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Tibco Tuning

Table of Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Objective
1.2 Tibco BW Concepts
1.2 Methodology
2 TIBCO Business Works 5.2 Performance Architecture
2.1 Main TIBCO Business Works Performance Components
2.1.1 Engine Processing
2.1.2 Determining the Available Memory
2.1.3 Flow Control
2.1.4 Paging Jobs
2.1.5 Paging Waiting Jobs
2.1.6 Enabling Paging
3 Best Practices
3.1 TIBCO Business Works Engine Tuning Guidelines
3.1.1 Calculating MaxJobs or Flow Limit
3.1.2 Memory Management Issues
3.1.3 Tuning Engine
3.1.4 Fault Tolerance and Load Balancing
3.2 JVM Tuning Guidelines
3.2.1 Specifying JVM Heap Size
3.2.2 Setting JVM and Processor Affinity
3.2.3 JVM Garbage Collection
3.3 TIBCO Business Works Transport and Palette Guidelines
3.3.1 HTTP/S
3.3.2 SOAP
3.3.3 JMS
3.3.4 FTP
3.3.5 JDBC
3.3.6 Transactional Activities
3.3.7 General Activities
3.4 Process and Activity Design Guidelines
3.4.1 Data and Caching
3.4.2 Checkpoints
3.4.3 Grouping Activities
3.4.4 Testing BW Process Definitions
3.4.5 Tracing in BW
3.5 Message, Payload and Schema Guidelines
3.5.1 Data Representation Guidelines for Tibco Rv and JMS
3.5.2 TIBCO Business Works Mapper Performance
3.6 Processing Large Sets of Data
3.6.1 Iterating Through Large Sets of Data Using a Mapper Activity
3.6.2 Sorting and Grouping Data
3.6.3 Large Document/Record Use Cases
3.6.4 SOA Best Practices
4 Configurations
4.1 Configuring Persistent Connections
4.2 Configuring HTTP/JMS Servers
4.3 Enabling SSL Configurations via BW
5 Global Variables
5.1 Grouping & Sub-grouping Rules
5.2 Naming Conventions
6 Logging
6.1 Logging Rules
6.2 Logging Parameters [Details, frequency etc
1 Introduction
1.1 Objective

The purpose of this document is to provide Standards, Guidelines and methodology for
implementing TIBCO BW related projects. The document helps in defining the BW
Project specific guidelines and can be used by the team of people mostly Architects,
Functional Consultants, Developers who implements a BW Project and also helps in
customer architecture and production readiness reviews. Some portion may be relevant
and some may be irrelevant.

1.2 Tibco BW Concepts

TIBCO BusinessWorks (TIB-BW) scalable, extensible, and easy to use event driven
integration platform that allows developing Enterprise Application Integration (EAI)
projects. TIBCO BusinessWorks includes a graphical user interface (GUI) for
designing business processes and an engine that executes the process. Tibco BW is
extensible as it provides platform to plug in Other available Tibco Products(products
providing BPM solution, Complex Event Processing Solutions, Messaging Solution,
Monitoring and Management solution, BAM Solutions etc) and use these Product
Features to Integrate systems which are decentralized or exists in different platforms
.net, J2EE or Legacy Systems or custom applications or exchanging data within
protocols or Applications such as SAP, Oracle, JDE or a business covering B2B, A2A.
TIBCO BusinessWorks also works with TIBCO Administrator, a web-based GUI for
monitoring and managing run-time components.

The current flavor TIB-BW is provides extensive solution where a process can be
configured as a exposable Service adhering to SOA standard. The current flavor TIB-
BW design also supports BPEL standards of Design.

1.3 Methodology

TIB-BW integration project is developed in phases. Methodology focuses on the

aspects of a nature of a project where a project is in development or in migration phase
following a short development cycle, scalable and extensible, and the ease-ness of use.
It is been observed that the sequential execution of these phases in results in a fast

Analysis - Define & analyze problem

Detailed problem analysis, which involve clearly identification, and analysis of the
existing problem, defining the problem statement.

Analysis leading to defining the solution which defines a transport communication

layer, the protocol involved in data transformation or data exchange, the business
process involved, the common universal Interfaces to be built in, deciding the partners
exchanging data and the rule the business need to obey etc.

The required Interfaces and the associated end-point data elements are recorded.
Domain Setup - Install software & configure domain

Decide the Tibco Infrastructure requirements i.e. the software, which best suits for
integration using BW as Integration tool. Evaluate the Hardware and Software need to
be used at different Phases of Integration. Defining the administration Domain setup
and Planning of the Management of the Domain (defining a access control list - ACL)
are the essential activities.

Fig : Typical Domain

Decide a Software-Hardware map where the software component(s) and machine(s) to

be deployed on
the machine is determined and the features such as load balancing and fail over and
backing up
strategies are well defined.

Services Configuration - Configure adapters

The different Nature of the Services exist in Tibco BW environment and configuring
these services plays a key role. The business process, which is available as a service
implementing a Adapter behavior, publish-subscribe behavior, request – reply or
request – response behavior, web services (SOA) can well be accessed within the TIB-
BW environment for integration.

Process Design - Implement & test business processes

The artifacts, the data structures, the business process execution paths, the end points of
the business process, decision of the nature of work (automated, batch, manual etc) is
recorded involved are been finalized. The BW Project defines the activity, sub-activity
associated and the transitions involved. The processes and the inter process
communication is well defined and can be validated for design time errors using the
BW Designer. TIB-BW has capability to design and configure the required business
process and have a dry run (a designing time test ) using its Test Mode environment.

Deployment - Deploy to runtime engine

The Project Archives contains the processes, which can be Enterprise Archive or a
Adapter Archive and
are created using the TIB-BW designer interface. The configurations need to be re-
adjusted with the
state of deployment i.e. testing, acceptance, production etc. The post-deploy run-time
always checks for the newly defined configurations. The post-deployed process is
visible and
manageable using the TIB-Administration Domain.

Production - Manage & monitor deployments

User Management can be achieved by defining a ACL (Access Control List) where by
the TIB - Administration domain can be obeying a Security (Authorization and
Authentication) policy. A User with a given role does controls / manages the Deployed
Processes and the properties.

TIB- Administration domain can be monitored for the products and run time
availability, CPU and DISK
Usage. The Deployed processes can also be monitored and traced using the runtime
2 TIBCO Businesses Works 5.x Performance Architecture
2.1 Main TIBCO Business Works Performance Considerations

Connections Opening and Closing of Connections

Retrying of failed/suspended processes, Job recovery

Number of Process configuring a service to run in a single thread or multi thread mode
hence directly impacting the memory usage.

HW Sizing of the Hardware based on the TPCC of the Hardware Processor

Deciding on the number of Configurable Runtime variables. The More GVs used the
memory a process consumes.

Checkpoint/Reliable defining Checkpoints or Configuring a Reliable mode of Process

takes more time to process as the time slot is allocated to refreshing a cache or a file

Logging Extensive logging does take more time to processing because of Unavailability
of File
descriptors at time of need and causing a delay.

JVM The Memory allocated to the JVM should be optimistic.

The process Times out and renders to Error when talking with a third party non-

Network Specific Filter: Using multicasting provides a lowest level filtering of traffic
Specific Filter – At Messaging Layer (RV: Subject Based Filter, JMS: Topic Based)

Process Engine Specific Filter – At Process Management Level (RVFT and RVCMQ)
based FT, LB

Process Specific (Short Living Master—Content Based Filter—Condition—Child

Process (One
can also aggregate from multiple sources)

Use flow control provided by deployment. It has limitations.

