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Elsa Flores section-006

HECO 1322
CH 1/2/3
CH 1

Food choices – factors affecting: Habit: what we are most use to. Preference: our favorite
Ethnic Heritage: difference backgrounds have their own tradition. Occupation: The kinds
of restaurants available Age: Links between, take preference and food choices are less
direct than in children. Emotional state: to relieve boredom, depression, or provide
comfort. Convenience: You may not have time or the skills to prepare a meal. Medical
conditions: Being a diabetic or of another disease you maybe limited to the foods you can

Nutrients: Substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy and
structural materials and to serve as regulating agents to promote growth, maintenance,
and repair.

6 classes: Water, Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, Vitamins, and Minerals.

Organic vs. inorganic: Carbs, Fat, Protein, Vitamins are organic or literally alive,
contain carbon which if found in all living thing. Mineral & water are inorganic they
facilitate the release of energy from the 3 energy yielding nutrients.

Energy yielding: Carbs, Fat, Protein continually replenish the energy you spend daily.

Which preferred by body? which used if body forced to? Carbs/Fats meet most of the
body’s energy needs; proteins make contribution when fuel is unavailable.

Essential vs. non-essential: Essential- nutrients a person must obtain from food because
the body can’t make them for itself in sufficient quantities to meet physiological needs.
Non-essential- energy in the body(phytochemicals)

Alcohol – a nutrient? Why?/Why not? kCals per gram? Can be excess kcals be stored as
fat? Alcohol is not a nutrient, it doesn’t give you any nutrients to help replenish or growth
in the body, 7 kcal per gram, yes.

Functional Foods: Veggies, Fruits, Grains- Provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition
by altering 1 or more physiological process.
kCalorie – what is

1 g carbohydrate = ___4___kcals

1 g protein = __4__ kcals

1 g fat = ___9____kcals

A food has 20 g of carb, 8 g of protein, 5 g of fat…how many kcals? 20 g X 4 kcal=80

kcal. 8 g X 4 kcal= 32 kcal 5g X 9 kcal= 45 kcal.

DRI – what are/used for? A set of values for the dietary nutrient intakes of healthy people
in US/CA. These values are used for planning and assessing diets

RDA – what is/used for? A set of values reflecting the average daily amounts of nutrients
considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs partically all healthy people in a
particular life stage and gender group. (set goals for individuals)

EAR – what is/used for? The average daily nutrient intake levels estimated to meet the
requirement of ½ of the healthy individuals in a given age/gender. Used in nutrition
research & policy making & the basis on which the RDA values are set.

UL – what is/used for? Limits of intake for nutrients posing a hazard when consumed in
excess and keeps nutrients below the amounts that increase risk of toxicity.

AMDR – what is?/AMDR for Carbs/Protein/Fat: Ranges of intakes for the energy-
yeilding nutrient to provide adequate energy and nutrients. 45-65% Carb 20-35% Fat 10-
35% protein.

Healthy People Report – what is? Revised how often? Sets goals for improving the
nation’s health, to help all ages to increase life expectancy, improve quality of life.
Eliminate disparities in health that occur by age, gender, race, income, ECT. Revised
every 10 years.

Nutrition Surveys – used for…newest government survey? To learn which foods people
are eating and which supplements they are taking to assess people’s nutritional health and
to determine people knowledge, attitudes and behavior about nutrition and how these
relate to health. New survey is called what we eat in America (NHANES)

6 diet ideals – ABCDMV A/Adequacy- characteristic of a diet that provides all the
essential nutrients, fiber, and energy necessary to maintain health and body weight.
B/Balance- The dietary characteristic of providing foods of a number of types in
proportion to each other, such that foods rich in some nutrients don’t crowd out foods that
are rich in other nutrients. C/Kcalorie Control-management of food energy intake.
M/Moderation- providing enough, but not too much of a substance. V/Variety (dietary)-
eating a wide selection of foods within and among the major food groups.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans- Point the way toward better health. Guidelines on
what an individual should eat to stay healthy also includes fitness guidelines.

Nutrient density? A measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it
provides. The more nutrients and the fewer kcalories, the higher the nutrient density.

Energy density- a measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food
kcal per gram. Ex. Fat has more kcal per gram than protein.

