parts of a dune-field it has to be considered that on account of the grinding and the enrichment of finer material. 5. The conclusions arrived at. 288) has tried to find out the maximum size of the sandgrains which can be moved by winds of different velocity. This must in still higher degree be the case if even coarser grains are present. if regard is paid to the irregular shape of the sand-grains. to the square of the speed of the fluid. m/sec. Max. increases proportionally 1./5ek.5 I. no grains at all of the maximum size correspond- .7 8.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 139 Sokol6w (1894. if the wind had been blowing points correspond Sokol6w. for in sands of mixed dimensions the finest grains are blown away leaving the coarser ones fully exposed to the wind. It lies near at hand to base conclusions as to the intensity of the dune-driving winds on an examination of the size of the sand-grains in a dune.o These empirically found values agree very well with the theory. according to which a diameter of the greatest objects (of the same shape and gravity). 5 shows how well the figures of Sokol6w 05 agree with the theoretical curve. size moved under the influence of winds of diffe.4 6. that can be moved by a fluid.Fig. mm.25 0. which otherwise would be moved by the wind. The result would have been between the speed of wind and the maximum size of sand-grains transported.
This may. more peripheric parts. but only that the dune has been more resistant against feebler winds and has moved only when attacked by harder winds. which usually lie scattered and are of smaller dimensions. immediately below the highest shore-lines of the finiglacial sea. even in a study which aims at a treatment of the whole problem of the ancient inland dunes of Northern and Central Europe. CHAPTER II. The . naturally be the case even with proximal dunes. On the other hand. Thus there is in the whole of Fennoscandia only one more regular and collected dune-field. if the primary sand-deposit is exclusively made out of finer material. The other ones. are to be found at some places amongst the different glacial accumulations above this niveau. There are two different kinds of ancient dune-bearing regions in Sweden which present the essential subject of this chapter. the deflation surface of the wind-side. corresponding to the levels of the sea at different epochs. generally presents sand of all dimensions found within the dune. but also upon the size of the sand-grains. a lag film of coarser residual grains has covered the surface. if the dune has the usual lee-side stratification.140 IVAR HOGBOM ing to the stronger winds are to be found. until. The greatest and best developed dunes are all of them situated on the glaci-fluvial marginal deltas. even this. A third group of ancient dunes in Sweden will also be mentioned in the sequel. Thus it seems proper to begin with the Scandinavian dunes and to allow comparatively ample space to the description of them. that near Mora in Dalarna (Dalecarlia). if only feebler winds are blowing. From the above it is evident that the speed of the moving dunes depends not only upon the intensity of the wind. this is no sign that strong winds have been blowing regularly. Ancient Dunes of Fennoscandia and Denmark. thereby possibly checking further drifting. however. cutting this stratification discordantly. is of small dimensions in comparison with the greater ones in Germany and Poland. The dunes within the more central parts of the once ice covered region of Europe are insignificant in number and extension compared to those of the southern. If a dune contains a relatively great amount of coarse sand. namely some in the province of Vdsterg6tland which prove to have been formed during a later epoch than those connected with the glaci-fluvial deltas. there are at places in Southern Sweden dunes. But in some ways the Swedish dunes present greater advantages for a scientific treatment than the southern ones because of the possibilities of determining their age by studying their relation to the postglacial changes of the sea-level. Finally. which were formed as shore-dunes.
Kemijoki. region. A. HIllefors. 7. (I-V mainly after Holmsen. 20. 4-6. 1g. G. and Gavelin). Tulusjirvi. 15. Raudunjoki. 6.i. I6. 2. G. H6gbom. Kubbean. SiljanKusfors. Merasjirvi. io. .ANCIENT EXPLANATION INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 141 A *B 1a•'V Ice-Border at Beginning of finiglacial Tingie7 Last Ice-Sheds Highest Finil/acial Shore Dune-Occurrences on marginal Deltas Dune -Occurrences on higher Levels SCALE 1:8 000 000 89 0 atoo 16) d Fig. Vittangi. Fr6din. 9. A8. SaitajAirvi. Aspsele. Vastakielinen. 12. 8. . Map showing the situation of the Fennoscandian dune-occurrences in relation to highest finiglacial coast-lines and last land-ice remnants. Studsviken. FRrila. Geijersdal. 3. T!irend6. 13. i7. ti. 14. Romerike. Luttojoki.
and in the same year I wrote a short study on this and the neighbouring dunefields (1913). when the ice-border receded from the great belt of terminal moraines in southern Sweden (the Salpausselki stage in Finland). H6gbom's >Fennoscandia> (1913. The part of these maps including the Mora Field was reproduced 1913 in A. >finiglacial. designates according to the same nomenclature the time during which the ice-border receded from the southernmost part of Sweden to the great moraine belt named. situated on the marginal delta-deposits in Romerike. I tried there to show the late finiglacial' age of the dunes and In accordance with the usual Swedish way of speaking.' The Mora-Field. With some few comparatively unimportant exceptions. From Norway only one ancient dune-field is reported. is for the first time mentioned in the geological literature in an abstract of a paper read by Sten de Geer in i908. always offered by the shore-lines.ooo. Against the terminology of De Geer some justified objections have been raised. which shows the length of these epochs as well as some other data of the late glacial and postglacial history. The gothiglacial epoch. which in fact is a part of the southern half of the country. I use the term in accordance to the nomenclature 2Here. The finiglacial age thus comprises that part of the late glacial epoch. which for the most part lies below the level corresponding to the main dune-bearing regions of Scandinavia. appearing a couple of years later. which will be mentioned later on. the greatest of the ancient dune-fields of Scandinavia. At the beginning of the last chapter of this treatise a synoptical table is inserted. In Finland. I desist from entering upon the questions connected to these dunes. De Geer (1910. especially by Munthe . G. and till the breaking through of the ice-remnant in eastern Jiimtland (marked III on the map Fig. the existence of true inland dunes is noted only at a couple of places in the northernmost parts of the country. I15). 1146). Accordingly. 6. of G. recent dune-drift in Fennoscandia takes place only at some parts of the shores. as in the rest of this treatise.> The first topographical maps of the General Staff of these regions drawn on a scale of i : 5o. )Middle Sweden> is here to be taken as a synonym for Svealand. p. as they bear no direct evidence of the climate at the time of their formation. In a guide written for the excursionists of the International Geological Congress held at Stockholm i9io he gives his opinion about the age of the dunes: >Vielleicht schon vor der Einwanderung des Waldes hat der Feinsand durch den Wind Diinentopographie angenommen. however. preceding the finiglacial one. Dunes in Middle Sweden. p. The situation of the main dune-occurrences in Fennoscandia in relation to the highest finiglacial sea-level and the divides of the last ice-remnants is marked on the map Fig. This incident is chosen by De Geer to mark the end of glacial time. 6). make these dunes less interesting.142 IVAR HOGBOM favourable conditions for dune-drifting. offered a good opportunity of estimating the regional distribution of the dunes.
as the climatological reason of the sand-drift. . Lid6n (1913.. p. The marginal terrace of Osterdalilven. supposing the level of Siljan to be at 165 m. 3. 159). p. am. 7. P-7 0u n According to determinations by Hedstr6m (1893. 4. far the greater part of it 5. and consequently the highest finiglacial sea-level may be 215 m above the present sea-level. out of which some 20 km2 are dune-bearing.. Gagnef.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 143 suggested falling winds coming from remnants of the land-ice sheet. as well as that of the other dune occurrences in the Siljan region. 30). the highest -1 iiiii Nlii . . 102). whilst by the Siljan region: i. Dark shaded areas present lakes. and Enquist (1918. Skattungsj6n. however.' The uppermost parts of the Moradelta reach an altitude some io m below this higFig. Oreilv. 8. I have. 7. chosen to follow the ter- minology first proposed as a final agreement about a new one is not yet attained.. Sketch-map showing the situation of the dune-occurrences in hest sea limit. Gustafs. 4 Hedstr6m found the highest marine limit at Lattniiset east of Orsasjbn at 219 m. the altitude of Siljan is stated to be 16I m on the maps of the General Staff. The area of the whole delta is about ioo km'. the greatest part of which falls within the map Fig. extends its distal front from Vamhus atthe northwestern corner of Orsasjon along the west-side of the same lake and the northernmost part of Siljan down to a point about 8 km south of Mora. finiglacial sea-level lies in 3 this region at about 215 m altitude. According to later nivellements. p. (191i). The situation of the Mora field. 2. in which also the run of the highest finiglacial shore-line is drawn. Light shaded areas is situated at a level of Finiglacial Sea. at that epoch yet remaining. Mora-field. is shown by the sketch-map Fig.
from where during more humid years a branch is temporarily sent out over forest-covered ground. The recent changes in the ground-water level. 8. compared with the present ground-water level. are worthy of notice as they have been caused by the comparatively small climatic variations during different years in our time. The higher sealevel during the last phases of dune-drift has thus only slightly influenced the level of the ground-water at that time. however. The same is the case with the extensive lower postglacial delta-deposits situated outside the mouth of the meanders of the Osterdalalven.) The finiglacial age of the main delta can be concluded not only from its situation immediately below the highest sea limit but also from its character of a pitted-plain with typical kettle-holes (Germ. If the altitude of the ground-water plays any r6le at all for the vegetation. That the amplitude of the variation is much greater here is due to the swifter running away of the water because of the proximity to the river-side. The gentle descent. its variations must have accentuated the direct influence of the climatic changes during different epochs. the biggest ones forming the small lakes visible on the map. The lowest parts of the marginal terrace slope down to about i8o meters altitude. Thus they indicate that the level of the groundwater has been subject to relatively important variations due to the different climatic conditions succeeding each other during postglacial time. It is also evident that the latter is very sensitive to the changing precipitation and evaporation during different years. . io d). as well as to the temporary existence of superficial affluents to the pools in question. The existence of water-springs at the foot-line east of the dune-bearing plateau shows that the present ground-water level almost reaches there. When I visited the field in 1913 there. the changes in their level must be a consequence of changes in the ground-water level. >)Solle# or >Pfuhle>) of different sizes. for instance.144 200 IVAR HO0GBOM m and slightly below. the greatest part of which represents a redeposition of the material cut out from the marginal terraces (cfr Fig. which extends outside the terrace along the shore of the Orsasjon with a breadth of a half to one kilometers. Thus the changes in the level of the little lake Lintjarn comes out very markedly in its north-eastern corner. were to be seen not only the trunks of drowned young firs but also a new forest generation 8-io years old. On the west-side of the Osterdalilven I have had an opportunity to ascertain corresponding and yet greater variations in the ground-water level (cfr Fig. has been abraded during the further sinking of the sea-level and thus represents a younger land-form. As these small lakes are without superficial outlet. showing that during one or more seasons some io years previously the level of the lake was about one meter higher than at the time of this observation.
LIT ANST. 10 Topographical map of the Mora field.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 145 168 Loso it161. Fig. (From the sheet Mora of the maps of the General Staff). 8. Scale I 75. STAB. Annaler 1923.f2 - CC Ve3Nmz LA 77t "r M GEN.00ooo. Geografiska .
Although the edges naturally have been somewhat rounded. For further information regarding the vegetation I refer to the paper of G. as not only the development of the detached dunes wandering over a distinct plain makes probable. Everywhere a marked difference between wind. The dunes are thus typical transversal dunes driven by nortk-westerly winds. and rarely somewhat steeper. The distal parts Of the delta. the lee-side of one dune lying immediately unto or on the wind-side of the following one and the ridges forming a ramifying net of garlands.146 IVAR HOGBOM The finiglacial delta. Broadly speaking. the profile of the dunes seems not to be of the type with the edge lying leewards from the crest.or garland-form. the dunes occupy a zone which extends with a breadth of up to three kilometers along the distal margin of the part of the delta bordering the Orsasjdn. on the other hand. Several dunes can be followed for a length of one kilometer or more. a . is covered with pineforest. turning the open concave sides towards the north-west. east of the Gopshusberg and elsewhere. Single dunes occur also here and there within the more proximal parts of the delta. In fact. and it is thus impossible to point out their exact position. west of Gr6ningen. as well as the dunes lying on it. there is a dune-bearing spot some three kilometers west of the village Morastrand.and lee-sides is found. The western dunes are more scattered with level ground between. Besides. 8. as well as amongst the oses above the delta proper. are quite free from dunes on this side of the river. Already the topographical map shows the regular development of the dunes. but of the more triangular type. the latter 20-250. on the other hand. g. but also a study of the coarseness of the sand gives evidences of. near the margin of the dune-bearing delta the aeolian accumulation has surely laid down far more material than what is visible as dune-ridges on the map. whilst the eastern ones are thronged together. The situation of the dunes on the delta plateau is clearly shown on that part of the map of the General Staff reproduced on Fig. The extensive bogs now existing seem to confirm this explanation. have been subject to deflation. Whilst the sand-grains within the dune-bodies as well as in the eastern dune-valleys only rarely reach the dimensions of m mm. the former usually sloping 8-1 i. On the south-western side of the Osterdaldlven the dunes recur at the railway station Eldris. where edge and crest coincide. This is probably so because the conditions regulating the running off of the water have been so unfavourable that the ground has been kept humid enough to prevent sand-drift even while dune-formation has been going on in other parts of the delta. They are mostly of well developed bow. e. The western parts of the plateau. Samuelsson (191io). these having their length-direction orientated in NE-SW.
. The south-eastern corner of the great dune-field north of Mora.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 147 residual enrichment has taken place on the plain in the west. The o-isohyps following the foot-line of the dune-bearing plateau corresponds to the finiglacial sea-level at the end of dune-drift time and lies at about i8o m above present sea-level. but there are some. Fig. in the south-eastern part of the field. 12 12 I It -f6! # I/ . e. g. which reach in The map. The more north-southlength- I2-1I4 m. 9 gives a more detailed illustration of the dune-morphology the south-western corner of the great dune-field./ Fig. /'. where dimensions of up to 3 mm are very common on the surface.. I V . 4 m. 9. The usual height of the dune-ridges is about 8 meters in the central parts. aequidistance between the full line isohypses.
which thus may have advanced with greater speed. generally shown by the dunes in the immediate neighbourhood of the margin of the delta-plateau. the plain descends considerably. lying about 50 m These interspaces . There the conditions do not allow an exact determination of the end of the dune-drift time. 9 and the profile fig. This line lies in the north at 185 m and in the south at 179 m. until the foot-line of the plateau was reached. That no dunedrift has taken place since the sinking of the water to this line is evident. wherefore the north-eastern wings of the dunes have been less exposed to the driving winds than the south-western ones. so an exact determination of the situation of the ice-border at the end of the dune-drift time is yet impossible. the brink being there only a couple of meters high.148 IVAR HOGBOM direction. however. In the valleys there run big oses. from each other. Ioa shows. in fact some of the highest ones lie on the border of this south-eastern corner of the field. dune-drift has continued until this line was attained. which has been greater in the northern than in the southern part of the area. In this peculiar case the sloping of the plateau may also have played a r6le in retarding the movement of the northern dune-wings. Here too. is possible. as the sea may have gone on sinking and abrading even after the sand-drift had ended. is most probably due to the general tendency of dunes with a marginal situation to arrange themselves parallel to the border of the field (p. A fairly exact determination of the time when the dune-drift ceased. which certainly represent annual depositions. is proved by the development of the profile in the southernmost part of the field. I found some consecutive ose-hills. as is shown by the map Fig. as no dunes exsist beneath it. on the Alfdal railway). That. the plateau bears dunes. a difference in altitude which may partly be caused by the gradient of the postglacial land-rising. although under such circumstances the sharp development of the latter is not easily explained. At one place (2 km north from Ladein. Io a. although fine sand is everywhere at hand. At the northern and middle parts the field is relatively high. As the profile Fig. 137). but usually no conspicuous summer-accumulations can be traced indicating the annual regression of the ice. on the other hand. There the surface of the plateau slopes down till it almost reaches the foot-line. The dune-drift on the Mforafield has thus continued until the sea had sunk about 35 m below its highest level Investigations regarding the rate of the ice-recession in these regions have not been carried out. It is also possible that the proximity to the shore has contributed to the deviation of the length-direction of the dunes because of the delaying influence of the humidity of the ground on the lower situated north-eastern dune-wings or because of counteraction of irregular winds blowing from the sea. owing to the development of the brink of the dune-bearing plateau.
it may be concluded that the sanddriving foehn-wind reached only some few tens of kilometers from the ice-border. F6rhand. p. 1913). 220. and Carlzon (1913) found 360--400 (g1913) 100.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 149 are probably exceptionally short. the aequirecesses' to the west proves that the melting away of the land-ice must have been relatively slow in these parts of the country compared with Middle Norrland.150 m near the ice-shed. and Aronson. the sinking of the shore-line can there be supposed to have been about 10o m per century. As the dune-drift ceased when the sealevel was about 35 m below its maximum. Carlzon. De Geer as signifying the position of the ice-border at a certain time during the recession of the land-ice. (I. d. F6ren. Io. the brink of the plateau at two different places. H6gbom. a. Stockholm 1905). but the general convergence of.c. 1 The term . changes in level in a small pool at Eldris. where Lid6n m per year in the coastal region. (Geol. typical cross-section of a dune. . the annual recessiorf of 0oo m a year in the Mora region seems in fact to be in fairly good accordance with the statements of Lid6n. Dunes dotted. Dotted lines indicate present ground-water level and the level of the Finiglacial Sea at the end of the dune-drift epoch. Bd 27. b.aequirecess. In Varmland Aronson (191 1) found the distances between the annual ose-hills averaging about 70-85 a m. In Angermanland the upheaval of the land after the retreat of the ice has been determined by Lid6n to I I1-14 m per century. With due regard taken to the somewhat lower sea limit in Dalarne. Schematic section from Lintj irn to Orsasj6n. is introduced by G. when regard is taken to the general convergence of the aequirecesses westwards. . A rough estimation of ESE b SE NW SE Fig.
I had the opportunity to witness a real sand-storm on a minute scale. To the north. which will be presented in the sequel. Probably these dunes have been driven during a later time when the other dunes had already been fixed by vegetation. and accordingly it lies nearest at hand to explain them as having been caused by foehn-like winds coming from the land-ice. Neither >Kupsten> nor more regular wind-furrowor garmada-forms disturb the transversal dune-system. and the favourable conditions offered by shore-lines were necessary. At some of the small kettle-hole lakes there are dunes which run parallel to the shore and close to it. There can hardly be found any other cause for . or a relative calm must have reigned during the time of the immigration of the vegetation. I shall also have an opportunity to return to this matter in the final chapter. where the forest has been wasted by a fire. One should have believed that. when reviewing the climatological conclusions which can be drawn from the study of the dunes. especially on the dune-ridges. independently of the usual length-direction of the dunes. In another connection. however. Even these dunes however. forest-fires have been far more destructive than now. The dunes must then have been very quickly fixed by vegetation. if sand-drift was to take place. had been the only factor determining the distribution of the air-pressure. during drier climatic epochs than the present.150 IVAR HOGBOM The dunes have thus developed in a periglacial situation in the strictest sense of the term. It is in fact astonishing that no secondary action whatever can be found on the dunes within the Mora-field. and according to statements in a newspaper the road beneath the sand-plateau were covered by sand in one place last summer. the heath-vegetation leaves many spots bare. above the cold centre presented by the ice.most probably . The form of the dunes however. at a visit in 1913. the present vegetation is entirely fixing the dune-sand. Similar instances of later sand-drift at the shores of small lakes are to be found also on a pitted-plain near Gustafs mentioned below. not only of the climatic changes passed.botth these factors have been cooperating. where the vegetation has certainly been destroyed by the action of man. or . and some smaller spots at the eastern margin of the field. In fact. are under present climatic conditions quite fixed. but even in spite of the fires which must have passed over it. on the other hand. With the exception of the northernmost part of the field. prove that the driving winds have been blowing from the north-west whilst more northerly winds or even north-east winds would have been prevalent if an anticyclone. I have (1916) had the opportunity of pointing out the peculiarity of the Mora-field which has kept all primary characters in spite. from which sand blows during hard winds. This deviation of the wind accords in fact very well with the opinion about the general distribution of the air-pressure and the wind-conditions based upon a study of the Middle European dune-fields.
Either the humidity at a certain horizon has been sufficient to check the sand-drift. brought about the same effect. and mostly it is possible to get cuttings which are steep enough only for one or two decimeters below the surface. and they do not permit a certain determination of the distribution of wind. It is true that the dunes in Germany and Poland also which. The cuttings where I have been able to observe any stratification at all are very few. the state of which is decisive in this respect. proves also that a sand-drift from the oses. The existence of wind-worn pebbles and single dunes amongst the oses higher up. The stratification is clearly visible only when the sand has a certain humidity. Amongst the Mora-dunes. or the enrichment of coarser grains.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 151 such a rapid change in the climatic conditions than the recession of the border of the remaining land-ice. to establish the coarseness of the grains of the very surface film.and lee-side stratification. noticed both wind. the plants have naturally themselves occasioned a disarrangement amongst the uppermost sand-grains and shattered . The rules regulating where accumulation or deflation take place within different parts of a transversal dune are not fully established and it is not to be expected that they can be revealed through observations of the conditions within the dead dunes. The material which the sand-driving wind has blown together into dunes is certainly for the most part derived from the marginal delta itself. however. I have. because of the even-grained material out of which they are built. have not been driven by similar falling winds. important enough to give rise to dunes of relatively great dimensions. The development of the level underlying surface on which the western dunes of the field have wandered can be interpreted as the result of one or other of two different processes. The only deeper cutting where the layers could be observed was in the flank of a dune showing wind-side accumulation. as will be seen further on. but secondary forms are nevertheless not quite lacking amongst them. The stratification within the Mora-dunes is usually very indistinct. where the fibres of the roots as well as the chemical cementation and the humidity usually make the sand somewhat coherent. Irrespective of the hindrance to observations set up by the vegetation. are surprisingly well conserved.and lee-side accumulation. Most probably the latter has been the actual case on the Mora-field. which observation is in accordance with the general remarks I have made when discussing the development of the basal form. has really taken place. The non-appearance of secondary dune-forms would thus seem to confirm the hypothesis of the falling winds from the ice-rest as causing the dune-drift. however. on the western side of the river. but a minor part may also come from the oses and moraines to the north-west of the plain. which is always taking place on deflation surfaces. The covering vegetation renders it impossible.
however. one may judge that the velocity mentioned corresponds to the strongest winds which normally have been blowing over the dunes at the time of their wandering.25 mm. Where a stratification is visible. whilst the thinner layers contain sand-grains of up to 0. but are only seldom met with at a depth of i dm. that the velocity of the wind under similar conditions is about twice as great at an altitude of a couple of meters as at an altitude of I2 cm. exact investigations of the decrease in velocity of the wind near the surface have not yet been carried out. however. when measured at the usual altitude above the ground. the former showing neither dimensions above i mm nor in any considerable amount finer particles than say 0. On other fields.75-1 mm. evident. of the coarseness of the sand-grains. the medium dimensions of which are about 0. the systematic study of dunes has not as yet been carried so far that from an investigation of their forms it is possible to draw conclusions on the intensity of the driving wind (p. measured 4 inches (12 cm) above the ground. The dune-sand itself is more even-grained than the delta-sand. Because in the measurements of Sokol6w the anemometer was placed immediately above the ground. hardly possible to get any quantitative idea of how far this enrichment has gone. I39). is necessary to move grains of this size. which then shelters the underlying finer material from being attacked by the wind (cfr the description of the Tirend6-field further on). That also on the Mora-field an enrichment has really taken place on the plain over which the dunes have wandered is. Because of the inhomogeneity of the material of the different delta-layers it is. Unfortunately. where the wind still blows over spots of bare sand. where his measurements For the movement of of the transporting capacity of the wind have been made.05. The data given by Sokol6w indicate.152 IVAR HOGBOM the possibly once existing film of coarser grains. coarser sand is anyhow so uncommon that it is not to be reckoned with in this connection. The finer sand consists mainly of somewhat rounded quartz-grains. Grains of dimensions of 3 mm are common in the uppermost centimeters of the sand. the coarser sand mostly of more or less angular felspar-grains. As I have already stated in the previous chapter. and thus only limited conclusions in this respect can be based upon a study 132). As mentioned the sand in the Mora-field consists of grains reaching a maximum coarseness of about i mm. the thicker layers within the Mora-dunes which contain . As there are grains of greater dimensions on the plain between the dunes. which thus seem to have resisted the transporting power of the wind. According to the determinations of Sokol6w (cited on p. however. a velocity of the wind of i I meter pro second. the broader layers contain sand. I have had the opportunity to observe how the deflation continues until a film of coarser sand is enriched. the winds mentioned should in reality correspond to hard storms.