If (wait or suspend) state of flow. They are considered to be part of the count. If this is

Need to build semaphore logic in java code Max Jobs and Activation Limit
Memory, CPU, Threads, Connections, Number of process need a primary attention

Complexity of Data Validation and Transformation

Complexity in XPath defined transition

Event Source (Starter Processes) usually resource hungry

2.1.1 Engine Processing

The Business works Process Execution always depend on the State of the Process, the
associated with the state, the memory available to JVM (heap size) to executes Process

The number of threads spawned behaves as a unique instance of the process. The CPU cycle
is allocated to each thread. Each instance consumes a processor slot and comparable to
a tiny CPU. So the CPU sizing is always a must.

The Job pool hold the jobs in queue and process in sequence. Piling of jobs cause the paging
out of the system(database, file, memory) which can be adjusted using parameters such
as FlowLimit, MaxJobs, Activations Limit.

Process can either be staying in a ready state or at a Dispatched state or at a wait/blocked

state. Setting FlowLimit, MaxJobs, Activations Limit helps in reducing paging out.
Once a Job is submitted to a thread, the process executes 20 steps and goes back to
dispatch queue leading to a thread switch allotting the thread to the next available job.
In this scenario if the steps are executed and the thread is not released then the process
goes to a blocked state reaching a incomplete state of the process and this does not
allow the next job to page in. The BW Deployment configuration should be well
adjusted with the parameters Max Jobs(in memory), Thread Count, Flow Limit (max
jobs in memory and paged) using the TIB- Administration at deployment.

2.1.2 Determining the Available Memory

The size of Memory and the number Processes it can handle at a specified time is part of a
tuning activity. To reach a correct figure on the number of services, a load test with
verity of services viz, request -reply, adapter, normal sequential can be carried on the
specified System with the given HEAP size i.e. the JVM size.

Parameters such as Initial Heap Size (MB), Maximum Heap Size (MB) , Java Thread
Stack Size
(KB), Thread Count are adjusted to achieve the optimal memory usage.

2.1.3 Flow Control

Mostly the deployed archives always have a number starter process configured either with
Adapter, JMS publisher/subscriber, HTTP/SOAP. The rate at which the process gets
completed depends on the number of threads and the max job configured for this. To
improve on processing the jobs are paged/buffered using the flowlimit or the activation
limit for that process.

Restricting the flow of incoming events is necessary to avoid memory overflow when
processing lags behind. The Flow Limit property limits the number of jobs created.
This parameter is specified in the Job Starters.

Setting MaxJobs to more than one and Activation Limit enabled(gives priority to new jobs)
will limit n-jobs to be processed as a batch at one time. It is useful for situations where
resources downstream for concurrent processing are limited.

MaxJobs and FlowLimit are two attributes to control flow in to TIBCO BusinessWorks
process where JVM parameters are useful to control TIBCO BusinessWorks Engine

2.1.4 Paging Jobs

Existing Jobs get paged out when the job is blocked, or the Maxjobs Limit is exceeded
Activation Limit is disabled.

New job can be paged when MaxJobs limit is exceeded and Activation Limit is enabled
or All paged-in jobs are unblocked.

Paged jobs returned to the Dispatch Queue provided the job is unblocked and the
MaxJobs limit is not exceeded

Some other paged in job is blocked and can be paged out to make room.

2.1.5 Paging Waiting Jobs

Flow control enables the waited process to be placed into the paged process pool. It also
frees space for another process to enter the process pool.

If the task that waits for an event is a Signal In or Sleep task, the process paging feature
is used to write the process to disk and allowing a new job to run using the thread. For
example, when the event occurs, a Rendezvous message arrives for the Signal In task,
and the process automatically re-enters the process pool and becomes a ready process.

2.1.6 Enabling Paging

The Activation Limit setting is used in the deployment configuration to control process
By enabling paging, system allows the number of active and waiting jobs to be greater
than the MaxJobs/FlowControl sett ing
3 Best Practices
3.1 TIBCO Business Works Engine Tuning Guidelines

Allocate significant time for selecting the JVM vendor, version, and necessary tuning
The number of threads that an engine will allocate is set in the TIBCO Administrator
Edit Service Instance dialog box, under the Server Settings tab, General section.

Each engine process on a separate Java thread, the number of worker threads controls
how many jobs can run simultaneously.

Throughput can be increased by Measuring the available CPU and memory resources. Can
be determined from a stress/load test. Increase in thread count definitely consumes
more resource leading to degrade in performance, so a proper thread sizing need to be

There are two ways to take benefit of CPU utilization: Optimize engine thread or Increase
number of TIBCO BusinessWorks Engines on a single node or distribute on different
nodes based on a optimal configuration

Typical numbers of worker threads range between 8 and 32. Specifying too low a value can
cause lower engine throughput even though spare CPU resources exist. Specifying too
high a value can cause CPU thrashing behavior.

If the rate of incoming processes exceeds the number of threads available to run them then
alternate approach would be to control the process using either a delay, or sequencing
or configuring a flow control.

Processes with heavy nesting/hierarchy calling sub-process should be refined or

partitioned to simple
modules to avoid a run time overhead.

3.1.1 Calculating MaxJobs or Flow Limit

MaxJobs and FlowLimit are two attributes to control flow in to TIBCO BusinessWorks
process where JVM parameters are useful to control TIBCO BusinessWorks Engine

Do a load test/stress test

List out how many jobs and the type of jobs that can be accommodated in the given

MaxJobsa nd FlowLimitconfiguration for a process engine depends on the Amount of

memory reserved for the engine JVM, Maximum size of a process instance object,
Number of process instances per engine . NormalyM ax Jobs as 0 andFlow Lim it as 0
which allows process engine to create an unbounded number of services and eliminates
the overhead of paging.
3.1.2 Memory Management Issues and tracing

Memory related issues some times occur other than the JVM. A third party software
integrated with the BW process tries to consume memory to store its state leading to
unavailability of memory to the process and if the process is not optimized to handle
this scenario causes a choke or in-stability. The exception gets reported to Hawk
monitor if available and configured in the infrastructure. It is always advised that the
rate at which event source acts should be followed with a same rate where the event
sink should process.

3.1.3 Tuning Engine

Parameter: Engine.StepCount

This TIBCO BusinessWorks property controls the max number of execution steps
(unless inside a transaction) for a job before an engine thread switch occurs. The default
value is 20, thereby preventing frequent thread switches (which can slow down the
engine) in processes with a large
number of steps.

Parameter: EnableMemorySavingMode=True

Turning this parameter on makes engine to release references to unused process data so
that it can be garbage collected by the JVM, thus improving the performance of
processes with large amounts of data. This feature is very useful in the scenario where a
large amount of memory is occupied by a variable defined in a process; for example, a
variable that reads in a very big XML file. In this scenario,
it is best to release memory right after process instance completes.

3.1.4 Fault Tolerance and Load Balancing

The TIBCO BusinessWorks process engine can be configured to be fault-tolerant. One

can start up several engines. In the event of a failure, other engines restart process
starters and the corresponding services. One engine is configured as the master, and it
creates and executes services. The second engine is a secondary engine, and it stands by
in case of failure of the master. The engines send heartbeats to notify each other they
are operating normally
Normal operation: master processing while secondary stands by

In the event the master process engine fails, the secondary engine detects the stop in the
master’s heartbeat and resumes operation in place of the master. All process starters are
restarted on the secondary, and services are restarted to the state of their last checkpoint.