USDA Food Guide – what is/includes groups/how used- help people achieve the goals set
forth by the (DGFA) provides a food group plan for ensuring dietary adequacy that
assigns foods to 5 major groups.(grains, veggies, fruits, milk, meat) (oil)

Serving sizes – meat/milk/grains/fruits/vegetables (also see Size comparisons to

ordinary items) based on a 2000 kcal diet/Meat: 5 ½ oz per day= 1oz is equivalent to
1oz cooked lean meat. Milk: 3 cups per day = 1 cup is equivalent to 1 cup fat free milk =
1 ½ oz fat free cheese. Grains: 6 oz per day= 1 oz is equivalent to 1 slice of bread = ½ oz
cooked rice. Fruit: 2 cups per day = ½ cup is equivalent to ½ cup of canned fruit = 1
small fruit = ½ oz of fruit juice. Veggies: 2 ½ cups per day = ½ cup is equivalent to ½
cup of raw or cooked veggies

Discretionary calories – what are? The kcal remaining in a person energy allowance after
consuming enough nutrients dense foods to meet all nutrient needs for a day.

My Pyramid – what is/where found- educational tool that

illustrates the concepts in each food group presented in the dietary guidelines and the
USDA food guide.

Food labels – guidelines designed for use on- help people select certain foods based on
what the contain. (fats, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium ECT.)

Label includes…The serving size, number of servings per container, kcalorie

information and quantities of nutrients per serving, in actual amounts, quantities of
nutrients as “% daily values” based on a 2000-kcal energy intake, daily values reminder
for selected nutrients for a 2000-5000 k cal diet, k cal per gram reminder. The ingredients
in descending order of predominance by weight.

Foods that do not require label- Plain coffee, tea, spices, and other foods contributing
too few nutrients. Foods produced by small businesses packages w/fewer than 12 of
surface area, those prepared and sold in the same establishment as long as the foods do
not make nutrients or health claims.

Which minerals must be included? List of all ingredients on the label in descending order
of predominance by weight. Vitamin A, B, iron, calcium
Daily Values – what are? designed by? for? Reference values developed by the FDA for
use on food labels. To help consumers evaluate the information found on labels.

Nutrient claims- statements that characterize the quantity of a nutrient in a food.

Health claims- statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient and other
substance in food and a disease or health-related condition.

"A", "B", "C" Lists-A/High- significant scientific agreements. These health claims do not
require disclaimers. B/Moderate- evidence is supportive but no conclusive. “Although
there is scientific evidence supporting this claim, the evidence is not conclusive”. C/Low-
evidence is limited and not conclusive.

Structure-function claims-statements that describe how a product may affect a structure

or function of the body. Ex. “Calcium builds strong bones” Do not require FDA
authorization, if it does not specify a specific disease.

Food safety – why important- Some people have died from borne illnesses which could
have been prevented if food safety was better assessed.

Food borne illnesses - affect how many? some examples...- 76 million become ill about
5,000 of them die. Ex. is lethal for people who are ill or malnourished have compromised
immature system, a pregnant, very old, very young, work in health care facility ect.

Temperatures for storage of cold foods- 40 F or less

Leftovers kept how many days?? 3 to 4 days

Most knowledgeable expert about nutrition- Registered Dietitian (RD)

RD – qualifications-a nutrition professional with advance degrees (M.S., Ph.D.) Has been
accredited by the American dietetic association. Must have served in an approved
internship or coordinated program and pass the association registration examination.

CH 2

Digestive tract - also called? / begins where? ends where? Trace path of food-mouth,
upper esophagus spincter, esophagus, lower esophageal sphincter, stomach, pyloric
sphincter, duodenum, iieocecal valve, large intestine, rectum, and anus

Sphincters in the GI tract (5) – location/purpose-upper esophageal sphincter- during

swallowing the upper sphincter open so the bolus can pass into the esophagus, a
secondary role of the upper sphincter is to reduce backflow from the esophagus into the
pharynx. 2-lower esophageal sphincter- the sphincter muscle at the junction between the
esophagus and the stomach, closes behind the bolus so that if cannot slip back.3-Phyloric
sphincter- separating the stomach from the small intestine aka, pyloric valve, opens into
the small intestine and then closes after the chime passes through. 4 Iilocecal valve-
separating the small and the large intestines, 5 anus- the terminal sphincter of the GI tract
allows the wastes to pass.

Bolus-the portion of food swallowed at one time.

Epiglottis – where located/function-a cartilage structure in the throat that prevents fluid or
food from entering the trachea when a person swallows.

Chyme- the semi liquid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the

Duodenum-the top portion of the small intestine

Jejunum-the first 2/5 of the small intestine beyond the duodenum.

Ileum-a segment of the small intestine. (last)

Stomach – major digestive work? Which nutrient? In the stomach is where the initial
breakdown of proteins begins.

pH balance? Which acid? Ph 1- hydrochloric acid.

Major digestive enzyme? Pepsin.

Mucus – produced where? function? Produced in the stomach, it’s a thick, slimy, white
polysaccharide that coast and protects the stomach lining.

