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Contents.

.Pom r^^pj:/?«/jr

Version t'roiH5?a.'tg«j( Yr^vy-Ht H'Jctti^o
Translator J. W.
Place

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3?

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in

V

BY THK SAME AUTHOR.
I.

Royal

1

Smo. in Cloth, Price Two Shillings and Sixpence,

MISERICORDIA:
REGARDED ESPECIALLY
CONTEMPLATIONS ON THE MERCY OF GOD IN ITS ASPECTS ON THE YOUNG.
:

" An admirable work. Whoever wishes for devotional reading of the best sort, will not be disappointed if he procures this volume. It is sound and clear in doctrine, rich in feeling, impressive and argumentative, and full both of admonition and encouragement."

Watchmax.
most
impressive and edifying view of the mercy of God A and stirring appeal to young people, on their immediate submission to that mercy A most appropriate present to
'*

An

effective

especially to those of education. It is eloquent, argumentative, and affectionate and, in many places, reminds one of the energy and unction of Baxter's practical treatises." Wesleyan;

young persons,

Methodist Magazine.
II.

Royal

]

8?wo. in

Cambric, Price Three Shillings,

HOR^ ARAMAIC^].
CONTENTS.
brews.
II. Aramaic, as adopted by the HeIV. Study of the Language the Aramaic. Bibhography. V. The Old Testament in Aramaic. VI. The Targums. VII. Aramean Versions of the New Testament The IX. The Peschito, or old VIII. The Hierosolymitan. Philoxenian. Syriac Its Antiquity. X. Its Relation to the Greek Text. XI. Its XII. Critical Uses. Relation to some other Versions. XIII. SupI.

Shemetic Languages.
III. Dialects of

:

:

:

XIV. Editions of the Peschito. plements to the SjTiac Canon. XVI. Translations XV. The Karkaphensian Version. St. Matthew's Gospel, and the Epistle to the Hebrews.
:

" Destine a faciliter V etude de la langue Syriaque."

— Journal

AsiATiauE DE Paris.

LONDON: LONGMAN AND

CO.

Preparing for Publication,

BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

I.

THE APOSTOLICAL ACTS AND
FROM THE PESCHITO.

1

PISTLES.

II.

THE ONE MEDIATOR.
THE SUBSTANCE OF TWELVE SACRAMENTAL DISCOURSES
AT BOULOGNE-SUR-MER.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES:

EARLY

HISTORY, LITURGIES, AND

LITERATURE.

A LITERAL TRANSLATION
OF

THE FOUR GOSPELS,
FROM THE PESCHITO,

CANON OF HOLY SCRIPTURE IN USE AMONG THE ORIENTAL CHRISTIANS FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES.

BY

J.

W. ETHERIDGE, M.A.,
PARIS.

DOCTOK IN PHILOSOPHY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF HBIDELBBRG,

AND MEMBER OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF

LONDON:
LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, AND LONGMANS.
MDCCCXLVI.

LONDON
PRINTED BY JAMES NICHOLS,
HOXTON-SQUARE.

TO THE READER.

It did not occur to

me

till

the following sheets

had been committed to the
translation of the Gospels

press, that the present

may possibly be considered an attempt to impugn the excelShould lence of our authorized English version. such be the case, I would hereby earnestly disclaim any intention of the kind. My sole wish has been to offer in our own language an accurate representation of the evangelic canon, as read from the priThe meval days by the Christians of the East.
in

some quarters

as

invaluable

Enghsh

version in ordinary use

among us

having been made from the Greek, and the foEowing translation from a text extant in a tongue
altogether different,

a

comparison like that

now

deprecated can only be instituted by a departure

from the

common

principles of reason

and equity.

At the same time

I would suggest, that a colla-

tion of the one text with the other, for the purpose

of ascertaining the verbal sameness or disagreement
of the gospel testimony as given
so perfectly impartial

by two witnesses and independent, will form a profitable study to the Christian, and impart a profound conviction of the immutable integrity of the New-Testament record. I have retained the titles of the sections for public reading, merely as illustrative of some points
referred to in the preceding sketches of the Syrian

communions.

On

every other account they would

A 2

IV

TO THE RKADER.

have been omitted; not only because^ in certain instances, they betray a relationship to superstitions which are unworthy of the Christian name, but because they interfere with the continuity of the sacred discourse, and in some minds may tend to

weaken

the

perception

of

that

divine

authority

which reigns alone, and for ever, through the entire compass of the inspired writings.

London,
Septembe7% 1846.

CONTENTS.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Page.

Introduction The Hebrew-Christian Church of Jerusalem Traditions of early oriental Missionaries
The Syrian Chronicle The Edessene Tables
Ebed Jesu of Soba Elias of Damascus
of

1

2
12
15
K;
ib.
ib.

Bar Hebraeus

Sophronius of Jerusalem

ib.
ib.

The Syrian Canons

Antioch Edessa

20
,

..'.

35
44
54
ib.

Seleucia and Ctesiphon

The ?sestorians
1

Origin of their doctrinal Error
Nestorius

2.

3.
4.

Doctrine of the Incarnation
Controversy,

Council of Ephesus

5.
6.

Progress of the Schism

55 58 66 68 72 73 80 89
ib

Nestorianism takes a Church-status
External Vicissitudes

7.
8.
9.

Missionary Zeal of the Nestorians
Doctrine and Discipline
(1.)

Rule of Faith
Sacraments Orders

(2.) Doctrine
(3.)

92 95
101

(4.) Ministerial
(5.) (6.)

Monastic Institutions

106
100 112 116
117
121

Churches and Service
Calendar

(7.) Ecclesiastical
(8.) Fasts

(9.) Schools
10.

Decadence

VI

CONTENTS.
Page.

The Jacobites The SYRrAN Christians

ISf)

of India
^

16(1

Country of the Indo-Syrians
Their Places of Worship Their Estimation of the Peschito
Their Clergy

164

165
16(1

168 169

Their Worship

The Maronites
Liturgies of the Jacobites and Maronites

172
188

The Syrian Liturgy of St. James Anaphora or the holy Apostle, Mar Brother of our Lord

198

Jacob,

the
201

Liturgies of the Nestorians 217 Liturgy of the holy Apostles, or the Order
OF the Sacrament
221

Syrian ecclesiastical Literature Conspectus of Syrian Authors Writers whose Times may First Class
Second Class.

237 239
be determined
.

ib.

—Authors of uncertain Dates
Translations

260
262

Third Class

THE FOUR GOSPELS.
The Holy Gospel: the Preaching of Mathai the
Apostle
271
:

The holy Gospel
Evangelist

the Preaching of Markos the
347
:

The holy Gospel
Evangelist

the Preaching of Lukos the
394
:

The holy Gospel
the Preacher

the Preaching of Juchanon
476

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
In a former .publication,* along with a translation of

some parts of the Syriac New Testament,
an
account of the
several

I

submitted
scripture

versions

of

holy

extant in that language.

This consisted

of successive
that, namely,

notices of the Old Testament in
in the possession of the Syrians,

Aramean,
versions

and the various Targuras
of the

of

the

Hebrew synagogue
more

;

the

New

Testament, the Philoxenian, Jerusalem, and Karkaphensian
;

and,

largely, the Peschito, or *'old Syriac ;"

in illustration of its great

antiquity

;

its

relation to the
;

original

Greek,

and to certain oriental versions
it

the

critical uses to

which

may

be applied, and the different
its

editions of

it

which have been printed since

introduction

into Europe.

Encouraged by the kind reception given to that work,
I

have ventured to present to the consideration of the

biblical reader

an entire translation of the holy Gospels
;

from the same venerable text

a

text which,

among

various ancient Christian communities dispersed through

the vast regions of the East, from Palestine to China, for
a

long train of centuries, has been regarded with an

unchangeable reverence as their
divine records,

common
own

standard of the
itself to

and which has commended

the

highest esteem of the learned in our
ful

day, as a faithirre-

index of apostolic inspiration, an interesting and
witness
of the

cusable

uncorrupted integrity

of

the

Christian scriptures, and a most useful aid to the profit*

" Horae Aramaicae

:

comprising concise Notices of the Aramean

Dialects in general, and of the Versions of holy Scripture extant in

them," &c. &c.

London, Simpkin and Marshall, 1843.

B

2

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
But
in doing this
it

able study of them.
ble,

seemed

desira-

for the convenience of

been directed to

any whose reading has not such subjects, to convey at the same
and
this, to

time a general idea of the history and leading characteristics

of those oriental churches themselves

;

the extent which our restricted limits will allow, will be

attempted in the following pages.

THE HEBREW-CHRISTIAN CHURCH OF JERUSALEM.
Although
the ecclesiastical bodies which for

many
must

centuries have nominally represented (in reality misrepre-

sented) Christianity in the metropolis of Palestine

not be classed

among

the churches which we proceed to

enumerate, yet the Hebrew-Christian society that subsisted
in

Jerusalem in the apostolic and subsequent age
retrospections,

may

claim an interest in our

not indeed as

belonging, strictly speaki ug', to those which have held the

Peschito as their standard scripture-text, but in conse-

quence of

its

aflSnity

to

them

in

language,

and some

peculiar customs, and as having been, in the phrase of

them all." body ecclesiastical, at that memorabegins at the epoch of the Pentecost ble day, when (as at the first creation the breath of the
the sacred writer, "the mother of

The history of

this

community,

as a

;

Deity gave a soul to the frame of
the Spirit of

man

already organized)

God descended

to

inform with the principle

and
the

faculties of spiritual life that mystical

personal ministry of Christ
*'

body to which had recently given a
with the Holy Ghost

being.