Fault-tolerant failover Scenario

The expected deployment is for master and secondary engines to reside on separate
machines. There can have multiple secondary engines with a specified weight for each
engine. The weight determines the type of relationship between the Fault -tolerant

A master and its secondary engines is known as a fault--tolerant group. The group can
be configured with several advanced configuration options, such as the heartbeat
interval and the weight of each group member.

Peer or Master and Secondary Relationships

Members of a Fault -tolerant group can be configured as peers or as master and

secondary engines. If all engines are peers, when the machine containing the currently
active process engine fails, another peer process engine resumes processing for the first
engine, and continues processing until its machine fails.

If the engines are configured as master and secondary, the secondary engine resumes
processing when the master fails. The secondary engine continues processing until the
master recovers. Once the master recovers, the secondary engine shuts down and the
master takes over processing again.

The Fault-tolerant tab of the Process Engine deployment resource allows to specify the
member weight of each member of a Fault -tolerant group. The member with the
highest weight is the master. One can select "Peer" in the first field on the tab to
configure all engines as peers (that is, they all have the same weight). One can select
Primary/Secondary to configure the engines as master and secondary. One can also
select Custom to specify oner own values for the weight of each member of the group.

Process Starters and Fault -tolerant

When a master process engine fails, its process starters are restarted on the secondary
engine. This may not be possible with all process starters. For example, the HTTP
Receiver process starter listens for HTTP requests on a specified port on the machine
where the process engine resides. If a secondary engine resumes operation for a master
engine, the new machine is now listening for HTTP requests on the specified port.
HTTP requests always specify the machine name, so incoming HTTP requests will not
automatically be redirected to the new machine.

Each process starter has different configuration requirements, and not all process
starters may gracefully resume on a different machine. Additional hardware or software
required to redirect the incoming events to the appropriate place in the event of a failure
Sometimes servers may not have all of the necessary software for restarting all of
instances. For example, database may reside on the same machine as the master process
engine. If that server goes down, any JDBC activities will not be able to execute.
Therefore, it may not be possible to load process definitions that use JDBC activities in
oner secondary process engine.

One can specify that secondary process engine loads different process definitions than
the master. It
is advisable to load the process definitions that can gracefully migrate to a new server
during a failure.

Setting Fault Tolerant Options

The FT Group Settings panel displays only if the TIBCO BusinessWorks process has
been added to at least two (different) machines. If the domain includes components that
were deployed as part of a fault-tolerant group, the display includes the information
about the group.

It is possible to start one or more process engines in the group. If more than one engine
has started, only one
is displayed as Running and all other engines are displayed as Standing By (or, initially,
as Starting Up).
Any change in the status of a component that has been deployed as part of a FT group,
the status change
affects all other members of the group.

After deployed the process engines, it is most efficient to select all process engines and
start these together. After the primary and secondary engines have communicated, the
master will display as Running and all other engines as Standby.

If only primary gets started , it will first go to Standby mode as it checks the status of
the other engines. It then changes to Running. Upon shutdown of a process engine, the
appropriate secondary engine starts automatically. The Fault –tolerant mode of running
of the process can be configured in the


Because Fault -tolerant engines are expected to be on separate machines, it is advisable

to use a database for storage for each process engine. This allows to specify the same
JDBC Connection resource for the master and secondary engines, and therefore all
engines can share the information stored for process instance checkpoints.

If all engines share the checkpoint information, and then the secondary engines can
recover process instances up to their last checkpoint. If engines do not share the
checkpoint information, process instances are not restarted.

Load-Balancing of Incoming Messages

One common application of a JMS queue is to distribute queue messages across
multiple receivers, there by it balances the processing of the messages on the queue. To
achieve this goal, both the JMS server and TIBCO BusinessWorks must be properly
configured. The JMS server must allow the queue messages to be distributed across
multiple receivers. For example, in TIBCO Enterprise Message Service, the exclusive
property on the queue controls whether messages can be delivered across receivers or
not. In TIBCO BusinessWorks, the process definition containing the JMS Queue
Receiver must be deployed across multiple process engines. This creates multiple queue
receivers for the same queue.

When balancing incoming messages across TIBCO BusinessWorks engines, it

shouldbe ensured that one engine does not attempt to accept and confirm a large
number of incoming messages before other engines can receive the messages. In
general, most JMS servers balance the load by distributing messages in a round- robin
fashion to all queue receivers. However, there are situations that can cause an uneven
distribution of messages across queue receivers. If the Acknowledge Mode field is set
to "Auto" on the Configuration tab of the JMS Queue Receiver, the process starter
confirms messages as it receives them. When process engines are started at different
times, this can lead to one process engine receiving all queue messages and paging
them to disk, depending upon how the engine’s Max Jobs and Activation Limit
properties are set when the engine is deployed.

TIBCO Enterprise Messaging Service, can avoid this problem by setting the
acknowledge mode to TIBCO EMS Explicit and then use the Flow Limit property in
the deployment configuration to control the number of process instances created by the
process starter.

If not using TIBCO Enterprise Messaging Service, set the Acknowledge Mode field to
"Client". In this mode, a process engine can only receive as many messages as it has
sessions specified in the Max Sessions field. Once a process engine reaches the
maximum number of sessions, another process engine can begin to accept incoming
messages. A process engine cannot receive more messages until the messages have
been acknowledged by using the Confirm activity and can be considered as a draw
back. Once the message is acknowledged, the session is released and the process engine
can accept a new message.

3.2 JVM Tuning Guidelines

Each TIBCO BusinessWorks engine runs as a multi-threaded Java server application.

Processes and other objects used internally by TIBCO BusinessWorks are Java objects
that consume memory while the engine is running. Java provides some useful
parameters for tuning memory usage. TIBCO recommends that TIBCO

BusinessWorks customers consider various factors when selecting a JVM. Besides

JVM version and vendor, the most relevant tuning parameters are:
• JVM heap size
• Server VM vs. Client VM based setting
• Garbage collection settings
• Hotspot Server JVM will give better performance with TIBCO BusinessWorks. Sun
also claims better performance for Hotspot Server JVM.
• Consider using the multi-threaded garbage collector, which is available in Jdk.4.x.
with processor sets with multiple engines is a good idea.

3.2.1 Specifying JVM Heap Size

The default Java heap size, which varies according to platform, is a conservative
estimate made by the developers of the particular type of Java being used. To calculate
the amount of memory needed for a TIBCO BusinessWorks Engine, one should
determine the largest heap size that can reside in physical memory. For best engine
performance, paging to disk should be avoided.

•Heap size mostly depends on the memory available. Recommended heap size for a
small workload is 256MB, for medium 512MB, and for large workload 1GB or more.
Maximum heap size per engine can be configured and saved using the Tibco

TIBCO Runtime Agent™ allows to modify the Java heap size, JVM selection, and
JVM settings that the TIBCO BusinessWorks Engine uses when it is started. This
memory is committed for engine activities and job processing.

To set the JVM available memory, use the following parameters:

• The Initial JVM Size parameter sets the minimum amount of memory used
• Maximum JVM Size sets the maximum.

The total amount of JVM memory needed to operate a TIBCO BusinessWorks Engine
should be the memory for each process plus the maximum number of processes that can
be in the process pool. If flow control is enabled, the process pool can contain up to the
MaxJobs value.

3.2.2 Setting JVM and Processor Affinity

If machine is equipped with multiple processor machines, TIBCO Software

recommends that one

assign processor affinity with different instances of TIBCO BusinessWorks Engines:

• On Windows, use the Task Manager facility to assign affinity.
• On a Solaris platform, create processor set usingps r se t/p s ra dm/pbi nd.
• On Linux, use thetas ks et command to set processor affinity.