Small Intestine – Major digestive function – which nutrients digested/anatomy-absorption

of nutrients. All three yielding-nutrients (fats, carbs, protein)

Villi- finger like projections for the folds of the small intestine.

Microvilli- Tiny, hair like projections on each cell of every villis that can trap nutrient
particles and transport then into cell.

Gastric Motility – peristalsis/segmentation- spontaneous motion in the digestive tract

accomplished by involuntary muscle contractions. Peristasis: successive waves of
involuntary muscular contractions passing along the walls of the GI tract that pushes the
contents along. Segmentation: A periodic squeezing or partitioning of the intestine by its
circular muscles that both mixed and slowly pushed contents along.

Pancreas – function in digestion- contribute additional digestive juices through the duct
leading into the duodenum. Produces the most important enzymes that helps neutralize
chime and helps the breakdown of proteins, fats, and starch.
pH of chyme after secretions from pancreas? PH 2

Liver – function/function in digestion-to produce substances that breakdown fats convert

glucose to glycogen, produce urea, make certain amino acids, filter harmful substances.

Bile – function? Bile is stored in the gallbladder. It’s an emulsifier that prepares fats
and oils for digestion. (made by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the
small intestine when needed)

Body's major metabolic organ? Liver

Gall Bladder – function in digestion? Secretes? Secretes stored bile acts like a storage
tank for bile.

Enzymes – function/what happens to those enzymes we might eat as supplements?

Enzymes help the body absorb nutrients. Many people have begun to take supplements to
increase their levels of digestive enzymes and improve their bodies’ ability to access and
use food nutrients for energy, cell growth and repair. By improving one's digestion,
supplements will often reduce gas, heartburn, and improve regularity.

Saliva contains which? Function? What happens when reaches stomach? Contains
salivary amylase, which is the initial breakdown of carbohydrates. Salivary amylase is
digested when it reaches the stomach, its being absorbed and recycled into other body

Digestive juices from which organs? Come from the liver, stomach, small intestine,
pancreas, salivary glands

Which of the 6 nutrients have to be broken down for absorption? Carbs, fat, protein.

Colon – function? Anatomy? Retrieves what materials for reuse? Absorption of water and
minerals and the formation & elimination of feces.

Bacteria in GI tract – functions? Protect people form infection, bacteria that produce a
variety of vitamins including biotin and vitamin k.

Rate of digestion – which nutrient slowest? Which fastest? It depends on the contents of
the meal on how fast or slow the digestion process takes. Simple carbs (sugar) fastest.
Fats are the slowest.

Fiber – function? Digested? Where? By what? Continues as a semi solid mass that
stimulates the muscles of the GI tract to keep the muscles strong. Fiber is not absorbed;
its undigested residues enter the colon and are excreted.

Benefits of… Fiber retained water keeping the stools soft and carries some bile acids,
sterols, and fat out of the body.
Absorption – where does most occur? How? Occurs in the small intestine. Intestinal
surface contains villi and mircovilli which absorbs the nutrients.

Transport of nutrients- once the nutrients have entered the bloodstream or lymphatic
system it may be transported to any part of the body.

2 circulatory systems? Which transports fats? Which water-soluble nutrients?

Bloodstream- water soluble nutrients and small fat molecules are released into the blood.
Lymph system- larger fats and fat soluble vitamins are released into the lymph system.

Nutrients absorbed into blood…transported where first? Water soluble nutrient and fat
molecules first are released directly into the blood stream by the way of the capillaries.

Lymphatic system – function? Pump? Dumps into? A loosely organized system of

vessels and ducts that conveys the products of the digestion toward the heart. The heart is
the pump, dumps into the liver. Route is heart, to arteries, to capillaries, to veins the
blood leaving the digestive system, heart goes by way of veins, not back to the heart but
to the liver.

Lipoproteins – Chylomicrons – what are? A cluster of lipids associated with proteins that
serve as a transport vehicle for lipids in the lymph and blood. Chylomicrions- the
lipoproteins that transport lipid from the intestinal cells into the body, the cells of the
body remove the lipids they need from chylomicrons leaving chylomicrion remants to be
picked up by the liver cells. (gets smaller and smaller)

VLDL cholesterol – what is – carries? Very low density lipoproteins the type of
lipoproteins made primarily by the liver cells to transport lipids to various tissues in the
body, Composed primarily of triglycerides.

LDL cholesterol – what is – carries? Link to heart disease? The type of lipoproteins
dervided from VLDL as cells remove triglycerides from them. LDL carries cholesterol &
triglycerides from the liver to cells of the body and is composed primarily of cholesterol.
Risk of hear disease

HDL cholesterol – what is – carries? Link to heart disease? The types of lipoproteins
that transport cholesterol back to the liver from peripheral cell; composed primarily of
protein. Low risk of heart disease.