And

they were

all filled

and they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers. And fear came upon every soul and many wonders and
;

signs were done

by the

apostles.

And

all

that believed

THE SYRIAX CHURCHES.
were together, and had
all

3

things

possessions and goods, and parted

common, and sold their them to all, as every

man had

need."

This consecration of their property for the
benefit resulted

common
;

from

their desire to obey, to the letter,
all

the counsel of the Saviour, to forsake

and follow him

from their unhesitating
ciple of unitive love

faith in his premonitions of the

impending ruin of Jerusalem,
the hearts of true believers.

as well as

from that prin-

with which the Divine Spirit imbues
daily with one accord in the

" And they continuing
their

temple, and breaking bread from house to house, did eat

meat with gladness and singleness of
favour with
all

heart, praising

God and having
Lord added
saved."
signs
to

the people.

And

the

the church daily (rouj

(TM^ofjisvoitg)

the

"And by

the hands of the apostles were
;

many

and more added to the Lord, multitudes both of men and women and a great company of the priests -^-ere obedient to the faith and the multitude of them that believed were of one heart and of one soul." * This early time of Christianity was thus like the sunrise of a morning without clouds and the minds of men,
believers were the
; ;
;

and wonders wrought among the people

brought under a benign influence so new to our earth,
partook at once of a serene cheerfulness, a God-like love,

and a holy
first
is

joy,

which symbolized with the

spirit

of the

Paradise,

and antedated the blessedness of that which
under any cii'cum stances,
in an
is

to

come.
life-time here,
a

But our
probation.

The
test
;

faith of these first believers

was speedily

put to the

and the holy Stephen,

agony of

compassion for his murderers, and of triumphant joy in
the Saviour he confessed and adored, led the van of the

martyrs.
*

Acts

i

vi.

B 2

4

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Of
the varied experiences
of this,

or

of
it

the

other

churches to be brought under our review,

does not

comport with the object of these brief notices
a Ciironological detail
:

to attempt

for these

we must

refer to the

voluminous labours of the
to point out here

ecclesiastical annalists, content

the principal events in the history of

these communities, which appear to have acted with the
strongest force on their progress, character, and fate.
It is

commonly thought,

that about the same time as

that of the election of the seven deacons at Jerusalem,*
St.

He

James was established the first bishop of that church. is sometimes called " the brother of our Lord, " in
title

accordance with the Jewislx custom of giving the
of brother to a relative or connexion
;

James being the

son of Alphaeus and of Maria, the near relative of the
blessed Virgin.
title

His long-tried rectitude procured him the
Just
;

of

" the

"

and

his

habitual

and fervent
or
**

intercessions
fortress

for

the people,

that

of Ophlia,

the

of God."

He

superintended the
It

affairs

of the

church for nearly thirty years.
called the council of Jerusalem,

was in the early part

of his episcopate that the deliberative assembly, sometimes

was held on the question
% when,

of a

strict

uniformity of
Gentile

ceremonial practice between
believers
;

the

Hebrew and

under the

express teaching of the

Holy

Spirit,

the apostles and

presbyters

convened pronounced such an uniformity to
In the practice of the church of Jeru-

be unnecessary.

salem there obtained for a considerable time a modified
* Circa

Annum
ii.

31.

Acts

vi.

Conf.

Euseb. Chron.
the apostle,

an. 34.

Ibid.

Eccl. Hist.
-f-

1.

He must

not be confounded with

James

surnamed the

who was the son of Zebedee and Salome, and brother of St. John, and who was martyred under Herod in 42 or 44. Constit. Apost. ii. c. 55; vi. 12; Conf. Euseb. E. H. ii. 23, et 32. (Lab BE I Cone. torn. 1.) Hier. Catal. Vir. Illustr. vii. 47. Epiphan. ceres. 78.
Greater, or Elder,

H

X Acts XV.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Judaism
fices
:

5 retained
;

tlie rite

of circumcision was

still

the

temple hours of prayer were attended, though the
at the altar

sacri-

were no longer regarded
as they

in

the same

light

by the evangelized
;

were by their unconverted

fellow-citizens

and the minor observances of vows and

purifications continued to be devoutly recognised.*

Thus

there was

not a sudden disruption of the old rehgious

habitudes of the converts to the gospel, but, as
believe,

we may
cere-

a gradual alienation

from their ancestral
their

monies, according to the increase of their Christian knowledge,

and

the

clearness

of

perception

of

the

designs of Providence.
to the

The accessions made
it

so rapidly

numbers of the church soon rendered
it

necessary

to distribute

into smaller congregations or bands, each

assembling

"on

the

first

day of the week" in

its

own

appointed house,

jcut

oikov,

(Acts

ii.

46

;

v.
ii.

42,) for

instruction, worship,
It

and communion. (Acts
of the

42.)

was

at this early period that the apostle

Matthew

wrote,

primarily for the use

Hebrew-Christian

church, his invaluable Gospel.

This holy document emlife,

bodied the

apostolical

testimony to the

doctrine,

miracles, atoning death,

and resurrection of the Divine
subjects

Redeemer

:

these had

been the great
itself,

of

St.

Matthew's preaching in Palestine
written

which, on the

eve of his departure from that land, he delivered in this

form,

in their

own
is

language, to his believing

countrymen. t
this

Gospel

;

The other and St. James

apostles

made much use
it

of

said to have used

as i;he

text-book of his public preaching at Jerusalem.
St.

James closed

his career

by martyrdom, under the

high-priesthood of the ferocious Ananus, during the interval

which elapsed between the death of Festus the

Roman

governor,

and the

arrival

of

Albinus

his

successor.

The high veneration
* Acts
iii.

in

which "the brother of the Lord"
f
See Horae Aramaicae, p. 92.

1

;

xxi. 21, &c.

6

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
held, not only
tliemselves,

was

by

bis

own

people, but by

many

of

tlie

Jews

may

be inferred from a passage in the
(no longer

works of Josephus,

indeed

found in

the

modern
that

copies, but referred to

by Origen, Eusebius, and
Jerusalem

Jerome,) in which the historian confess'es his opinion,
the
calamities that

subsequently befell

were in token of the vengeance of God on account of
the murder of this just man.

In accordance with the views of the majority of biblical critics

on the character and design of the Epistle to

the Hebrews,
it

we may with
this or

tolerable accuracy suppose that
not-far-off period of similar

would be in

some

trial,

that the church in

Palestine

had the

privilege of

first

receiving that divine discourse, the instructions and
so

exhortations of which were
state of a

perfectly suited to

the

community exposed to the inveterate malice of enemies hke theirs. Combined with the sublimest views of the Christian mysteries, they had here inculcated a
series

of motives to perseverance,

the most consolatory

and cheering.
epistle, it

So

far

from there being any true ground
with an ordiself sur-

for doubting the reality of this specific destination of the

seems scarcely possible to read

it

nary degree of intelligence without finding one's

rounded by the scenery of Jerusalem, and placed amid
the local circumstances of a people like that which com-

posed the Christian church in that
stood in solemn grandeur
;

city.

The temple yet
;

the altars flamed
;

the priest-

hood of the B'ni-Levi ministered
secular power, held

and not only did the
cross, place

by the enemies of the
hour,

the Christian

in

jeopardy every

but,

the long-

established habits of the Jewish mind, the necessity for
setting himself in a state of schismatical divorce from so

much

that

inviolable,

among

had hitherto been held his people and

sacred, established,
his forefathers,

and

and for

going forth without the camp, covered with reproach, to a

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
system of discipline and worship which offered
little

/

or

nothing that could please the senses, but
the reverse,
cial faith,

much

that was

would doubtless require the exercise of espeand a constantly-sustained patience. Against these numerous temptations St. Paul fortified the Hebrew
believers,

in

a strain

of

high instruction, that carried

them beyond the things that were seen and transient, to those which are celestial and eternal while he showed the
;

reality

and transcendent excellence of the priesthood of

the Son of
vabie

God

;

the intrinsic, infinite, and unalterable
sacrifice,

of his

atoning

and the

glories
it.

of the

eternal redemption

which had been procured by
of the
Levitical

most
the

brilliant

characteristics

The economy

waned and were

lost before the
;

dawning splendours of

and the mediation of their great legislator, the ministry of angels, the gloomy grandeurs of Sinai, the long successions of the priesthood, and the hecatombs which had fallen around their altars, all
vanished into worthless shadows, in the presence of that
"better hope," which brought them at once "to
Zion,

New Covenant

Mount

and to the

city of the

living

God, the heavenly
of angels, to

Jerusalem, and to an innumerable

company

the general assembly and church of the
are written in heaven,
to the spirits of just

first

born which

God the Judge of all, and men made perfect, and to Jesus the
and
to

Mediator of the
(Heb.

New

Covenant,

and

to

the blood of

sprinkling that speaketh better things than that of Abel."
xii.

22.)
as the son of

James was succeeded by Simeon, who,
Cleophas, was also a kinsman of our Lord.