3.2.3 JVM Garbage Collection

The recommendation is not to do a make direct explicit garbage collection. JVM
internally handles GC with its inbuilt algorithm. However tuning garbage collection
requires good understanding of garbage collection frequency, message size, and
longevity (oneng, tenured, and perm).

3.3 TIBCO Business Works Transport and Palette Guidelines

Choose a appropriate Transport which adheres to interoperability, reliability, and

security requirements. Choice of using XML over HTTP, XML over JMS, SOAP over
HTTP, SOAP over JMS, TIBCO Rendezvous messages and TIBCO Active
Enterprise™ messages are a few combinations based on the requirement and

It is observed that SOAP over HTTP is performs better than SOAP over JMS. The
SOAP protocol adds significant overhead whether one use it on HTTP or JMS, since
there is an overhead cost of creating and parsing the SOAP envelope.

The following observations can be made based on various comparisons of HTTP

clients, HTTP servers, SOAP
clients, and SOAP servers:
• As the payload increased from 1KB to 5KB, the throughput dropped.
• There was no significant increase in the latency when the payload increased from 1KB
to 5KB.
• As the number of HTTP/SOAP client requests increased (concurrent requests), the
throughput increased.

As the number of HTTP/SOAP client requests increased, the CPU utilization increased.

3.3.1 HTTP/S

There are two important tuning considerations related to the HTTP client:
• HTTP/S Client Thread Pool
• Persistent Connection Manager (PCM)

HTTP/S Client Thread Pool

Thumb rule is to have the process tuned such that the HTTP Server and HTTP Client
should run with the same bit. The rate at which a request is produced by client follows
with the same rate at which the request gets consumed by server.

Each Request/Response activity that uses the HTTP protocol (for example, Send HTTP
Request or SOAP Request Reply) is associated with a unique thread pool. Each request
is executed in a separate thread, belonging to the thread pool associated with the
activity. The value of this property controls the size of the thread pool. The number of
threads in the pool determines the maximum number of concurrent requests a
request/response activity can execute. The default value of this property is 10.
The thread pool is created when the engine starts: therefore, be careful to set the value
of this property to a reasonable number for oner system. If one set the value too high, it
may result in extra resources being allocated that are never used.

Optimal thread pool count can be determined with a test and monitoring the test
Persistent Connection Manager

By default HTTP provides non-persistent connections. Persistent Connections Pool

(PCP) is a new important feature when the client makes a call to the same server very
frequently. The cost of the HTTP connection is deemed important, and state
management of the connection is very well understood. In TIBCO BusinessWorks 5.2,
the Send HTTP Request-Reply and SOAP/HTTP Request- Reply activities can now
share connections. HTTP (SOAP/HTTP) request-reply activity configuration is
enhanced to allow users to setup a pool of persistent HTTP connections with the server.
However, this feature should be used only after fully understanding implications of
using this feature. If persistent connections are chosen, it can improve performance
because instead of creating and destroying a connection for each job, a pool of reusable
shared persistent connections will be maintained.

Decision to use persistent vs. non-persistent connections

Persistent HTTP connections have a number of advantages:

• By opening and closing fewer TCP connections, CPU time is saved in routers and hosts
(clients, servers, proxies, gateways, tunnels, or caches), and memory used for TCP
protocol control blocks can be saved in hosts.

• Network congestion is reduced by reducing the number of packets caused by TCP

opens, and
by allowing TCP sufficient time to determine the congestion state of the network.
• Latency on subsequent requests is reduced since there is no time spent in TCP's
opening handshake.
• HTTP can evolve more gracefully, since errors can be reported without the penalty of
closing the
TCP connection.
The most important disadvantages of using persistent connections are:
• The HTTP (SOAP/HTTP) client may report exceptions that are not usually reported
using non-persistent connections.

• The HTTP server may end up receiving duplicate requests from the same client.
Usually, these issues occur when the client is not configured to check for stale
connections. For different reasons, the connections that are persisted may become stale.
When attempting to use a stale connection, the underlying HTTP client application may
fail, throwing an exception that may be propagated to the business process layer.

Best Practices for using persistent connections are as follows:

• The client should check the connections before using them. In TIBCO BusinessWorks
has the ability that checks for stale connections (see property
bw.plugin.http.client.checkForStaleConnections). When the underlying HTTP

application detects a stale connection, it closes it and gets another connection from the
pool. After three unsuccessful attempts to get a non-stale connection, the client fails,
throwing an exception. However, this option should be used with caution, since it
causes the overall performance to drop significantly, making the use of a non-persistent
connection a better choice.

• Open and close fewer TCP connections to save CPU time.

• Use persistent connections when making repeated connection to the same endpoint,
when a stale connection is not an issue, and when the server handles or supports
duplicate messages.

• When using HTTP over SSL, note that this adds overhead and that overall
request/response throughput may drop.

When the client cannot check for stale connections, it is very likely that the server
would receive duplicate messages. If one cannot rely on the client to detect the stale
connection, the next option is to make sure the server provides support for duplicate
message detection.

Flow Control in HTTP

HTTP Properties such as
FlowLimit, bw.plugin.http.server.maxProcessors, bw.plugin.http.server.minProcessors
etc are tuned to have control on the process flow leading to a good result.
Details about configuring Persistent Connection Manager are described in the section
Persistent Connections.”
Following important considerations apply to HTTP and SOAP over HTTP server:
• Configuremin Pr oces so r &maxP ro cess or as described in the configuration section.

• HTTP servers can be deployed in various load-balanced situations. However,

deploying multiple HTTP servers that listen on the same machine is not possible, since
the HTTP port is bound to a specific machine. Alternatives are available, such as
creating reverse proxy solution, but they are beyond the scope of this document.

• HTTP traffic that arrives from external sources should be evaluated carefully. Use of
content aware XML accelerators or routers such as Cisco® Application-Oriented
Networking (AON), Sarvega (now in INTEL), or Reactivity helps in determining the

3.3.2 SOAP

Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is a lightweight protocol for the exchange of
information between web services. Currently, the supported transports for SOAP are
HTTP and JMS. The performance characteristics of SOAP are closely tied to the
performance of the HTTP and JMS implementation in TIBCO BusinessWorks, and the
only way to load balance SOAP over HTTP is to include a Local Director for directing
requests to a set of configured engines.

Major influences of performance for SOAP are similar to the generic influences:

• Message Complexity. The more complex the process the greater impact on the parsing
(packing and unpacking) of the message as it travels through various stages of the
SOAP protocol.

•S ec ure d. The decision to use basic authentication will affect performance. This is
straightforward and the impact is easily measured.
• Load Balanced. The use of a local director to distribute incoming requests.

3.3.3 JMS

Recommendations for using Java Message Service (JMS) are as follows:

• Within TIBCO BusinessWorks 5.1.3 and prior versions, transport such as JMS can be
throttled by limiting the number of sessions. JMS doesn’t deliver more messages until
some of the sessions have been acknowledged.

• Within TIBCO BusinessWorks 5.2, significant improvements have been made to this
mechanism. New for this release is the combination of TIBCO Enterprise Message
Service features Explicit Acknowledge and FlowLimit. In this case, location of ack in
process makes no difference.

When using Client Ack, the JMS session cannot receive a new message until the
one is acknowledged.
• TIBCO BusinessWorks allows one to configure multiple sessions to receive messages

faster; and to set number of sessions higher than the number of engine threads.
• Acknowledge (confirm) messages as soon as possible to improve throughput.
• By holding Client ack to the end of the process, one will block that session. This

one will slow down the rate at which TIBCO BusinessWorks pulls messages from the
server, which will have to hold messages for a longer period of time.