In fact. the direction of the driving wind thus seems to have been about the same at both places. when the streams have cut down their beds in the sediments. On stones which have kept their position the rifling is also orientated after the sand-driving north-west winds. but the surface of some stones of the hard >Bredvad>-porphyry are often beautifully sculptured Because the felspar phenocrysts are less hard.and lee-sides are on the whole orientated in the same way as on the Mora-field. just below the highest sea limit. The wind. The dunes are few and do not show the regularity which characterizes those of the Mora-field. between the Oredzlv and its affluent the Unnin. The sketch-map Fig. Fully developed >Dreikanter> I have not met with. as they are not met with on the far drier Mora-field. there is no other dune-bearing area which in regard to regularity and development of the dunes can be compared with the Mora-field. for the dunes are here situated within a pronounced marsh-region. Although the development of the dunes is less pronounced and does not allow an exact determination. the drainage of which must have been yet more incomplete during the time of the dune-drift than at present. the north-south direction of which indicates that Unn.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 153 sand of an inferior coarseness a velocity of the wind of about 5-6 m/sec. Such forms are.n wandered away from the river-side and originated as a river-dune. measured at an altitude of i 2 cm above the surface. would have been sufficient. properly speaking. The occurrences at the other places are better characterized as small groups of dunes or as scattered dunes than as dunefields. East of the there is also a dune. which here may be supposed to reach some few meters higher than on the Mora-field. there are some marginal delta-deposits lying at an altitude of about 215 m above sea-level. The lastmentioned fact seems rather to be ascribed to the humidity of the soil during the time of the dune-drift than to later destruction of the forms. which thereby has got points of attack for a rifling even of the ground-mass. but even this corresponds to a rather strong wind at the altitude of a couple of meters. hardly to be expected here. . the former have in the first place been compared ground by the wind. NE of the Orsasjdn. which term should be reserved for greater and more regular complexes. 7 shows the situation also of the other dune-fields or. by the sand-driving wind. with the quartziferous ground-mass. Wind-worn pebbles are to be found in the ose-region beneath the Gopshus mountain. that is to say. the other dunes in the Siljan region. I it has have found no secondary forms as ~> Kupsten> or wind-furrows. besides.
Further down in the Dalilv-valley dunes occur near the junction of Oster. and usually they are yet smaller. some dunes are also to be met with in the ose. the later ones are. The greatest dune is quite similar in shape to those on the Mora-field.154 IVAR HOGBOOM Some scattered dunes occur NW of the Oresjon near the shore and at an altitude of some few meters above the surface of the lake. They seem to be caused by different local conditions and are of a more occasional character. and. Some of them have already been fixed by young . e. The dunes between Siter and Gustafs are the most distal ones along the Dalalven or at least the most distal ones of such dimensions that their existence is revealed by the topographical map of the General Staff. the dunes at Gustafs are few. where a dune has wandered out over burned ground. no marked marginal terrace as that west of the Orsasjbn here rises above the lake.and delta-region above Riittvik at the eastern corner of Siljan. Compared with the finiglacial dunes. only three of them being of dimensions comparable to those of the Mora-field. The highest of the dunes reaches with its crest above the highest sea-level. Yet further down in the same valley relatively well developed dunes are met with at Gustafs. few in number. Attaining only small dimensions. I70). besides. These dunes have formerly been interpreted as oses (Nelson. In this region also later sand-drift has taken place at different places. at an altitude of about 18o m above sea-level. A comparison between their morphology and the morphology of indubitable dunes. 1910.and Vaster-Dalilven at Gagnef They are situated within an irregular ose. those at Mora. g. Thus. these dunes do not offer any features of special interest. however. In all these cases the dunes do not reach over 2 m in height. Judging from the topographical map. leaves no doubt as to their true character. the topographic conditions are such that they may have caused some local deviations in the winds and an irregular development of the dunes.and deltaland. At some places they have been driven because a forest fire has destroyed the vegetation. as is the case at Solvarbo. however. Near the small lakes south of this place the changes in the level of the water have also been a means of providing sand for dune-drift. very insignificant in size. however. They are. which in these regions lies at about 195 m above present sea-level. However. p. they would seem to indicate that more westerly winds have been ruling in this region during the time of the dune-drift than at Mora. As this is situated at 200 m above present sea-level. They have a more northsouth length-direction and show distinct wind-sides to the west and lee-sides to the east.
perhaps in connection with erosion at the basis of the wind-side. Sangen can be supposed to have reached the foot of the dune. the coarseness of the sand varies from 0. This cannot be decided by a study of the map. on the other hand . The statement of Sundius that the normal lee-side stratification (250) changes in the highest parts of the dunes to a more gentle one. With the exception of one or two of the smaller dunes. 50) from Hiillefors and other places within the Grythytte region in the westernmost part of Vistmanland. The only ones which have hitherto been mentioned as dunes in the literature are those described by Sundius (1922.25-1 mm whilst finer material has been blown away. The dunes are undoubtedly originated by north-west winds. No conclusions as to particularly favourable conditions for sand-drift during present times are thus to be drawn from the existence of new dunes of this kind. which is clear as well because of the basal forms as because of the coarseness of the material. Dunes of the same kind as those described above from Dalarna are also met with at some other places in Middle Sweden and situated in the same relation to the highest finiglacial sea-limit on the glaci-fluvial marginal deltas. . The basal form of the Hillefors dune is of typical horse-shoe shape with the concave side turned towards the north-west. if the high-water level of the lake St. seems also to indicate a secondary overblowing of sand. Next to the Mora-field in importance among the Middle Swedish dune-fields is that situated on the marginal delta of GeiTersdal in the province of Virmland. The normal material of the Hallefors dunes is thus of the same dimensions as that of the Mora dunes. This statement is remarkable. if they lay on uneven ground covered with a grown-up forest. p. It is. which is shown both by the stratification in the interior parts of the dunes and by the basal form opening towards the NW.and lee-side. although some of the Lapland dunes are characterized by abnormally steep wind-sides (cfr below). Sundius. Regarding the Hillefors dune it seems probable that the wind-side has got its steepness because of secondary erosion. besides. very probable that such dunes would not be recognized at all. where grains with dimensions up to 2 mm have been found.just as Solger does regarding the German dunes . beacause no large dunes elsewhere in Scandinavia exhibit so symmetrical a development of the dune-profile. Sundius describes the greatest dunes as beeing of an ose-like shape. In spite of the symmetry of the dune-profile there is no doubt about the ridges being real dunes.interprets the convexity as indicating south-east winds.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 155 vegetation. which does not disguise their accidental character. and I have not myself visited the place. not showing any difference in the steepness of wind.
I do not venture upon any explanation of their formation. Further to the south they are. have been made the subject of a yet not published. dunes occur also on the eastern side of Lake Alstern south of Lake Lungen. begin to assume a more determined shape and direction. This indicates that the sand-drift took place only during a very short period after the retreat of the ice and the emergence of the land. Thus they have approximately the form of end-moraines. Even here sand-driving north-westerly winds may thus be established. lacking on the map. From Norway dunes of the same type as the old Swedish ones are known on the great finiglacial delta-deposits in Romerike. At the northernmost corner of Lake Alstern the waves had eroded the end of such an ose. in fact. as I know that they. Dunes in Southern Norway. H6rner. which rise above the sandplateau. Judging from the topographical map. but as far as I could see. as well as other quaternary deposits in these regions. His description runs as follows: >)A couple of kilometers north of Svarta the hills. It is. p. The delta is here a typical .156 IVAR HOGBOM The main dune-complex in this region is described by Dahl (1902. causing a cutting some seven meters high. p. they consist exclusively of a loose. 4o): >Besides it is said that also sand-dunes of considerable heights appear on the heath> seems nevertheless to indicate that dunes are to be found even there. A closer study of the material of the delta will perhaps reveal the conditions which have made dune-drift possible at some places but not at others. although the topographical map in both cases indicates similarly constituted deltaplains. however. did not recognize the dune-character of the formation. Even here no coarser material was exposed. however. . The highest finiglacial sea-level lies in these regions at I80-Igo m. 72)who. Their bow-form open to the NW and well visible on the topographical map is strikingly similar to the forms of the Mora-dunes. The hills appear. the length-direction runs perpendicularly to the valley and the ends bend towards the upper parts of the valley. comprehensive investigation by my friend Mr N. whilst the lowest dunes at Alstern visible on the map are situated at an altitude of about 167 m. further accentuated on account of the bogs occupying the interspaces (cfr the topographical map). however. as long narrow oses with steep sides and attain heights of up to about ten meters. I have not myself visited these dunes.> Evidently there is no doubt of the dune-character of these formations. finer or coarser sand. A notice of Svenonius (1917.These peculiar oses appear within an area of 3 km in length and 2'/2 km in breadth. to be noticed that even the higher parts of the delta are free from dunes.
p. the topographical maps of the Norwegian General Staff are not detailed enough to show the orientation of the dunes. He makes. showing . regards them as being of finiglacial age and as having been driven as shore-dunes when the deposits in question emerged from the sea. H6gbom (1906. needed. having met with similar dunes at other places at the same Baltic limit. which would be expected if the isobares had run parallel to the ice-front. Bjorlykke regards a fine dusty earth (>Romeriksmjele>). The dunes lie at an altitude of 200 m above sea-level and the highest finiglacial sea-level is in this region at about 225 m. According to his description there are to be found )several bow-formed sandwalls of about io m height 100-200 m breadth at the base>. no suggestions as to the -time or the conditions of their formation. in my paper on the dunes. which is found in positions indicating aeolian and aquatic deposition. It is interesting to note that the dunes in Romerike are driven by more northerly winds than those of Central Sweden. as will be treated in a later chapter. Because of the informations of Bjorlykke cited above. This opinion has been confirmed by Bjorlykke in a later study (1918). For an exact determination of the direction of the driving wind further observations are. A. however. I69). the ice-front in this part of Norway runs almost from west to east instead of south-west to north-east in Central Sweden. Sandler (1917) in his study on the glaci-fluvial marginal deltas in Angermanland has devoted some pages to the dunes in that region. is due to the general distribution of the air-pressure at the period in question. He notes further that the dunes turn their concave side towards the north. I judged that the Norwegian dunes were of the same late finiglacial age. however. in Dalarna. as the ice-shed. G. Dunes in Northern Sweden. over the fjords and adjacent land. This difference in wind-direction is in good accordance with the theory of foehn-winds. as being most probably the finest-grained equivalent to the dunes and spread out by the same winds. and yet more. That the winds have blown almost perpendicularly from the ice-front instead of sho wing the deviation to the right.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 157 pitted plain with no less than 25 small lakes and ponds of the same character as those on the Mora-field mentioned above. The existence of aeolian sand-accumulations on the delta-plains at the borders of the early postglacial and finiglacial Baltic Sea (the highest Baltic limit) is first mentioned by Lindstrom from the place Studsviken in Angermanland as early as I888. Later on K. who also calls attention to the dunes. which he devotes to the question if loess exists in Norway. The glaci-fluvial deposits in Romerike are described by Bjorlykke (1912).
at some places I met with old dunes on moraine. most of which are now covered with pine-forests or else fixed by vegetation. In Lapland an inquiry of this kind is hampered by the lack of topographical maps on a sufficient scale to show the dunes. . whilst none are marked within the central and distal parts. I made a journey through this part of Lapland last summer in order to investigate the morphology of the dunes and to get an idea of their frequency and regional distribution.158 IVAR HO0GBOM that they are of the same character as those of Dalarna. From the map one can hardly draw any precise conclusions as to the direction of the dune-driving winds. No detailed geological survey is as yet made of these vast and sparsely populated regions. Thus the map Fig. The highest finiglacial sea level in these regions lies at about 240 m above present sea-level. and others). considering the vast extent of the regions in question. As ancient dunes had not at all been reported among the quaternary deposits in Lapland. while the surface of the main part of the delta lies at an altitude of about 200-2Io0 m. and there some few dunes occur. 6 does not pretend to show the regional distribution of the dunes in Lapland in general. In the following description of the dune-occurrences in Norrland.ooo.or ose-ground. During magnetometrical work in the region east of Kiruna in Lapland in the summer 1916. comparatively short. which had at that time been described by myself. some few dunes are to be found within the proximal half of the delta. as the General Staff map over Northern Sweden is on a scale of I:2oo. I thought them worth some attention. but only the situation of the few localities which I have found out during some journeys. In HlIsingland a marginal delta extends for some I15 km along the Ljusne River. that is since the land had risen some 40 m after the regression of the ice-border. Judging from the topographical map. I begin with those situated on the flniglacial deltas and thus in all respects most closely connected to the dune-occurrences described on the previous pages. (Hedstr6m. This indicates that the wind has not been dry or strong enough to produce dunes after the emergence of the lower parts of the delta from the sea. and having got some further information as to their occurrence also at other places from Dr B. Hogbom. north-west of Farila. Under such circumstances it has been impossible for me to try to find out more than a few localities and I shall have to confine myself to a description of some of these. however. and the geologists who have worked there have had their attention fixed on other problems of greater importance for the knowledge of Lapland and have thus left no notes regarding dunes. I893.
The dunes having in some cases wandered out over hollows. Their shape indicates that they have been driven by north-westerly winds. eastern part . About the sand-formations at the Kubbedn Sandler states: >Even on the topographical map an isolated.>) Sandler sums up his observations thus: >The dunes here described in Northern Angermanland are of the same character and age as those previously more minutely described dune-occurrences in Dalarna (I. 1913). SE or E and have consequently been blown by north-westerly winds. as Lid6n found it to be in the inner parts of the Anger- . flowing to the Gideilv. One of the dunes thus consists of loam with grains of dimensions under 0. namely the deltas at Aspsele and Studsviken on the Gidealv. Among these localities the Aspsele field contains the largest and finest developed dunes. they are situated in the immediate neighbourhood of the marine limit and have been formed by north-westerly winds from the constant barometric maximum lying over the inland-ice not yet melted away. p. According to Sandler's statement. 15. It rises 9 m above the neighbourhood and has wandered towards the SE so far that its bare lee-side borders on the adjacent moraine ground.of the delta. . he thinks it probable that a sand-ridge running W-E on the delta of the Lockstain. is really a dune. Like these. therefore. Hogbom. while it is stated about another that the material consists of sandy loam with sporadic grains of I mm size. their lee-sides have got an abnormal height. and that on the Kubbedn. The dunes at Studsviken lie in a region with complicated ose-topography. already early been noticed and recognized as aeolic formations. are bow-shaped and turn their lee-sides towards the S. they have a height of"5-12 m.As the lowest dune at Studsviken lies 2 12 m above the sea and the Baltic level at Aspsele is 256 m above the sea. and as these lee-sides are to some extent free from vegetation.20 m in places. the sand-driving winds have continued blowing at least till the elevation of the land had moved the shore-line to a level 40o-50 m further down. 98) describes dunes at three different localities on the marginal deltas. this means a period of 3-400oo years.2 mm. the dunes have become unusually prominent and have.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 159 From Northern Angermanland Sandler (1917. if the annual recession had been 360-4oo m. Besides. but I think it very likely that the vegetation has been destroyed by man or perhaps rather by the trampling of cattle. I have not myself visited the field. the grain-size would seem to be a little finer than usual. But during that time the ice-border had receded i oo-15o km into the country. finely developed dune is clearly visible in the south. That the lee-sides of these dunes are at least in part bare of vegetation is rather curious. >With the rate of the land-elevation measured by Lid6n of o10-14 m per one hundred years.
The.> Dune-formations of the same character as those in Angermanland are certainly to be found on other finiglacial deltas in Middle Norrland. not as yet been examined in sufficient detail. In some places the dunes may. A couple of open horse-shoe dunes which I haVe traced out. however. I. Dunes occur here on both sides of the river. but these have Fig. The dunes in this place are both numerous and of considerable dimensions. Dune cut by the railway. and so it is not to be positively concluded that right westerly winds have reigned. Petikan. This is for instance the case near the station of Kusfors on the Skelleftediilven. their northern wings have wandered up a slope. .160 IVAR HOGBOM manland fjords. be seen even from the railway. turn their opening westwards. but perhaps most fully developed on the northern river-bank about 6 km above Kusfors at an altitude of about 15 m above the river-bed and some 210o m above sea-level. . the basal-form of the dunes may possibly have been influenced hereby. however. As. Very likely a closer examination will show that these dunes too have been driven by north-westerly winds. dune-forming winds were thus able to assert themselves even since the ice-border had reached the region not far from the ice-shed.
No exact determination of the highest Baltic Sea level has been made for these parts. That this is the case. . but it is with tolerable certainty to be placed at about -----------. 12. the railway cuts through a beautiful dune (phot. 12. Fig. The dunes. immediately east of the Tarendo river on the proximal part of the delta. Fig. . included in the Z. lie at an altitude of I65 -170 m. which joins the Skellefte~alven immediately south of Kusfors. they have. seems highly probable. not been subject to investigations. are to be found not far north of the village of Tdrendi. that would say during some six centuries (cfr p. Horse-shoe dunes on the Tirend6 delta. The sediments about the junction of 5 ( 4 the Tarend6 and Kalix rivers have '. I I Geogralfska Annaler 1923. It lies at an altitude of about 185 m. OOrm. 5 m I have not had the opportunity of aequidistance between the full line isohypses. but there is a name Pahtakorva 3 km • "-.> These were no doubt dunes. 10-12 pure sand.. however. reconnoitring the other parts of the delta-formations in this region in order to find out whether there are dunes on them. the character of glaci-fluvial delta-for• . sharp ose-ridges. The altitude indicated of the highest sea limit stands in good accordance with the estimates arrived at by an extrapolation of the figures known from places somewhat SE of this region (cfr Sj6gren I905). j' 5/ Some of the finest horseshoe-dunes I have met with in Sweden. 433) the following passage is quoted: >)AtPahtamaa Svenonius (diary of 1891) m in height and composed by found well developed. p. In Tanner's treatise (1914.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 161 On the Petikin. . Sand-drift thus seems to have continued at the finiglacial delta of the Skellefteailven at least till the sea had sunk to near 60 m below the highest Baltic level. i i). map Fig. The name of Pahtamaa is not to be found on the map of the General Staaff. I75 m above the present sea-level. by the high-road to Junosuando. 159). There are dunes between the Skellef0 teilven and the Vindelalven also. mations. however.
has. The unusually steep lee-side in the central part of the southern dune-segment. and there is a number of smaller dunes as well in the mapped region as in the western neighbourhood. The sand of the dunes has the dimensions typical of dune-sand.. the report may be supposed to refer to this neighbourhood. the difference of inclination between wind..6 I 1.. 250 for the latter.. coarser sand.. where the surface of the ground is not covered with bog or has been blown over with sand.1 14.. is remarkable. Within the north-eastern dune-bow forest-covered sand-heaths prevail..162 IVAR HOGBOM south of the church of Tirendd......0 % I1.and gravel-grains.and lee-side is clearly developed... however. The north-easternmost one of the two large dune-segments visible on the map.8 The dunes reach a height of 7-10o m measured at the lee-side. The plain on which the dunes are situated rises only some few meters above the level of the river. takes. as is the case in spots here and there. probably because it has got the character of a later shore-dune which has not yet wandered far enough to lose its parallelism to the shore. Generally the difference between wind. Dune-sand ... however. measured along the ridge.6 0. up to a size of i cm are found on the superficial layer. Ramifications from the two great dune-segments occur in several places.2 % 4....4 82.and lee-side is there insignificant.8 % 84..2 Surface.6-0. 15' may be put as an average for the former.2 <•0.0. the sand seems to have been driven by winds between NW and N. where it is bare of vegetation.3 75.. since attention has once . measuring 300 m.. peat-bogs. 2 dm below .... within the south-western one... The dune-sand has been supplied not only by the erosion of the river.. One sample from the very surface of a bare spot and another taken 2 dm below it show the following dimensions of the grains: Size of grains in mm: > 2 2-0. while they are of rare occurrence one or two decimeters down. The northernmost part... an abnormal course compared with the rest of the dunesegment.... On the sand-surface.. Judging from the basal forms of the dunes.0 I..9 3. this is clear from the easily appreciable enrichment by coarser sand and gravel to be noticed in the gaps of the dunes....8 km in length.. but a great part of it must have been blown off the surface of the plain itself.. 1. It is true that no systematic search for dunes has been performed in Norrland and that new occurrences are certain to be observed.o % 2. Outside the dune-bows there are mostly peat-bogs. and consists chiefly of rounded quartzgrains..0 19...
and the observations from Middle Sweden must be considered as supporting the interpretation based on the occurrences of the less investigated Norrland. It is very improbable that such formations should have escaped observation altogether. It is improbable. that future observations will bring anything essentially new regarding the regional distribution of the dunes. there are large sand-heaths. the regions below the highest sea-limit have been rather more closely examined in regard to the quaternary geology than those above it. which would have furnished abundant material for dune-formation. It should be reminded of the somewhat later age of these dunes compared with . and the system of roads is much more developed. this cannot be expected to take place to any considerable extent. as is the case on the finiglacial deltas. are in some respects of another character than those which have developed on the marginal deltas. no direct conclusions in that respect can be drawn. As no determination of their age can be made by studying their position in regard to a former sea-level. would be topographically much more prominent than dune-fields occurring above the highest sea-limit. The north-westerly winds. pass in these regions the border of the ice-rest more obliquely than was the case farther to the south. and there is no likelihood that evidences will be found for an essentially different apprehension of the extent of the dune-forming epoch. which I am going to describe on the following pages. there is evidently every probability. especially as they. which should also have facilitated the discovering of dunes. besides. however. On the other hand. In several places. Even if the lower limit of dune-formation in some places should be moved downwards. that even these dunes have developed in a periglacial situation. far too insignificant to account for the formation of these dunes. if the conditions as to wind and humidity had allowed such during any period after their emergence out of the sea. especially in the coast-land of Visterbotten. which the orientation of these dunes generally indicates. That they often emerge out of peat-grown marsh-ground indicates that other hydrographical or climatic conditions than nowadays must have been ruling at the time of their formation. The present sand-drift in these regions is. Besides. therefore. The dunes situated above the highest finiglacial sea-level in Lapland. and thus regarding the lower limit of their occurrence. The correspondence between the occurrences of dunes on the marginal deltas in Norrland and in the better known Middle Sweden are also striking. as the ice-remnant at the time in question terminated to the north in these regions.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 163 been directed to the dunes as a special and evidently not very rare formation.
would otherwise have required. north of Ovre Soppero (cfr Fig. is thus a side-branch of that great Tulusharju and has some very fine dunes on its . As the existence of dunes above the highest sea-level has hitherto. The northernmost ose-range. 13). I have met with dunes at several places. been quite overlooked. is found at the southern end of Lake Tulusjairvi. where the conditions seem particularly favourable for the development of dunes. These dunes I have not had the opportunity of examining. according to Tanner's map (1914. as mentioned. Besides. but it does not seem probable that they would show any new traits beyond those shown by the dunes at Tulusjarvi or in other districts. Across the Lainio river there runs a considerable ose-range. I have thought it appropriate to illustrate the appearance of these occurrences in somewhat greater detail than their relatively insignificant dimensions. As the cuttings of the roads through the dunes best show their true character. Fig. as the forest does not permit a direct recognition of their basal form. The conclusions as to the winds from the different dune-regions cannot thus be unreservedly connected in order to reconstruct the climatic conditions of a certain stage of the melting away of the land-ice. An instance of the typical combination of oses and dunes. which seems to be very common in Lapland. The highest situated dunes I have visited are at Tulusjirvi near the Lainio river. north of Ovre Soppero at about 400 m altitude. in SW-NE 13 - of the great ose Tulusharju. There are also dunes farther north in the ose-country along the high-road. which rises 20 m above the neighbourhood. Following the highroad down from this place for some 150 km to Tarendb at the highest Baltic sea level.164 IVAR HIOGBOM those earlier described which were formed already before the regions here in question had been freed from the land-ice. which reaches here about 175 m altitude. it is quite natural that dunes have not yet been reported from the interior of this region as long as they have escaped attention along the roads. as well as farther south on the gravelly ground of the table-land west of the Lainio river. compared to other dune-fields. that this road passes some broad valleys. As the oses in these regions run almost independently of the valleys and mostly across them. but as the following description will show. a detailed investigation and mapping is mostly necessary to distinguish dunes from other formations. the possibilities for deflation of the oses and deposition of dunes beneath them seem to be at hand almost everywhere. Plate I) lies to the west of Tulusjirvi. dunes at these altitudes are as often fed by sand from oses or moraines as from delta-deposits. the main part of which. It is true. part - visible runs on my map.
....0 o0 0 o o c 0 0 0 0.. and even more farthest to the NE. as shown on o o the map..... the topographic conditions are not quite normal. In the section all dunein dunes.2 <0..... bare spots of dune-sand.2 3. Though the ose holds much fine-grained material.... exhibit gaps with recent. 5 m equidistance between the full line isothe same time eroded the steep hypses.. The schematic profile Fig.4 .ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 165 south-eastern side.. 13..Kupsten>-formation and consequent destruction of the primary dune-forms.4 84. There is no other source of the sand-material of the dunes than the 00m ose.6-o oo 0 1o o 0oooo o .and moraine 2. i..4 % D une-sand. On the south. 13 indicates further. and where erosion may possibly have played a part. Mechanical analyses of samples of the sandy gravel from the ose and sand from the dunes gave the following percentage: o o ? o.2 % 0.. nor their cross-section. In many places the duneridges.•o -ven by north-westerly winds. Lapland..6-0.. further accompanied by dunes.2 Sandy gravel from the ose.. Dunes at TulusjRrvi..... cup-shaped winderosion excavations. and the absence of dunes further southwards helps to prove the influence of Tulusjdrvi by detaching the sand.....6 % 12. it is evident that the deflation would have ceased long before such great quantities of sand had been driven away and heaped up Fig.o 19. NeiB A ther their basal form. as well as their sides. 0... where. 19. ooo leaves any doubt that they are dri0 o oo o o o o --. however. the ose borders to the SE on marsh-land and is not. 0 02 Size of grains in mm: >2 2-0.0o. sand dotted.6 0. beyond the region mapped. which is 0 07 0 the typical beginning of ..7 % 60. with one small exception. ose. how the ose itself has been overspread with sand on its leeside.. wind-side slope of the ose. The dunes reach a height of 5-6 m measured on the lee-side. if the shore had not at ground.