Food poverty – what is? Hunger resulting from inadequate access to available food for
various reasons including, resources, political obstacles, social disruption, poor weather
conditions ect.

Food scarcity? – what is? Certain access to enough food for all people at all times to
sustain a healthy and active life.
Food assistance programs in U.S. – target? Aim to prevent or relieve malnutrition and
hunger ex. are wic, school lunch programs, foods stamps, meals on wheels.

Largest? Food stamp program

CH 3

Carbohydrates – main function in body? Every nutrient composed of monosaccharides.

Function-gives energy to the body.

Monosaccharides – what are? Structure? Single sugar units, all 3 monosaccharides have
the # and kinds of atom but in different arrangements.

Name these… 1) Glucose 2) Fructose 3) Glactose

Disaccharides – what are? Structure? Pairs of sugar units bonded together.

Name these… 1) Maltose 2) Sucrose 3) Lactose

Polysaccharides – what are? Structure? Examples.. Long chains of monosaccarides as

units arranged as starch, glycogen, or fiber.

Fibers – benefits of/uses in industry? Can contribute some energy thicken jelly or keeps
salad dressing from separating.

Soluble-indigestible food components that readily dissolve in water and often impart
gummy or jell like characteristics to foods.

Insoluble-the though, fibrous structures of fruits, veggies, and grains. Do not dissolve in

Which fiber most beneficial for treating constipation? Soluble fibers

Simple Carbohydrates- monoccharides and disaccharides

Complex Carbohydrates- polysaccharides

Excess carbohydrates stored in body as??? Stored first as ___energy___ then as


Know examples of foods rich in Carbs- milk, beans, pure sugar, and rice.

Sugars – characteristics- causes obesity & dental caries,

Which is sweetest? Fructose

Milk sugar? Lactose

Blood sugar? glucose

% of daily kcals from sugar?5-10 % of total kcalories

Sugar and Obesity? Does sugar cause? Yes

Sugar and Behavior – does sugar cause bad behavior? Hyperactivity? It had not been
proven by scientist. Mainly different nutrient deficiencies adversely affect behavior.

Sugar and Dental caries? Is there a relationship? Problem foods? Sugar contributes to
dental caries. Any carbohydrate containing food, including bread, bananas, milk, can
support bacterial growth in the mouth.

Glucose – primary function/Another name for - (hospital) also called bloodsugar, glucose
is a monosaccharide, the sugar common to all disaccharides and polysaccharide.

Storage form in body? Stored where? The body can maintain blood glucose form
carbohydrates in blood.

Storage form in plants? Polysaccharides

Resistant starches – what are? digested? Starches that escape digestion and absorption in
the small intestine of healthy people.

Fructose – what is? Sources? Is the sweetest of all sugars. A monosaccharide, sometimes
known as fruit sugar.

Galactose– what is? A monosaccharide, part of the disaccharide lactose, known as milk

Sucrose – what it? Sources? Other names for…a disaccharide composed of glucose and
fructose, commonly known as table sugar or cane sugar.

Lactose - – what is? Is the principle carbohydrate of milk. A disaccharide composed of

glucose and galactose.

Maltose - – what is? Is a plant sugar, a discaccharide composed of two glucose units.
(malt sugar)

Sugar Alcohols? What are? Sugar like compounds. Like sugar, they are sweet but yield 2-
3 kcal per gram. Slightly less than sucrose. Sometimes called nutritive sweeteners.

Kcals in gram of carbohydrate? 2-3 kcal per gram

Artificial sweeteners – Sucralose – made from? Non-carbohydrate, non-calorie synthetic
sweetening agents. Sometime called non nutritive sweeteners.

Saccharine –a compound of phenylalanine and aspartic acid that tastes like the sugar
sucrose but is much sweeter. Children should monitor intake.

Aspartame – population which must monitor intake? A zero – kcal sweetener approved
by the FDA & CA also known as acesulfam K

Acesulfame Potassium – also called? also known as acesulfam K

Health benefits of carbohydrates... give you energy and contributes fewer k cal to the
body than do dietary fats. Should increase intakes of carbohydrates rich-foods for their
starch, fiber, and naturally occurring sugars.

Recommended daily % of kcals from Carbs? Grams per day? 45-65 % of energy intakes.
130 grams a day.

Fiber? Grams per day? Fiber rich foods tend to be low in fat and help with weight
management, protect against colon cancer, soften stools, and prevent constipation. 25-30
grams per day

Recommended daily % of kcals from sugar? 5-10 % of daily intake.