• With TIBCO Enterprise Message Service Explicit Ack, a single session is used to
receive all messages. This mode allows for more efficient resource utilization, and
provides more even load distribution across multiple engines.
• The best way to increase performance beyond the capability of a single engine is to
distribute the load over multiple engines using a load-balanced transport such as JMS
Queue or TIBCO Rendezvous CMQ transport to distribute the work. External
mechanisms exist to allow HTTP to be used for this purpose also.

• must use a hardware/software load balancer to improve HTTP performance and load
• If possible, chooseNON _P ERSI ST ENT as the delivery mode in replying to a JMS
• Using JMS Queue Sender and the Wait For JMS Queue message instead of the

combined JMS Queue Requestor activity may improve throughput.

•S im ple andTe xt JMS message types have the lowest processing overhead.
• To design a long running process to fetch a message and process it, use Get JMS

message activity in a loop instead of Wait For JMS Queue message. In most cases, a
JMS starter will be sufficient in this scenario.

3.3.4 FTP

FTP activities that share the same host, port, username, and password within the same
process definition can now share the same session. The Quit (post-command) field
specifies that the command should close the session. Keeping the session open for all
activities can improve performance because there is significant overhead creating a
session for each activity.

3.3.5 JDBC

JDBC activity most frequently used data access activity that has a significant
performance implication. It is recommended to use certified, high performance JDBC
drivers or the recommended drivers available at BW.

A test can be done in-order to determine the Driver type giving a positive response. The
JDBC Query activity can now fetch batches of records at a time instead of retrieving the
entire result set. JDBC Update activity has been enhanced to allow multiple statements
to be executed.

Use Batching instead of Statement when possible (Better Latency)

A general rule of thumb is to initially set the maximum number of database connections
to slightly less than engine thread count. If there are not enough database connections
allocated, some jobs may be blocked waiting to free a connection. One should continue
to monitor the number of database connections using database tools. There are a few
tools that one should be familiar with: TIBCO trace tool, described in this paper, and
specific DB tools to monitor the overall number of database sessions.
3.3.6 Transactional Activities
Avoid Development Misuses
• Inefficient queries – sending SQL data that asks the database to do more work than

for example, tables without indexes.

• Excessive querying – efficient queries called too frequently.
• Large data sets – processing large sets of data inRe sult sS e ts .
• Procedure Over-riding is not allowed
• Define a time-out when execute a Block of SQL code

3.3.7 General Activities

3.4 Process and Activity Design Guidelines
3.4.1 Data and Caching
Data could be Static, SemiStatic, Dynamic, Shared at process run time.

Rule of thumb is not to use many Global variables(GV) as it stays in memory

in form of a tree and to retrieve the bind-ed value process has to traverse the tree. If the
unwanted GV are there the cost is incurred in traversing.

Static data
These data are typically kept as a local copy; TIBCO BusinessWorks hangs on to it in
memory. One
example is global variables implemented internally as the XML structure known as
$_globalVariables. Unused variables can increase the latencies, especially for repeat-
where iterator conditions XPATH formula contains Global Variables instead of
constants. Although the
cache has the MFU (Most Frequently Used) to LFU (Least Frequently Used) list of GV
for its use.
Near static data
• Keep a local copy, hang on to it in memory, and lazily check for updates.
Example: XML Documents (Name Value Pair)
Dynamic data
• Work on local data, cache carefully, and use optimistic locking.
• TimesTen is an in-memory database that can improve the performance of checkpoints
wait/notify activities.

• TIBCO® BusinessWorks Smart Mapper is another example which has been used
extensively in cross-referencing (1-1 or 1-n) data. It provides a data caching option
which simply removes any performance overhead of looking up data from the database.

The Java Global Instance shared configuration resource allows one to specify a Java
that can be shared across all process instances in JVM.

• Shared Java object (example : a shared variable which allowing to implement a wait
and gain nature of inter process communication) should be instantiated at engine startup
time and shared by all activities that access it.

• If an object can be shared across multiple process instances, instantiate shared data
once to improve performance and reduce overhead.
3.4.2 Checkpoints

The high volume applications which make a significant use of checkpoint have to be
continuously aware of the performance cost of writing data to the checkpoints. These
applications frequently need faster access to checkpoint data, replication of checkpoint
data between different systems for failover reason, and database server-failure
3.4.3 Grouping Activities
Signal-In and Group

Do NOT use Signal-in within a loop group to receive/process one message at a time. It
is ineffective because the signal-in’s internal queue is unbounded for out-of-band events
waiting to be matched up with a job key.

Local Only Field

The Notify Configuration has been enhanced with a Local Only field to allow an in-
notification when the Wait and Notify activities are performed on the same machine.
BusinessWorks Palette Reference, Chapter “General Activities Palette, the field Local
Only in Notify
Configuration for more information.
Call Process

Every time CP is called, input data including process instance data are
bounded to the sub- process input data structure. In most cases reference is made to
original entity; however, whenever data is mapped a copy of data is created. Keeping
this obvious cost in mind, the designer should always be mindful of use of CP and
continuously evaluate cost vs. CP modularization.

• Call Process (CP)

• Consider using “Spawn” CP for heavy asynchronous process (such as logging). This
will not decrease

response time (not CPU usage)

• Be aware of tradeoff between data binding cost vs. modularization
• CP should be frequently reusable sub-processes with reasonable complexity
• Use shared process variables to avoid data copying cost in CP
• Review use of large strings that requires manipulation
• Evaluate need for passing large strings especially between CPs
• Any changes within CPs will create a new copy
• Parse structure upfront
• Keep string reference out


• Use session caching

• Wait for Notify
• Do NOT use Wait for Notify within a loop group to receive/process one message at
a time.

• It is ineffective because the Wait for Notify’s internal queue is unbounded for out-of-
band events waiting to be

matched up with a job key.

• Notify Configuration (Local Only)
• Use Local Only field in Notify Configuration. Allow an in-memory notification when
the Wait and Notify

activities are performed on the same machine.

3.4.4 Testing BW Process Definitions

Each process has to be unit tested against a use case, followed with capture of the test
proofs. The
integration time test should be certified with minimal activity oriented logging.

TIBCO BusinessWorks provides a testing environment for stepping through oner

process models and determining the sources of errors. Entering the testing environment
starts a TIBCO BusinessWorks engine. The engine starts process instances based on the
process definitions stored in oner project. One can select one of the running process
instances to display in the design panel, and the currently executing activity is
highlighted as the process instance runs.

In general, testing should be done during the design and development phase of a
project. testing a deployed project is possible, but might be difficult depending upon the
volume of the workload of the system. Also, testing usually involves setting
breakpoints in the process model to stop the running process instances at desired points.
This is not possible in a production environment, so one may want to use a
development system for testing purposes.

Testing a process definition typically involves these steps:

Select the process definition one wish to test in the project panel.
Set breakpoints in the process definition at points where one wish to stop a running
process and examine its

If the process begins with a Start activity and the Start activity has a schema defined,
one can supply input data
to the process before executing it.

Click the Tester tab on the left of the project panel. The project panel becomes the test
panel. From the test panel one can start process instances or load more process
definitions. See Process Instances During testing for more information about process
instances in the test panel.
Examine the data of the process by selecting any of the activities in the process. The
current state of the
process data is displayed on the Process Data tab of each activity.
Use the toolbar buttons (Pausetes ti ng, Step to Next Activity, and so on) in the test
panel to either continue
through the process instance or to stop the current process instance.
Once inte s ti ng mode, changes to oner process definitions are not reflected in the
running process instances.
Return to design mode before changing process definitions.