This moraine. The sketch-map (Fig. as already mentioned. This may be noticed above all in the unusually steep wind-sides. has no pretensions to detailed accuracy but may give a faithful idea of the topographic features of the country. according to the description by . Unmistakeable dunes with exceptionally steep wind-sides. so that the northern part of these constitutes a direct continuation of the former. however. the Hitllefors dune. 14) of this field. which now flows round the eastern part of the dune-complex with a very small volume of water. cannot be supposed to make up more than part of the upland situated to the NW of the dunes. however. The low amonut of the finest material in the sample from the ose is probably due to outwash by water on the steep ose-side from where it is taken. confined myself to a fairly accurate rendering of the limits of the dune-district. while the run of the main dune-ridges has been only schematically delineated. Because of the complicated nature of the dune-system an exact mapping would take up much time and probably give no new results. however. as it rises out of the marsh-land.and ose-region extends to the NW of the dunes. the greater part of which is probably composed of moraines. I have. The brook indicated on the map. which are common to almost every one of them and for which it is difficult to give a reason. has earlier cut a minute erosive terrace. Secondary erosion may have played a part. and a tendency to such may be traced in this field even where bare spots are now wholly missing. there is a marked ose running NE-SW. As the moraine often shows a tendency to fluviatile stratification and indications of kames-morphology. These dunes are far less typically developed than at Tulusjarvi. it is difficult to make out the distinct boundary between moraine and ose. This. This ose. as can be seen for a considerable stretch of the lee-side of the distal dunes. therefore.166 IVAR HO0GBOM The comparatively great mixture of finer and coarser material in the dune-sand is usual in samples from the Lapland dunes and is evidently due to the local development of the dunes. does not entirely account for the extraordinary steepness of almost all the wind-sides. likewise. and the erosion of a brook along the northern side of the moraine hills and of a little lake to the NW may have helped to detach the sand. here presented. which have wandered only an insignificant distance and thus not been subject to the separation process which assorts the sand in real wandering dunes. In this district. Another and larger instance of the Lapland dune-topography is to be found at Vastakielinen about 8 km north of Vittangi. where no very deep cuttings are available. are known from other places. not far from the high-road. In this field a large area has probably provided the material of the dunes.
. The furthest part of the point projecting into the river.: o size of one or two cm. found some small stones of the 1ofo::. on the sandy surface. with aeolian sand. hill.0ooo0 o o oo o o o0:o 0 o oo 000 o oo type both in basal form and in profile. though they show ? \ o ooo?:'' oo some deviations from the regular dune. A recent dune of about the same dimensions is to 1914. main dune-ridges.: 0 .a oooo ooo . I have. hardly be doubted. 3.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 167 Sundius.:. As regards the formations in . nor have I found any stony material within the area mapped as dunes and 0oo ooo o ooooooo dune-sand. Dunes at Vastakielinen north of Vittangi. and have then drifted a little landwards to their present position. which cannot very well have been carried thither by non-geological means. Here it is the deposits through which the river flows that have provided the sand. 2. marsh-ground. 14. there are dunes of a different character (Fig. I5. which to some part is covered Lapland. 4. C. moraine and ose-ground./ :. denoted on the map part as moraine. at least those in the village.ooooo oo o oooo question.'. > 00 000 0 00 00 00 0 About Vittangisuvanto. when these dunes came into existence. p.:: o0 o0 o0 The material is typical dune-sand. only one or two m above the level of the river. their character of dunes can ooo o o o oi o . as across the river. Dunes at Vittangi. but the ground between it and the two dunes is very low. is composed of a moraine or an ose-hill. dune-sand. 15). These dunes have previously been noticed by Svenonius (cfr Tanner --0 o5 V. north of the village. It is not improbable that the dunes were formed while the level of the water was higher. shows quite a symmetrical f profile. 430). and in certain respects the dunes have the character of shore-dunes. . as well in the village of Viltangi itself. Within the northernmost of the area. They may be lying on the crest of a moraine Fig. The weather need not have been so very much drier than at present. r. o Fig.
and I imagine that here as elsewhere the finds of single stones hereby is sufficiently accounted for. in fact. To a certain extent. About 20 km south of Vittangi. S. on the high-road immediately south of the village of Merasjlrvi. The dune-sand appears to have come partly from the ose and partly from the sandy moraine-ground and the glacifluvial plains to the NW. The basal form of the dunes seems however to suggest a little more westerly winds than was the case at Tulusjdirvi.168 IVAR HOGBOM be found on the map furthest to the NW. I cannot think that there is any doubt that the formations at Merasjarvi have really the character of dunes. but it is wholly destructive. thus a complex quite similar to that mentioned from Tulusjarvi. To the west an ose. I have thought proper to indicate in the map the occurrence of a great stone (about dm). Dunes at Merasjiirvi. probably by Laps. as it comes to light in the roadri cutting in the northernmost part of the map. with dunes on its eastern side (Fig. White areas outside the ose mostly marsh-ground. which. 1. 16. at present drifting and quite unfettered by vegetation. The curved dune-complex in the north-eastern corner of the map may probably be considered to have originated from the ose-plateau to the NW. Lapland. stone found on one of the dunes. The spur to the SE has in part the character of a shore-beach. G. though it is isolated and is not of the sort which the Laps commonly use for their fire-places. Dunes dotted. The 0 0 O RO! Fig. In the cuttings caused hereby. both wind. In the dunes at the village of Vittangi there is also some sand-drifting on a small scale going on. however.SE. The southernmost part of the dune here marked out is. this is also confirmed by the stratification. wind causing it must accordingly have been more westerly than the dune-branch running NW. showing a distinct lee-side stratification 5 falling about 250 against the NE. 16).and lee-side stratification is to be observed. as their basal . there is an ose. gravel-pit. In fact. I suppose to 3-4 have been brought thither by man.7 m equidistance between the isohypses. the dunes have certainly been particularly convenient for the camping of the Laps.
In several parts of Tanner's survey of the ose-formations in northern Fennoscandia (1914) one comes across expressions which seem to suggest the occurrence of dunes. though. The dunes turn their concave wind-sides to the NW and W. in this instance >Kupsten>-formation has played a part in the modelling of the dunes. The sand-material also shows the dimensions characteristic of dune-sand. As is the case in other places where the dunes rise out of marsh-land. the difference between wind. who have surely passed the high-road.. partly on account of later weathering and partly because of present lichen-covering. because hitherto dunes as obvious as those at Tirend6 described above have not been noticed as such by the geologists. are by no means uncommon above the highest sea-level in Lapland. all conditions regarding supply of material are of general occurrence to the same or to a still wider extent than in the dune-bearing localities I have had the opportunity of examining. it is with pretty great probability to be supposed that among these formations there are dunes also. Wind-worn pebbles I have not found in Lapland. here hills and osesp. because the dune-valleys are not covered with peat-bogs. though they have not been interpreted as such by the observer. about 3 km from the last-mentioned place. Hence I hold that dunes of the type mentioned that cuts through them. cannot be expected to show the polish of sand-grinding or >dreikanter> details. and the sand-material is the usual. besides. when. is not surprising. occurring within or in the immediate neighbourhood of hilly ose-regions. It would be very curious indeed. which does not readily lend itself to the grinding processes and which besides. if so marked dunedrifting had been going on only in single places here and there. Where he cites expressions as >great quantities of sand and ose-like hills> or >great quantities of meagre sand forming here a level field. they have not been topographically so prominent and have therefore been overlooked as a special formation. By the road running from Junosuando down to Saitajarvi. according to the reports of all earlier geologists about sandy ose-districts etc.and lee-side is not well marked. The dunes here exhibit a more typically developed profile. . there is another dune-area.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 169 form as well as the stratification in the cutting mentioned above are quite consistent with such an interpretation. This is particularly the case with many quotations and excerpts which Tanner has collected from earlier notes and diaries. That the idea of sand-dunes has not occurred to the several observers. This is mainly to be ascribed to the coarse granitic material of the oses.
Tanner (1914. however. The direction of the sand-driving winds agree here better with hypothetical isobars enclosing the land-ice. Tanner. rather irregular. Dunes in Finland (and Karelia).170 IVAR HOGBOM The position of the dunes described above shows that they have been formed somewhat later than the dunes situated on the marginal deltas. Tanner thinks it probable that the dune-bearing ground represents a local deposition of sand in an ice-dammed bay. It is situated at the southern and eastern verge of a wide sandy plain. however. In his survey of the quaternary formations of Northern Finland.and leesides. is obviously of the same character as the Swedish ones. and the existence of smaller dune-hills on the north- . which have led to this conclusion. The shape of the principal dune-segments as well as their situation in relation to Kemijoki. One of these dune-accumulations. They lie m above the sea-level. The other map from the parish of Sodankyla (Tanner's Plate XII. but this might partly be ascribed to the valleys running in the expected direction of the winds. b. be only secondary and due to late displacements. but as the arrows generally cross the edges of the dunes obliquely and show great divergences one from another. features of the dunes. and open against the NW. to be no essential difference in the conditions for their formation. at an altitude of 180-185 4-10 m in height and form one or two segments. The shape of the dune-complex and its situation on the south-eastern border of the sand-deposit. There seems. b) shows some dune-strings not far from the village of Martti on the Kem/oki. however. and XI) shows three maps including dune-formations. Tanner denotes on his map by several arrows what he supposes to have been the probable direction of the No information is given about the topographic accumulating winds. supposing that the testimony of the dunes as to the direction of wind is not simply misinterpreted. leave no doubt that they have been driven by north-westerly winds.and lee-sides of the dunes. but rather upon details of form. a). On the E and S the dunes border on morainic ground. The dunes are now entirely covered by lichens and pine-forest. it is obvious that Tanner does not found his suppositions on the general location of the wind. that is to say about the highest at an altitude of 200-208 Baltic Sea limit. As the text gives very few data regarding these. Two of the maps are from the parish of Sodankyla. it is very difficult to get a clear idea of their character. The dunes are ginal delta. Plates XII. however. surely a marm above the sea-level. that at Raudunjoki in Sodankyli (Tanner's Plate XII. These may. does not state the location of wind. however. the third one from that of Enare. but says only that the original forms of the dunes are well preserved. namely S-SW. a.
and Tidaholm.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 171 western side seem. p. however. Regarding one or two of these localities. one gets from Tanner's collection of data concerning Finland the impression that in several places dunes have probably been met with by geologists without having been recognized as such. although on a small scale. and have wandered upwards from it as shore-dunes. amongst other recent forms the same author gives also the description of a shallow wind-furrow. which here runs mainly in a W-E direction. known from the descriptions of Munthe to the geological sheet-maps Skara. are some met with in the Province of Visterg6tland in the surroundings of the table-mountains Billingen and M6sseberg. however. Dunes in Southern Sweden. From the Kemijoki in Karelia Rosberg (1892. The manifested presence of dunes in some places makes it nearly certain. Tanner himself makes the suggestion that we may have to deal with aeolic accumulations. outside the northern extension of which the fields are situated. Ancient dune-forms are not mentioned by Rosberg. they may also correspond to an earlier river-shore. that there may occur dunes in several other places. These scattered dunes seem to be most numerous NW of the town of Skara. this actual sand-drift to the burning of the forests here usual in order to gain arable land for cultivation. some two hundred meters wide. From the informations gathered by Tanner out of the diaries of other geologists it is. They have been built up from the ice-sea sand. however. as all the geological conditions necessary are very common and the meteorological factors cannot have been locally so different that dune-formation has taken place only in one or two cases. impossible to draw any definite inferences as to the presence of real dune-formations. contrary to the opinion of Tanner. On the other hand. whilst the primary accumulation of the sand would have been called forth by winds from the inland-ice at the time when this deposited the Salpausselkii moraines. They are situated on the northern side of the river. Of quite another orientation and age than the North and Middle Swedish dunes described above. Sk6fde. and this is made probable by their situation on one and the same isohyps. The dunes on the Luuto river in the parish of Enare (Tanner's Plate XI) are of a different type. Just as is the case in regard to the Swedish Lapmark. 85) has noted the existence of some small fields where nowadays dune-drift is going on. above all. He ascribes. to indicate that the dunes were driven by north-westerly winds. by the outwash of finer material from . that is the shore-sediments which were formed during the recession of the sea by the action of waves upon the moraine and delta deposits and.
Munthe also notes the occurrence of wind-worn pebbles from this place as well as from Dimbo. who has tried to find out their age by an pollen-analysis of the peat in the small bogs situated within the dune-fields. Lundquist gives also important informations regarding the orientation of the dunes. where a marginal ose running E-W has been overblown by sand (cfr description appended to the geological sheet Tidaholm). According to Munthe those at Hvalstad. however. in order to ascertain in which horizon aeolic sand appears. which Munthe confirms by mentioning that they have been fixed by plantation. and thus concludes that at the end of atlantic time or the beginning of sub-boreal time southerly winds were ruling in these regions. He states that the dunes NW of Skara with a general length-direction in WNW-ESE towards the SSW. The most frequent winds nowadays during the summer-months are from W and SW. These ancient dunes have been the subject of an interesting study by Lundquist (1920). Dunes are far more widespread on the west-coast of Denmark than in the regions hitherto mentioned. The dunes examined by him have a height of about four meters. is at places rather irregular (bow-formed?). It is somewhat unexpected that these dunes. Through pollen-analytical investigations Lundquist has found that the aeolic sand intermixed in the peat disappears in the layers corresponding to the beginning of sub-boreal time. although younger than those of the marginal deltas. Dunes in Denmark. The northerly lee-sides show inclinations of 25'-300. indicate SW-winds. only that they indicate winds coming from between S and SSE. They are essentially a . and shows that they have been blown by southerly winds.172 IVAR HOGBOM the sand-containing Yoldia clay. but even such of 200 have been observed. Thus they would seem to be of more recent origin. that at Svensbro. The southerly wind-sides vary in steepness between xIx and 170. being some 3-4 m high. where exceptional climatic conditions called forth the sanddrift. the length-direction of the dunes being about WSW-NNE. Further south dunes are also met with at some places. heights of 6-7 m. and 7o0 E) show wind-side slopes of Ioo-15' (N 70 W-S leeside slopes of about 200 towards the NNE. especially they are the distinguishing feature in the morphology of the northernmost land-tongue of Jutland. seldom more. prove to have been in an active state at the end of atlantic time and fixed at the very postglacial change from cold-wet to warm-dry climate. some 12 km south of the town of Skofde. The dunes attain. The run of the dune-ridges. Quite similar are the dunes of the other field investigated by Lundquist. (S 70-750 W-N 70-750 E).
formation bound to the present coast-line, thus forming the northernmost end of the chain of coast-dunes, which, with some breaks, border the coast-line of the continent along the North Sea. A description of these dunes thus falls outside the scope of this treatise. There are, however, also some aeolic deposits in the interior of the country which are not connected even with older coast-lines, but which have a similar geological situation to the Swedish ancient dunes, being built up from late glacial sand-deposits. Thus A. Jessen (1918, p. 234) says: >)It is probable that the sanddrift in Vendsyssel is as old as the land itself; especially at the end of the Ice Age, before the new-formed land had been covered by vegetation and mould, there seem to have been conditions favourable to the formation of dunes.>> The primary traces of the ancient dunes, however, are obliterated, at least no inlanddunes have been described, which have been fixed by vegetation without the intervention of man. The aeolic sands of the interior are either still active or fixed by plantation. It is very possible that the study of the later sand-drift in Denmark will reveal interesting data regarding changes in climatic conditions which have taken place during the last three or four thousand years. By the examination of the Danish peat-mosses it has been proved, that the recent sand-drift along the shores has set in with all its intensity only some few centuries ago, and it is known from historical documents, that the sand-drift meant no great menaces to the cultivation before the beginning of the I6th century (cfr Jessen 1918, p. 239). As the last-mentioned change in the intensity of the sand-drift must have been called forth by changes in wind or humidity, it seems to contradict the experience hitherto won regarding the stability of the climate in historical time.' For the sake of comparison with the figures given at other places in this treatise, the following averages from a series of 30 samples of dune-sand from Denmark, published by Warming (1907, p. 9), may be of interest:
Size of grains in mm:
2-I 1-0.5 o0.5-0o.25
Northern Jutland (8 samples) .......... W est-coast of Jutland (i i)..................
Coasts of the Kattegatt (3) .............. Coasts of the Baltic (4) ..................... Interior of Jutland (4) ........................
0 o.o 0 o.9
5.7 4. 1
Some remarks on recent dune-drift in Fennoscandia.
In order to form a conception of the climatic changes indicated by the existence of ancient dunes, it may be of some importance to know under what conThere are no evidences of any changes of the shore-line at the time in question which could have caused a change in the exposition of the sand to the waves.
ditions and in which regions sand-drift is at present taking place within Fennoscandia, besides the instances already mentioned in connection with the ancient dunes. With few exceptions all recent sand-drift is bound to the shores, where sufficient quantities of sand are supplied by the action of the waves. It is already stated in the chapter on dune-formation that under such circumstances even great humidity does not seem to prevent the formation of dunes. The sand successively made free at the shore-line always wanders a certain distance inwards before the vegetation is able definitely to fix it. The inland winds do not drive any dunes because they have no starting line which supplies sand, and besides the inland winds only exceptionally reach an intensity great enough to balance the action of the sea-winds. The ancient inland-dunes of Fennoscandia, on the other hand, have mostly been driven independently of shore-lines, even if they lie near them; in most cases they have wandered towards the shore under the influence of land-winds. It is especially to be remembered that the geographical distribution of the dunes on the marginal deltas is due only to the widespread sandy accumulations and to the climatic conditions during the time in question, but not to any influence of the late-glacial shore-line; genetically these dunes are strictly inland dunes as having been driven by inland winds, although formed at the emergence of the sandy deposits from the sea. The conditions at the present dune-belts along the shores are thus not comparable to those which once occasioned the ancient dunes; and therefore a close description of the shore-dunes would be of little interest for this study. I refer to the papers of Nilsson (1905), Leiviski (1905) regarding the Swedish and the Finlandish coast-dunes respectively, and to the papers of Steenstrup (1894), Jessen
ones, and also to the
descriptions to the geological maps of the dune-bearing coast-regions published by the Geological Surveys of these countries. There are, however, instances of recent sand-drift although, on a minute scale, even at some places in the interior, which should be mentioned. Recent dunes, all of them of an inferior size compared to the ancient ones, are occasionally met with within the mountain region of Northern Sweden. The signs of wind-erosion to be noticed on the surfaces of stones in the highmountains are due to grinding by finer dust-particles and do not bear evidence
of true sand-drift (cfr A. G. Hbgbom,
In the interior of Norrland there is known no ordinary sand-drift at all, except at some places where sand is locally made free by eroding rivers or by the tapping of lakes or other action of man. One instance of the latter kind is
to be found in the very northernmost corner of Sweden, where in the year i905 the inhabitants made the little lake Arpojaure cut through the glacifluvial barrier
1906, p. Ib69).
which formerly dammed it up. Ahlmann (1914, p. 512) describes the aeolian action on the dried-up bottom of the lake as follows: ~> The wind-erosion on the dried areas of the Arpojaure basin is rather great and has already formed considerable dunes, though the sand-drift can only have any effects from June to September, as during the rest of the year the area is frozen and covered with snow. All the dunes are situated on the south and south-east shore>. The same locality is later on described and mapped by Caldenius (1922), to the work of whom I also refer regarding geological data. By a similar artificial cutting through of the damming barrier the former Ragunda lake I796 was catastrophically drained, and the new conditions called forth sand-drift, which, however, in this case was due to the river-erosion on the former lake-bottom. The aeolian action has resulted in a dune-string running parallel to the river on its north-east side. The principal dune has an altitude of 5-7 meters. On its lee-side a minute accumulation of loess takes place (A. G. H6gbom, I899. p. 93). The instances of recent dune-drift called forth by deforestation are few. One is from Ovre Soppero, not far from the ancient dunes at Tulusjiirvi described above, where between the scattered houses of the village some two or three wide aprons of sand indicate the beginning of dune-drift At Hand6l in Jiimtland on the delta of the Handol river some small dunes are to be found, and occasionally strong westerly winds seem to cause sand-drift on parts of the delta which are destitute of vegetation. In Middle Sweden the few occurrences of recent dunes are yet more insignificant. Besides those already mentioned in the neighbourhood of Siter, there are some small ones at Avesta fed from the brink of the Dalilven. Besides the dunes mentioned south of Billingen (p. 172), which at least partly have been in an active state in later times, there are also other occurrences of recent sand-drift on a small scale in the interior of South Sweden. They deserve to be mentioned on account of their situation within a tract of Sweden where the rainfall is particularly great, thus showing that other factors than humidity, as sand-supply and winds may be decisive for the sand-drift. In Sm'iand some three km north of Lake Bolmen there is a little sand-drift field, Slatt6o Sand, with an area of about 200ooacres, parts of which, however, have been forested during the last decades. The sand-drift is of comparatively recent date, as old documents show that the breaking through of the vegetation commenced in the beginning of the 18th century, and that in the beginning of the 19th century it caused the greatest trouble to the peasants (Wibeck, 19o6, Palm, i9I9). Also this sand-field seems to have been called forth by deforestation. From the west-side of the Scandinavian ice-shed no ancient dunes are known. to the On the other hand recent sand-drift takes place near Roros. According
Dunes South of the Baltic.Kleinere Kiusten begegnen. probably by deforestation in connection with the works at the neighbouring Roros Mines. X. and this may also be seen on some of the photographs which he reproduces (1914.und sonstigen Vegetation sich leicht der Beobachtung entziehen. and parts of the Baltic States. and because no systematic and detailed investigations into their morphology and formative conditions have been performed. Throughout Germany. The area from which the lingcovering is torn away is about one square kilometer (Thekla Resvoll. no notices of recent sand-drift of any importance are to be found. Regarding the conditions in the Salpausselkt moraine-belt Leiviska says (1920. pp. oses and glacial sand supply the material for the drift. the dunes and their problems have been noticed much earlier by German geologists.) It is to be supposed that this sand-drift.176 IVAR HOGBOM notices of Bjorlykke (1913). Cfr also Holmsen. won the necessary attention. there stretches a broad zone within which ancient dunes are of common occurrence. in the peripheral parts of the once ice-covered region and even a little beyond it. . CHAPTER III. 257. 172). Tradition also says that the area formerly was covered by dense pine-forest. P1. In some cases. 1915. he notes deflation on the ose-ridges. where probably the sand was accumulated as dunes already outside the border of the land-ice. even in cases where they have been of real importance. is caused by the action of man. in some way or other. p. 418). In regard to both distribution and regularity of development the dune-formations in these regions are far more striking than the comparatively insignificant corresponding formations in the Scandinavian countries. 250): Flugsandstrecken. Da und dort hat sich der Sand an den Strassen und an anderen Einschnitten von neuem in Bewegung gesetzt. one may rather be surprised that the opinions about their origin and history are still so divided. 1906. p. erscheinen an den sandigen Lokalitaten des Salpausselka ganz allgemein. of course. its capacity of keeping the humidity prevents its blowing away. so that tabular deflation witnesses remain. as mentioned. (Holmsen. wie wir ihnen auch tiberall an den heutigen . In the description of Tanner of the quaternary deposits of northern Fennoscandia. Under such conditions. however. and. wo sandige Aslandschaften an das Meer vorstossen. Poland.> Finally. 1915. This is chiefly because the contributions offered have mostly been of a more or less sporadic character and thus have not. obwohl sie infolge der Wald. Rosberg has stated that dune-drift on a small scale is going on at places in Karelia. when it was leaving the Salpausselki stage. Where the material is finer. all things considered.
bis zur Siidgrenze der nordischen Vereisung umherliegen. p. On the other hand. however. endeavours to find evidence in the shape of the dunes for his hypothesis of their periglacial character and their formation by easterly 12 Geografiska winds. Later on. welche. that he also regarding the basal forms of the dunes holds an opinion similar to that of Solger is evident as he uses the expression >postglaciale Barchane> (1912. according to which they have originated in a periglacial situation by easterly winds. zu wunderbaren Dreikantern geschliffen. Since that time the dunes and the dune-sand have been mentioned a great many times. and. gives an account of the conditions causing dune-formation outside ice-covered regions and seems to agree with the conception of the Middle European dunes as periglacial. 157) described the dunes at Baruth in Mark Brandenburg and recognized them as such. die wihrend der interglazialen Steppenzeit das vegetationslose Gebiet von Mitteldeutschland bearbeiteten>. for instance. In the subsequent pages I shall have an opportunity of re- . especially the two lastmentioned authors have set forth a very strong and decisive criticism. called forth by a pressure maximum over the landice in the North. thought that they were formed on an ancient shore. Jentzsch (1908). Like Walther. 365). Keilhack (1917).have been formed in that connection. who I905 advanced his hypothesis on the genesis of the dunes. are worthy of notice and will be mentioned in the subsequent description of different fields. there are writers who are essentially of the same opinion as Solger. p. particularly prominent dune-branch had the character of a Nehrung. for instance in the descriptions appended to the geological map-sheets. however.ANCIENT As early as I832 INLAND K16den DUNES I9Io. Tutkowsky (1912) has made the the most important contribution on this side. Kl6den. 320). however. Annaler 1923. however. but no generally applicable theories of their origin . erinnern uns an die furchtbaren StUtrme. as regards the Polish dunes. In his >Lehrbuch der Geologie Deutschlands> (1920. The interpretation of the basal forms of the dunes on which Solger bases his hypothesis has been unfavourably criticized by later writers on dunes as Lehmann (1907). p. Besides Solger. on the other hand. he wiews the dune-problem chiefly from a climatological standpoint and only briefly touches upon the question how far this interpretation agrees with the morphological evidence offered by the dunes about the prevailing direction of wind at the time of their formation. Some details given in the map-descriptions. by Lencewicz (1922). Solger. a lively discussion on the problems of the ancient German dunes was brought about by Solger. Walther (1912. p. OF EUROPE 177 (cfr Solger. 333) likewise he speaks of the dunes as well as of other desert-phenomena as follows: >Die jetzt bewachsenen Diinen der Dresdener Haide und die tausenden von erratischen Bl6cken. and that a longitudinal.at least none of such importance that a review in this place would be justified .