And now

it

was that the flock

at

Jerusalem began to be tried by

the introduction of heretical opinions.
early day, the mystery of iniquity,

For even in that

which, in so

many

forms, has been subsequently employed by Satan for the
repression of the Christian cause, became manifest in the

8

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

conduct of Thebuthis, a presbyter of that church, who,
irritated at not

having been elected bishop in the room of
strifes

James, brought in

and
false

divisions

among

the people

by the introduction of

or questionable doctrines.
is

Of what kind those were, there
ous brood of heresies so
general
rife

no certain tradition
the

;

but they probably soon after formed one of that numerin

East under

the

name

of Gnosticism.

According to the
it

common

attestations of

the Fathers,

would

also

appear that

Nicolas and

Cerinthus, each

the

leader

of a separate

division of that corrupt

a connexion with the Hierosolymitan

and extravagant school, had once communion.
the
discipline

While

Simeon

administered
arrived

of

the

church, the time

when

the wrath

foredoomed

against Jerusalem was to descend

upon

it.

To

this

awful consummation there had been several intelligible
preludes.

The growing aversion
universal^ in the
itself in various

to the Jewish people,

which had become
manifested

Roman

provinces,

had

forms of cruelty, as in the

outrages inflicted on them in Egypt, Parthia, and Babylonia
;

w^hile, at

home, the profanation of the temple by
and security by

Caligula, the disruption of social order

the unrestrained violence of the numerous brigands

who
daily

held the rural districts
increase
itself;

at

their mercy,

and the

of intestine strifes and murders in

Jerusalem

the prophetic cries of Jesus-bar-Anan, and those
so
clearly

other preternatural occurrences

narrated
;

by
the

Josephus
massacres

;

the
of
;

outbreaks of sedition in the city
Caesarea,

Ptolemais,

Askelon,

Tyre,

and

other places
legions of

and, lastly, the arrival of the iron-clad
Cestius,

Rome under

all

portended the same

catastrophe,

and warned the Hebrew Christians that the days of Jerusalem were numbered, and that the time for escape, of which their Saviour had premonished them,
had
fully

come.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

V

Divine Providence opened their way in a manner familiar to all

readers of history

;

and, under the' conduct of
Pella, a

Simeon, this beUeving remnant found a refuge at
city in

the mountainous part of the Decapolis, on the

confines of Syria.

After the destruction of Jerusalem, and

when

the land

had found a transient repose from the horrors of war, great numbers of the Christians, in common with others
of their own nation, returned and estabhshed themselves on the hallowed (but then desolated) spot, to which the orthodox Jew in all his wanderings continually reverts, The as his patrimonial home and only resting-place.

now no more, and the magnificent economy of had been regarded as " the pillar and ground" had passed away Hke a dream bat the waste plains of Zion were again peopled by a remnant of the true Israel, who worshipped the Father in spirit, and her solitudes were made vocal with "hymns to Christ as to God." Simeon
temple was
it

which

;

continued to hold the episcopate

till

the year 107, when,

in one' of the persecutions carried on
East, he

by Trajan

in the

was

called to seal his long ministry with martyrto Atticus, the governor

dom.

He had been denounced
;

of Syria, as being not only a Christian, but a

Jew of the

house of David

(Trajan having continued the inquisition

after that lineage,

begun by Domitian

;)

account especially he was sentenced to death.

and on the latter The forti-

tude with which, at the advanced age of a hundred and

twenty years, he underwent a complication of torments
for several days, impressed the

consul himself with wonder.

spectators and the proHaving endured much in

other forms of torture, his sufferings were terminated by
crucifixion, after

he had governed the church forty years.

Thus the
also,

flock at Jerusalem

the space of seventy years.

Justus by name, hved to

had only two bishops for The successor of Simeon the age of a hundred and

B 5

10
eleven.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
But
either

from

the

then-harassed

state

of

the Christian cause, or from the circumstance that the

bishops v.ere chosen from the most aged of the presbyters,

we

find that six

now

followed each other in suc*

cession within the term of thirteen years.

Their names
Matthias,

were

Zachseus,

Tobias,
II.,

Benjamin, Juchanan,

and Benjamin

otherwise called Phihp.
is,

duration of their pastorship

The relative however, unknown. After
;

Philip, w^e have Seneca, a.d. 12.5
II., Levi,

then, in series, Justus

Ephrem, Jose, or Joseph, and Judah, the fifThese last filled a teenth and last of the circumcised.
period but of twelve years.
All these bishops were of
;

Hebrew

birth,

orthodox and steadfast in the faith

and

such also was the character, in the main, of the church

which they governed.
Judah, the
last of the

purely Hebrew succession, died

with a multitude of Christians in the massacres attendant

upon the

revolt of the

Jews under Bar-Chochab.

The

emperor Adrian had now colonized Jerusalem, under the

name

of Elia,* with Gentiles, and had built a temple to

Jupiter on the site of that which had been reared for the

worship of the true God.

These events, together with

the prohibition of the distinctive pecuharities of their
religion,
lion,

(as

circumcision,) hurried the Jews to a rebel-

Judea now in their more entire ruin. became almost literally a solitude. For some time it was forbidden to a Jew to enter Jerusalem, or even to It was inhabited wholly by look at it from a distance.

which issued

Gentiles.

Upon

the gate

that led
;

towards Bethlehem
and, as the Chris-

stood the marble image of a sow

tians were not less hated than the Jews, Adrian ordered

an idol of Jupiter to be set up on the
*

site

of the Resurthe Greeks
;

The Jews

call the

name

of the city Yeruschalaim
;

;

and Romans, Hierosolyma and Elia Turks, Koudsi-Sherif.

the Arabs,

El Kods

and the

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
rection of our Lord, and another of

1

Venus upon the

hill

of Calvary.

The foregomg
church.

are the principal authentic facts

which

have come down to us in relation to the Hebrew-Christian
Christianity since that day has always
;

had a

name
all

in Jerusalem

but that

name has not only been
city is

unassociated with the reality, but dishonoured by almost things the reverse.

The holy

stiU trodden

down by the Gentiles, till the times of the Gentiles BE fulfilled. That hour comes on apace. The night is far spent,
and a day of unparalleled brightness
" the city which
shall
is

yet in reserve for

be built to the Lord," (Jer. xxxi.

35

40,)

when
its

the religion of the Son of God, unfolding

within her

highest perfection in time, will render her

the joy of the earth, and write

upon her

walls salvation,

and upon her gates praise.

Note- 1.

—After

the extension of the Macedonian empire

by Alexander, Greek having become an almost current language, it was used vernacularly not only by Jews residing in Eg}^t, Asia Minor, &c., but by a large number of families These were distinguished by the name in Jerusalem itself.
of Hellenists, from

who continued to Hebrew in their

the majority use Aramaic in
services.

of their fellow-citizens,

religious

common, and the pure " Those," says Jahn

spoke the Aramean dialect, were thought to possess pre-eminence over those Jews who spoke the Greek only ; and they therefore strove to transmit their vernacular tongue down to posterity." This is probably the distinction intimated by St. Paul, w^hen he calls himself a Hebrew of the Hebrews. Many of the Hellenists had been baptized into Christianity, and appear to have formed a churchthe
section of themselves. (Acts vi. 1.) Note 2. The people known in the second and third cen-

"who

turies

by the name

of Nazareans, probably originated in

the partialities of these Hebrew Christians for the religious system of their forefathers. According to Epiphanius, as

12

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

quoted by Tillemont, they were the descendants of some of With the families which established themselves at Pella. an acknowledgment of the Messiahship of Jesus, the divine
authority of the gospel-record, and the Christian sacraments, they held a firm adherence to all that could be practised of Judaism, after the ruin of the ceremonial apparatus. However correct may have been their early views of the Saviour, they were not long in falling into low and unwor-

thy errors on the subject of his person. In this they were speedily outstripped by the Ebionites, who, from a rise apparently the same with that of the Nazareans, became distinguished for the gross extravagances both of their opinions and conduct. They are said to have concentrated in these the venom of the other Gnostic sects. Both the Nazareans and Ebionites retained the Jewish vernacular, and held in especial regard the Syriac Gospel of St. INIatthew, which they soon rendered worthless by their corrupt treatment of the text. The Nazareans were yet found in the fourth century at Pella, in the Decapolis at Cocaba, in the country and at Berea, a celebrated city of Lower Syria. of Basan St. Jerome had intercourse with them at the latter place, where he says he made a transcript of their Gospel.
; ;

TRADITIONS OF EARLY ORIENTAL MISSIONARIES.
1
.

There

is

a prevailing

and by no means ill-founded
read in the second
first,

belief that the Magi,

of

whom we

chapter of St. Matthew, communicated the

though

indistinct, evangelic tidings to the Gentiles of the East.
It is

impossible to dispel the obscurity which rests upon
the country,
station, and subsequent and highly-favoured men, or to

the questions of

career of those devout
settle

the

titles

of

contending peoples

who have

laid

claim to them as their countrymen.

According to an

tradition, the Magi came to the Holy Land from a part of Tartary called Tanguth, where, after their The Chalreturn, they prepared the way for the gospel.

Armenian

deans, on the other hand, claim

them

as natives of,

and

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
the
first

13

evangelists

to,

their

own

land.

"That they

came from Chaldea," says Yeates, " agrees with the best and if we may conjecture from the names of accounts
;

three

of

them recorded
It is

in

the Ethiopic church-books,

one at least was a Chaldean, whose name, they say, was

Chesad."

true that Chesadim, or Chesdim,
for the nation of the
it

is

the
;

Old-Testament name
fessed, furnishes
this

Chaldeans

but the circumstance thus pointed out,

must be conthat the

but a dubious evidence in settlement of

question.