3.4.5 Tracing in BW

Tracing activity needed in order to manage and monitor a deployment. View the status
of components and generate tracing information. Start and stop process engines and
adapters. Use of Custom Activity, Use of Logging i.e. system log and application log,
configuring a hawk micro agent on the logs. Write a custom micro agent to monitor
specific scenarios. Define Break points at design time and Test. TIBCO Administrator
GUI allows monitoring of the running project at different levels of detail, and can
collect tracing information for later analysis.

For the example discussed in this manual, the process engine could perform these tasks:
Receive data from an application server via JMS, data from a PeopleSoft Order
Management System via the

appropriate adapter, and data from a shipping service via SOAP.

Enter data into a PeopleSoft Order Management system and data into a Siebel customer
service system via the
appropriate adapters.
Send certain orders out for credit approval and receive approval or refusal.

All components are monitored and managed by way of TIBCO Administrator, which
also provides security and
repository management. Users can access TIBCO Administrator using the TIBCO
Administrator GUI.

Specify tracing information if desired. TIBCO Designer allows one to specify simple
tracing to a file or standard out using the configuration panel directly. One can also
specify advanced tracing, such as tracing to a network sink.

3.5 Message, Payload and Schema Guidelines

There is no specific guide line but the criteria such as Size of Message or payload size
becomes a
performance factor. The general guidelines are as follows:
• Be aware of performance cost of message; keep message size as small as possible
• If one are using binary or large document, consider using file reference

• If oner scenario includes a large memory space occupied by a variable defined in the
process, such as activity#1 (a variable that reads in a very big XML file), plan to release
memory right after the process instance completes:
Enable MemorySavingMode=True

This parameter significantly improves memory footprint for processes that manipulate a
large amount of data for a small part of their lifetime. This TIBCO BusinessWorks
property allows the engine to release references to unused process data so that it can be
garbage collected by the JVM, thus improving the performance of processes with large
amounts of data.

• Keep XML Structure and schema complexity as simple as possible

• Review use of large string that requires manipulation

• Any changes within CPs will create a new copy
• Parse structure upfront
• Keep string references out

• Avoid or re-architect XML schema with XML elements that contain nested elements
of nested elements. Many Open Applications Group Business Object Documents (OAG
BODs) have these issues.

3.5.1 Data Representation Guidelines for Tibco Rv and JMS

While using JMS as a transport for TIBCO BusinessWorks, the following matrix
should be considered as very high-level performance guidelines. Use these as a general
rules, but one should certainly experiment with different options especially in the high
throughput environment:

Table 1. Comparing Performance of Different Data Types

3.5.2 TIBCO Business Works Mapper Performance

TIBCO BusinessWorks 5.x provides a full-featured XSLT editor. Although TIBCO

BusinessWorks mapper provides greater flexibility, granularity and support for XSLT
2.0 features (such as for-each- group), it is important to keep in mind that improper use
of drag-and-drop may end up creating inefficient XSLT.

Many TIBCO BusinessWorks mapper performance issues arise from this inefficient
XSLT. Proper
understanding of mapper and code optimization may be necessary for the best
In general, users should pay attention to following guidelines:

• UseM ap per (startup time parse) instead of Transform XML activity wherever
possible for better performance. Be aware that the Transform XML activity invokes
XSL parser at the runtime and hence it may add performance overhead every time a
process runs.Map pe r on other hand dynamically loads definitions and evaluates at
input document and mapping rules at the runtime. However, there are some cases
appropriate for using theTr a nsfor m

XMLactivity, such as input and style sheets being different every time Transform
activity is invoked.
• Usetib :r en der- xml function instead of Render XML if one are not modifying XML
• Think of the process or source data as an XML tree.
• Note that large data sets (1000s of records) take time to traverse.

• Note that XPath expressions are evaluated to take one to a specific element (node) or

group of nodes.
• Don’t let the same expression get evaluated many times (especially if the data is
• Use variables and evaluate them only once.

• Because of XML tree traversing, always use the "iteration element" in a loop if there
more than a small number of records.
This section will focus on providing a better design practices for an improved
performance using
TIBCO BusinessWorks.

3.6 Processing Large Sets of Data

Common uses of a TIBCO BusinessWorks process are to retrieve a large set of data (for
example, a JDBC result set) and then process it through a series of activities. Care
should be exercised to limit this data to a manageable “chunk” before processing.

It is important to note that the default behavior of the JDBC query activity, and other
activities such as parse data or parse XML, is to parse/retrieve the entire result into
memory for downstream processing. This has two effects on performance:

•Mem o r y Large parsed objects can consume considerable memory very quickly,
therefore allowing an
unspecified number of records to be retrieved at once can cause memory usage

• Indexing of records If oner data has a large number of repeated records/elements and one
plan to iterate through them, performance will degrade in a non-linear (quadratic)
fashion as the number of records grows. This is due to the increased lookup time as the
data “tree” is traversed from the start

record/element to the current node being processed. This effect can be amplified by
referencing that
node many places in mapping/binding activities. The use of variables can minimize this
The solution to both of these problems is to retrieve the data in smaller sets/chunks and
use a group to iterate through the entire set. The way to do this varies based on the input
data source, but a couple of common inputs are results of Parse Data and JDBC Query

For the parse data activity, one can easily configure it to retrieve a set number of
records and process them before retrieving more. One feature of the parse data activity
is that it does not buffer the whole file from the disk. Therefore, one can use it to
process extremely large (1G +) files with a controlled amount of memory usage.

For the JDBC query activity, it is possible to retrieve the results in chunks by using
more selective SQL and surrounding the JDBC query activity with an iterate group. For
example, if the table holds 100K rows and one retrieve 1K at a time and iterate 100
times, the total processing time will be significantly less than retrieving all 100K rows
at once. Some experimentation can be used to optimize the size of the chunk depending
on the type of data and processing required.

3.6.1 Iterating Through Large Sets of Data Using a Mapper Activity

Mapping technology in TIBCO BusinessWorks (XSLT) has mechanisms for iteration

and looping,
which makes it possible to iterate through data within the mapper using the statementx
sl:f or -eac h or
xsl:for-each-groupinstead of using a group around the mapper. This obviously does not
apply if
multiple activities must execute within each iteration.
If the mapper is the sole activity, it is much more efficient to use the mapper and
utilizex s l:f or -
each, instead of placing the mapper in a group and using the “accumulate output”
feature of the
Use of Variables

One of the single most important optimizations in the mapping activity and any activity
that transforms data is the use of variables. The mapper activity retrieves data at
runtime by evaluating XPath expressions and traversing the input tree to access the
matching data. If the tree is large and the mappings define many lookups of related or
identical data, using variables to store that data can improve performance significantly.

An example is a large number of records in an input tree that are processed one at a
The XPath for one output value in the mapper (contained in an iteration group) might
look like the

If this expression is repeated many times for multiple fields, it will be more efficient to
create a variable at the top of the mapper input pane (and generated XSLT) that
evaluates the repeated portion of the XPath ($JDBC-Query/resultSet/Record[$index])
and then use the variable as part of all subsequent XPath expressions, such as:
$var1/field1 $var1/field2 $var1/field3

The benefits of using variables within the mapper will vary depending on how large the
data is, how complex the expression is, and how many times it is repeated. The mapper
GUI makes this easy to use. Using the mapper GUI, once one create the variable in the
input pane, one will see it on the left side with the appropriate schema representation to
allow drag-and-drop mapping.