Western part. Marginal drainage channels shaded. . 3 Wittemberge etc.or Litorina-age and that their shape proves that they were formed -. According to Keilhack (1917) and. 4 North of Berlin. Dunes south of the Baltic. 6 Northwest of Rothenburg. which in my opinion have not been sufficiently accentuated by Keilhack.. and beyond doubt his views will on the whole obtain general recognition. The paper of Keilhack is the most weighty contribution from the German side. Dune-fields black: i Veluwe. 5 Luckenwalde-Baruth.178 I V A R H O GGBO M verting to this hypothesis and advancing the facts which seem to me decisively to prove its erroneousness. Keilhack (1917) arrives at the conclusion that the dunes were formed during the Ancylus. Nevertheless. 2 Frankfurt. by westerly winds. for Holland. I have found it necessary to dwell in the following pages on certain hitherto neglected morphological features of the dunes. so drr 2 0-200km Fig. I17. van Baren.
who has treated the Polish dunes. V Maloof rsaw Al a .). The latest investigations of Middle European dunes have been made by Lencewicz. Dunes south of the Baltic. 8 Thorn. Fig. 9 Puszcza Kampinoska. How many different interpretations the Middle . Marginal drainage channels shaded. 423). According to Keilhack (1917) and Lencewicz (I922. which authors themselves maintain that the dunes have been formed in Ancylus time by westwinds. Eastern part. this author regards it as quite obvious that the dunes have got their shape owing to the action of west-winds and exposes the misconception which has originated the false conclusions of Solger in this regard. io Upper-Bug. 18. p.. Dune-fields black: 7 Warthe-Netze.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 179 A review of the most important contributions to the knowledge of the German inland dunes is given by Wahnschaffe-Schucht (1921. Like Keilhack. II South of Pripet.
Da letztere ebenfalls mit den Talsandflachen vielfach so eng verbunden sind und in ihren Oberfliachenformen ihnen so ausserordentlich gleichen. dass sie sich selten weit von solchen diinenreichen Tilern. Hitte ich alle kleinen Einzeldiinengebiete mit aufnehmen wollen. however. Die untere Grenze fir die Darstellung der einzelnen Diunengebiete habe ich bei Massen von einer halben bis einer deutschen Meile angenommen.> Keilhack calculates that the dune-bearing regions form some 5 % of the area . Die in der Karte Weiss gelassen und damit als frei von Diinen bezeichneten Flichen sind dies natiirlich nur in dem Sinne. wo kleinere Diinengebiete in sehr grosser Zahl auf engem Raum auftreten. Dunes in Germany. sind sie zusammengefasst und in der Karte als einheitliche Fliche eingetragen worden. is illustrated by the fact that Lencewicz does not regard them as representing vfossilv forms and the climate of times past. ihnen eingeschalteten Staubecken. Both in the paper itself and on the map Keilhack points out the close connection between the glacial border drainage channels. so ware das Bild von einer erdriickenden Fiille von Duinen besetzt erschienen. He gives the following survey of the geographical distribution of the dunes: >Die Ubersichtskarte zeigt als erstes wichtiges Ergebnis. Becken und Sanderfl•achen entfernen. und jede Ubersichtlichkeit wire verloren gegangen. but thinks that they have been wholly or in part formed and still are being formed under the climatic conditions now reigning. Die wenigen Ausnahmen k6nnen nur als Bestatigung der Regel dienen. The map accompanying Keilhack's paper (1917) for the first time gives a full idea of the extensive regional distribution of the dune-fields in Germany. Da. Auch sie sind mehrfach Trager ausgedehnterer DiInengebiete. the >Urstromtalers. sowie an die mit ihnen in engem genetischem Zusammenhange stehenden. Regional distribution. Ungeheure Gebiete sehen wir frei von grossen Diinengebieten. and most of the dune-fields. so habe ich einen Teil solcher talartigen Sandergebiete in der gleichen Weise dargestellt wie den Boden der Urstromtaler selbst. und an die ebenso eng mit ihnen verkntipften ausgedehnten Sanderflichen. dass eine Abtrennung vielfach mit grossen Schwierigkeiten verkntipft oder ganz unsicher ist. wie vielfach in der Umgebung von Berlin. wo wir Diinen auf den eigentlichen Hochflichen sehen. dass grosse zusammenhingende Flugsandgebiete darin fehlen. dass die grossen Diinengebiete Norddeutschlands im wesentlichen an die breiten diluvialen TalzUige gekniipft sind. machen wir fast immer die Beobachtung. nimlich alle grossen Hochflachen im Norden und Sliden des Netzes unserer Urstromtiler sowie die grossen Hochfliacheninseln innerhalb dieses Netzes. da aber.180 IVAR HO GBOM European dunes have given rise to.
Keilhack only very summarily touches upon the morphological problems of the dunes. The general difference which lies in the greater size and finer development of the . On the other hand. and starting from this supposition he formally founds his conclusions as to the age of the dunes on his interpretation of their morphology. might naturally be interpreted as due not only to the existence of large sand-deposits within that zone. but above all it is proved by the extraordinary similarity in their morphological development. Besides. In some cases. I will later on call attention to some further facts of importance. more or less isolated dunes are to be found. Because of the explicit description of the geographical distribution and geological position of the German dune-fields. a detailed examination of a great number of fields would thus hardly yield any new results beyond those obtained by the examination of a few characteristic ones. In the sequel I therefore intend to limit the descriptions accordingly. The fact that they are most abundant in a region with periglacial position during the time when the last land-ice melted away from Germany and the Baltic lands. Only regarding some circumstances which may influence the climatological discussion in the final chapter of this treatise. If due regard is paid to these exceptions. a study of some traits in the morphology seems to me also to elucidate even other climatological questions than that of the direction of the dune-driving winds. I9 io) the situation of the dunes at the former ice-borders has been ultimately decisive. I have found it necessarry to give special descriptions of some of the German fields. however. if those fields are also reckoned which are too small to be shown on his map. I refer to his paper for further details which do not appear on the map or from the above quotation. In fact this supposition has led to the theory of a periglacial formation of the dunes put forth by Tutkowsky (1912) and others. however. but also to special climatic conditions near the ice-border. Even their geographical situation makes this probable. although in the shape of the dunes he sees evidence of periglacial east-winds. The regional distribution of the German and Polish dune-fields has greatly influenced the discussion of their age and formation. In order to maintain the uniformity of my treatise. given by Keilhack. the orientation of which may possibly indicate other formative conditions. Only one large dune-bearing district in the interior of Germany is not connected with the >Urstromtiler> namely that south of Frankfurt am Main.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 181 of North Germany. Certainly even for Solger (1905. the dunes there being built up from the fluviatile deposits of the Rhine valley. There can hardly be any doubt that all the large dune-fields connected witl/ the border drainage channels are formed during the same epoch.
West of the dune-bearing field follow. I shall chiefly dwell upon the former. Here as elsewhere in 1 Continental dunes of the same type as those in Germany. but an exact proof has not been given till nowD. As the dunes are far better developed in the eastern than in the western regions. 1917. The dune-bearing sand-plateau rises slowly to the east. Thus Prof. though there is no essential difference as to their morphology. so it is really west of that district that the dune-formations can be said to be palpably less instructive. I shall have an opportunity to touch upon when discussing the climatic conditions of dune-formation. however. afterwards I shall also dwell upon some of the fields which are more exceptional as to the situation or to the development of the dunes. Schcnebeck. Other inland dunes are met with at several places in Holland.1 In the following description of the German dune-fields. as I think. but they have been formed after that the vegetation. but probably further investigations will reveal their existence. 19). and that a humid climate not necessarily is a hindrance to sand-drift on dune-fields already existing. and extends The dune-formation covers the whole width of lengthwise about WSW--ENE. a little lower situated. marginal drainage channels and alluvial formations. has been destroyed by man in praehistorical or historical time. the wings. because of which they do not bear any direct evidence as to the climatic development. the broad sand-girdle immediately outside the range of the end-moraines. as earlier writers have done. As widely diverging opinions have been put forth regarding the age of the German dunes I shall finally dedicate some pages to a review of these questions before extending the description eastwards to the dunes of Poland and the eastern Baltic States. to whom I am indebted for informations regarding Dutch dunes. so that in parts of the field the longitudinal forms are most prominent (cfr Fig. . The dunes and dune-complexes are chiefly U-shaped and open towards the west. Even round Berlin and south of it welldeveloped and instructive dune-fields are to be found. van Baren. 5). have not as yet been recorded from Holland.Continental dunes of probably glacial time and then built by easterly winds are to be found. are often very elongated. near Apeldoorn [Veluwe]. This dune-field has a greatest width of 7 km and a length of 20 kin. It indicates that the binding power of the vegetation always is very sensible for outside influences even if it otherwise fully prevents all sand-drift. writes me: . forests and heaths. I am first giving a survey of some of the most characteristic ones in the central and eastern parts of the >Urstrom>-region in order to form a conception of the main morphological features. p. It is remarkable to note that a re-opening of the dune-fields has so easily taken place just in Holland where the climatological conditions for sand-drift must be comparatively unfavourable. and the most easterly ones at 65 m above the sea. is that falling mainly within the geological sheet Gr. described below. At many places vegetative fixation has not been restored and sand-drift is still going on (cfr also Keilhack. J. One of the few German dune-fields which lie within geologically detail-mapped regions.182 IVAR HO0GBOM dune-fields. which bends here locally in a more northerly direction. the further east one goes in Germany. the most westerly dunes lying at about 55 m.
According to the geological sheet >Gr. which. but are to be considered as relict wings. There are also some other fields (cfr Fig. these have not the character of garmadas. Another explanation seems then to lie nearer at hand. to be the occurrence of rather capricious breaches. on the contrary.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 183 Germany. but there are important dissimilarities. remaining after the central parts have wandered further. Dunes in the Gr. 19. 24) which are distinguished by too geometrical a development to be ascribed to secondary deflation of dunes in a half-bound condition. in the first hand manifested by the fact that the longitudinal forms extend wind-wards and not lee-wards from the transversal ones. causing either irregular or a breaking through of the dunes with ensuing garmadas >>Kupsten. Schbnebeck'. as already . wherefore it seems that it is hardly possible to ascribe the nature of these disjointed horse-shoe dunes to the influence of vegetation. and >)Kupsten>> The dunes here met with can in fact be regarded as an extreme type of missing. forms are also Nor are there any fully developed wind-furrows. are in many respects suggestive of dunes from present half-fixed regions.>-formations on the lee-sides. namely changes in the sand-supply. Characteristic of secondary sand-drift in all imperfectly bound dune-fields seems. They "p > 600 =200 Fig. however. the different kinds of bow-formed and horseshoe-formed dunes in Germany. Sch6nebeck Forest.
the Eberswalde dunes essentially present the common regular system of consecutive horseshoe-ridges. that has become decisive for the development of the dunes. which has also been duly noticed by Solger. because the sand-supply has given out or been reduced. which seems to be rather uncommon elsewhere within fields of this type. Although in many respects less model-like than in some fields farther to the south and east. that in the neighbourhood of Luckenwalde and Baruth . The profile Fig. plains. Sch6nebeck field. This feature of the dunes is by Solger interpreted as a detail in the general reversal of the duneprofile (cfr below) due to the change in the wind-direction from the by him supposed periglacial east-winds to the present west-winds. Section of a series of dune-bows at Eberswalde. Also from the point W E Fig. Besides the occurrence at places of a beginning breaking through on the duneridges. is. 20.184 IVAR H 0 G BOM mentioned. namely from more due westerly to the present south-westerly winds. that of Eberswalde is met with. thus the shape of the dunes does not answer to the new conditions and thus is subjected to re-arrangement. Some 20 km south of the Gr. are the last to be fixed by vegetation. which also can be traced on the basal forms of the dunes will be better illustrated by instances from other fields in the sequel. The special kind of asymetry. One of the dune-districts of Germany which has of old been much noticed. while the dunes themselves. twice exaggerated. Heights of view of the hypothesis of west-winds as having originated also the groundform of the dunes. not as previously accumulation. 2o which I have measured at this field can be regarded as fairly representative as to the average regularity of such a train of dunes. as has been mentioned. this abnormal development of the dune-wings may be regarded to indicate a change in the wind-direction at the end of dune-drift time. another probably secondary trait in the dune-morphology should be mentioned. affects the development of the dune-forms. from which the sand is blown to the dunes. Some of the southern-wings of the horseshoe-dunes show namely a more gentle slope towards the south and a steeper slope towards the north contrary to what would be expected. since the vegetation must first take possession of the lower. Hence it is deflation. Such changes are indeed to be expected. The equilibrium which formerly prevailed. which will be further described and illustrated from other localities. and particularly their highest parts. and which has given rise to transversal dunes. Length of the section I km. has been disturbed.
Schlage-Berge. the wings of 7i'_-'!%p JV K#--?:.. Paplitz. and Baruth there are two different. The dunes reach a height of as much as 18 m and show a marked difference between the windward-side. comprised by the topographical sheets Luckenwalde.. great dune-complexes. and. shows a series of about 15 successive U-shaped dunes. In this region.Brt . p. giving their central parts an oblique length-direction. 21. --.ooo. IL N:?4 17 WA I I-A. 159). tA Ir It Fig. which follow each other on a line forming a sharp limit towards the not dunebearing regions to the south and north. A certain asymmetrical development of the dune-segments.2 km. 22. 21 reprinted after Solger (g1910. Dune-complex NW of Baruth (cfr >)Schlage-Berge>>. • A _- . After Solger.. several scattered dunes. There is a considerable difference between the two dune-complexes mentioned. The distribution of the dunes appears in more detail in Fig. _. north of Neuhof (Paplitz sheet) and the one south-east of Baruth (Baruth sheet).41 41 !011" It ?'4 4.00ooo). Paplitz. Fig.. From Messtischbl. appears in this field as well as in some others.Fig.~1 *~ Mk- ----?~yo " . 21) Contour lines with 5 m aequidistance accentuated.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 185 in the large marginal drainage channel some 5o km south of Berlin. among which one or two longitudinal branches are particularly prominent owing to their length and size.. namely Schlage-Berge (I :25.. Dune-complexes at Luckenwalde-Baruth. ckeawalde . Scale I :5o. which complex has a length of 6 km and a breadth of up to 1. besides. gently declining .
Photo towards the stratification within the west. which would in fact have been of general occurrence if the theory advocated by Lencewicz in regard to the Polish dunes had been applicable to the German ones. This is very uncommon within the dune-regions in Central Germany. 22. it seems. falling steeply towards the east. a difference in the inclination of the sides is perceivable even where the wings show a bend approximately parallel to the general direction of the sand-driving wind. Fig. lying so near each other in the same marginal drainage channel. (Cfr Fig. 23. the steepness of the overblown surface corresponds to that of a lee-side. The more complete deflation within the northern part of the dune-complex is sufficiently accounted for by the circumstance that the wind. 23 is therefore chiefly intended to illustrate a rare exception. A cutting of a dune at the high-road north of Neuhof shows an earlier overblown dune-side. on the other hand. recent sand-drift had been of any importance for the formation of the dunes. which.) this cutting is not very marked. Although Fig. embedded in the dunes. On the other hand. Fig. often can be noticed on the southern flanks of the horseshoe-dunes or on the southern rand-dunes in some complexes. . such -lit intersections would of course be found very often. however. that small differences in the topographical conditions directly. Cutting of a southerly dune-flank N of Neuhof. as well as treetrunks etc. and the lee-side. It is proved by these two fields. as mentioned. 23. has had freer play here than in the southern part which is sheltered by the higher ground windwards. to indicate wind-side accumulation from the north within the inner parts of the dune. As generally is the case with horse-shoe dunes. The dune-complex south-east of Baruth is typically V-shaped. or perhaps indirectly by varying the possibilities for an interference by vegetation.186 IVAR H0)GBOM towards the west. may bring about considerable dissimilarities in the morphology of the dunes. If. This instance would thus illustrate also the reversal of the wind-side and lee-side.
164). and I wish here to express my most sincere thanks for this generosity. if due regard is taken to the variations in the direction of the winds. F. though not so distict. 24. Kaunhowen and the Geological Survey in Berlin. for instance in the topographical sheet N:o Ziillsdorff( 25o000oo. sit J . The development described affords another evidence that the typical V-shaped and U-shaped dunes as to their basal forms also are the products of west-winds. In a couple of small dune-segments in the Liibben complex the same is phenomenon is to be observed. development. A small detail in the larity between dune-complexes of this type and development of the Libben dunes deserves to be pointed out in this connection. that the towards the west in the Schlage-berge complex. and as a matter of fact such a development not so unaccountable. the dune-complex south-east of Baruth exhibits a similar. In some places in Germany there are V-shaped dunes or dune-complexes with traces of an earlier and straighter dune-ridge between the ends of their wings. as a strong support of his hypothesis. ends Solger states (1910o. p. by the way. In am very much obliged to Prof. V-shaped dune-complex with remnants of a straighter bowfor the allowance to formed dune-ridge between the flanks. The best instance of this is to be found in the yet unpublished geological Liibben sheet south-east of the dune-fields last mentioned. From the geological sheet Ltibben. In other respects it seems equally impossible to construct any barchans. draw the sketch Fig. On the hypothesis of Solger it would hardly seem possible to explain the origin of the girdle of dune-sand hills lying between the wings of a supposed barchansimicomplex. and regards of the wings converge this fact as incompatible with the theory that they have been originated by westwinds. 2466). The to same phenomenon is also met with at other places. 24 from the rough draft map and publish it in this treatise. among these. Fig.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 187 In this case the supposition lies nearest at hand that a more limited supply of sand has conditioned the V-shaped development of the dunes south-east of Baruth.
or it denotes a new period of sand-drift which has commenced since the dunes from the first period have become fixed by vegetation. bald als scharfe. 526) gives the following interpretation of the genesis of the dunes: >Recht weite Verbreitung haben von den alluvialen Bildungen noch die Diinen. verdanken siidlichen Winden ihren Aufbau. has its greatest interest in the indication it gives of two different phases of dune-drift. two alternative explanations present themselves. treten sie in grosser Zahl. this indicates. besonders auf seinem rechten Ufer.und Pfaffenberge westlich bezw.6 m+ NN). namentlich die schmalen. sich oft einige Kilometer hinziehende Walle. doch tritt daneben auch hiufiger die n6rdliche Windrichtung hervor?. that the later phase of the dune-drift has not been caused by attacks of the wind upon the irregularly distributed gaps left unshielded by an imcomplete covering of vegetation. and a later one during which this dune-segment has been blown asunder and a V-shaped dune or rather a Vshaped dune-complex has been formed. zuweilen ist auch die Wirkung westlicher Winde erkennbar. a first one during which a straight or only gently curved. Die langgestreckten. Die Spiel. however. Either the transformation of the earlier bow-formed dune into the V-shaped complex denotes the last stage in the dune-drift when vegetation has already got a hold. still more strongly than was the case with the fields already described. erheben sich je 15 m (65. nevertheless. bald als ausgedehnte wild kuppige Partien auf. It should be added that in a preliminary report on the field work for the Liibben and Luiibbenau sheets Kaunhowen (1916 p. bald als hohe Riucken. this morphology may be imagined to have been caused under the conditions offered by an incomplete vegetation.188 IVAR HOGBOM The Luibben complex. Schbnebeck. I shall have an opportunity of touching upon this question later on. die Schusterberge bei der Oberfdrsterei Bbrnichen (alles reine Flugsandbildungen) (63. langgestreckten Wiille 6stlich des Flusses. dune-segment was formed. If. Die Schiittrichtung ist verschieden: Die meisten Diinen. nur ihr h6chster Kamm zeigt n6rdliche Windwirkung. Here a still more beautiful phenomenon appears of the same kind as that already mentioned from Gr. Auch die Schusterberge sind im allgemeinen durch siudliche Winde aufgeschiittet. nordlich von Liubben. Kaunhowen has probably based his . schmalen Diinenwialle sind namentlich auf dem rechten Ufer des Flusses in der Bbrnicher Forst verbreitet.5 m) rund I13 m tiber dem Talsandboden. Auf dem linken Flussufer herrscht gleichfalls die Wirkung siudlicher Winde vor. From this quotation it appears that Kaunhowen gives an explanation of the morphology of the dune-complex in the B6rnicher Forst which altogether differs from the one that I have given above. In den weiten Talsandflachen zu beiden Seiten des Flusses. The symmetrical development of the complex is particularly striking.
on the other hand. to note that Kaunhowen finds evidences for south-winds on the long west-east dune-ridges. is probably due to deflation. b ?114 fI '" (lj- 6z Cl- b5 CA AP . That dunes are lacking around Nochten. e. The finest part of the dune-field.-: As is the case in most of the fields extending in the direction of the wind within the region of the marginal drainage channels. which lies between the Spree and the Neisse. 25 west of the Spree are situated at an altitude of about 125 m while the easternmost ones near the Neisse lie about 150 m above the sea. is found in the schematical sketch Fig. <. It is interesting. < opt (lA 40 7z I. either because the level of the ground-water was reached or because a film of lag gravel was formed. Only to a very small degree. those of Warthe-Netze and Thorn (cfr below).ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 189 conclusions substantially on observations of the dune-profiles at different places. however. g. the eastern dunes lie considerably higher than the western ones. Thus the dunes denoted in Fig. however. can this be attributed to aeolic accumulation but must essentially be due to the prae-existing topographical conditions. which perhaps were not mapped at the time of his memoir. 25 drawn according to the topographical sheets Niesky and Koblfurt (I : 100. the dune-drift having ceased. In the southernmost of the large marginal drainage channels there is an extensive dune-field north-west of the town of Rothenburg (OberLausitz). Such deflation areas to the west of the great dune complexes and often enclosed within marginal dune-tracks or longitudinal ridges are as fact very common also at other fields.000). This seems to indicate that a similar overthrowing by later winds has taken place here. and not upon the development of the basal forms. as was already mentioned above with regard to some of the dunes north of Berlin.
25.. which has not been the case with the left ones bordering on drier ground. The asymmetrical development. while the left ones lie free of each other. for instance. though generally not so marked.s ri) 4. which is especially striking in the eastern part of the dune-complex. 'j CD. the dunefield borders on the south on low. the right dunewings. is to be noticed also in other regions. with the Schlage-Berge complex described above and reproduced in Figs 21 and 22. On account of the small scale they have not been drawn in the map Fiog.o cz . CD . Thus the map denotes that there is swampy ground not far from Nochten. This development is certainly to be ascribed to the topographical conditions. however. marshy ground. This asymmetry finds expression in a tendency to a fusion of the southern wings of the dunes into one duneridge. This is the case. and there are likewise some characteristic small lakes in the valleys between the easternmost dune-segments of the field.) . have been hampered in their development. therefore.c CS7 ' CL) C) 0 "r 4-1. They have no superficial outflow and are dammed up by the long southern rand-dune.190 IV AR H O GB g t O M The present ground-water level lies very near the dune-bearing surface. 6 cz 41) cz "" Cu ? lop. . for it is striking that in the places where it is most pronounced. It is also possible.