The Nestorians have a legend,

Magi went from Ooroomiah, or Urmiah, a city of Media, instructed by a prophecy of Zoroaster, who, at the time of the captivity, had been a disciple of the prophet JereZoroaster, or Zerdushta, was the great reformer miah, of the old fire-worship, which prevailed so extensively in
those countries.

God,

or, as Sir

He was a worshipper of the one true William Jones says, " a pure theist, who
fire

strongly

disclaimed any adoration of the

or other

elements, and denied the favourite doctrine of two coeval

independent principles, supremely good and
bad."
their

supremely
the

The long sojourn of the Jews
captivity
; ;

in

the state of
in

their

steadfastness,

in general,
;

true worship

the teachings of their prophets

and the

remarkable interpositions of the divine power in their
favour
;

tended to prepare the way for such a reform in
is

the popular religion, as

affirmed was eff'ected by the

instrumentality of Zoroaster.
ble that these

Now

it

is

highly proba-

Magi (whether Chaldeans, Persians, Medes, or Arabians, as some conjecture, from the interchange of the words Arabi and Magi by Ptolemy and Pliny, and gold, the nature of the oblations presented by them,

frankincense, and myrrh, the productions of Arabia,) were
tSophoiy

Good,

"Wise Men," who retained

or students of the True and the

the

principles

of

the

reformed
truth.

Magian theology, with some measures of divine

14

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

derived either from converse with the dispersed of Israel,

the possession of parts of their scriptures,

or, v.hich is

not

impossible,

from revelations vouchsafed

to

them-

and had entered into the Jewish expectation of the advent of the great Dehverer. We see in them at once
selves,

the representatives of the antique faith of the patriarchs,

the first-fruits of Gentile adorations at the feet of Christ,

peace, who,

and the unconscious forerunners of those messengers of half a century later, announced far and
2.

wide to the oriental nations the wonders of his name.*

Nor can

it

be imagined that the numerous proseat Jerusalem,

lytes

who, on the day of Pentecost
of-

had been
be-

brought under the power
received

the truth, should have so

the grace of
for

God

in vain, as to neglect to

come witnesses
countries.

the

Saviour,

and,

to

some

extent,

preachers of his gospel, on their return to their respective

Hence, within the

first

year from the Ascension,
Parthians, and Medes,

Christianity found a voice

among "

and Elamites, and the dwellers in Mesopotamia, and in Judea, and Cappadocia, in Pontus, and Asia, Phrygia, and
Pamphylia, in Egypt, and in the parts of Libya about
Cyrene," in Rome, and Crete, and Arabia. So, shortly after, " they which were 3.

scattered

abroad upon the persecution that arose about Stephen,
travelled as
far as

Phenice

and Cyprus and Antioch
''

;

preaching the word," though
only.

to

none but to the Jews

And some

Cyrene, which

of them were men of Cyprus and when they were come to Antioch spake
;

unto the Grecians, preaching the Lord Jesus

and the

hand of the Lord was with them, and believed and turned unto the Lord.";];
*

a great

number

Compare what Suetonius,

in the Life of Vespasian, says on the

expectation of a Saviour King, which had
in the East.

become ahnost universal

t

Acts

ii.

9—11.

+ Acts

xi.

19—24.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
[This form of voluntary itinerant agency was
still

15
in

operation
describes

in
it,

the

second

century,

when,

as

Eusebius

"

many

of the then disciples,

whose souls

were inflamed by the divine word, and with a more ardent
desire of

wisdom,

first

fulfilled

our Saviour's command-

ment, by distribiating their substance to those
necessitous
;

who were
yet

then, after that, travelling abroad, they perto those
;

formed the work of evangehsts
at all

who had not

heard the word of

faith

being very ambitious to

preach Christ, and to deliver the books of the divine gospels.

And

these persons having only laid the foundation

of faith in remote

and barbarous

places,

and constituted

other pastors, committed to them the culture of those

they had perfectly introduced to the faith, and departed
again to other regions." *]

Of the company of the

apostles themselves, St.

Thoaway

mas

was, without controversy, the great messenger of the

gospel to the East.

From

Syria to the Indies, and

to the confines of China, there are traces of his evangelic
progre'ss
;

and several of the communities of Christians
of his apostleship.

subsisting in those regions, have always described themselves as the seals

The

traditionary

testimonies to this have been exhibited by Stephen Asse-

man,

in

his valuable Bibliotheca Orientalis,

from which

we

select the following.

THE SYRIAN CHRONICLE OF BAR HEBR.EUS.
The

"Thomas preached to the Parthians and Medes.-. apostle Thomas was the first pontiff" of the East
are taught

We

from the book of the preaching of the

holy apostles, that the divine apostle

Thomas announced

the Christian message to the eastern region in the second

year after our Lord's ascension.
*
•f

As he passed through

EusEB.

Hist. Eccles.

iii.

37.

Compare Yeates's "Indian Church History."

l6

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
;

on his journey to India, he preached to divers nations
the Parthians, Carmanians, Bactrianians, Margiies,
Indians."

and

Assem.

torn. iv. p. 33.

THE EDESSENE TABLES.

.

" Thomas was not only apostle of the Syrians and Chaldeans, but also of the Parthians, Medes, and Indians."

soPHRONius
Lord
Parthia,

(of Jenisalem).
gospel
of

''Thomas, the apostle, preached the
in

the

Media,

Persia,

Carmania,

Hyrcania,

Bactria,

and Margse."

EBED JESU
" India, and
all

(of Sola).

the regions round about, received the

priesthood from Thomas,

who

presided and ministered in

a church which he built there."

With

this apostle tradition associates, in

some portions

of his labours, Bartholomew,

or

Nathan sel Eb'n Tolmai,

and Jude, or Thaddeus.
ELIAS OF DAMASCUS.
" The regions of Sind and India, and adjacent parts of
the East, as far as the Indian ocean, became Christian by the preaching of the apostle Thomas, one of the twelve.

With him joined afterwards Jude, the son
of the twelve."

of James, also

THE SYRIAN CANONS.
" The
fifth seat
is

constituted apostles,

—Thomas,

Babylon, in honour of the three
the apostle of the Hindoos
is

and Chinese
Syrians
ter to
;

;

Bartholomew, who also

Nathanael, of the

and Adaeus, one of the Seventy, who was masAgaeus and Mares, the apostle of Mesopotamia and

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
twelve; and he also
is called

17

Lebbeus and Tbaddeus.

He
Then

preached the gospel in Antarus and Laodicea.
Temiin, and certain parts of the East

went he unto Thadmor, and Raca, and Circesum, and
;

and there followed

him Thomajs
*'

into India."

If at

any time," says Assemannus, " Matthew the
any of the eastern regions, he did not
;

evangelist visited

go beyond the bounds of Nisibis and Assyria

but,

when

he had passed over those regions, soon returned. Bartho-

lomew
The

also

travelled

over these

and other lands, and

preached in Greater Armenia."
apostle

Thomas, there

is

strong evidence to believe,

finished his course

by martyrdom.
of his
in Syria,

This

occurred in
is

Coromandel, where the place

sepulture

still

shown.
deea,

He had preached

Mesopotamia, Chal-

and Persia.

the gospel by his voice. the cross

The inhabitants of Malabar had heard He had planted the standard of on the coast of Coromandel, and had pressed

onward, in the fulfilment of his divine commission, so far
as to the confines of China.

Of the seventy disciples commissioned by our Lord, named Adseus, is commemorated in the East as the founder of many churches. He had two efficient fellowlabourers in his disciples, Agseus, or Achseus, and Mares. "Adseus preached at Edessa, and in Athur, (Assyria,) and at Mosul, and in Persia At length Mares went
one,
to

announce the gospel in

all

parts of the land of Baby-

lon,

and of both the Arachse," namely, Persia and Assyria. " Nor did he cease to visit all these regions, and also the had preached the
and

places in which Thaddeus, or Adseus,
faith,

and

to visit, to catechize, to baptize, to teach,

to build

signs

up churches, to cure diseases, and to perform and wonders, until he had converted very many to
reli-

the faith, and wonderfully propagated the Christian

gion in those parts."

18

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
" All Persia, Assyria, Armenia, and
^Meclia,

the regions

about Babylon, Huz, and Gala, to the borders of India,

and

as far as

Gog and Magog"

(the country north of the

Caucasus,) " received the priesthood from Agceus, a weaver
of silk clothing,

the disciple of the apostle Thaddeus."
of

So

Bar Hebr^us, Marus
o/jz^^Z

Soba,

and

Elias of

Damascus,

Asseman.

vol. iv.

The Syrians hold that Thaddeus, whom they style "the chief and greatest of the assembly of the Seventy and two," was the founder of the church of Edessa. *'When he came to that city," says their tradition,
*'they received

him with

great joy.

He

blessed Abgarus

and his entire household and the whole
their sicknesses

city.*

He

healed

by the word of our Lord, and declared the miracles and signs he had wrought in the world, confirming his words by miracles

He

discipled Edessa

and
the

Mesopotamia, and taught them
gospel.

the ordinances of

With the assistance of Agseus, his disciple, he converted and baptized all the region of the East, as far as the Eastern Sea. ^yhen he was grown old and venerable, he improved his talent more than double he rooted out from the hearts the thorns and thistles, and sowed them
;

with the purest wheat, and entered the joy of his Lord."