In TIBCO BusinessWorks 5.2, one can store the current iteration element in a process
variable for
faster access during iterations.

3.6.2 Sorting and Grouping Data

A common mapping requirement that can result in very inefficient XSLT is to sort or
group a list-style output by a value of some data in the input data. For example, one
may need to create a list from an input list where every item that has a unique value gets
created on the output, but duplicates are dropped. Or one may create a list in which
every item that has a matchingi te mTyp e gets grouped on the output.

One way to do this is use the preceding-sibling axis to check all of the previously
processed items for a specific value before processing the current item. This obviously
gets progressively slower as the number of items grows.

The solution is to usef or- ea ch-g ro up, an XSLT 2.0 statement that is supported in
TIBCO BusinessWorks 5.1.2 and later. “Converting a List into a Grouped List.” Is a
feature that can achieve dramatic performance improvements for these use cases.

3.6.3 Large Document/Record Use Cases

One may receive large documents or messages with the SOAP, HTTP, or Mail process
starters. Large
documents or messages can consume considerable memory and may degrade the
performance of
oner system. One can specify a threshold size for incoming large documents and
messages so that
items that exceed the threshold are written to disk instead of stored in memory.

Once the large document or message is written to disk, one can use the Read File
activity to obtain
the contents of the file, if necessary of course a large IO is associated.
Process Large Incoming documents
• SOAP, HTTP, Email: Use option process starter streaming option
• Later read it using File Reader Data Parse
3.6.4 SOA Best Practices
These are the best practices for working with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA):

BW 5.X supports design where a service and the Implementation of service

(BW process) are having isolation. BW gives flexibility to derive to process skeletons
framework (no implementation) out of a third party WSDL (Port, Message, Service)
and also in a reversed way WSDL can be generated out of a plain process definition
and can be exposed as service with the use of the generated WSDL.

• Eliminate frequently repeated XML tags and elements

• Consider async invocation style
• Use synchronous or fine-grained invocation for a frequent back-and-forth
Communication between nodes

• Keep in mind that exception handling and document passing requirements will
increase, such as

Universal Application Network (UAN)

• Carefully consider pros and cons of

- Compressing technique (binary compression such as Gzip)
- Reducing overly frequent validation

• Investigate parsing technology

- Pull parser (XPP3), hardware based solutions (Cisco AON, Sarvega, Reactivity)
• Reduce overly chatty protocol uses, such as WS-Discovery
4 Configurations
4.1 Configuring Persistent Connections

Persistent connections are created for each HTTP server that Send HTTP Request
activities in process instances communicate with. Each HTTP Client holds a persistent
connection until the HTTP server sends the response message. The connection is then
released by the client and returned to the pool.

It is possible specify the maximum number of connections to create in the persistent

connection pool, and It is also possible to specify the maximum number of persistent
connections for each HTTP server. Connections for each HTTP server are created in the
pool until the maximum is reached.

When a Send HTTP Request activity requires a connection, the pool is searched for a
connection that corresponds to the HTTP server. If a corresponding unused connection
is found, it is used. If no connection is found to a corresponding HTTP server, a new
connection is created if the maximum pool size has not been reached. If the maximum
number of connections for that particular server has been reached, the request must wait
for a connection to be released before using it.


This property specifies that a pool of HTTP connections to each HTTP server should be
created so that connections can be reused by Send HTTP Request activities. Not all
HTTP servers support persistent connections. Refer to oner HTTP server
documentation for more information about support for persistent connections.
When this property is set to true, a pool of connections is created for each HTTP server
that the HTTP (SOAP/HTTP) Request-Reply activities connect to. The total number of
connections in the pool is limited by thebw .pl ug in.h tt p.clie nt .max To talC on n ec ti
ons property. The number of connections for each host is limited by thebw .p lugi n. htt
p .c lient. ma xCon ne ctio ns PerHos t property.

The default value of this property is false.

The value of this property is ignored unless the
bw.plugin.http.client.usePersistentConnectionManagerproperty is set to true. This
property specifies the maximum number of persistent connections to each remote
HTTP server.
The default value for this property is 20.

The value of this property is ignored unless the

bw.plugin.http.client.usePersistentConnectionManager property is set to true. This
property specifies the maximum number of persistent connections to create for all
HTTP servers.

The default value for this property is 200.


The value of this property is ignored unless the

bw.plugin.http.client.usePersistentConnectionManager property is set to true. When
using persistent connections, a connection can become stale. When this property is set
to true, a persistent connection is checked to determine if it is stale before it is used by
an HTTP (SOAP/HTTP) Request-Reply activity. Checking for stale connections adds
significant processing overhead, but it does improve reliability.

The default value for this property is false.


The HTTP (SOAP/HTTP) client uses a thread pool for sending the HTTP messages.
Each HTTP request is sent out in a separate thread in order to not keep the engine’s
thread blocked while waiting for the response message. These threads are taken from a
thread pool. Each HTTP (SOAP/HTTP) Request-Reply activity has its own thread pool.
The thread pool’s size can be configured using this property.

The default value for this property is 10.

There are several public domain connection manager tools available to monitor
progress of the connections. TIBCO Software recommends that during performance
testing one monitor progress of connection using one of these tools.

Configuration Considerations for Non-Persistent Connections

Many operating systems by default are tuned for the limited numbers ofU se rPor t
parameters. Generally, this parameter corresponds to the number of sockets open at a
time. For example, on Windows,Max Us erPo rt specifies the ephemeral port numbers
(by default, Windows allows 1024- 5000).

Another important parameter isTc pWaite dT imeD el ay, which is normally set to 30
seconds. This parameter determines the length of time that a connection stays in theT I
ME _W AIT state when being closed. While a connection is in theT IME _W AIT
state, the socket pair cannot be reused. This is also known as the 2MSL state because
the value should be twice the maximum segment lifetime on the network.

For scenarios where an HTTP server is using non-persistent connections (such as a Web
server prior to HTTP 1.1 or HTTP 1.1 without the HTTP Persistent support), tuning
should be very carefully understood on the Windows platform.

For example, on Windows 2000, the following two parameters should be carefully
Key: Tcpip\Parameters
Value Type: REG_DWORD-maximum port number
Valid Range: 5000-65534 (decimal)
Default: 0x1388 (5000 decimal)

This parameter controls the maximum port number used when an application requests
any available user port from the system. Normally, short-lived ports are allocated in the
range from 1024 through 5000. Setting this parameter to a value outside of the valid
range causes the nearest valid value to be used (5000 or 65534).

Key: Tcpip\Parameters

Value Type: REG_DWORD-time in seconds

Valid Range: 30-300 (decimal)
Default: 0xF0 (240 decimal)

This parameter determines the length of time that a connection stays in theT I ME_WA
IT state when being closed. While a connection is in theTI ME_WAI T state, the socket
pair cannot be reused. This is also known as the 2MSL state because the value should
be twice the maximum segment lifetime on the network. See RFC 793 for further

Please note that other operating systems may have similar limiting parameters. Hence,
one should
consider tuning those parameters when similar limitations are encountered.

4.2 Configuring HTTP/JMS Servers

In some situations, one may wish to alter the configuration of the HTTP server that
receives incoming HTTP
requests for TIBCO BusinessWorks.
Properties suchasb w . p lu g i n .h t t p .s e r v er . m i nP r o c es s o r s andbw . p l ug
i n . ht t p . se r v e r. m a x Pr o c e ss o r s
can beconfigured to handle the incoming HTTP requests. Increasing or reducing the
processor count may

lead to performance related problems and so can be optimized with number of tests.
The existing hardware, processor and memory should also be considered while defining
the above properties. A connection refuse might happen if the resource available for a
incoming request.