The following description is thus based upon studies of the topographical maps. Schwerin (I778). the altitude of the former is about 40 m whilst the latter lie at about 62 m. I have made use of some of the notices given by Lehmann (1907). are situated north of the eastern part of the map. coming from the south. running parallel to each other and on each side of the dune-bearing plateau.000 . the low and flat drainage valleys of the rivers from the older glaci-fluvial plain. in its prolongation both to the west and to the east. The map Fig. The Warthe runs close to the dune-field. The topographical maps in fact indicate a very insignificant. in the first place of the excellent German >Messtischblitter> on the scale of I : 25. by a dotted line. The Warthe and the Netze. there exist smaller dune-fields or scattered dunes. Birnbaum (1780). however. Schneidemtihlchen (1709). Because of present political conditions I have had to refrain from visiting this field as well as those lying farther to the east. On the map I have schematically separated. The dunes of Czarnikau. The total length of this dune-region. One of the greatest and most instructive dune-fields within the >Urstromtilera is that situated between the rivers Warthe and Netze on both sides of the present (1923) German-Polish frontier.' Lehmann (1907) has given a description of this field. Neubrtick (I7Io). besides. although characteristic undulation of the surface. both follow the northernmost >)Urstromtal>to the WSW. whilst the Netze is separated from it by a dune-free zone some io km wide. The level of the river Warthe lies in the east at about 35 m and in the west at about 20 m above sea level.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 191 that the asymmetrical reversal of the lee-sides and windward-sides of the wings to the north during the last stage of dune-drift has in certain places been of importance for this development. with the forms extending west and east. which will be mentioned later on. 26 represents the main dune-field. 2 The main dune-area is enclosed within the sheets (Messtischbliitter I :25. Waitze (1779). There is a slight rise from these western parts of the field and to the easternmost dunes.ooo): Gottschim (1707). and due attention to its importance has been paid also by later writers on the German dunes. 1 For the sake of convenience I prefer to examine here as well the parts of the dune-region in question which are situated within present Poland. The western part of the latter is practically free from dunes and has the character of a deflation area. to whom also refer further particulars regarding this field. which begins at the Oder and continues almost to the place where the Warthe. and Zirke (1781). is about 150 km. bends to the west. specially by Solger (19i10). Altsorge (1708). on the northern side of the river Netze. .
but always with a general common trend. as a rule. whilst at the Warthe there is a swarm of transversal ridges arranged according to the general horse-shoe striking across the field. however. and particularly on its southern side. The dunes show well developed wind-sides to the west and lee-sides to the east. The dunes in the middle of the field. This is also well illustrated by the morphology of the Mora-field in Sweden.192 IVAR HOGBOM is The central zone of the main dune-field (Fig. described in the previous chapter. which are forming a dense net-work. Counting with 20 m as an average for the heights of the dunes. in fact they show everywhere ramifications and garlands. Lehmann calculates that the total mass of sand within the dunes amounts to 6oo to 8oo millions m3. p. the slopes of the former according to Lehmann (1907. Outside the main dune-zone. 26) is some 8 kms wide and characterized by a horseshoe-formed strike of the dune-ridges. most of the dunes run from one border to the other presenting uninterrupted horseshoe-forms. but garlands of gentler bow-forms and deviated flank-dunes are to be found only near the borders of the field. however. A comparison between the Luckenwalde and the Warthe fields indicates that the horse-shoe form and its dimensions are dependent on the breadth of the dunefield. a case of strictly parallel dunes is not in question. on the some three kilometers broad strip alongside the Warthe. on the other hand. In the middle of the zone the dunes are only slightly bow-formed. especially at the southern border. there are some exceptional horse-shoe dunes. the dune-flanks. Within the central zone of the Warthe field. horse-shoe dunes do not develop. in the western part of the field there is in fact one dune which reaches 43 m above the plain. The usual height of the dunes is about 20 m. It is noteworthy that these forms are situated at the borders of the field and not in . turning the concave side towards the west. the individual dune-ridges attaining a length of only one or two kilometers. Where the field is wide enough. Some few of them are of the type described from Luiibben. there are horse-shoe dunes and longitudinal ridges of quite another type than the transversal dunes of the interior of the main-zone. The best developed one is to be found on the Neubriick sheet. whilst near the borders of the zone the deviation of the ridges towards the west is almost complete. straighter bow between the flank-ends. but much higher ones are often met with. therefore. but they seem to be found only at places where the ridges lie less close to each other and thus a more individual development has been possible. At the latter place. Also amongst the easternmost dunes there are some ones which attain heights of 30 m and even somewhat more. 358) averaging 30-8' and of the latter 250-3o'. joining each other in the same manner as already described from the Luckenwalde-Baruth field. showing remnants of a primary. have a true transversal character. Naturally. A section along the middle of the zone would show about 60 ridges at average intervals of about one kilometer.
p. however. seems to indicate that the dune-type in question is due to other conditions than those which are presented by an incomplete covering of vegetation making a partial reopening of the dune-drift possible. those scientists who mainly have had their attention fixed upon the Middle German dunes make usually no mention of such an eventuality that the present climatic conditions would make a dune-drift possible on the scale evidenced by the ancient fields. Lehmann gives the result of mechanical analyses of 12 samples from the field. however. Lehmann also. . unterstiitzt von einigen Waldbrinden. 375): )iNahmen wir die Forstbeamten aus dem Zwischenstromlande weg. as he finds verified by the different types of dunes met with on the field. Not having any personal knowledge of the field. one would have expected that the higher situated and drier inner parts of the field in the first place would have been exposed to the attacks of the wind. but he does not venture upon any opinion about the age to which they correspond. This is in fact also made probable by the topography of the dunes as shown by the detailed topographical maps on which the dune-ridges at places appear far less regular than on (1:25. recognizes that there has been epochs of intenser sandflight. that Lehmann does not regard any change in climate as necessarily evidenced by the existence of this mighty dune-field. If they had been due to sand-drift when the field was partly fixed by vegetation. Lehmann says (1907.000) the fields farther to the west. giben wir Streunutzung und Herdentrieb frei. It is interesting to note. for my own part I feel inclined to judge that the Warthe-Netze field and also those farther to the east have got their main features not during present climatic conditions but during the same epoch when the dunes on the western fields were built up. it seems undeniable that accidental reopenings of the sand-flight in historical time on some places in these fields have not been uncommon. Also this example. although less numerous. Now it would seem that the further east the fields are situated which have been studied by the several scientists.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 193 the center of it. therefore. In accordance with this is the fact that from the western fields hardly any notices are given regarding possible recent sand-drift. On the other hand. the more these have felt inclined to give a quite actualistic explanation of the formation of the dunes. from which it appears that the sand is unusually fine-grained. Also on the north-side of the main dune-zone there are similar longitudinal or horseshoe-formed dunes. uns in Balde Bilder friuherer Ode wieder vor Augen stellen und ruhende Diinenkdmme zu neuer Wanderlust erwecken>. The averages of his figures are as follows: 13 Geograishka Annaler 1923. dann wilrde Misswirtschaft. However. So it is with Lencevicz regarding the Polish dunes and Cholnoky regarding the Hungarian ones. Of the WVartheNetze field.
4. which have It 1A . The Warthe-field shows many interesting hydrographic features.2 Size of the grains in mm. Their most remarkable feature is perhaps that the basins seem to be of younger "IAli . Within the central parts of the main dune-zone there are some small pools without outlet.which according to Lehmann have a maximum depth of 4-5 m . not to have found any regular increasing in the size of the sand eastwards within the whole field. Lehmann states that within some of the dune-complexes the sand is finer in the eastern dunes which have wandered a greater distance than in the western ones. as at some places AA~ the more or less longitudinal dune-ridges Ala continue on both sides of the lake. "t date than the dunes.5-0.8 37. A --3-. some of which may be mentioned in this connection..: 1-0. most v 1) of them long and narrow and extending at right angles to the direction of the field and the rivers. showing that the groundwater level lies near the surface of the dune-plateau.seem to me to be such channels. 27.00ooo. The lakes situated 4A'south of the dune-zone have outlets to the Warthe.. whilst the outlets of A -A4AA14 the northern ones run to the Netze. Brook eroding backwards in the duneThis shape of the channels is most I : 25. perhaps combined with a solifluction..- Furthermore.. probably due to lateral backward erosion Zirke. it would indicate that the easternmost dunes have not wandered further than the other ones. The basins of the long and narrow lakes . From Messtischblatt Scale plateau.9 57.194 IVAR HOGBOM 2-1 0.closer examination of the work of some /7fv 44 backward eroding brooks seems to indicate the origin of these basins. These brooks have eroded broad and very shallow channels with a flat bottom..2 12 samples from the Warthe field . but that the dunes have originated more or less evenly over the whole field. He seems. Fig. If this is not due only to the samples being too few. Outside the main dunezone there are several small lakes.5 0. however.2 > 0. caused by the oozing out of groundwater above an impermeable layer of clay of which Lehmann speaks.
The dunes are longitudinal or horseshoe-formed and oriented like those north of the Warthe. In several excavations which have been made for the purpose of some embankment works he has ascertained the existence of alluvial deposits to a depth of I 2 m below the present bottom of the broad valley. and therefore Korn concludes that the dunes have been driven by west-winds. that is the level of the Baltic Sea since the Ancylus time. this. That really a considerable sedimentation has taken place appears from the profiles from the Netze valley mentioned below. This explanation seems hardly satisfactory. where at Czarnikau the Netze. regards the basins of these lakes as channels of the melting-water from the land-ice. coming from the north. which has a length of Io km by a breadth of 2 kin. is situated at the northern border of the Netze valley. Lehmann. Korn has in particular had his attention fixed on the depressions between the dunes which he regards as aeolian excavations in the dune-bearing plain. on the other hand. whilst below it the pure diluvial sands begin. He himself emphasizes the fact that the filling up of the depressions by peat is due to a rising of the ground-water level after the dune-drift time.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 195 been separated from the river by the growing up of marsh-vegetation. This comparatively small dune-field. These depressions are overgrown with peat-bogs to a depth of more than two meters. however. This coincidence is not found between the depressions and the respective dunes lying on their west-sides. the volumes of the depressions beneath the surface of the peat exactly equal the volumes of the dunes on their east-side and he concludes from this that each dune has been fed by the material blown out from the nearest depression. Although of the same opinion regarding the direction of the dune-driving winds. have nothing to do with the genesis of the dunes. In connection with his hypothesis of the relation between the depressions and the dunes. which has also caused a general elevation of the ground-water level and the filling up of the basins. On the other hand. According to Korn. bends to the west. Under such circumstances the relative volumes of the peatcovered depressions and the dunes. Korn gives some interesting data regarding the alluvial accumulations in the Netze valley. Down to that depth the sand contains humus. The latter is probably a consequence of the elevation of the river level because of sedimentation. being dependent on the present ground-water level. a gradient . In this connection the speculations of Korn (1918) regarding the dune-field at Czarnikau and its hydrography should be mentioned. Korn ascribes this filling up of the old valley to the rising of the erosion-base. to me seems incompatible with the statements made above. as it postulates that the river in the Ancylus time had practically reached the ripe stage enabling a continual upheaval of the valley-bottom by sedimentation from the mouth and up to this region. I cannot accept Korn's reasoning.
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in the sinking of the land may have caused new possibilities for sedimentation within the drainage system. It is highly interesting, however, to notice that such a rise in the level of the rivers has taken place, and that this may have been caused by other than climatic factors. The fact that marsh-ground occurs within the old sand-drift regions thus seems, at least in the cases in question, not necessarily to indicate a more humid climate nowadays than at the time of the dune-drift. In Sweden, on the other hand, where the changes of the sea-level have gone in the opposite direction the existence of pools or marshy ground amongst the dunes is naturally a positive indication of climatic changes. Korn further reports the interesting find of stone tools and pottery of early Bronze Age within a dune on a layer which was overblown by sand, in parts to a thickness of three meters. The same layer he has also observed within other dunes. It thus seems as if a later less intense sand-drift, at least locally, had taken place, although the main forms of the dunes date from an earlier time.
The fields which have been treated on the preceding pages belong, both on account of size and regular development of the dunes, to the most instructive ones. Within some less extensive dune-occurences in North Germany there are, however, dunes the development of which indicates that they have possibly been driven by other winds than the due westerly ones which have built up all the large fields. This is the case, for instance, in the neighbourhood of Wittemberge in the Elbe valley. Thus, in the description appended to the geological Rainbow-sheet it is stated that the dune-banks run mainly in a west-east direction, which is taken as a sign of their having been driven by either north-winds or south-winds. From the topographical denotation in the sheet, however, nothing is to be gathered regarding the shape of these dunes. In the next sheet to the south, Schnackenburg, there is stronger reason to suppose that during some epoch north-winds have been driving, since a couple of dunes seem to have been driven out from the large sand-field to the north on to the >Schlickv, which takes up the central and southern parts of the sheet. This circumstance is also noticed in the description appended to the map. It should be mentioned, however, that this development of the dunes is not general for the region, on the contrary also on the lower Elbe the best developed dunes show the influence of westerly winds. This comes forth by Sabban's (1897) description of the dunes on the north side of the river in the neighbourhood of Ludwigslust. This author finds in fact that the orientation of the dunes corresponds to the nowadays prevailing south-west winds. To me it seems,
however, most probable that these dunes also will prove to have originally been built up by the same west-winds of which the other great dune-fields in Germany bear evidence, and that the west-east orientation, which Sabban mentions as exceptional, rather is the original normal one, whilst the SW-NE orientation either is due to topographical conditions or to the influence of the winds in the very last phase of the dune-drift in the same way as has been described above from other fields. Within the sheets Cremmen, Marwitz, and Rokrbeck west of Berlin there are likewise dune-ridges extending mainly west-east. In the Marwitz sheet the topographical denotation indicates, besides, at least in one case, a wind-side declining more or less gently towards the north and a lee-side falling rather steeply to the south. In all these cases the dunes are comparatively insignificant in size and also of irregular shape. To a certain extent this impression may be strengthened by the somewhat old and defective topographical basis of the maps, but there is in any case no doubt that the dunes are not nearly so regularly developed as the generally occurring west-wind-driven dunes. On the other hand, at least part of them may hardly be considered as the remaining, disfigured wings of these, because, as already mentioned, their situation in relation to the sand-deposits in places is not compatible with such an explanation. In some of the map-descriptions it is stated, with regard to these less welldeveloped dunes that humous deposits occur in the dune-sand (sheet Schilde a. o.) This might thus indicate that secondary dune-drift has been at work and that the present topography of the dunes perhaps is not original.
The dune-field south of Frankfurt a/M is the largest one situated outside the Urstromtdler; and consequently a somewhat detailed description may be allotted to it. The dunes are here to be found scattered or together in chains on the diluvial plains extending from Frankfurt southwards on the east side of the Rhine. Besides the dunes, there are quite extensive areas which are covered by undoubtedly aeolian sands to a thickness of '/2--1 m, but which are not built up to dunes. As I have myself made only a short visit to this field, the following description and discussion are principally based on the study of the geological maps and the descriptions appended to these. The material comes undoubtedly from the Rhine excavations in the beds which the river itself and its affluents have deposited during a previous stage. Already the fact that the dunes are all situated on the east side of the river clearly indicates that they are mainly driven by westerly winds. This is also shown by their profile
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grading slowly to the west and more steeply to the east. The dunes are not very well developed, however, this seemingly being due to irregular winds during the time of their deposition, and not to later transformations in a half-bound stage, as they show no signs of destructive forms, such as >Kupsten> or windfurrows. In respect of morphology this field does not present much of special interest. The arrangement at some places of the dunes in parallel chains (e. g. Vierheim-sheet), lying farther from each other than what corresponds to the usual distance between dunes, is to be interpreted as due to two different periods of action, perhaps with only a very short interval. This distribution thus would seem to be a parallel on a very small scale to the distribution of the dunes between the Danube and the Tisza described below. The bow form is not very well developed, the wings usually having the forms of delayed spurs from the main range. The altitude of the dunes is generally only about 6-8 meters, but among the highest ranges some of I3 m in height are met with. Although not so conspicuous, two dune-ranges also are to be seen on the Mannheim-Ladenburg sheet, where the easternmost one is a somewhat broader complex of several dunes and thus might be characterized as a little dune-field extending in north-south direction. The relation between the dunes and the different stages of erosion of some of the Rhine affluents, especially the Neckar, is of importance, as a determination of the relative age between the dunes and the old meanders is possible. On Fig. 28 I reproduce a sketch-map of the Neckar excavations in the dune-bearing plateau, based on geological and topographical data from the Ladenburg sheet. The dunes occupy here a zone 2 to 3 km broad, the western border of which has an altitude of 102 m, that is to say about io m above the Rhine level. Eastwards the plain slowly rises a couple of meters, the base of the easternmost dunes lying on i05 m altitude. The plain on which the dunes are situated represents a relic part of the surface of the old Neckar delta; most other parts of it within the area of the map being cut away by the old meanders of the rivers. In most cases, however, these meanders are topographically very insignificant, as shown by the figures on the sketchmap indicating the heights above sea-level. Examining the geological map, one finds that aeolian sand of a thickness less than I m also covers even other parts of the land than the above mentioned zone. All deposits which can be termed as dunes, however, lie either on the old delta-plain or eastwards from the main dune-bearing zone above Io05 m altitude. Even regarding these latter occurrences it is probable that they rest on remnants
of the old delta, although it does not with certainty appear from the geological
As regards the very minute layers of aeolian sand. they have been blown out over the water and thus do not prove the existence of later sand-drift.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 199 map if they have not in some cases wandered out over meanders of the oldest generation. 28. Anyhow. Although later aeolian transport of the dune-sand thus . that. it is very possible that 143 1012 Friudechhfem DI]= Fig. which the map shows also on the bottom of some meanders of the oldest generation. with the possible exception of some of the oldest beds of the Neckar. According to the geological sheet Ladenburg. the dunes are confined to the parts of the delta above the very shallow meanders. Sketch-map showing the position of the dune-ranges in relation to the old meanders of the Neckar and the Rhine. it is striking.
200 IVAR HO GBOM may have taken place on a small scale. From what is known about this field it thus seems uncertain whether the dunes are to be regarded as ancient in the same meaning of the word as can be used about the dunes in the Urstromtdler and even about the dunes east of the Rhine. It seems most natural to regard the Rhine-dunes as belonging mainly to the same epoch as the dunes of the Urstromtiler. especially as regards the development of the windward. The material comes from the horizontally bedded sand-plateau on which they are lying. The dunes are not very well developed. The aeolian character of the dunes was mentioned as early as 1864 by v. The windward-side inclines towards the SW and the lee-side towards the NE. That more irregular winds have been active on these dunes is also shown by the irregular beddings to be seen in some cuttings within them. it is evident that there has been a previous sand-drift period with climatic conditions other than those which have since prevailed. already alluded to in another connection. This interpretation is favoured both by the fact that they were driven by westwinds and by their antiquity. locally up to 20 m. It is recorded that within the dunes old trunks are met with. North-east from Dresden there is a dune-field extending in WNW-ESE direction with a length of 8 km. his views have been adopted unreservedly by authors of hand-books on geology and studies in . on the other hand. as proved by their relation to the old beds of the rivers. it is noted in the description appended to the geological maps that it has been impossible exactly to draw them. but during the time of my visit no such great cutting was open. There are. also differences to be noted between the Rhine dunes and the northern dunes. The theory of Solger. however. which where mentioned already by Thuirach in his description appended to the geological Ladenburg sheet. the latter ones being the more important. Though it may ultimately prove possible to distinguish older forms amongst the Dresden dunes.and the lee-sides. I have myself had an opportunity to make the same observations at the same place from where he drew a profile for his description and even at other places. which is not astonishing. The dunes are generally io m high and. as in many places the sand is still drifting. In some cases. contrary to what is the case at most other fields. has got very little support amongst those geologists in Germany who have themselves studied the dune problems. The profile shows beds mainly corresponding to lee-side deposits blown from east and west. the maps and descriptions available do not permit it. Gutbier. The former ones do not show the same regular shape.
but there is no possibility of conceiving any winds blowing from the SE in which direction the convex fronts of the dunes face. Solger has made regarding the interpretation of dune-forms. are also to be found in some general conclusions involved by it which may be treated in this place. I have pointed out the mistakes. but it is without exception the rule on all ancient inland dune-fields in Germany. whereas Meinardus from a climatological point of view stated that east-winds must have been predominant during the epoch from which. and his most elaborate treatise is to be found in the >)Diinenbuch> (1910o). according to Solger. Convincing arguments against the Solger theory. deutsch. in my opinion. Later on I shall have an opportunity to examine the climatological consequences to which it would lead. Quite apart from the untenability of the morphological conclusions regarding the orientation of horseshoe-dunes upon which Solger bases his argument. which. The same is to be said about the other dune-fields of Scandinavia without exception. which. and also in favour of the interpretation of the German inland-dunes as being built up at a later epoch than what corresponds to a periglacial formation. From the German dune-fields there is in fact not a single instance known where the winds. does not appear in single dunes or single dune-fields only.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 201 connected branches of science. the conclusion must be that dunes once formed are always exposed to winds of opposite direction. A closer scrutiny of the theory as a whole thus seems to be in place. His last contribution to the question is made in a discourse of 1920. XXXII. have turned over all wind-sides and lee-sides. On the Mora field the bowform of the dunes is very well developed. Berlin 1905. Yet more impossible in its consequences is the Solger hypothesis in regard to the Swedish dunes.and lee-sides. have been able to produce even the smallest free dune turning the convex side against the wind. the dunes date their basal form. In the chapter on dune-morphology. des 15. that the dune-profile everywhere has been overturned. he met with criticism from Lehmann and Wolff. however. .1 Solger has later followed up his theory in a series of studies. leads to absurd conclusions. the idea. but leaving the basal forms untouched. according to Solger. Already when Solger first advanced his hypothesis in 1905. Poland. p. Geographentages zu Danzig. 1Verh. The combination of a west-wind profile and an east-wind basal form according to the interpretation of Solger. just strong enough to reverse wind. If Solger were right. This fact seems to me to offer one of the most objective and decisive arguments against the Solger hypothesis and in favour of the opinion regarding the different dune-forms which I have advocated in this treatise. and Scandinavia.
the surface of overgrown dunes. the climatic conditions of which differed from those of today. that they can have had nothing to do with the north or north-east winds which must have prevailed outside the border of the retreating land-ice. implies an indirect determination of their age. In this case. It is obvious that if archaeological finds belonging to a certain age are made on the slopes of the dunes. mostly very vague information only is given. but negative conclusions as to the age of the dunes must not therefore be drawn. while it seems impossible to fix their age more precisely on the strength of the purely geological data hitherto known. it is evident that they are not of recent origin. however. Since then Solger (i9io) and Keilhack (1917) have mentioned the neolithic finds as verifying the age of the dunes.) but there are also cases in which finds are met with on. That these are less numerous may partly be due to the less recognizable character of the forest-covered dune. as these regions could not have offered very favourable conditions . Accordingly. dwells more fully on the circumstances under which the finds appear. Anyhow. probably from the litorina time. or immediately below. must be of younger date. From the finds of neolithic tools on dunes in the Vistula delta he concludes that the dunes date from an early period. By the accumulation of sand an object may be embedded within a dune. who accepts the theory of Solger. in their present form. archaeology seems destined to solve the problem. It is true that there is little known about finds from the interior of the greater dune-fields. namely. in so far.202 IVAR HO0GBOM The preceding description of the German dunes. so that detailed conclusions cannot be drawn. On the other hand. the dunes. Wahle (1918) on the other hand. thus repaying a service of the same kind wich geology has often rendered that science. Unfortunately the exact statements as to position of the archaeological finds made in dune-regions are few. Mostly it is noted that the finds in question are made in bare dune-sand (>>freigewehter Sand> etc. but without giving further particulars. a sufficient number of neolithic finds have been made to prove that dunes already existed in the corresponding period and that no general sand-drift has taken place afterwards. only very insignificant sand-drift can have taken place afterwards. but that they bear witness to an epoch. the final position must be that it rests on the bottom plain either below or between the dunes. as well as the critical remarks on the Solger theory. and in the list which accompanies his work it is possible to examine in each case what is known about the positions of the finds. Attention was first drawn to the importance of archaeological finds for the determination of the age of the dunes by Wolff in the discussion after the Solger theory had first been advanced (1905). the true nature of which may have been overlooked by the observer.
while other dunes from the same time have been destroyed by later sand-drift. if there has been a later sand-drift period. touched upon the dune-problem is due. K. ' A similar drawback has made it impossible for me to enter upon the morphological details regarding the dunes east of the frontier of the German Empire.ooo of the Russian General Staff and in I : 200. How far the map of Lencewicz can be compared with that of Keilhack in exactitude I have not been able to controle. according to Lencewicz. Liibben) which morphologically seems to be most probable.2 Lencewicz publishes in his treatise a sketch-map of the distribution of the dunes within Poland. which map has served me as a basis for my map Fig. the archaeological finds do not contradict that interpretation of the two phases of dune-drift met with at some places (e. however. however. are known from the descriptions of German scientists. Further. It is clearly to be seen. as the only maps which have been accessible to me are the maps in I : I36. i8 in what regards what was formerly Russian Poland. it seems probable that the dunes on which finds hitherto have been made correspond to those the remains of which are to be seen in the complexes of the Lubben type. g. . If further archaeological or geological investigations should prove that there has really been a later and less extensive sand-drift on the old dune-fields.oo000 of the K. in Wien. The possibility is left. the chances of making finds in the forest covered areas are comparatively small. this has been less extensive. and further that dunes are not so exclusively con' Unfortunately language difficulties have prevented me from making use of works on dunes written in Russian or Polish. A reference to the sketch-map from Luibben showing two phases of dune-drift might be in place in this connection. namely. Thus it is possible that on the map compiled by me the Polish part is not quite commensurable with the German one. on the map that the dune-formation extends over wide areas in Poland. Militlirgeographisches Inst. to the inaccessibility to the scientists of the topographical maps during Russian r6gime. The dune-fields situated within those parts of present-day Poland which formerly belonged to Germany.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 203 for settlement and. Dunes in Poland and the Baltic States. besides. that the finds have been made on dunes which have remained. while until lately only scanty and incomplete notices had been published from the formerly Russian parts of that country. To conclude. and that.1 This deficiency has in great part been supplied by the investigations of Wunderlich (1916) and Lencewicz The fact that the Polish geologists formerly only more cursorily have (1922). the archaeological finds prove that the great dune-drift took place before the end of neolithic time. that the first phase without interruption has been followed by the second phase.