To the same
Adseus,,

effect

the

historian

Amrus.

''

Mar

one of the Seventy, came to Edessa, and healed

king Abgar of his leprosy.

At Nisebin, Mosul, Hazath,

and

in Persia, there

were with him, preaching the gospel.

Mar Marus and Bar Tholmai.
Caphar
his

He
is

built

a church

at

Uzel, in Adjabena,f
to this day.

where

the inscription of

name

He

built another

church in the

*
•\-

See further on, article Edessa.

Adjabena, Atliur, or Atyria,
legion.

q. d.

Assyria, are names for the
is

same

The modern name,
which once

Koordistan,
inhabited

derived from the
district

Karduchi, a nation on Armenia.

the

bordering

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
city of Arzan,

19

time.

St.

which also bears his name at the present Thomas assembled with him, and remained
his departure
for

with

him some time before They both ordained Marus
the
office

India.

Mar

Adseus, having fulyears

filled

of preaching

twelve

and some
great

months, departed,
church at Edessa."

and was buried

in the

Bar Hebr.eus
vived

writes concerning Aghaeus, that-

"he

laboured fifteen years in the w^ork of the gospel, and sur-

And of his master Adseus only three years." Marus, that, " when, after the martyrdom of his compawent into the East, and preached in Athur and
land of Shinar."
in

nion Aghseus, he could no longer continue in Edessa, he
the

"Marus first disciHe afterwards pled some of the people of Beth Garmi.* He then came to Seleaendured great trials from them. When he entered the city, there was a sick man cia there, who, having been signed by him with the sign of

And

again,

the life-giving cross, opened his eyes, and said unto his

men,

'

I

saw a vision of
;

this stranger, as

one descended

from heaven

me up
Marus

;

and he took me by the hands and raised and as soon as I opened my eyes, I saw him

sitting with me.'

Then the men of

that city received

as

an angel of God, and he taught and baptized
years,

many
faith.
ters,

of them, and began to build churches in that city,
fifteen

where he abode

confirming them in the
all

Afterwards he went and passed through
;

quar-

working miracles and wonderful works and, having fulfilled his preaching for thirty and three years, he
departed to his Lord in a city

named

Badaraja, and was

buried there in a church which he had built."
*

Beth Gamii, or Beit Gemie, "the place of bones," a

district of

Koordistan, watered by the rivers Gomela and Hazir.

It derives its

name from
It

the battle fought there between Darius and Alexander. became a considerable Nestorian bishopric.

20

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Respecting the correctness of the details given in these

accounts,

it

is

impossible with certainty either to affirm

or deny.

That they substantially record the truth, there
;

cannot be a reasonable doubt

and they thus show, that
its

while the gospel was simultaneously winning

way

in

Europe,

it

spread

itself

eastward

^'

with the rapidity of

lightning from

Jerusalem to the sun-rising," revealing

in Jesus Christ, and announcing, not by these holy men, but by a multitude of preachers, whose names have been long forgotten on the earth, the great salvation which is in Him, to a large Hence Origen, in the proportion of the Asiatic nations.

the mercy of

God

merely

third century, could appeal, for the truth of the Christian
religion,

to the
its

foretold

universal spread.

accomplishment of the prophecies that " The church," says he,
its

"

is

every where visible by

own

light,

and maintains

its

oneness, though extended from the east to the west."

And

Eusebius, employing a similar phraseology, describes

the doctrine of the Saviour, with a celestial influence and
co-operation, irradiating,
like the

sunbeams, the

human

race

word of the inspired evangelists so going throughout the earth, and their words to the end of the
;

the

world, that,

in rural

villages

and towered

cities

alike,

there arose the innumerable temples of the living God.

ANTIOCH.

The

city of Antioch, (Antiochia

Magna,) on the
it

river

Orontes,

was founded three hundred years before the
In
its

Christian era.

most prosperous days
first
;

consisted
built

of four component towns, of which the

had been

by Triptolemus, with the name of lona
Casus,
this

the second by
;

who brought

hither a colony of Candiots
;

and

branch was

called Cassiotse

a third portion was

added by a colony of Greeks from Peloponnesus, under

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
the

21

name

of Heraclia
it,

;

and, lastly, Seleucus,
the appellation

who

largely
it

augmented

gave

it

by which

has

Under the Seleucidse it became the capital of their great kingdom, and the most powerThe population was much increased ful city of the east.
ever since been

known.

by the Jews of Palestine, to

whom

Seleucus not only concivil

ceded liberty of worship, but an equality of
vileges with the other citizens.

pri-

But

at the

beginning of the evangelic

era,

Antioch had

already undergone a comparative decadence, which had

followed on the termination of the

Seleucidian power,

and the conquest of
It

their

metropolis by the Romans.

regained

its

liberty

som, Augustus confirming

from Pompey and Csesar by ranand as it its ancient rights
;

had been the chief
continued under the
capital of the East.

city of the

Syrian kingdom,

so

it

Homan sway
locality of

to be regarded as the

[A good idea of the
eleventh century, by

Antioch
it,

may be formed
contemporary

from the graphical description of

even so late as the
the mountains of

Raymond
:

historian of the crusades

— " Among
is

d'Agiles, a

Libanus," says he,
of which

*'

there

a certain plain, the breadth a day
to
cross,
is

takes

the

traveller

length a day and a half.
the west

This

place
east

and the bounded on

by

a marsh,

and on the

by

a river, (the

Orontes,) which, sweeping round a part, runs towards
the mountains situated to the southern side, so that there
is

no passage

[or, rather,

but a narrow one, along which ran

the

Roman
it

road] between the stream and the mountains,
flows into the Mediterranean Sea, which
is

and thus

near to Antioch.

In the

straits,

which the
is

river

makes
;

in running under the mountains, Antioch

situated

so

that to the west there
flight

is

left

not more than an arrow's

of ground between the lower wall and the river. The town, thus situated, rises to the east, and in the

2'2

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
peaks of three mountains.
it

circuit of its walls encloses the

That mountain, indeed, which

has to the
;

north,
so

is

separated from the others hy a great precipice

that

between

it

and them there

is

means, of communication.

no means, or very difficult The town is two miles in
out-

length, and so fortified with walls and towers and

works, that
of men,

it

fears
if

no force of machines, and no assault
whole human race should come
" The

even

the

against it."]

Christianity soon took root in this city.
ples

disci-

were called Christians

first
?

at

Antioch."

But by

whom

was the seed

first
;

sown

Ecclesiastical tradition

here refers to St. Peter

and Chrysostom, Jerome, Leo,
it,

Innocent, and others, having so delivered
that this apostle
as

the opinion
or, rather,

was the founder and bishop,
have
it

they would

believed, the

patriarch, of the

church of Antioch, has been extensively considered as
indisputable.

But there

is

another writer who, in coming

to a decision on this point, should not have been over-

looked, but consulted and deferred to as having an authority

against which there

is

no appeal

:

St.

Luke, the

conteuiporaiy of the apostles, the evangelist personally

commissioned by Christ, and the divinely-inspired historian

of the

first

planting of his churches.

St.

Luke,

then, in

the Acts of the Apostles, gives (chapter xi.) a

plain statement of the earliest beginnings of this
nity.
*'

commu-

they that were scattered abroad upon the persecution that arose " (in Jerusalem) " about Stephen,

Now

travelled as far as Phenice,

and Cyprus, and Antioch,
the Jews only.
of

preaching the word to none but unto

And some of them were men which, when they were come to
Grecians,

Cyprus and Cyrene,

Antioch, spake unto the

preaching the Lord Jesus.

And

the

hand of
believed

the Lord was with them, and a great

number

and turned unto the Lord."

The names of these devoted

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
servants of Christ are not found in
to their

23
archives, but

human

agency

is

thus visibly attributable the foundation

of that subsequently great
It

communion.

has been said, nevertheless, that private

men

of this

description

would not be

qualified to proceed farther
;

than

the mere publication of the gospel

and

that,

however
be

numerous the people gathered together by

their ministry,
still
;

the presence of the prince of the apostles would

necessary for their regular organization as a church
therefore St. Peter

and
the

must have been the

first

primate of

Antioch.
inference

Supposing the premisses were
decidedly against

true, yet
;

would by no means be necessary
is
it.

while the

historical fact

It

was not an

apostle

who was

sent from Jerusalem to visit the infant

cause at Antioch, but Barnabas, " a good man, and full
of the

Holy Ghost and of

faith."

(Acts
it

xi.

22—24.)
St. Peter,

And when an
but St. Paul

apostle did visit them,

was not

and Barnabas, who for

"a whole

year

assembled themselves with the church, and taught
people."

much
find
dis-

In the course of the following year,

among
phets
(Acts

the

number

of believers some

we who had been

tinguished by the charismata of the Holy Ghost,

—"

pro-

and teachers, who ministered unto
xiii.

the

Lord,"

1,)

— and the

church

itself in a

high degree of
Caligula
;

spiritual efficiency.

This was in the year 45.

was already dead, and the reign of Claudius had advanced
but St. Peter had not as yet been at Antioch.
his

Hence
of that

having been the
is

founder or the primate

church,

altogether imaginai'y.*

Eusebius,
St.

who

in his Chronicon (anno 43) has given to

Peter the foundation of the cause at Antioch, fol-

lowed, perhaps, that mass of fables, *' the Book of Recognitions " whereas, in his Ecclesiastical History, he strictly
J

*

Compare Basnage, Histoire

Eccles.