To change these values, add the appropriate property to theb we ng in e. tr a file.

When one deploy oner project using TIBCO Administrator, these properties will
automatically become part of the deployment configuration.

4.3 Enabling SSL Configurations via BW

SSL can be implemented into a transport with JMS, HTTP, RV, SOAP, FTP, Adapter
and also at process level. The designer is equipped with the tool to import the certificate
and Identity and makes it available at run time to prevent connections from
unauthorized users and connect to a authentic System.

How ever Passing a User name , password or importing a identity or the certificate
controls unauthorized

5 Global Variables

Global Variables and Grouping of GV

Global variables are used within the deployment process to maintain environment
specific values. Initially, this will include values such as port number and subject name
but may be expanded based on the project requirements, such as database or mainframe
connectivity information. Having different port numbers and subject names based on
the environment ensures that messages from a project in one environment are not
inadvertently picked up by same project in another environment. All the global
variables are listed in the bwengine.tra or “processengine.tra" file, there is one central
place onecan take a look at the configuration parameters and hence can be easily

Issues: We strongly recommend that one define a well-defined naming & usage
convention for Global Variable
across oner project(s). One must take following issues under consideration before
designing “Global Variable”
naming convention.
1. Once global variable is set into the repository it is loaded when business process
engine is loaded. Currently
BW doesn’t provide any facility to modify “global variables”, once process engine has
been started.
2. Location Independence/Dependence: Special care must be given to certain
parameters such as RV Subjects, RVCM ledger file, and HTTP Port. These parameters
may have dependency with migration environment or machine.

3. Deployment doesn’t allow “Global Variable” substitution yet.

4. Grouping Related GV is easy from Deployment and maintenance aspect of a process.
Process Variables

Though this concept is not available out of box, the utility function introduced with
“BWTemplate” provides a mechanism to specify process specific variables. This
service provides a mechanism to read process-specific properties into memory at
initialization time and these properties can then be used through out the process using x-
path functions. Two properties named PTY_LogLevel and PTY_PublishLogLevel are
crucial in defining the way logging is done using the Logging service and these
properties are initialized from the property file or default to global variables if they are
not defined within the property file. For more details please see TIBCO BusinessWorks
Common Utility Services(1)

5.1 Grouping & Sub-grouping Rules

Grouping Related GV is easy from Deployment and maintenance aspect of a process.

Choose the repeating element in the Activity Input schema that holds the grouped
data.F or - Ea c h- Gr o up is a shortcut to create a For-Each-Group statement with the
repeating element as a child element and a Grouping statement to contain the element
you wish to group-by.

Adding the Grouping statement creates the $=current-group() element in the Process
Data area. The Grouping statement creates the list grouped by the desired element, and
the current-group() function allows you to access the items in the Requests repeating
element that correspond to the group that is currently being processed.

In a reverse excersise if a repeating element is coming and the index is known then the
element at a particular
index of the repeating element can be determined using the xpath.

5.2 Naming Conventions

Any BW related projects should carefully define global variables for the projects.
Generally we recommend that one categorize them and use naming convention
accordingly. Naming convention should consist of prefix, which provides a category,
and suffix, which conveys meaning of variable.

Naming Conventions for Prefix Element

The configuration parameters used inside our BPs for connectivity to external
applications changes frequently. They change when the development hands over the
BPs to QA for testing or when QA decides to move from one system to another or even
when the developers decide to move from one system to another for end-to-end testing.
Category Prefix Comments
Migration Variables MIG_ These variables, which changes from one environment to
another (DEV, STAGE,
PROD) such as ENV, username, connection string in some cases. Themigration script
can simply look at any
global variable starting MIG_ and provide property file corresponding to environment.
Global Across Projects
GLB_ These variables are global across the project and don’t vary from one migration
environment to other.
They are typically used in processes.
Deployment/Config uration Specific Variables
CFG_ These variables are global across the project and don’t vary from one migration
environment to other.
They are typically used in adapter configuration and deployment.
Process LevelProperty

PTY_ Though these are not strictly “Global Variables”, it can be set as Global
Variable and can be managed as property associated with a specific process. This
allows finer granularity at “Process Level” Naming Convention for Suffix Element
Global variable should have unique names.

Use leading upper case for resources (e.g. ProductNameType) including first letter

The name should not have spaces

First letter must be “Alphabetical” and “Upper Case” Only.
By default all name should follow: <Prefix><Free Form><Suffix><ResourceType>

If following table contains required field and if resource context information is

available, developer should use this fields. For example, if [Source] [Target] is
required, and only [Source] is available, developer should [Source] in respective area.

[Source] and [Target] can be “Application Name” such as ERP or CRM. It can also be
transport such as “JMS” or “RV”. However, transport name should only be used if
Application detail is not available.

The name should describe the functionality of the component.

Valid <ResourceType> are starter, main, validation, transform

The name should uniquely identify the project in the domain

The first letter of each word in the project should be capitalized.
The purpose of this “File System” structure is to provide a uniform referencable
external resource location such as property, log, input/output data, static maps,
schemas, unit test, and message correction file locations.

6 Logging
6.1 Logging Rules

Application Specific success or failure should be logged

System Specific startup shutdown error should be logged

Process Specific log for each instance

Obey the format of logging.

No Extensive logging as it hinders performance
1.0 Logging Parameters Details, frequency etc.

Logging need to cover Application Process Name, Time Stamp of Logging, Stack
Trace, Activity, in-bound data, out-bound data, failure code, failure description,
success code & description etc. Each Major Activity, a group of activity should be
precede and followed with a log.

If the in-bound data, out-bound data which is very high then a smaller portion of that
can be
logged as a high I/O is always associated with logging.
Logging for Third-Party Components

TIBCO BusinessWorks can use a variety of third-party components. For example, the
Apache Tomcat server is used to accept incoming HTTP or SOAP requests or the
Arjuna Transaction Service can be used as a transaction manager. Many third-party
components can use the standard log4j logging services. TIBCO BusinessWorks
provides the bw/<relNum>/lib/ file to allow one to configure logging
services for third-party components. The properties defined in
bw/<relNum>/lib/ are required by the components used by TIBCO
BusinessWorks. The supplied file has comments describing property
usage. One can alter the properties in this file, if one wish to configure logging for oner
environment. Do not remove any required properties from this file. It is a good idea to
create a backup copy of the file before altering it. This allows one to
return to the original configuration if oner changes result in errors.

There can be only one file per Java VM. If one wish to use properties
from a different file, one can either add the properties to
bw/<relNum>/lib/ or one can alter the bwengine.tra file to point to the
location of oner own file. If one use oner own file, one
must include all of the required properties from the file supplied with TIBCO
BusinessWorks in oner file.

7. Utility Services
These covers the most granular processes and utilised/referenced from main business
Example : a common query interface getting used at different business processes within
a project
8. Exception, Audit & Debug

The errors or fault can be categorized into mainly Internal Exceptions, System
Exceptions, Business Exceptions ,Components Exceptions. Each exception is
maintained with a code and description in XML flat file or in Database. The Exception ,
the process id causing the exception, time stamp of exception generated can be well
traced and monitored. A utility service can be designed to report the errors(system,
application, activity, component related ) or exceptions to an audit interface which
usually mails and stores the details from which an Audit report can be generated. The
fault messages can be audited and the message can be remediated based on the
requirement further.

Hawk and micro agents can well monitor the Process and the Logs generated to report
the exception
in form of a mail, alert or it can restart a failed job