but he bases his conclusions upon the morphological evidences of the . although a tendency in that direction may be noticed. ferring to his map showing the distribution of the dunes. Even this map. The same rule he finds verified on the rivers Narew and Bug. the hypothesis of Solger on the barchannature of the horseshoe-dunes as on the whole the theory of the periglacial genesis of the inland-dunes maintained by the lastmentioned author. Dunes in the neighbourhood of Warsaw. p. relatter ENE-WSW. and the Warta (Warthe). This difference in the geographical distribution of the dunes in Poland and Germany is also pointed out in the treatise of Lencewicz. 23). and others. seems rather to support the opinion of Wunderlich. contests this statement.204 IVAR H10 GGBOM nected with the border drainage channels as in Germany. recognizes that the dunes have been driven by west-winds. the Prosna. 4t: e 20 km r. This he states to be the fact especially regarding the Vistula. Tutkowsky. as well as Lencewicz. 29. kf"6w AL6 After Lencewicz (1922. at least concerning the north and west of Poland. Wunderlich. Fig. Lencewicz also opposes. the on the other hand. geographical distribution on the dunes. Lencewicz.PAY* A Ark-Aso RMZWIN . The former bases his conclusions in that respect chiefly on the jk S#r6c (p uwyuw6r al wswaL Ajo -. the former running NE-SW. however. whilst these abound on the east-sides. however. He has found that where the rivers run in a south-north direction the western shores are practically free from dunes.
often partly enclosed within the outmost marginal dunes or dune-complexes. mainly be a recapitulation of the descriptions already given. which on account of its accentuated drawing gives an unusually good idea of the topography within such a network of dunes.oil t / e to Fig. In fact he presents a very clear and decisive criticism of the fundamental errors regarding dune-morphology. Especially there is in all essential respects a very great similarity between the Warthe-Netze field and the dune-fields on the left side of the Vistula south of the towns of Thorn and Bromberg. dunes and which has been described above. The morphology and the position of the dunes in the border drainage channels of Western Poland is much the same as that which characterizes the German Oe e *e e e a e e *0Iwe e e el O . Scale I :40.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 205 dunes themselves. Part of the dune-field of Puszcza Kampinoska NW of Warsaw. 30. . therefore. A nearer description of these fields would. 25). 29). Here also very beautiful instances of deflation areas to the west of the main dune-fields occur. I reproduce in Fig. e. 3o after Lencewicz a part of the map of the Russian Gen. From the topogr.000. e to to 0 /e to Ae#1e. Also the dune-field of the Puszcza Kampinoska to the north-west of Warsaw is of the type mentioned (cfr Fig. which have led Solger and others to confuse transversal dunes and barchans.e4. Staff from this field. map of the Russian General Staff after Lencewicz (1922. p.
the observations of Wunderlich are very instructive. while the latter better indicate the direction of the dune-driving winds. Lencewicz states that some of the Polish dunes are always in a wandering state. would be of great interest from many points of view for the understanding of the old dunes. are fairly accordant with those of some German fields. All the facts taken together contradict the east-wind hypothesis of Solger. Thus he says (p. He points out that the youngest dunes nearest to the river-sides constitute ridges practically parallel to the river. He seems also inclined to bring these observations to bear upon the interpretation not only of the Polish dunes. In the final chapter I shall have an opportunity once more to return to the theoretical im- . mais l'observation montre que la d6flation peut se produire dans notre climat>. where the climatic conditions are of far more continental character. qu'il ne connait pas un seul exemple de la formation d'une nouvelle dune>. it is naturally inaccurate without reservations to apply to the German dunes the conclusions based upon studies in Poland. which he finds have been between W and NW.5 km and more. Unforfunately. In the first place. the notices of Lencewicz regarding recent sand-drift are very scanty. He recognizes that the direction of the former is influenced by the direction of the river. and the forms destroyed and built up. there is no doubt that at several places in Poland sand-drift is going on on a greater scale than would have been supposed from earlier descriptions. Toutkowskij dit. particularly as the observations of the German scientists are incompatible with his own. actuellement il ne fait que se deplacer. but also of the German ones. whilst those situated farther east are characterized by a parabolic form which is more pronounced the farther the dune has wandered. Nevertheless Lencewicz has overlooked some important facts which prevents too far-reaching conclusions as to actualistic views on the genesis of most of the inland dunes. This is evident even if the negative formulation of Lencewicz is taken into account: >)Il est bien possible que jadis nous avons eu des conditions meilleurs pour le developpement des dunes. Anyhow. and a more detailed and exhaustive investigation of the conditions under which it takes place. 53): )D'apres Solger le sable 6olien ne se forme plus. and it seems as if he would ascribe the different views of Solger and others to their overlooking a phenomenon generally met with in the dune-regions. and therefore he concludes that no special hypotheses as to earlier dry periods are necessary to explain their development.206 IVAR HO0GBOM As regards the morphology of the dunes on the east-sides of rivers running in a south-north direction. Wunderlich also states that a profile observed by him in a fresh cutting in a dune east of the Warta shows typical west-wind stratification. The figures given by him for the length of the parabola-axis. up to 2.
which are most frequent only in May.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 207 portance of the different climatic conditions of the zones. This fact indicates that the dunes in question may have been driven at a time when the climate was less humid than is the case to-day. the present summer winds as to their direction accord fairly well with those which the dunes bear evidence of. that even the influence of the north-winds. It is remarkable that dunes occur on comparatively low terraces. however. as well as in Germany. but that during later times it has been confined to particularly exposed places. And according to the above. He adds. The existence of marshy ground over which the dunes have wandered may be noticed even in the map here reproduced. He admits. none of the facts given by Lencewicz seem to contradict this opinion. . however. To judge from the instances cited by Lencewicz. On the strength of comparisons with other inland dunes I should regard also those in Poland as mainly having been driven during an earlier epoch than is supposed by Lencewicz. it seems most probable that the dune-drift on the lower terraces only corresponds to the modest dune-drift of to-day. Lencewicz concludes that this must rather have been the Litorina than the Ancylus epoch He bases this opinion on a study of the situation of the dunes relatively to the terraces of the Vistula. 42) of the distribution of the winds at Warsaw during the different months of the year which shows the predominance of westerly and (for July) north-westerly winds during the summer. seems to have taken place. that the determination of the respective ages of the latter is rather uncertain. for no elevation of the level of the Vistula. and from this fact Lencewicz naturally draws the conclusion that the dune-drift has continued until a relatively late epoch. But even regarding the Polish dunes it seems to be not only possible but certain that more favourable climatic conditions for dune-formation have been prevalent during past epochs. In discussing the time of a supposed intenser dune-drift than at present. A quantitative study of the dune-drift on the lower and on the higher terraces is desirable. and that it means only that there has been no definite end of the dune-drift period in Poland. Thus Lencewicz publishes a table (1922. similar to that of the Warthe and the Netze. can be traced on some dunes the branches of which are unsymmetrically developed. p. This seems rather astonishing as according to Lencewicz' table constitute 38 % whilst those with winds with a southerly component (SW-S-SE) constitute only 30 % of the winds of the a northerly component (NW-N-NE) year. In Poland. before any safe conclusions can be arrived at regarding this question. however. within which the inland dunes of Central Europe are situated.
The observations of that kind made by Korn at Czarnikau have already been mentioned. qui composent les dunes. constituant la plus grande partie des materiaux. very common. azilienne et . but in such cases the more unsheltered position with regard to winds coming from the river-side have certainly caused the seemingly reverse sand-drift. the only one I have met with there. swid&rienne. Le processus de son d6veloppement occupe tout au moins la plus grande partie de l'ensemnble de l'piglacial et se termine dans la pdriode s&che de l'Ancylus. Further to the east. the phenomenon seems to be still more conspicuous in Poland. leur composition et leur consistance. La formation II correspond surtout a la Littorina et au premier grand arret de d6veloppement des dunes. 23 are only exceptionally to be found in the cuttings in Central Germany. however. and thus probably also in these regions the prevailing winds in most cases suffice to explain the development of dunes. Sable dolien infdrieur. the directions of which are due to the directions of the rivers in question and to those subordinate winds which blow at more or less right angles against the shores. secondarily overblown dunes are. >)Dans la formation III on trouve des documents archeologiques se rapportant aux industries magdalinienne moyenne (ou inferieure). He summarizes the conclusions arrived at as follows: >)La stratigraphie petrographique des dunes du bas-pays de la Pologne. Although in many respects his opinions differ from those of Solger regarding the interpretation of dune-forms. which is also regarded by him as periglacial. La formation III a commence a apparaitre au ddbut de la recession du glacier L4. he strongly emphasizes the fact that most of the dunes have to be considered as shore dunes. Sable eolien superieur. Ces trois formations se distinguent entre elles par leur couleur.208 IVAR HO0GBOM The dunes within the southernmost part of Poland (the former Austrian Galicia) have been studied by Romer (1907). Besides. That instance is. in fact. en partant des couches superieures est la suivante: I. III. II. La formation I correspond a la periode seche terminale de la Littorina et a la periode seche de la Mya. I mentioned that traces of older surfaces such as that illustrated in Fig. I1 constitue donc la premiere 6tape de formation des dunes. Les humus peu d6velopp6s des forets conif~res qui recouvrent la formation I sont de date plus recente. where shore-dunes are met with on the wrong side of the river. In this latter respect he goes perhaps too far. yet he believes in east-winds as having been of influence for the dune-formation. according to different authors. There seem to be instances. as even winds blowing rather obliquely against the shores produce the same effect. According to the recently published notes of Krukowski (1922). on the other hand. In describing the dunes of Baruth. Humus fossile.
Unfortunately his notices are very scanty and not accompanied by maps. Les industries naolithiques sont lies t la formation II. les documents protohistoriques et historiques appartiennent 't la formation I. Summing up the observations made. Cela nous permet de croire que notre idee peut pr6senter utinecertaine valeur non seulement au point de vue m6thodologique. Toutes ces industries ne se rencontrent pas simultanement sur une meme coupe. situated some decimeters below the present surface of the dunes. and above all of the regional distribution. the old dunes had been partly denuded during a period of humid climate. p. that is at places which even nowadays would be most habitable. of these dunes. has influenced the primary shape of the dunes contradicts the opinion of Lencewicz about the importance of recent dune-drift. a) gives some miscellaneous statements about the occurrence of inland dunes. Probably a further investigation will give more convincing results as to the stratigraphy of the archaeological finds. From the Styr-region Romer (1907) reports that a culture-layer is often met with. . One should have expected such finds on the ground over which the dunes have been wandering but hardly in the dune-sand. He adds. as the intervening ground is marshy. The find-places seem to indicate that. even before the neolithic settlement. b. will certainly reveal facts of interest for a surer judgment of the outlines His statement that the later sand-drift only to a small extent quoted above.> 14 Geografiska Annaler 1923. Jusqu'at pr6sent on n'a retrouv6 les plus anciennes (les v6ritables magdaleniennes notamment). that although closer investigations have not been made regarding the finds. Krukowski's mention of the (humus-free) older dune-sand as bearer of pre-neolithic finds is surprising. >Mais chacune d'elles se retrouvera le plus souvent. que dans les zones les plus meridionales. The explanation advanced by Korn regarding the elevation of the level of the ground-water in the Netze-field can naturally not be applied to these regions. dans la formation qui lui correspond au point de vue chronologique. At present it seems hardly to be believed that the different archaeological epochs would be so regularly registered by the dunes as Krukowsky thinks. so it is difficult to form a conception of the morphology. It thus seems that the marshy ground between the dunes really must indicate a change in climate from a dryer to a more humid one. On the other hand. Hausen states only (1913.> The special work on these questions which Krukowski says he is going to publish. _>Fossile Diinen kommen im Binnenlande oft vor? and >Ich selbst habe fiber S141): diese Bildungen keine besondere Beobachtungen angestellt. Enfin l'6ndolithique. these seem to be neolithic. From the former Baltic provinces of Russia Hausen (1913.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 209 tardenoisiennes infirieure et moyenne. Interesting also is the statement that the settlements are situated on the crests of the dunes.
if there are any such for these districts. The topographical notation indicates gentle curving. it is clear from the situation and shape of the dunes that this formation has not been caused by any successive retiring of the shore-line. der sich gegen SE zuruickgezogen hat. It is made up of a swarm of dunes. and evidently in several places within the lowland of Mitau. but says nothing of their dimensions or orientation. Diese Strandverschiebung kann jedoch nicht als Resultat einer Landhebung angesehen werden. he notes that the dunes rise out of marshy ground. Of this field Hausen says (1913. Kurland IV: 6). no difference between wind-side and lee-side.210 IVAR HOGBOM The maps of the Russian General Staff from these parts on a scale of I:I 26. None of these occurrences appear as continuous dune-regions on the map. and when in one or two cases they do. From one place. I have not had access to maps on a larger scale. Hausen states (1913. concave towards the NW. about this field. that the dunes are of a lenghthened shape like oses. about twenty and which generally show a in all. Meiner Auffassung nach sind diese Wille als Eisseestrandbildungen zu deuten. Sie f6rmig markieren offenbar succesive Lagen eines Strandes. therefore. which generally have a N-S length-direction and a height of up to io m. kleiner.000 are not sufficiently detailed for the dunes generally to appear. p. from these regions also there are indications that other climatic conditions have been prevalent during the epoch of dune-formation. a. 125) that the railway crosses old dunes. Thus. a. Under . the length-direction of which lies NE-SW. p. as to the distribution or the general direction of the dunes. there are dunes between Riga and Kurtenhof. the different inclination of wind. Likewise. weil die Gegend fiber der marinen Grenze liegt. to draw any conclusions from the maps as to the wind-direction or to the distribution of the dunes. die oft vom Moorboden umgeben sind. p. auf der Karte wurmaussehender Diinenwalle. No conclusions can be drawn.and lee-side does not appear. though in some places the topographical inclination signs possibly refer to dune-sides. One of the best developed of the dune-fields seems to be that between Wolmar and Walk (Walga). but it would seem that only those bordering on the road have come in and that more distant formations of this kind have not been reconnoitred. however. a. 103). From the low moor-land east of Riga Hausen states (1913. It is not possible. but with regard taken to the basal form there can hardly be any doubt that they are really dunes of the usual type. On the map of the General Staff some dune-like ridges are certainly indicated. North of Lake Peipus there is a continuous dune-field which appears on the map (Gouv. 62): >>Sotrifft man im N des Peipus eine grosse Schar ungef'ihr NE-SW streichender." Though on the topographical map there are no figures showing the altitude at the dune-field. however.
If a displacement towards the SE had taken place. namely the wind-furrows and the garmadas. even from another point of view than that of morphological comparisons. in Hungarian meaning lowland. For although the bulk of the Hungarian dunes are of quite another age and shape. however. Roumania. Having seen the Hungarian dunes. Thus. This is also in good accordance with the opinion of the general pressure distribution at the dune-drift time set forth in the following chapter. Cholnokys investigations had made Hungary a classic ground for dune-studies. The Hungarian Dune-fields. The material of the dunes is derived from the sediments of the ice-dammed lake which. On the great Hungarian lowland. they have to be treated in connection with the northern ones. I went also to Hungary. From the descriptions of Cholnoky one could judge that the fields there would offer better possibilities in that respect than any other fields in Europe. now by the Peace partitioned between Hungary. P.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 211 such circumstances it seems to me to be the most natural to interpret these formations as normal inland dunes. I found that. In the following pages I shall also give some further illustrations of these forms. mainly in order to acquaint myself with dunemorphology. characteristic of the Hungarian fields and first described and named by Cholnoky. there is every reason to regard the dunes north of Peipus as equal to the other continental dunes. Bratislava). though they have been driven by more north-westerly winds than has been the case within the German and Polish dune-fields. besides. was to confine them only to the fields situated within the geographical unity formed. and Yougoslavia. should as geographical nomen proprium be used to signify the great lowland mainly extending east of the Danube as distinct from the Little-Alf61d. . however. Cfr Cholnoky (19to a. Already in the introductory chapter on dune-morphology I have had an opportunity to mention some dune-types. and. the dunes would not have shown a concavity towards the NW. from a quaternary point of view. according to the researches of Hausen. 275). And as most of them still lie within the 1 Alf61d. once covered Peipus and the surrounding country. at least at one of the fields there seem to exist even older forms which must probably be paralleled to the northern dunes. the lowland on both sides of The Danube in the region of Posony (Pressburg. by the once ice-covered parts of Northern Europe. My intention. the Alfdld'. which have been formed independently of any displacement of the shore-line. as Hausen supposes. one finds in fact some of the greatest inland dune-regions of Europe. when I commenced my studies of ancient dunes.
borders of present-day Hungary, they may easily be visited by interested students. The following pages are based on observations of my own during a short stay in the country and on studies of the topographical maps, so far as the conclusions do not coincide with the theories of Cholnoky related below. Cholnoky has on several occasions discussed the Hungarian dunes. On account of the small scale of my sketch-map Fig.31, I have had to refrain from using the detailed map of Cholnoky (g19io) as basis, but confined myself there to demonstrate onlythe situation of the great dunebearing areas according to :,. . .. ". . .- . .. , . . .. , -.the recent map of the geology of Hungary by L6czy (new edition 1922). Regionally, and also from a genetic point of view, the dunes of the Alfold group as follows: The Nyirsg field in the north-eastern part of the Alf6ld, The fields between the Danube and the Tisza, and The Delibldt field, in the southeastern corner of the Alf6ld, now wholly within the borders ofYougoslavia. Even outside these fields, which have a real 0 10 km. dunes inland-character, occur abundantly within some of the meander-re4 ~3 gions, particularly on the east-sides of the Danube Fig. 31. Sketch-map showing the position of the dune-bearing areas and the Tisza (cfr Cholin Hungary. i. Higher areas outside the Alf6id. 2. Dune-bearing fields. 3. Mainly loess. 4. Mainly alluvial surfaces. noky, 1907).
Of the fields mentioned, that at Nyirsig, presents special interest for this treatise, as dune-forms are there met with which are similar in shape, and probably in age, to those previously described. The Nyirsig field, in contrast to the fields between the Danube and the Tisza, may be regarded almost as a single complex of dunes which practically may be enclosed within one single boundary line. It is situated on a loess-plateau around the northern part of which the Tisza bends. The altitude of the plateau is about m above sea-level, while the plain to the west lies below ioo m. Along 120-130 the northern parts the dune-bearing plateau is almost bordered by the Tisza, whilst, to the west, there is a broad zone of the young-diluvial plain between the river and the plateau. Cholnoky regards the shape of the Nyirsig dunes as due to the prevailing
a, p. 291).
to this view he concludes
that the fans of the rivers Ondova, Tapoly, Ung, and Latorcza situated to the north of the field have provided the sand-masses of the dunes. Having had the opportunity of visiting this field and of comparing the duneforms with those met with in Germany and Sweden, however, I must in some essential respects dissent from the opinion of Cholnoky. As I have previously pointed out, like Cholnoky I consider the longitudinal forms as characteristic of deflation regions or of regions where the wind locally attacks sand-masses halffixed by vegetation. Cholnoky's interpretation of the dune-forms in Nyirseg, however, does not seem to be fully in accordance with this principle. The fact is, that in Nyirseg, particularly in the south-eastern part of the field, the dunes have far more similarity to the transversal dunes of Northern Europe than to any longitudinal forms hitherto known (cfr Figg. 32, 33). Cholnoky does not except these dunes, but regards them, as well as the rest, as having been driven by north-winds and only slightly altered by the less frequent west-winds. vDie Kamme dringt der Westwind in ihrem Mittelstiick etwas ostwarts ab, doch bleibt die Hauptrichtung beinahe genau nordsiidlich. Am besten ist die vorherrschende Wirkung des Nordwindes bei Mairia-P6csund Hajdu-Saimson zu sehen, doch springt hier auch zugleich die Kombination dieser Wirkung mit der des Westwindes scharf
in die Augen> (Cholnoky,
a, p. 291).
one regards the dunes as longitudinal forms created by north-winds and slightly altered by west-winds, or - as I do - as transversal forms driven by westerly winds, possibly somewhat modified by north-winds, may seem to be of small importance, were it not that, in the latter case, the dunes must be regarded as giving evidence of a change in the climatic conditions. I will, therefore, try to
further precisize my opinion. There is in fact a striking difference between the morphology of the central
and northern parts of the dune-region on the one hand, and that of the eastern and south-eastern parts of it on the other. First, it is remarkable how much greater and how much better developed the dunes are in the last-mentioned region.
Fig. 32. Part of the south-eastern dune-area of Nyirsdg. Drawn according to the map of the K. u. K. Militiirgeogr. Inst., sheet Nyir-B61tek and Hajdti-V'mos-Pdrcs.
In the interior of the field the topographical delineation in the maps reminds one very much of that in the maps from the dune-fields between the Danube and the Tisza, to be described later on, although in Nyirseg the striking is N--S instead of NW-SE. The dunes in the south-eastern parts of the Nyirs6g field, part of which is represented by Figg. 32 and 33 are both in size and shape almost identical with the
although the dune-ridges directed north-south would present far more prominent obstacles . . Dune-morphology of the south-eastern part of the Nyirseg field. map of the K. they correspond to the present north-winds. Already on the topographical maps (1 :75. From the the field and have wandered out over plain ground. They are thus to be regarded as inflation dunes Even this fact supports the interpretation of them as transversal dunes driven by westerly winds and not as longitudinal ones.. they indicate that the sand-driving winds have been blowing from the WNW.. as the latter forms are characteristic of deflation regions. Militiirgeogr. Interpreted as transversal dunes. and the slight bow-form with the concave sides towards the WNW is quite general. scale I : 75. which have developed when the predominant winds were other than the present northern ones. Where wind-furrows are to be seen. K.00ooo) the difference between wind-side and lee-side is visible on most of the dunes.fAS Fig. u. 33. while there are no wind-furrows called forth by west-winds. ? We rl 104 =13 4 1.000. Inst. Other circumstances also indicate that these dunes represent ancient forms. sheet Nagy-Kill6 and Nyir-Bitor. - M 4 . -J 9:1 4r-.w ti- .ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 215 transversal dunes of some fields of Northern Europe. The bow-formed dunes lie outside the great sand-masses of the inner parts of .
however. when. As shown by the map of Cholnoky (191o a) of the morphology of the Alfold. The climatic influence of the Carpathians. would also work out longitudinal forms. On account of the small scale. Besides. the prevailing winds come from the north. in Poland and the Nyirsig field is not very great. should not be overrated. as Cholnoky points out. Although many questions remain to be answered before a definite conclusion can be drawn. the north-winds do. especially in the interior of the field. distinguished by west-winds. This is especially the case in the very part of the field drawn on the sketch-map Fig. on both sides of which different climatic types might be expected. A glance at a map shows that the distance between the southernmost dunes km. in my opinion. the climatic conditions of which were other than the present ones. There are also other objections to be raised against the opinion of Cholnoky. all facts taken together seem.216 IVAR HOGBOM to be cut through by these winds. especially when discussing a period during which an arid climate. it seems thus most probable that the older transversal dune-forms at Nyirsdg are of the same average age as the northern dunes. The obstacles presented by the dune-flanks to the prevailing north-winds. dominated the north-side. would in the first place be attacked by these and obliterated. and that they have been driven by WNWwinds. Thus. in fact only some 2oo00 It is true that this interspace is occupied by the geographical barrier of the Carpathians. it has not been possible to distinguish these occurrences. where in fact beautiful wind-furrows and garmadas are always developing at places where the vegetation in some way or other has lost its binding power. the dune-swarms show a zonal distribution parallel to . this. that the bow-formed dunes are the products of alternating stronger north-winds and less strong west-winds. however. The great westwind sweep of finiglacial time is thus probably to be traced as far south as to the north-eastern parts of the Hungarian lowland. Another fact which goes to prove that these dunes date from older times. this does not correspond to the present climatic conditions. to indicate that the dunes in question are of transversal type. there is every reason to suppose that another wind. if one wind produces longitudinal forms. is the existence of marshy ground and small pools between many of the dunes. however. According to Cholnoky. swarms of dunes are scattered over the northern and middle parts of the old-diluvian land-surface between the two rivers falling within the Komitat Pest and the northern part of the Komitat BTics-Bodrog. The fields between the Danube and the Tisza. blowing from another direction and working in the same material. 32. Thus it would seem that west-winds do not nowadays influence the dune-topography.