24

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

adheres to St. Luke's uavrative in the Acts, and thus
contradicts himself.

Chrysostom, who, as having been himself a presbyter
at Antioch,

might seem an undeniable authority,

affirms,

nevertheless,

that the apostle Peter held a long episco-

pate there.*

The

critics

have determined that this long
;

episcopate was seven

years

but the testimony of the
is

Acts being irrecusable, the thing

altogether impossible.

To meet the difficulty, Nicephorus has diminished the number of years to two but if this brings the matter
;

nearer to a resemblance to the actual chronology,
lifies

it

nul-

the assertion of Chrysostom, which indeed has been
states, in

done by himself, inasmuch as he
predicted by Agabus, that
If the
fault,

another place,f

that the apostles did not leave Judea before the famine
is

to say, in a. d. 45.
at

ancient witnesses for this opinion be thus

we may not wonder at the unsuccessful efforts of modern hierarchists to establish it. They are mutually
at variance

with respect to the dates of the fact

itself.

Baronius %

makes
a. d.

St.

Peter

to
;

have

been

bishop

of

Antioch from

39 to 46

but Onuphrius,§ in his

makes the seven years of his Each affirms, that from Antioch the apostle went to Rome, and spent his remaining days in the government of that church
Annotations on
Platiua,

episcopate to extend from a. d. 48 to 56.

;

but each contradicts the other as to the date of his episcopacy, and each
tive.

makes

his

own

statement self-confata-

Baronius says, that Peter was bishop of
;

Rome

for

twenty-five years, or from a. d. 46 to 71

but in another

part of his Annals he states, that the death of the apostle
*
•f

Horn. 42 in Ignat. Horn. 25 in Act.

torn.

i.

p.

503.

torn.

iii.

p.

234.

+ Bar. Annal. sub 39 et G9. Petrus Antiochiam veniens septem annis earn rexit § A. D. 48. ecclesiam. A. D. 5G. Petrus Antiochid discedens episcopum ibidem reliquit Euodium, 8^c In Vitis Pontif. Roman.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
took place in a. d. 69.
extends the

25

On

the other hand, Onuphrius

Roman
year

episcopate of Peter from a. d. 50 to

75, but nevertheless describes his

martyrdom
be history,

as taking

place
fable
?

in

the

69.

If

this

what

is

The episcopate of
cilable

St.

Peter at either city

is

irreconitself.

with the very

nature of the

apostleship

That
all

office

involved the duty of preaching the gospel to

nations, and, by the

pen of inspiration,

to all times.

The
life,

apostles were the qualified

and commissioned depo-

nents to the world at large of the facts of our Saviour's

Of these great events they upon them, as foundation-facts, they were to announce to Jews and Gentiles, the civilized and the barbarous, the bond and the free aUke, those great truths and offers of mercy, which Omnipotence corroborated by signs and wonders, and distributions of the Holy Ghost. One, therefore, who, like St. Peter, had been invested with this glorious
death, and resurrection.
''

gave the testimony of

eye-witnesses ;" and

legation, could not,

in the fulfilment of

its

obhgations,

sink

down

into the station of a bishop of a local church.

The two
particular

offices

were not compatible.

As pastor of
to hold the
:

a

communion, he would cease

world
in a

as his charge, or the universal

church as his fold

word, the bishop of Antioch, or of
longer have been

Rome

itself,

would no

the apostle.
or Euodius.
school.

The

first

of the constituted chief pastors or bishops of

Antioch, was

Evodius

He was
little,

a bishop of

the pure
nothing,
is

apostolical
certainly

But
of his

or absolutely

known
3
;

life

or death.

The
is

Greeks have a tradition that to him
ence in Phil.
iv. 2,

St.

Paul makes referhave been the

but the name there recorded

evidently that of a female.

He

is

also said to

writer of an epistle or discourse, entitled, "Light," not a single sentence of

which has survived.

26

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Of tlie long
Ignatius.
line of

Antiochian bishops

it

may

be inter-

esting to notice the most remarkable.

This eminent

man was

a Syrian

by

origin,

and

is

reported to have been the child taken by our

Saviour in his arms, and to have been

named on

this

account Theophorus, which, pronounced in one way, But Chrysostom signifies " carried or borne by God."
says, that Ignatius

had never seen our Lord.*

He was

undoubtedly a disciple of the apostles.

Baronius makes
;

him appointed
belie\'ing Jews,

joint bishop with Evodius

one for the
;

and the other

for the Gentiles

and Igna-

tius to

have ceded his authority to his colleague as the

senior,
it

and

to have succeeded him.

But Halloix thinks
till,

probable that each maintained his distinct charge,
offices
fell
;

on the death of Evodius, both
All
this,

to

Ignatius.

however,

is

exceedingly uncertain

and meagre
be able

indeed will be the record upon this description of subjects,

which the most diHgent inquirer

will ever

to

produce, while he shall steadfastly decline to draw
either in
so,

upon the resources of the imaginative faculty, himself or those of any age before him. Not
ever, is
it

howOver

with regard to the death of Ignatius.

the scene of his martyrdom in the Coliseeum, there rests

an unshadowed and eternal radiance.

Theophilus.
1G9.

He was
Pagan,

the fifth from Evodius, a. d.

Originally a

and extensively acquainted

M'ith the

Grecian science and literature, he was converted

by the perusal of the Old-Testament prophets. The church was at that time grievously harassed by the contentions of the Gnostical heretics
;

and Theophilus

de-

voted his whole powers to the defence of the truth.
of his various catechetics, commentaries,

Yet

we have only one remaining,

—a

and other works, " Demonstration of

revealed Religion," in three books, addressed to a learned
* Orat. xxiv. toni. 1.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Heathen, named Autolycus.
nine years.

27
the

He governed

church

Serapion,

a. d.

190,

is

celebrated for his energetic

opposition to the progress of Montanism.

In his time

the controversy began respecting the time of keeping
Easter.

Babylas,
of an

a. d. 249, in

whose days Beryius, a bishop
had not subsisted
;

iVrabian diocese,

invented the doctrine, that our
in

Saviour, before the incarnation,

a
it

personality distinct from that of the Father

and, that

was the person of the Father who dwelt in Jesus
birth

after his

from the holy Virgin.
time of Eusebius.

A

council

was held

at

Antioch on this matter, the acts of which subsisted in
the

Origen,

who had come from

Egypt, convinced Beryius of his error, and constrained

him
tion,

to retract

it.

Babylas died in the persecution under
a bishop of great

Decius.

He was
is
-

and deserved reputa-

and

the subject of an elaborate eulogy by Chry-

sostom.

Paul, a native of Samosata on the Euphrates a man of corrupt life, proud and turbulent in disposition, and
:

heretical in doctrine.

Respecting the Godhead, he taught
Spirit

that the

Word and Holy
is

were in the Father, not

having a really personal subsistence, but merely as the
faculty of reason
in a

man

:

so that there are not three

persons, but one only, in the Divinity.

His views of the

person of Christ were, therefore, necessarily unworthy.

He

held him,

indeed,

to be

purely a man,

and

to

be

manner similar to that by which we give to a mansion the name of him who According to hira, the Lord Jesus Christ was built it. illuminated by the divine wisdom, which was in him by habitation and operation, but not by any kind of personal
called the

Son of God only

in a

union.
to

All the sentiments of Paul of
;

Samosata tended

Judaism

and, according to some of the fathers, were

c 2

-8
inculcated
A^itli

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
the

purpose

of

flattering

his

great

patroness, queen Zcnobia,

the wife of Odenat, prince of

Palmyra,

who was

a Jewess.

This faithless bishop foroffer -worship

bad the Christians of Antioch to
Saviour,

to

the

and abolished the hymns which had been emAfter having been convicted by
;

plojTd in that exercise.

a council, he promised reformation

relapsed, and,

by a

second council,

was deposed,
in

a. d.

2/0.

He found
failed

powerful

antagonists

Dionysius of Alexandria, and
to pre-

Gregory Thauraaturgus, whose refutations
vent
the
organization of a sect holding
opinions,
(h'ed

the

exploded

— the

Pauhanists, .who

subsisted about a hun-

and

fifty years.

In the ambitious administration of
first

this episcopate,

Paul was the

who extended

the

jurisdiction
city
;

of the

Antiochian chief pastor beyond the

for hitherto there
lived

had been bishops in the
the time

villages.

EusTATHius

at

when Arianism was

gaining the ascendant, and became a zealous and distin-

guished defender of the apostolical doctrine.
at

He

assisted
to pass

the council of Nice, and had, subsequently,
afflictions in

through a great fight of
for

contending earnestly
St.

the faith once delivered to the saints.

Jerome
he
calls

admired in him the union of a correct knowledge of
holy Scripture with extensive

human

learning

:

him "

the resounding trumpet which gave the

first

alarm

against Arius." He takes rank with Athanasius, Hilary, and the other great defenders of the faith. At his death, which took place in 338, in the exile to which he had
])een

delivered

by the machinations of the Arians, the
latter,

church of Antioch was divided into the party which had
adopted the views of the
the

and another, which, under
doctrine.

name of

Eustathians, held fast the pure

Leontius, the Arian bishop, having possession of the public
edifices,

the orthodox held their religious assemblies in houses, where
tlie

])rivate

great Athanasius,

when passing

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

29

through Antioch, on his journey from Treves to Alexandria,

held

communion with them.

