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**The study of matter
**

Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics

1

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CashPlants

HolisticTuition Home Physics: Chapter 1 Objectives: (what you will learn) learn) 1) understand Physics base quantities & derived quantities scalar quantities & vector quantities measurements. using instruments processes in scientific investigations < Back Next > 2) 3) 4) 2 5) End CashPlants .

it was called ³natural ³natural philosophy´. matter & energy. astronomy. Physics is a branch of Science for study phenomena. based on experimental observations & quantitative measurements. < Back Next > 3 End CashPlants . it may be the oldest academic discipline. which involves force.HolisticTuition Home Physics Understanding Physics: 1. 2. Through its subfield of philosophy´. ³physica´ ³physica´ the science of natural things. until 19th century. ³Physics´ derives from Latin. astronomy. of natural phenomena.

< Back Next > 4 End CashPlants Base Quantity Symbol SI Unit Symbol l Length meter m m Mass kilogram kg t Time second s T Temperature Kelvin K I Current Ampere A .HolisticTuition Home Physical Quantities Base Quantities Quantities that cannot be defined in any other physical quantity.

< Back Next > Volume = Length x Breath x Height = m3 Density = Mass ÷ Volume = kg m-3 Velocity = Displacement ÷ Time = m s-1 Acceleration = Velocity ÷ Time = m s-2 5 End CashPlants Force = Mass x Acceleration = kg m s-2 .HolisticTuition Home Physical Quantities Derived Quantities Quantities derived from base quantities (through mathematical combinations).

) quantities. such as force and pressure. (Compare them to base quantities.) quantities. such as distance and mass. (Compare them to derived quantities. direction.HolisticTuition Home Physical Quantities Scalar Quantity Physical quantity which has magnitude only.) < Back Next > Vector Quantity Physical quantity which has both magnitude and direction.) 6 End CashPlants .

< Back Next > prefix symbol value pico nana micro milli centi p n µ m c 10-12 10-9 10-6 10-3 10-2 prefix symbol value kilo mega giga tera k M G T 103 106 109 1012 7 End CashPlants Small quantities 1 Big quantities .HolisticTuition Home Physical Quantities Prefixes Simplifies description of physical quantities that are either very big or very small without losing data.

11 x 108 kg . < Back Next > Q x 10n where 1 Q < 10 and n is an integer Examples: Examples: 0.96 x 10-7 m 8 End CashPlants 911 000 000 kg = 9.HolisticTuition Home Physical Quantities Scientific Notation The standard form for numerical magnitude.000000696 m = 6.

not consistent Accurate & consistent . less accurate Accurate. Consistency measures how close together a group of hits is to the average value. If they are far apart from each other. < Back Next > We want results that are both accurate & consistent. they are not consistent. 9 End CashPlants Consistent.HolisticTuition Home Measurements Accuracy measures how close a hit is to the target. it is not accurate. less consistent Not accurate. If it is too far from the target.

1 mm < Back Next > Vernier caliper Medium.1 mm Micrometer screw gauge 10 End CashPlants High. 0. 0.01 mm .HolisticTuition Home Measuring Instruments Sensitivity = how small a change in reading that can be measured by an instrument Ruler Low.

HolisticTuition Home Measurement Errors Systematic Error Occurs in one direction only. Always negative too low or too Always high positive < Back Next > May arise from various causes. such as a ruler worn out at one end Repeated error in reaction time Wrong assumption 11 End CashPlants . Incorrect calibration of instruments Zero error ± pointer of instrument does not return to zero when not in use.

Parallax error ± due to incorrect positioning of the eye when taking measurement Changes in the surroundings. temperature. unpredictable. < Back Next > May arise from various causes. etc. lighting. Repeated measurements ± taking mean value End CashPlants Using mirror beneath pointer of instrument . air circulation. magnetic field. The reading is sometimes positive & sometimes negative from actual value. i.e. 12 Can be reduced in several ways.HolisticTuition Home Measurement Errors Random Error Size of error not constant & unpredictable.

HolisticTuition Home Scientific Investigation Start Observation The processes involved Making use of all human senses Initial explanation or conclusion Making smart guesses Testing in controlled situation Documentation of results in report < Back Next > Inference Hypothesis Experiment Conclusion 13 End CashPlants End .

. arrangement Carry out experiment in proper order Documenting data obtained 14 End CashPlants Analyze data through graphs. responding.HolisticTuition Home Scientific Experiment Steps involved in carrying out Experiment Suggest suitable questions Aim Variables Apparatus Procedures Tabulation Analysis < Back Next > Manipulated. etc. & fixed List apparatus/materials.

4.HolisticTuition Home Summary What you have learned: < Back 1. 3. 2. Understanding Physics Physical Quantities Measurements & Instruments Scientific Investigations & Experiments 15 End CashPlants Thank You .

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