Only in the immediate neighbourhood of old river-beds there are some dune-ridges of transversal shape. there is already a distinct wind-furrow with a garmada altering the shape of the eastern wing of the barchan. more or less destroyed by the later sand-drift. which has developed the longitudinal wind-furrows and garmadas. The extensions of the longitudinal dune-forms correspond entirely to the NWwinds which now are predominant in these regions. whilst the youngest dunes border the western side of (Kecskem& the plateau. preserved its barchan character as a whole. although most probably an observer without previous knowledge of yet more marked forms of wind-furrows and garmadas would overlook the true character of the dunes. they do not indicate any marked change in the wind-direction. The fields are thus undoubtedly accumulative. 34 I have reproduced a sketch-map of one of the remaining barchans west of the Kolom Lake. to be due to secondary deflation. near Isztk (Komitat Pest). the sand is quite bare. The basal forms of these aggregations of dunes of themselves indicate that they have been driven by north-west winds. p. this is in fact a quite usual form. has even cut off part of the dunes which thus now lie east of the Tisza. The development of the longitudinal forms is mostly complete. there is a third wind-furrow. however. These relic dunes met with at some places are barchans. and there are generally no evidences at all left of any barchans or transversal dunes of older date. however. and has. In many places. This dune-hill is partly fixed with vegetation. and although here too it seems possible to distinguish older dune-forms. The dunes corresponding to the first of them have wandered as far as to the Tisza. showing beautiful ripple-marks and edges between wind-side and lee-side. the sand-mass has not been sufficient to cover the whole surface but only spots of it. indicating three drier periods (1910 b). To the east of the highest point. however. most evengrained and rounded material is to be found farthest to the east. whilst the sand of the western dunes is more rugged and unsorted (Cholnoky 19io a. The fields are in fact very instructive. the finest. here the characteristic wind-furrow and garmada forms are in the beginning of development. These forms seem. therefore.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 217 the rivers. The dunes corresponding to the second phase are situated along the middle of the plateau eSzabadka). which is only in the beginning stage of destruction. had not the excellent studies and comparisons of Cholnoky made it clear. because of later displacement of the river-bed. . The two last-mentioned ones are without a garmada terminating them. The top itself is partly fixed. but another wind-furrow is in the beginning of breaking through there also. in spite of the longitudinal forms which they usually exhibit. which in one instance north of the K6r6s junction. On Fig. 292). Yet further to the west. Originating from the Danube line. A difference in the sand may be observed.
34. Pest. Cholnoky himself. but anyhow. Sometimes the side-ridges are clearly recognizable as residua. The relief of the land-surface is not so pronoun0 . caused by the here prevailing north-westKom. The region is also interesting. the great ones everywhere keeping their original shape built up by north-west winds. but the oral informations kindly given to me by Prof. . /1 L . winds. ced here as in the easterly fields. About 5 m. thus illustrating how easily longitudinal forms under special conditions can develop from transversal dunes.. Besides reversed windsides and lee-sides on the smaller dune-heaps there could e.. The flank to the right is matics of dunes. but in other cases the right interpretation of similar longitudinal may be overlooked by the unprepared observer. which have given the landscape its character. (marked by arrows). I was fortunate enough to have the dune-morphology demonstrated under the kind guidance of Prof. the special treatise on this field prepared by Cholnoky has not as yet been published. strong southerly winds had prevailed for a short time. i The Delibldt field shows the most impressive examples of longitudinal aeolian denudation and longitudinal dunes.218 IVAR HOGBOM In other places in the neighbourhood there are wind-furrows with small deflation witnesses on the sides. can be in doubt regarding being transformed into a garmada. g. and there were several opportunities of studying the overthrowing of the small forms. Eye sketch.. be noticed also the redeposition of sand from a garmada as a little transversal dune with well developed windand lee-side in the bottom of a windfurrow. have enabled me to form a conception of the origin and the morphology of the dunes. >)dunes>> When I visited this region. because the longitudinal forms undulating are found near to the lee-sides of transversal shore-dunes. Unfortunately. the system of wind-furrows and garmadas aequidistance between the isohypses Near Iszaik. as well as a study of the topographical maps. South of Budapest in the neighbourhood of the village Dunaharasti. Cholnoky. I have not myself had the opportunity of visiting this field. no one who has stuBarchan showing later wind-furrows died the Cholnoky treatise on the systeFig. perhaps partly because of an older cultivation of the ground.
ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 219 in connection with other problems of the Alf61d. There the question arises how it is possible that no separation of finer material has occurred in previous epochs. and the local accumulations have adapted the longitudinal depositions accordingly. The usual rule. The longitudinal forms. If. and. is not quite in place at Deliblit. to state that the longitudinal ridges. whereas present dune-drift is going on. or was going on before the artificial binding of the sand begun. The Deliblht field is situated on the great fan of waste which has been deposited in the south-eastern corner of the Alf6ld. where only an insignificant separation of the material as to its coarseness. that negative conclusions as to previous climatic conditions are not to be drawn. is a deflation region. This indicates that. as Cholnoky points out. contrary to the conditions in normal fields. under the influence of the dry and strong south-easterly Kossava-foehn. not only the south-eastern beginning of it. are not to be regarded as untouched remnants of the original deposits. That they are lacking within the distal parts of the field may be due to a rapidly decreasing power of the wind as it passes over the field. Anyhow. no other field offers better examples of a regular rifling. has taken place. because remains of ancient dune-forms are lacking. before the present drainage system of the lowland had developed. in fact. no ordinary dune-sand. The Deliblit sand is. in consequence of which only the finer material is transported further. as a whole. but the possible interference between the local . The ridges are thus to be regarded rather as deflation remnants than as dune-forms in the strictest interpretation of the word. but the decisive process seems to have been the excavation by deflation. being less exposed to the action of the wind. however. has not been blown free from the dusty material. it would be possible to prove where the deflation ends and where accumulation predominates. that longitudinal forms should prevail. The fact that some barchans are to be found in the centre of the field seems also to be in accordance with this supposition. The question cannot perhaps be answered until our knowledge of all the factors concerned has been widened. gives the key to the development of the forms of the dunes. It would be very interesting to know. In some respects the material of the field. in which the aeolian forces have worked. however. the maximum coarseness of the grains would be found in the middle of the field. but has more the character of a dusty earth. as a rule. If this is the case. interesting data must be found if an investigation of the sand should be carried out along a south-eastern . the Deliblit field.north-western line of this dune-field. he has made clear his opinion regarding the main features of the morphology. explain also why the sand. Under such circumstances it is quite natural. It is necessary. whether there is not to be found a material with a coarser medium size in the central and distal parts of the field. this should be the case.
Gotiglacial Finigl. one of the largest of the recent inland dunefields and illustrates the conditions which make dune-drift possible during the present climatic epoch. which has. 37) and Sundelin (1917. (Warm. o. at Deliblkit. Mya st.me followers. however. History of the Baltic (Munthe). Stone Ag e.[ Sub. whilst. P o s t g I a c i a time. Littorina stage. CHAPTER IV. e. (Warm. time. Some climatological Conclusions.) Archaeological epochs (Montelius). H6gbom (1913. 89). (Cold. I have thought the Deliblkit field worth mentioning. g. if any.. L i mne a stage. that is to say. Climatological divisions (Sernander a. to be further proved. Arctictim Ancylus stage. G. Few. Hardly any other chapter of geology embraces such a multiplex material requiring to be managed with a detective's skill in combinations and sense of the distinction between the essential and the accidental.Boreal time. Post (1909. (Warm. p. Io Cfr also Sandegren (1915. I t I I I I Chr. dry). Baltic Ice-Lake and Ice Sea stages. Thousands of years: 9 8 7 6 5 4 I to facilitate an outlook for foreign an abbreviated synoptical table on to the nomenclature in use by Swee. humid). present time humid). v. and ti. 114). I 2 Geochronology and geological divisions of De Geerwtigim. p. which Hungary had just completed to a high degree of efficiency before she lost this ground. have to solve most of the climatological problems of postglacial time. time. Iron Age and histor.220 I V A R H O GB O M winds and the more general west-wind system may offer one explanation. Bronze Age. in this place the sand-deposits cut through by the Danube and the strong wind sweeping down from the mountains. problems have roused such an animated discussion amongst Scandinavian geologists as that concerning the late quaternary development of the climate. the ground in itself offers a fairly good soil for vegetation. Atlantic time Sub-boreal Subatl. in L. as is indeed proved by the cultivation. time. II p. I publish below the principal divisions of late glacial and postglacial time according dish scientists. however. 638) 3 2 p. which. It is. dry). though it does not show distinct ancient forms. It is true that sand-drift also takes place in other regions of Hungary. Broader summaries of these problems can be found and A. In order to avoid any extensive terminological definitions and readers over the problems here to be mentioned. and it is natural that this should be so. but there it is a question of rearranging the old dunes built up of the sterile free-blown sand. Especially this is true about the biological and phyto-geographical investigations. . B. and arct. no doubt.
ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 221 Physical geology offers fewer possibilities for climatological investigations. It seems most suitable. p. is no longer the only testimony of a purely physical kind. To a certain degree. the geochronological studies of De Geer and his followers. will reveal further material also for climatological conclusions regarding the epoch in question. 136). After the delay of some centuries at the moraine-belt. 1916. The most important of the later detailed investigations. the final publication of the investigations upon which this chronology is based. . Briefly. generally to coordinate the boreal time with the later half of finiglacial time and the very beginning of postglacial time in accordance with the conception of the climatic development arrived at through the geochronological records. the ice-border regressed with a medium velocity of about ioo m a year along the central and eastern zone of the peninsula but considerably more slowly in the west. In South Sweden the receding ice was followed by an Arctic Regarding the above inserted earlier climatological divisions it should be recalled that they evidently cannot exactly fit into the absolute chronology of the scheme. The great improvement in climate in the formerly ice-covered North Europe. From the southernmost part of Sweden and to the conspicuous terminal moraine belt at the great lakes. the map showing the aequirecesses). may have been due to the cutting off of ice-bergs (>calving>). as they to a certain degree refer to a gliding scale (cfr Sernander. 1916. The main features of the climatic epochs during the time of the melting away of the land-ice from Scandinavia are also well established by the successive immigration of plants. 461. which we possess regarding changes in the climate at the end of the Ice Age. the ice began gradually to regress with far greater rapidity. From the point ofview of the present treatise. p. on the other hand. and 1914. 538. the results in that respect of the work of De Geer and his collaborators are as follows. the results obtained may be more unquestionable. and 300 m and more in the eastern regions (De Geer. the great annual regression of the ice-border over the part of Sweden which at that time was below the sea-level. Thus the difference established between the speed of the retreating ice-border in the southern and in the northern parts of the country cannot be explained otherwise than by a considerably higher summer temperature or a smaller snow precipitation or both factors combined during the later phase. This also conforms to the statements made by Sernander (1915. p. 1908. 136). but its rapid retreat continued also when the ice-border had passed the limits of the highest finiglacial sea. p. showing annual border displacements up to 200 m in the central regions. And certainly. but. the greatest interest is attached to the climatic changes shown by the different phases of velocity in the ice-recession. have given quite new clues for the comprehension of the climatic march of events during the melting away of the land-ice from Scandinavia. however. of which the ice-melting itself gives evidence.
On the whole. is thus characterized by an intensifying of a warmer or more continental climate during the finiglacial time. Anyhow. might be supposed to correspond . Gunnar Andersson and S. g. the finiglacial epoch. as well as some less conspicuous irregularities in the recession of the land-ice. Before entering upon a review of the climatological conclusions which are to be drawn from the Fennoscandian dunes. probably reached its greatest intensity in the finiglacial stage. So far geological and palaeo-botanical studies have given agreeing results. The knowledge of the run of the aequirecesses hitherto won does not permit an exact determination of the age of the different dune-fields. p. the climatic amelioration. pp. The existence of the great terminal moraine belt. The relatively short period the climatic changes of which are registered by the geochronological studies. viz. Birger 1912. Lastly. and that the final melting away of the last ice-remnant in Norway took place at a relatively early stage of the finiglacial period. and also those in southern and middle Norrland. Nevertheless. proves that this development was not a continuous one. which lie most far away from the regions that have been geochronologically investigated. 1921. however. Accordingly. some facts regarding the relative age of the different fields might be recalled to mind. This conception of the general climatic development accords well with the interpretation of the age of the dunes which has been advanced in the respective chapters of this treatise. De Geer. however. It remains. g. 122. Nordhagen. it is evident that the dunes in Vtrmland and Dalarna. G. (Cfr e. the Romerike dunes might be somewhat older than the dunes of the Mora-field. I910.222 IVAR H O GGBOM flora. which in reality may have been formed somewhat after the ending of the finiglacial time. as there are no corresponding data of contradicting signification available from the preceding and the following times. 87. p. to discuss some climatological problems from the different regions and to give some general conclusions of the climate of the time in question based on a combination of the obtained local data. are older than the dunes in Swedish Lapland. whilst in Middle Sweden a more temperate flora immediatly conquered the ice-free land. that the dunes situated within or connected with the once ice-covered area of North and Middle Europe date from this terminal phase of glacial time. 559). The opinions regarding the connection between the recession stages of the iceborder in Norway and in Sweden are as yet very divergent (cfr e. it seems probable that at the end of fini- glacial time the ice-remnants south of Jitmtland were far less extensive and continuous than was formerly supposed. which caused the retreat of the ice. and 1914. 124). the dunes of North Finland.
although they. these differences cannot greatly influence the argumentation. however. similarly to a map showing the highest finiglacial sea-level. which would be occasioned by an atmospheric maximum alone covering the inland-ice. as Rosberg supposed. is also indicated by the dunes on the marginal deltas in Norrland and even. as they are situated immediately outside the belt of terminal moraines deposited by the ice at the beginning of finiglacial time (the Salpausselkii stage). If periglacial dune-drift has taken place in Karelia. however. The dunes in Sweden.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 223 roughly to the same stage of the ice-border as the Middle-Swedish dunes. as far as one can judge. Thus a map showing the direction of the dune-driving winds of Fennoscandia and of the corresponding isobars. Thus it seems necessary to draw the hypothetical isobars of the time in question with a more north-south run than would be the case if no other factors had intervened than the cold center above the ice. have been formed before the end of finiglacial time. From the above it appears that all the ancient dunes in Fennoscandia are not synchronous. one would have expected wind-directions more to the right. This run of the isobars also accords with the explication given of the German dunes. It is noteworthy. In Middle Sweden and Southern Norway the dunes. by the few and little known dunes in North Finland. however. such a deviation has probably been of no great importance. In some respects the general run of the valleys may possibly have been a means of locally trending the winds in the direction mentioned. seems to be greater in the south than in the north. prove to have been blown by winds coming almost perpendicularly from the border of the ice-remnant still covering the inner parts of the Scandinavian peninsula. as well as those in Romerike in . Had the only cause of these dune-driving winds been a local barometric maximum over the inland-ice. called forth by a supposed cold center over the rest of the inland-ice. as will be shown below. that this deviation of the winds from the direction. does not represent quite synchronous phenomena. whilst in reality the winds have almost coincided with the gradients from a supposed maximum of that character. except those in Swedish Lapland. the fields there would in fact be the oldest known of such a formation. In this connection some further attention ought to be paid to the question how far topography may have influenced the directions of the ancient dune-driving winds in Scandinavia. and as the conclusions as to the wind-directions and the run of the isobars must be limited to comparatively rough estimates. The same deviation to the left from the theoretical wind-direction. farther away from the great west-wind region of which the German and Polish dunes give evidence. The difference in time between the formation of the different fields is relatively small. the formation of which immediately at the ice-border is most unquestionable.
Isobars and winds in July. which are less frequent. as e. in Dalarna. high pressure. H. L. high pressure. especially in Sweden. H. that in Dalarna and also in the interior of Northern Sweden the strongest winds. thus it lies near at hand to draw conclusions as to the directing influence of the latter upon the winds. II. (Mainly after Mohn. It should be added. the most frequent winds in July cross the general trend of the valleys almost at right angles. low pressure. low pressure. This is also shown by the July sheet of the comprehensive maps which Sandstr6m has compiled of the average air displacement at different stations in Europe with due regard taken not only to the frequency but also to the intensity of the winds (cfr Fig. . come from the west and the north-west and thus blow parallel to the run of the valleys.0 760 6 759 76Z 761 760 Fig. g. Regarding several stations. actually is very insignificant. In places. E.224 IVAR HO GBOM Norway. Fig. 36. however. Probable run of isobars and dominant winds in finiglacial summer. 37). Hamberg. a map over the present frequency of different wind-directions shows at different stations that this influence A 58 4f D J# 759 t I . and Hellmann). However. 35. L. indicate winds which have blown in the same direction as the run of the respective valleys. in other regions often obliquely.
the dunes at Gustafs are rather more exposed to the north than towards the north-west. On the other hand. as towards the northwest. on account of the minimum then reigning in the interior of Norrland. The length of the arrows indicates the average displacement fluence of winds coming from the latter during 24 hours. On the contrary. Geogradska Annaler 1923. Air displacements in July. . Thus the incompatibility of the run of the isobars and the air displacements in July is particularly conspicuous at the Bothnian coast where in day-time. So. and the dune-field at Mora lies quite unsheltered towards the north-east. 35 of the present pressure distribution I have preferred to indicate the frequency of the winds. one must conclude that in late finiglacial time the prevalent winds in Middle Swveden generally blew more or less perpendicularly out from the ice-border that is to say from the north-west. On my map Fig. which are even as much exposed towards the north or north-east. direction. but which nevertheless show the in. whilst northerly ones are indicated on the map of Sandstr6m. from where the pure anticyclonic ice-winds would be expected. Sandstr6m's map shows wind-directions which strikingly disaccord with the average run of the isobars of the month. It seems thus undeniable that topography cannot alone account for the deviations of the winds on the dune-fields from the direction which would have been the result of a simple anticyclone above the remaining land-ice. as the inland-ice then levelled the topographical inequalities down to a line only some few tens of kilometers from the dune-fields. there are dune-occurrences in Middle Sweden. I reproduce it separately on Fig. 37. 37. According to Sandstrim 1918. it has formerly been taken for granted that the winds in 15. Furthermore. This seems partly to be due to the fact that the calculations of the air displacements have been based upon morning observations only. regularly strong southerly winds prevail.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 225 however.Fig. but as Sandstr6m's map is most instructive regarding other regions. for instance. The influence of topography upon the direction of the winds must have been less on the dune-fields at the time of their formation than nowadays.
extreme foehn-storms sweeping down the valleys are very frequent. perhaps because of the great water quantities which at that time must have passed through the outlet of the Baltic ice-sea then going over Middle Sweden westwards. as a support for this opinion. Especially the >)Sassenwind> following the Sassen-valley is known for its exceptional intensity. the land-ice remnant has not only influenced the direction of the wind. such as wind-worn pebbles. salt efflorescenses. At Spitzbergen. this would mean that the sea-currents have been directed westwards. As. Bd 40. as their drifting must have been much more controlled by sea-currents than by winds. thus calm often reigns some few kilometers from where the storm is blowing at its hardest (Nansen 1920). the dunes of Scandinavia prove to be a pure marginal formation Cfr Geol. We know from observations at the borders of present inland-ice regions that a dry summer climate prevails in many cases. This is the case. as known from the investigations of Nordenskj6ld (1916). 23. G. H6gborn. In spite of the generally insignificant intensity of the prevailing continental winds. surely because of the counter-balance of the general west-wind trend of the region. however. It seems most likely. however. Furthermore. F6ren. These winds have also given rise to >desert> phenomena. 1912 and C. De Geer1 has called the attention to the finds of erratic boulders in Viistmanland and Virmland.226 IVAR HO0GBOM the time in question corresponded to a fully developed anticyclone. which have been transported by ice-bergs westwards from where they form the rock-ground. In Scandinavia the winds may have been both strong and of high drying capacity. Evidently. but that nevertheless the continental winds producing it are not extraordinarily strong. this character of the Spitzbergen winds is due to the sharp-cut valleys serving as narrow channels for the reestablishment of the pressure-balance between the air above the cold center presented by the inland-ice and the air above the warming surrounding sea. 1921). These winds are. if a transport in the named direction has occurred. Here an abnormally warm summer season is the result of the predominant falling winds from the inland-ice. and even at places dune-drifting (cfr B. that the ice-bergs have taken this course quite independently of the winds. wherefore he concludes that easterly winds have prevailed. but even its physical effects by intensifying its foehn-character. p. not very strong and calm often reigns. for instance. Evidently. . Samuelsson. F6rh. In their extreme forms the Sassen-winds are quite local phenomena. however. Stockholm 1918. on the other hand. grate sculpture. Thus. both qualities furthering their sand-driving power. in parts of West Greenland. the effect of the adiabatically warmed air is sufficient to produce for the latitude in question an unusually high summer-temperature and a drought manifested by saltish lakes without outlets and other dry-climate phenomena.
ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 227 to the receding inland-ice. The north-south direction of the dune-building winds at Romerike in Norway indicates a divergence of the isobars in southern Scandinavia. to judge whether this is only due to a local bend or whether the corresponding isobar continues bending westwards and encloses the maximum above the land-ice and probably also parts of the Norwegian Sea. within which zone the foehn-character of the winds was maintained. the Scandinavian sand-driving winds show the influences not only of the cold high pressure centre presented by the land-ice. It is impossible. 36). as the topography there is more accentuated than in duneregions of Middle and North Sweden. More important for a judgment of the general climatic conditions seem to be the stated directions of the dune-driving winds in Scandinavia. and neither the local low-pressure centre of Southeast Norway nor the less pronounced one in Central Norrland. but also of the warm low pressure centre presented by the eastern part of Europe. Besides. must have been most pronounced during summer. their existence gives no direct evidence of a general arid climate outside the narrow zone at the ice-border. In a preliminary report on the climatological results of the great investigation of the peat-bogs started some years ago by the Swedish Geological Survey. a few remarks might be at place regarding some recent investigations and suggestions set forth by Scandinavian scientists of the problems connected with the climatic changes at the end of glacial time. von Post (i920) has advanced some new hypotheses on the climatic features of the . In Middle and Northern Sweden. 35) for a comparison with the run of the isobars as reconstructed according to the winds which have built up the ancient dunes (Fig. howewer. In other words. in the case of the Romerike dunes the topography may really have considerably influenced the direction of the winds. and a lower one to the east. I will here once more return to that subject. existed at that time. Before entering upon some climatological conclusions to be drawn from the dunes south of the Baltic. therefore. As the difference between the present barometric pressure distribution and that influenced by the land-ice in finiglacial time. I have chosen a map of the present July isobars (Fig. the isobars at the dune-drift time must have had a more north-south run showing a higher pressure over the still ice-covered area to the west. which develop in the summers nowadays. I have ascribed the incompatibility of the directions found for the dune-driving winds in Scandinavia with the hypothetical anticyclonic winds at the borders of the land-ice to the general European pressure conditions manifested by the westerly sand-driving winds south of the Baltic. The gradient must have been greater than nowadays. Therefore.
manifested by a more marine climate during the former. G. as mentioned. consequently. Thus. Regarding the summer climate v. The boreal drought. pp 270. namely. on the other hand. and the Crimea . and a more continental climate during the later epoch. some remarks should be made in this connection regarding the compatibility of the view that the boreal climate was a maritime one with some geological evidences. some of which would even have been without outlets. and in the brackish diatomac4-flora of some of them. Portugal. the influence of the icerest has not been intense enough to produce a fully developed anticyclonic windsystem. v. 285) and others find in the low levels of the lakes. it seems impossible that a drought during summer only would have caused a drying up of the lakes so that their levels sunk considerably below the pass-point of the outlets and that a seasonary evaporation would make the water brackish. however. the rapid melting away of the landice. which at that time was still covered with land-ice. Trapa. v. I have already pointed out the facts which. to which the attention has been called in this chapter. is held to indicate a more continental climate during sub-boreal time. .which now lives in such different regions as the South Baltic countries. Without entering much upon the phyto-geographical and palaeontological facts on which these conclusions have been founded. which implies a low precipitation during winter and a high temperature during summer. Post finds a change in the type of climate from late finiglacial to early postglacial time. Hogbom (1916).is considered to indicate that the plant needs a maritime climate for its existence. according to the views of v. a relatively great snow precipitation. v. such as Cladium. seems too disaccordant with the geological evidences of the climate of that time to be based on the occurrence of a hydrophilous plant. it would be more proper to speak of the maritime character of the boreal climate only during the cold season. in the first place. The present geographical distribution of Cladium . Post arrives at his conclusion regarding the boreal climate from the occurrence of Cladium in the peat-bogs. considers that an anticyclone existing above Northern Sweden. The conception of a maritime winter and. in my opinion. produced east or north-east winds in the southern parts of the country. According to the dune-studies in this treatise. Regarding the incompatibility of such variations in the level of the lakes with the explanation of the stool-layers confer A. Post. but only interfered by deviating the winds due to general pressure conditions. however. Basing his views on the distribution of Trapa natans and Cladium Mariscus in the different horizons of the peat-bogs. Besides. indicate that the finiglacial epoch was characterized by a more continental climate. the signs of which Sundelin (1917.228 IVAR HO GBOM boreal epoch. Post regards as a consequence of an anticyclone in summer over the remaining ice-remnant in Northern Sweden. Post. the valleys of the Alps. when this plant had its greatest maximum in Northern Europe.