Melicius,

—by

the concurrent testimony of antiquity,
ever held the episcopal
intelligence, he
office.

one of the best

men who

Along with great theological

combined a

Christ-like sweetness and humility of temper, and the most indomitable firmness and courage in defence of the

power then possessed by its The families of the faithful in Antioch cherished for him an unexampled affection. While in exile, as a confessor of the supreme Godhead of Christ, his portrait hung in their houses, and their children were baptized by his name, as the augury of a Many of those, too, who had been beguiled blessing.
truth
against

the

great

antagonists, the Arians.

into

Arianism were

won by

the attractions

of his cha-

racter

and the clear light of his doctrine, and returned
These, during the
first

to the true confession.

banish-

ment of

jMelicius,

endeavoured to form a junction with
;

the foll(5wers

of Eustathius

but the

latter,

under the

influence of old prejudices, were indisposed to unite with

them

:

this led

to

the ordination of a presbyter

named
;

Paulinus, to be the bishop of the

new

dissentients

and

thus the orthodox were divided into two distinct
nities.

commu-

Nor was

Melicius, on his return to the pastoral

charge of the Eustathians, succe&.sful in effecting a reunion,

though he proposed to hold a joint episcopacy
This schism

with Paulinus over the same united flock.
lasted long after both the bishops were no
licius

more.

Me-

suffered
;

banishment three times for the cause of
last at

truth

but died at

Constantinople, while sustaining

the presidency of the general Eastern council, convened

by Theodosius,
of the church.

for the reformation

of the growing evils

He was

universally honoured as one of

the greatest

men

of his age.
of Antioch had, from the

John, a.d. 430. The bishop

30
earliest

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
times, occupied a
;

most distinguished position
but
it

in

the hierarchical system
this prelate,

was not

till

the time of

who

took,

as

we

shall see, so

prominent a

part in the Nestorian controversy, that he was recognised

under the
several of

title

of patriarch, as the ecclesiastical head of

the most important of the provinces of the

East.

There

is

a favourite doctrine, that St. Peter had, from

the beginning, divided the

known

habitable

earth into

three great patriarchates, of which Antioch, his

own
all

per-

sonal see at the time, was one, and the head of
Asiatic nations.
tainly

the

But what evidence
all

is

there for this? Cer;

none that

will sustain the shghtest investigation

while,

on the contrary,

the facts bearing on the sub-

ject lead

to the conclusion, that the primeval origin of
is

the patriarchate of Antioch

equally imaginary with the

episcopacy of St. Peter there.

The church
ric
;

in that city

remained long a simple bishopHis from their own body. beyond

that

is,

with a plurality of presbyters, governed by

a chief or primus, selected

jurisdiction for a considerable time did not extend

the hmits of the city

itself,

he not having any acknowaffairs

ledged

authority

over the
calls

of the neighbouring

churches.

Eusebius
the

the

successors

of
:

Evodius,
of these,

bishops of

church

of the

Antiochians

Serapion appears in

196,

in the council held

by Polya simple

crates of Ephesus, on the Easter controversy, as
Ijishop.

In
;

2.52,

the council against Novatian was held

at

Antioch

that council, however,
city,

was not convened by
;

the

bishop of the

but by him of Tarsus

a plain

evidence that hitherto the former had not been invested

with the patriarchal dignity.
Nice, in
thius,
.32.5,

Then, at the council of

he appears indeed, in the person of Eustahis jurisdiction in the interim
;

as a metropolitan,

having been extended to certain other places

but

still

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
there was as yet no pretension to the patriarchate.

31 In

341 another council was held at Antioch, on the matter
of the Arian controversy
patriarch, he
find

had the bishop been then a would have undoubtedly presided but we the presidential throne occupied by Danius of Cse:

;

sarea.*
Still

further,

in

408,

Alexander,

then bishop, in a
he, Alexander,

letter to

Pope Innocent, demands whether

had the oversight of certain other provinces, or of one
only
:

here

we

see that his authority was, even then, over-

hung with

uncertainty,

and

lirable

to be called in question.

Innocent replied, that the jurisdiction of Alexander did
not extend to a single province only, but without defining the number of the others
rity
;

and added, that

this autho-

belonged to the bishop of Antioch, not because of

the magnitude or importance of that city, but because the Christian religion

name,

and the

apostles
said,

had there received had assembled
have ceded to

its

universal

there.
itself,

would Antioch, he
not St. Peter
the latter see.

Rome

Nor had
2t
full

left it to

accomplish his episcopal

life

But though hitherto no claim to the

patriarchal dignity could be substantiated, the bishop of

Antioch had now, as appears by these concessions, made a
near approach to
three
its

enjoyment

;

and we find about twenty

years afterwards the

celebrated

John of Antioch

recognised at least as supreme oriental metropolitan by

many, though not

all,

of the fifteen provinces of the East.
first

[The time v/hen the patriarchal dignity was
tuted has itself been a question oi controversy.

insti-

Baronius
;

maintains

its

existence so far back as the apostolic age
it

Brerewood
dained

affirms, that
;

council of Nice
;

had been introduced before the Balsamon, that it was then first orLaunoy, and
Basnage
about a. d. 381.]

while Cave, Beveridge,
it

argue, that

was not known
*

till

Vide

Basnage,

Histoire Eccles.

32

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
In the course of the unhappy controversy raised hy

Nestorius,

the bishops of Antioch generally inclined to

the side of the latter.

Those of Alexandria, on the other
circumstance, together with the
ecclesiastical pre-

hand, followed the doctrinal views of their great predecessor, Cyril
:

and

this

influence of jealousy,

on the subject of

cedences, excited an inextinguishable animosity between

the two patriarchs.

There was a time when the church of Antioch stood
forth the most illustrious
nities of the East.
at least a

among

the Christian

commu-

In the fourth century she numbered
;

hundred thousand members
to

three thousand of

whom, according

Chrysostom, were sustained by the
:

charities of their brethren

* but

from the period above

referred to, she exhibits

little

that can engage our atten;

1 he emperor Julian visited Antioch in the year 362
elsewliere,

and

there,

as

devoted

much

of his time to the prosecution of his

malign purpose of superseding^ the religion of Christ, by restoring Among other projects, he attempted the dying energies of Paganism. the reinstatement of the by-gone solemnities of the Giove, at Daphne, which had been planted near Antioch by Antiochus and which, witli
;

its

temple and oracle, presented, duiing the reigns of

tlie

Macedonian

kings of Syria, the most splendid and fashionable place of resort for Pagan worship in those countries ; but which, in common with hundreds of similar shrines, had crumbled into ruin at the voice of the
gospel.

The

altar of the

god was deserted, the oracle silenced, and

the sacred grove itself defiled
lian

by the interment of
the ancient honours

now undertook

to restore

Christians. Juand usages of the

place

but it was first necessary to remove the bodies. Among then\ ; was that of Babylas, the bishop, (see ante,) who died in prison in the Dccian persecution; and, after resting near a century in his grave, within the walls of Antioch, had been removed, by order of Gallus, into the midst of the grove of Daphne, where a church was
built over him.

The

Christians of Antioch, undaunted by the con-

spiracy against their religion, or by the presence of the emperor himself,

conveyed the remains of their former pastor
to their ancient repository

in

solemn triumph
execrations

back

within the city.

The immense multheir

titude

who

joined the procession chanted

forth

against idolatry; and on the

same night the image and temple of the
fire.

heathen god were consumed by

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
tion Avith

33

derivable

any other result than the painful instruction from the gradual ruin of a great institution,
privileges which,
life,

through the unfaithful surrender of those divine doctrines

and

spiritual

without

exception,

are
well-

always essential to the true

beneficence,

and

being of a Christian church.
val
faith,

The

vitality of the

prime-

and along with

it

whatever was spiritual and
died gradually away,
of hier-

peculiar in the religion of Christ,

dnd with
the
it.

it

the glory departed.

The grandeur

archical predominance,* the accession of secular wealth,
fitful

patronage of emperors, yielded nothing to replace

The essential character of the true churchly state was gone, and could never be constituted or recalled by these things for " the kingdom of God is not meat and drink, but righteousness and peace and joy in the Holy Ghost." Soon, too, the doctrinal integrity of Antioch became
;

impaired, and this once apostolical

communion was

dis-

mantled of the bulwarks of truth, and, in the just dispensations

of Providence, was permitted to sink into that

hopeless decay which has proved, through a similar process of apostasy, the
siastical foundations.

doom

of

many

of the earliest eccle-

The

city of
:

Antioch was taken by the Saracens in the

year 609

the church was then under the episcopal rule

of Athanasius, a Monothelite.
tion of the bishops,

The

patriarchal jurisdic-

no longer

fortified

by the protection

of the Court of Byzantium,

from that time speedily
personal suc-

declined

;

and, destitute of any intrinsic spiritual energy,

their authority

became a shadow, and

tlieir

cession subject to frequent interruptions."^

The

magnificent Antiochia Magna,

where the Seleufixed their

cidee held their court,

where Roman emperors

sojourn, the chosen
*

home
p. 34.

of oriental grandeur and Gre

See note A,

f ^^^^
c 5

^j

p.

35,

.

34

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES*
is

cian refinement,

now

comparatively a deserted place.