the sinking of the area in question should have caused the melting away of the land-ice. wahrend ein warmtrockenes boreales Klima weiter im Innern des Landes herrschte. given Cfr also a similar suggestion propounded by Enquist (1918. According to the Ahlmann and Helland-Hansen theory the disappearance of the inland-ice would thus have been due to a maritime influence of a relatively warm Norwegian Sea on the adjacent parts of North Europe. seems rather to support it. but it does not directly contradict the run of the isobars round the Baltic Sea. The effect of this movement would have been twofold. p. a theory which seems to be almost the antithesis of the opinion I have expressed in the beginning of this chapter. the fact that no ancient dunes have been found within Sma'land. The authors mentioned see the cause of the climatic deterioration that produced the Ice Age in a general upheaval of the Scandinavian peninsula and the north-eastern part of the Atlantic Basin. It has to be kept in mind. Ahlmann and Helland-Hansen presented a couple of years ago in an interesting study (1918) a new hypothesis for the genesis and the disappearance of the great north European land-ice. the relative sinking of the limit for the perennial snow because of the upheaval of the peninsula and the narrowing of the passage through which the Gulf-Stream enters the Norwegian Basin. 235) distinguishes as follows the type of climate which has prevailed in Southern Sweden from that in the middle and northern parts of the country in late finiglacial time.)) The direct evidences of the dunes do not contradict this opinion of Sundelin. that dunes in that region may exist. And judged from the point of view of the general run of the isobars constructed according to the orientation of the dunes (cfr Fig. DDas von dem eiserfiillten kalten baltischen Meer hervorgerufene kiihlfeuchte 'primatlantische' Klima. it does not alter very much the interpretation I have given of the genesis and the age of the dunes.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 229 Sundelin (1919. Conversely. The acceptance of the hypothesis of these authors mainly influences our conception of the distribution of the air pressure west of the regions in which the dunes are found. solange noch ein grbsserer Eisrest in Norrland vorhanden war. diirfte sich geltend gemacht haben. wenn auch immer schwicher. but some brief reflexions may be made regarding its accordance or non-accordance with the opinion of late glacial climate set forth on the preceding pages of this treatise. the influence of the Baltic as a cold region on the distribution of the air-pressure seems to have been only of slight importance. for instance. 36). 107).' This is not the place to enter upon a defence or a criticism of the theory as such. on the contrary. das wihrend der Eisschmelze in der Kiistengegend Osterg6tlands und Smilands geherrscht zu haben scheint. . although they have not as yet been observed. however. However. p.
the later driven dunes were fixed already in sub-boreal time. should be recalled. is always that the dunes are fixed by vegetation. as it shows that there too. and consequently the humidity of the winds cannot have been much influenced by changes in the northern part of the Gulf Stream. This question. the interest in this respect centres on the question how far the interpretation here given of the history of the dunes contradicts the Blytt-Sernander theory of the dry sub-boreal epoch. may be left for the botanists and phyto-geographers to answer. as there neither any secondary dune-forms occur nor a renewed wandering of the dunes has taken place. the two theories are in fact not so mutually contradictory as could be supposed at the first glance. accidental destruction of the vegetation caused by fires or by the action of man has not for a sufficiently long time allowed the wind to disarrange the ancient dune-system. it is a purely biological question to decide whether it is possible that a general drought has ruled at the same time. provided that this period is relatively calm. possibly whith the exception of its beginning. notwithstanding this. but to a certain degree strong winds may cause dune-drift at places which would have been fixed by a xerophilous vegetation if exposed only to moderate winds. if this is not the case. In this connection the phyto-palaeontological study of Lundquist of the peatbogs containing dune-sand in Vtstergbtland. The above conclusion regarding the continual vegetation which since finiglacial time has covered the ancient dune-fields. no climate exists where such an absolute calm reigns that uncovered sand-dunes are not attacked by the winds and thus destroyed or displaced.230 IVAR HO)GBOM on my map Fig. Especially on the Mora-field in Sweden it is evident that no later sand-drift of any importance has taken place. The dunes indicate a dry climate at the time of their formation. Hence. The unavoidable conclusion is thus. it is possible that the rapid melting away of the ice is due to changed temperature conditions in the Norwegian Basin as well as to the development of a pronounced lowpressure region in the east of Europe during summer. The condition. It is rather astonishing that. seems to be of s5me importance for the reconstruction of the later climatic development also. Evidently. however. As it seems necessary to regard it as an established fact that the dunes have been covered by vegetation. 36. and especially that at Mora. manifested inter alia through numerous lakes without outlet. The westwind-track of the German dunes originates south-east of the Norwegian Basin. however. These dunes are also interesting as an . that at least most of the/ Middle-Swedish dunefields have been destitute of vegetation during no period since the time of the formation of the dunes. It is thus possible that dunes once formed and covered by vegetation may withstand a later dry period.
Tutkowski. Unfortunately. On the contrary. This is also clearly shown by the divergence of opinion between e. It is true that the discussion on the postglacial climatic development during the last few decades has been hottest amongst the geologists of Scandinavia. that although they constitute so wide-spread and important a formation in Germany. when it was leaving the great plains of Germany and Poland. but this does not mean that elsewhere the problems have got a solution. when leaving bare the dune-region of Germany and Poland. the morphological evidences being left out of consideration. And regarding the dunes it can be said. Keilhack. the less pronounced difference of opinion regarding postglacial climates in the peripheric parts of the once ice-covered area is rather due to the fact that the opinions are as yet more or less individual and not grouped into schools. Other factors. but reversely very few conclusions have been drawn as to the climatic development from the existence and morphology of the dunes. previously discussed in this treatise. This is inter alia manifested by the divergent opinions which always are maintained amongst the German scientists concerning the exsiccation beds within the peat-bogs and other phyto-palaeontological or phyto-geographical evidences of changes in climate. would have called forth winds coming more from the north-east than those reconstructed from the orientation of the dunes as interpreted according to the . they have played a very insignificant r61e in the climatological discussion. as dunes of this age have not been met with elsewhere. there is still some uncertainty in these respects regarding the dunes south of the Baltic. as in Scandinavia. At first sight it is almost disappointing to find that the explanation given above regarding the Scandinavian dunes cannot be accepted for the German ones. g. the most important studies have undoubtedly been made in the northern countries. similar observations from other regions most probably cannot be made. as the latter show every sign of having been driven by winds of a more or less opposite direction to those which would have been a marginal phenomenon to the land-ice. not taken into account.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 231 evidence that southerly winds predominated at the time of the great postglacial change from wet atlantic to dry sub-boreal climate. and Lencevicz. Whilst the age of the Scandinavian dunes may be regarded as certain and the influence of later destructive sand-drift practically none. Solger. the inland-ice. I will here once more return to the Solger hypothesis in order to show its untenability from a climatological point of view. such as the influence of continent and ocean. Some attempts have been made to fit the dunes into a desirable climatic epoch.
theory. Particularly this is the case if Poland is considered. Thus it must be said that there are no direct evidences left of a periglacial dune-formation in Germany and Poland. in which. although the thereby formed dunes have since been destroyed by the later general sand-drift. which has been found for the periglacial winds in Scandinavia. and consequently the isobars could not have been determined solely by the cold center presented by the inland-ice. During the warmer season there must also have been a low pressure over the ice-free continent in the south-east compared with the pressure in the north-west. as the falling height was due only to the thickness of an ice-sheet thinning out slowly over the peripheric lowland. as I have demonstrated in a previous chapter. In other words. These dunes. As I have briefly mentioned in the description of the German dunes. Furthermore. should be devoted to the loess question. in Middle Sweden. Another side of the question is. Consequently. the foehn-character could not have been so pronounced as. which requires direct east-winds. however. where the main direction of the ice-border has been about WSW-ENE. . their orientation would not indicate the anticyclonic winds to be expected outside the ice-border when it was receding from the regions south of the Baltic. the position of which may indicate a late glacial age.232 I V A R H 0 GGBO M Solger theory. must also have characterised the corresponding winds of an earlier epoch south of the Baltic. whether sand-drift took place also at the time when the inland ice was leaving Germany and Poland.beds of Central Europe. There is a possibility that these dunes may have been formed in a periglacial situation. the Already this brief exposition tells against the Tutkowsky-Solger of which. According to the opinion advocated in this treatise. as has been shown above. In this connection some attention. have blown more southwards than corresponds to a simple inland-ice anticyclone theory. it is evident that there exists no connection between the ancient dunes and the loess. that the dunes were driven by west-winds. For those who have paid no notice to the form and to the orientation of the dunes. It seems also improbable that they should have resisted the later intense sand-drift which has built up the other dunefields. as well as for those who have accepted the intrepretation of Solger. therefore. are too insignificant and too irregular to allow any general conclusions. there are some few dunes the morphology of which seems to indicate winds blowing from the north. and probably in a still higher degree. it is the most natural thing to connect the history of the German and the Polish dunes with that of the loess or at least of the youngest loess formation. most clearly appears from a study of the duneuntenability morphology itself. however. The winds must. viz. north-winds rather than east-winds are to be expected. even according to Solger's interpretation of the morphology of the German dunes. the same deviation to the left. for instance.
The absence as far as known of any loess-deposits east of the dune-regions corresponding to the same winds which have driven the dunes. and consequently the last sand-drift cannot have been only a rearranging of older dune-fields. I have above set forth the facts which speak for a continental climate during that time. And further. the climatic changes of which have to be regarded in order to form as exact an opinion as possible about their age. the same is consequently the case with the windworn pebbles often occurring below the loess. the deviation to the east . might be explained by a previous separation of the finest material from the dune-sand during the reign of periglacial winds. a relatively limited space of time remains. There are some circumstances which seem to be in accordance with this supposition. a periglacial dune-drift may have taken place on the present dune-fields. 302). where possibly a thin loess-sheet may have been overlooked. The above conclusions refer only to the dunes in their present shape. as Keilhack (1917) and others have pointed out. It thus is most likely that the great loess-deposits date from earlier epochs than the ancient dune-fields described. the situation of some fields clearly indicates that the sand must have been transported from the west. also makes a previous north-eastern drift improbable. and.wind morphology. having their greatest extension in the east-west direction. and Leverett. on account of their west. not being younger than neolithic from an archaeological point of view.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 233 This fact is confirmed by the regional distribution of the loess-deposits south of the dune-bearing zone. This opinion is based on several seemingly good reasons.) It seems nearest at hand to regard the German and Polish dunes as mainly finiglacial and possibly early postglacial. As has already been mentioned. The decisive fact from this point of view is evidently that the same general climatic factors which called forth the rapid retreat of the ice in late-finiglacial and early postglacial time seem most suited to explain the strong west-wind system south of the Baltic. 1910. But this may also be ascribed to our as yet incomplete knowledge of the areas in question. On the other hand. and such a climate must have intensified the tendency to summer west-monsuns over Europe in comparison with the corresponding winds nowadays. and some which seem to be in contradiction to it. 1906. quite independently of the different opinions which have been pronounced regarding the question whether the accumulations of loess on the eastward slopes of the rivers indicate that the loess-driving winds have come from the west or from the east (cfr Penck. The common form of the fields. though all traces have been extinguished by the later duneformation. that is to say that a continuous dunedrift went on south of the Baltic during the same time. when the dune-drift took place where the finiglacial ice-border in Scandinavia left the marginal deltas behind exposed to the winds from the ice. The German-Polish dunes not being periglacial. at least mainly. (>Dreikanter. p.
All these facts taken together seem undisputably to confirm the opinion here advocated as to the age of the dunes. however. especially as this season is characterized by a far lower rainfall than summer. Finally. previously mentioned. if formed. It is hardly possible. would have been oriented SW-NE. A detail of interest in this connection is the asymmetric development of windsides and lee-sides on the wings of some horse-shoe dunes in Germany. which I have previously spoken of as indicating a change to a more southerly (WSW) wind-direction in the latest phase of the dune-drift time. One point which may seem unexpected is. This accords well with the changes in the run of the isobars. From the above it is to be concluded that in Germany the isobars corresponding to the dune-driving winds had a run very similar to that of the July-isobars nowadays. the effect of which upon the winds fell outside the dune-regions. the conditions of which cannot be supposed to have been favourable for dune-formation. however. This. As the winds then were sand-driving. The fact that the Baltic at that time was partly fed by melting-water from the land-ice must not be overrated in its consequences on the distribution of the air-pressure in the summer especially during an epoch of continental climate. Most probably dunes of to-day. when the difference between the temperatures of land and sea anyhow is very great compared with the difference between a relatively warm and cold sea. caused by the greater contrasts in pressure. Evidently the possible difference which a relatively colder Baltic at the dune-drift time would have called forth in the air-pressure compared with the present conditions. indicates a general west-wind trend further southwards. which the disappearance of the land-ice from Scandinavia must have caused. the 760 mm isobar running almost west-east. at the end of finiglacial time made some local curve. has not been important enough to influence the winds within the German-Polish dune-regions. however. The periglacial position of the Scandinavian dunes explains their formation even if no extremely dry climate is supposed to have existed outside the range of the . Very likely the corresponding isobar.234 I V AR H 0 GB O M of the dune-driving foehn-like winds at the ice-border in Scandinavia. that during the present yearly distribution of the winds in Germany dunes oriented like the ancient ones would develop if sanddrift took place nowadays. the climate may have been drier than what is the case at present. and very probably the sand-drift was also furthered by a greater intensity of the wind at that time. on account of the hard south-west winds in autumn. with lower pressure to the north. the phyto palaeontological researches have proved that the dry boreal period was followed by a more humid one. that the Baltic has not exercised any greater influence upon the run of the isobars. is also as striking a feature in the present distribution of the air-pressure in July.
In order to get an idea of the changes compared with the present climatic conditions which must be supposed to have taken place if the dune-drift at that time is to be explained. It is true that the extension of land westwards at the time in question is not perfectly known. One may thus roughly estimate that. The present 190 isotherm (not reduced to sea-level) encloses in July. G. which according to the statements in this inquiry. possibly. I have thought it worth mentioning as a local geographical factor which may have contributed to a displacement westwards of the more arid areas. Notwithstanding this character of the ground. now to be found in Poland and east thereof. This would mean that north-west winds reaching the present North Sea coast would have passed a distance similar to that between Hamburg and Berlin over land. This difference. except at some places in Poland. and thus may have possessed a greater deficit of saturation when reaching the dune-regions. On the other hand. whilst the greatest part of Germany lies in July within the 18' and 17' isotherms. which nowadays are everywhere practically fixed by vegetation.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 235 local foehn-winds from the inland-ice. but the opinions regarding the time for this climatic optimum are diverging. the dunes south of the Baltic. must have been of comparatively insignificant consequence. the existence of land outside Holland may have been of some influence. however. On the other hand. Sernander (191o) places it in . should correspond to the later part of finiglacial time and. The Scandinavian phyto-palaeontologists have stated that during the climatic optimum the summer-temperature was some two degrees higher than nowadays (cfr Gunnar Andersson 19To. 1913). indicate a former dry period. those north of the Baltic evidently have not been of any direct importance for the aridity of the dune-driving winds south o0 the Baltic. although evidently on a small scale. if temperature alone were decisive. extending from southern Russia. as the west-winds at the epoch in question had to pass a longer distance over land than nowadays. perhaps consisting for the most part of marsh regions. Lencewicz has stated that dune-drift is always going on at certain suitable places in Poland. according to the nomenclature of De Geer. part of southern Poland. connecting England and Denmark (Reid. but it seems probable that most of the shallow North Sea was at that time part of the continent. an elevation of the summer-temperature of at least two degrees would be needed if dune-drift were to go on in Germany at the ancient fields. Samuelsson 1915). as these winds have come from the west or north-west. Concerning the changes in the distribution of land and sea. the winds must have got somewhat warmed in comparison with the present west-winds in the same region. Anyhow. and farther east dune-drift is still more common. several factors have to be considered. the earliest postglacial time.
which can be supposed to have characterized the dunedrift time. I have on the preceding pages made some comparisons between the average pressure distribution in July nowadays and that which may have been reigning in finiglacial time when the dune-fields were built up. that the snow-cover in Scandinavia remaining in that season directly influences the air pressure in the same way as did the land-ice in finiglacial time. the intensity of the winds and the amount of precipitation play such a part in the dune-building processes that any estimation of the changes in temperature must be done with reservation for the influence of changes in the other climatic factors. on the other hand.236 IVAR HO GBOM sub-boreal time and Gunnar Andersson (19io) in Ancylus time. If. 36. Furthermore. In fact. whilst there are great differences in other respects. Whilst the >Kdilterickfille> are incidents in the changes of climate in spring. it would not be difficult to find out a synoptical map of that type on which the direction of the isobars and the winds almost coincide with those drawn on the map Fig. It is very probable too. however. However. that is to say more or less at the same time as the dune-drift went on. one may hardly draw any strict parallels with the testimony of the dunes in this respect. on account of the greater differences in temperature between Northern Scandinavia and East Europe . The above reasoning regarding the run of the isotherms. which regarding pressure and winds shows the greatest similarities with that reconstructed for the finiglacial summer. as it refers to the region south of the Baltic from where no similar determinations regarding a climatic optimum are at hand. which proceeds faster in East and South-east Europe than in Scandinavia. In order to demonstrate the essential climatic features in finiglacial time. Besides. when low pressure reigns over South-east Europe whilst North-western Scandinavia is enclosed within a high pressure region. one would seek for a type of climate nowadays. the similar distribution of the air pressure may have been the characteristic one during finiglacial summer. The comparison between this peculiar climate type of spring nowadays and that which characterized North and East Europe in finiglacial time is evidently applicable regarding the position of the high pressure and the low pressure regions and the ensuing wind-directions only. one finds it in that which is characterized as >>Kilteriickfille> in spring. The ground for this accordance seems to be that the remaining land-ice in finiglacial time brought about a difference in temperature between Northern Scandinavia and East Europe similar to that which is the result of the warming up in spring nowadays. may serve to illustrate the displacement west-wards of the climatic regions compared with nowadays.
for a general survey of the late quaternary climatic development the dunes. and only incidentally I have brought their testimony in connection with observations of other than physico-geographical or geological character. the gradient may be supposed to have been greater and. Especially it is to be expected that examinations of peat-bogs in the ancient dune-regions. and on account of which the Azoric maximum. In all probability surer and further reaching conclusions regarding the climatic development may be based on a continued study of the dunes. will bring about new results. combined with the evidences of the dunes themselves about the climatic conditions. of course. requires a material of observation not yet brought together. might have influenced the climate of Middle Europe. if this is combined with the experiences from other branches of science. The same effect might also regarding Middle Europe has been brought about by the general displacement of the climatic zones towards the North. which now includes part of Europe. I believe. On the other hand. however. This.ANCIENT INLAND DUNES OF EUROPE 237 at that time. consequently. In this treatise the dunes mainly have had to speak for themselves. even more than at present. must be only a detail. the evidences of which have to be weighed against those arrived at by other means. . This. also has been the most advisable in a monograph over the ancient dunes. the winds stronger than now. which can be supposed to have taken place during the probable climate optimum characterizing the time in question.
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F. KjobenJESSEN. zu Greifswald 1907. Ser. W. Gerhardt.. Wiadomosci Archeologicznych. Hungarian Geogr. Berlin i890. Tidskr. KAUNHOWEN.: Wanderungen und Studien in Deutschlands gr6sstem binnenldnLEHMANN. Bd 23. Geol. F6ren. Stockholm 191o0.: NILSSON. Jahresbericht d. S. G.: Jordslagen inom Vesternorrlands lan. L6czv. A. K. L. Geogr. Helsingfors 1905. Vol. d.. LINDSTROM. Berlin 1917. Geol. C. Landesanst. A. NEHRING. Inst. O. Unders. : Der Salpausselkit. ALB. Fennia. herausgegeben von P. NORDENSKJOLD.: Geokronologiska studier 6fver det finiglaciala skedet i Angermanland. No. Papp. Zeitschr. Berlin 1918. Geol.: Vendsyssels Geologi. 1915. Landesanst.: Geological Map of Hungary. Handb. Bd 41. V. Sveriges Geol. LIDPN.: En faerd til Spitsbergen. -: Uber den Eiswind und das Diinengebiet zwischen Warthe und Netze. eisgebiete. N:r 92. Stockholm 1913.: Tundren und Steppen. .: Studien tiber das Klima am Rande jetziger und ehemaliger InlandBull. E. i5. Berlin I9oo00. Stockholm i888. Jahrbuch d. Bd 69. I. Soc. Raekke. M. Bd 37.: Uber Diinenzuige im Torfe des Netzetales bei Czarnikau. K. Ser. Budapest 1922. de Geogr. Ca. Stockholm 1905. Deutschen Geol. Unders. Sveriges Stockholm i9io0. Fr. N:r 220. KEILHACK. Ca. N. Jahrb. Ges. of Mines. Ser.: Geologische Beobachtungen in der Umgebung des oberen Spreewaldes. havn 1918. ftir i916. Warszawa 1922. Geol. ihr Alter und ihre Entstehung durch westliche Winde. H. Foren. dischen Diinengebiet. Bd 14. Helsingfors 1920. Deutsch. A.: Recent and fossil Ripple-mark. Zeitschr. X. C. Pologne). Unders. F6rh. Stockholm 1920. KINDLE.: Geologie der Diinen. Sveriges Geol. Svensk Bot. LUNDQUIST. 2. nebst Bemerkungen fiber die alluviale Entwicklung des Netzetales. K. Geol. f. Ges. N:r 9. Danmarks Geol.: Comparison of North American and European glacial deposits. Gletscherkunde. R. des deutschen Diinenbaues. f. Inst.: Die grossen Diinengebiete Norddeutschlands. NANSEN. : Ngra ord i en terminologifriga. Monatsber. Bd 27. Museum Bull. Bd 6o. 4. Zeitschr. Geol. J. Preuss. VII.: Uber die Entstehung der Diinengebiete an der Kiiste des Bottnischen Meerbusens. Nr. Preuss. Canada Dep. Unders. S. LEVERETT. Fdrh.: Wydmy Sr6dladowe Polski (Resume: Les dunes continentales de la LENCEWICZ.: Importance des zones de recession de la dernibre glaciation en Pologne pour la connaissance des plus a. LEIVISKA. 25.. Kristiania I920. Stockholm I9I1. Berlin 1910. Re-edited and supplemented by Ch. Unders. Ges. de Varsovie. Warszawa 1922. KORN. Berlin 1916.: Studier 6fver Gottlands senkvartira historia. Fennia. Berlin 1908. Bd 33. MUNTHE.nciennes industries sur le terrain de cette glaciation (French resumd). Sveriges Geol.o 4. F. KRUKOWSKI. d. Vol. NELSON. Ser. de l'Univ. Ottawa. P. Geol.: Om randdeltan och randasar i mellersta och s6dra Sverige. F. IVAR HOGBOM A. H. Anteckningar om svenska flygsandsfdlt.240 JENTZSCH.: Pollenanalytiska aldersbestaimningar av flygsandsfdlt i Vasterg6tland.. Uppsala 1916. 1917.
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.............. .. .......... i76 ............ IV.................. It 3 ................ 170 .......... ... ........1 I42 Sweden.. DUNES SOUTH OF THE BALTIC ..... 125 Basal forms of Dunes ................ .....................CONTENTS CHAP....................... Dunes in Denmark..... Dunes in Southern 171 Sweden..................................... 117 Theory of Ripple-marks as embryonic Dunes................... I15 .................................................................................. ........ 120 .. i772 ............................................. .................................................................. 134 Secondary ........ ....................... INTRO DU CTIO N ................................................................ The shield-formed or the laterally extended Sand-accumulations as initial Dunes .............................................................. ............................................................................ Influence of alternating Winds 132 .. Dunes in Poland and the Baltic 203 States................... ..... I23 The Dune-profile ........................... ....... i56 Dunes in Northern Sweden.................130 ........................ III................ ..... ........................................................................... ................ I......................................... .................... ........................ ANCIENT DUNES OF FENNOSCANDIA AND DENMARK ................... Dunes and Wave-movement .............. Dune-forms ........ Theory of vthe small Obstacles>>..... Dunes in Southern Norway.................... 136 Dune-fields............ D unes in Germany i8o ..................................................................................... 21 i The H ungarian D une-fields ....................... ............................ 238 ........ Some remarks on recent Dune-drift in 173 Fennoscandia.......................................1 57 Dunes in Finland (and Karelia) ........................ Characteristics and Forms of the .......................... 140 Dunes in Middle ............... II..... DUNE-FORMATION AND DUNE-MORPHOLOGY ... 1 37 T he D une-sand ........ ... ............. PAGE.............................................................................. ........ L IT E R A T U R E ......... 15 ............................ 220 SOME CLIMATOLOGICAL CONCLUSIONS ....... ...........