The earthquakes which have repeatedly shaken it, the sieges it has undergone from the Persians and Saracens, and especially the ravages to which it was subject at the
time of the crusades, from Bibars, sultan of Egypt,
seventeen thousand of
its

when

inhabitants were slaughtered,

dered

and a hundred thousand made captives, have long renThe modern AntaJdeh, a mere it a desolation.
part

corner of the ancient enclosure, has not more than a
seventieth

of the

mighty

population

that

once

tenanted a metropolis, which was regarded as one of the
architectural beauties of the world.
'*

How
!

doth

the
is

city

sit

solitary

that
I

was

full

of

people
great
vinces,

How

she become as a widow

She that was

among how is

the nations,

and princess among the proi.

she become tributary I" (Lam.

1.)

" Her cloud-capp'd towers, her gorgeous Her soleirm temples^

palaces,

Have

dissolved

"
!

Note A.

— List of
1

metropolitan seats and bishoprics belong-

ing to the patriarchate of Antioch, about a.d. lOCO, as given

by William of Tyre
2.
3.

:—

4.
6. 6.

Tyre, having 1 4 bishoprics. Tarsus 5 Edessa 10 Aparaia 7
Hierapolis Bostra

7.

Ancrverza

8 19 19

8. Seleucia
9.

24
11

Damascus

10.

Amida

7

11. Sergiopolis 12. Theodosiopolis
13.
*

4 7
4 *
vol.
ii.

Emesa

Compare Bingham, " Antiq."

edit. 18rj4,

where

is

given

a list of nine provinces

and eighty-seven dioceses.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Note B.

^:)

— Antioch

still

gives title to no less

than four

communion, and holding residence in different cities. 1. The chief of the Greek church has his seat at Damascus. 2. The Jacobite patriarch principally at Mardin. 3. The Maronite patriarch resides at Kanobin, in .the Libanus. 4. The Latin church has also its
patriarchs, each the head of a distinct

representative under this
resides at Rome."'"

title,

(inimrtihus^)

who commonly

EDESSA.
Edessa, or Osrohoena, situated
first

in the north of

Meso-

potamia, hard by the Euphrates, was probably one of the
postdiluvian settlements, having been built by the
in

contemporaries of Nimrod,
(Gen.
X.

the

region

of

Arech.f

10.)

Shinar,

or Chaldsea Arech,

might have

been

the primeval name of the town itself, J which, according to good authorities, was the same as " Ur of

the Chaldees," the birth-place of Abraham.

This latter

name

is

given by Josephus as Oureen Chalda'ion, and by

Ptolemy as Orchoeen, which are only variations of the
old Aramaic

name

of Urhoi, or Ur, that

is,

*'

fire, light,

the sun

;

" the ancient inhabitants having been worship-

pers of that luminary.
also,

The Greeks gave

it

the inflexion,

of Orrohenen, v/hich afterwards became the more

fixed

name

of Osrohenen, or Osrohoena. §

* (^uae igitur

Aniiochice sedes, in

una fuerit totique orienti imperaverat patriarchalis qumgue capita scbcuIo septimo scissa est. Nam
proprium
sibi
constitiiit

unaquceque
et soBculo

Christiana gens

prcesulem.

Melchitce, scilicet, Maronitce, Jacohitce, Nestoriani et

Armeni, qidhus

Quum duodecimo septus accessit Latinorum patriarcha. enim Latini seu Franci Terram Sanctum et Syriam obtinuisseni anno Christi MC. primum sibi Latini ritus patriarcham Bernardum a summo Romano pontifice prcBJiciendum curarunt ; et quamvis sexaessejit, titu-

ginta post annis e Si/ria excedere a Saracenis compulsi

larem tamen Antiochi<s Patriarcham ad hunc usque diem retineni. Steph. Evodius Assemannus, ( Archiep. ApamecB,) Bibliotheca
Medicece Laurentiance Codicum

MSS.

p- 16.

t The modern Irak. ^ The Arabs now call

it

$ So Ephrem. Raha, Al-raha, and, more commonly, Orfa.

36

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
At the beginning of
tlie

Christian era,

this

city
its

had
own,

been long governed by a succession of rulers of

who

styled

themselves princes of Osrohoena.

took the name of Abyar, or "the Great."

They all The prince
cir-

then ruling received the surname of Vcliama, under

cumstances which, however
lity of their first chroniclers,

exaggerated by the

credu-

appear nevertheless to have

belonged to a class that would
nary,

now

be called extraordiplace

but which

in

that

day

held

among

the

"signs"* and
was confirmed.

credentials

by which the new dispensation
the faith of the Saviour,

He embraced

and became The alleged

its

steadfast patron

among
itself.

his

own

people.

facts

of the case are recited

by Eusebius

from the Syriac archives of Edessa
nected

Without enter-

ing upon the discussion of those extraneous points conVr'ith

them which formerly occasioned much con:

troversy, the facts themselves appear to be the following

That Abgar was reigning
sonal

at the time of

our Lord's per;

ministry in

the

neighbouring country

that the

prince was the victim of some painful disease,

commonly

thought to be the leprosy, (lepra nigra et iurpititdhie
vultus,^) which some say was the reason of his surminie of Uchama, " the Black ;" % that, in common with thou-

sands more in those

most memorable days, he made
iv.

application to Jesus for relief; (compare Matt.

24, 25

;

John

vi.

46

;)

that Jesus
it

did

not

immediately comply

with his petition,

being in accordance with the divine

purpose that his personal ministry should be confined to
the house of Israel
;

(Matt. xv. 24

;)

but, nevertheless,

gave him encouragement to expect deliverance from his
affliction at a

time not far distant

;

that, after the ascen-

sion, Thaildeus, or Adaeus^
*

one of the seventy, was sent to
-|-

Mark

xvi. 17, 18.
i.

Bayeri

llistoria Osrlioencp.
scilicet, quod Chronicon Syr.

J Uchama,
( Fersione

e. n'ujer,

appellatus est per antiphrasin,

iotum ejus corpus lepra ulberel.

— Bar

IlEBRiT;!

AssE MaxN

i
.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Edessa
;

37

that he appeared there as an evangeHst of Christ,
;

and gave mh'aciilous evidences of his divine commission and that, called to an audience with the prince, who, as
Bar Ilebreeus
says, Avas expecting the

kingdom of God,
a greater

he at once cured him of his disease.

Abgar proffered him
;

many

rewards,

all

of which Adeeus refused

recompence awaiting him in the conversion of the prince, and the success of the gospel among a considerable number of his subjects.
truth.
I

Such appears

to

be the unadorned

say nothing of the letters between Abgar and

our Lord, nor of the "image not

made with hands."

They who wish

to investigate these accidents of the his-

tory, will refer to the authors

largely discussed.*

by whom they have been But the conversion of Abgar, and
Edessa,

the

early

triumph of the gospel in

may

be

regarded as indisputable.

As a
at a

city,

Edessa appears to

have had the honour of

first

consecrating itself to Christ,

and of adoring him openly,

time

when

the rest of
;

the world persecuted his cause and his servants

a city

which began to verify the prophecies, that
of the earth should worship him.

all

the kings

From
It is

the time

of Abgar' s conversion,

the whole

of

Edessa and the surrounding region became Christianized.
recorded, that over the gate of the city appeared
called the civic profession

what may be

of faith, in the

noble inscription,

XPI2TE O 0EO2 EI2 2E EAniZHN
.

.

.

.

.

.

OTK
The
first

.

AnOTYrXANEI

.

HOTE

Christian church-edifice appears to have been

erected in

Edessa.

Adseus, according to Abul Faraij,
at the

founded such a building

expense of Abgar.

This

* See, for example, the controversy between Tillemont and Dupin. ]Mosheim considers both the letter of Abgarus and his subsequent conversion as historical facts. Commentaries," vol. i.

*•'

38
is

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
said to have been a structure of considerable magnili-

ceiice,

It

aud built upon the model of the Jewish temple. was demolished by the great inundation which so
city in

extensively desolated the

the year 201, in the

reign of Abgar bar
or,

Maanu.*

This

according to Cedrenus, the nephew, of
either never been a Christian, or,

Maanu was the Uchama

son,
;

but

had
has

as one historian

But his son it, had fallen back again to demons. f and successor embraced and held fast the cause of the gospel. Eusebius calls him "a holy man ;" and on some
coins which have remained, his attachment to Christianity appears in the
tiara, instead of

symbol of the cross being worn on the

the stars of Belus, after the

manner of

former kings.

The
no
less

great church of Edessa mrs febuilt

by Justinian
city.

in a style of

much

splendour.

:[;

At that time there were

than two hundred clergy connected with the

* Eadem procella temphim ecclesice Christianorum Bayer. f Under him Thaddeus suffered martyrdom, and was

corruit.

buried in

the great church.

X This edifice, as restored by Justinian, was regarded by the Arabians as one of their "four wonders of the world." These were, the Pharos of Alexandria, the bridge of the Sangia, (})ons Sangice, Jiuv.^ in Mesopotamia,) the church at Edessa, and the Mohammedan temple at Damascus Vide Jacobi Golti noUn in Alfra-

gnnum,

p. 10.3.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
It

39

was here

that, according to the general tradition of

the Syrians, the version of

the Old Testament in their

language, parts of which had been a long time executed
in

Palestine,

received

its

completion.*

However

this

might have, been, many learned men in modern times
have been in-duced to conclude that the Syriac version of
the

New

Testament, or at least of the writings of the

evangelists,

anity,"

says

was accomplished in this city. ''ChristiDr. Burton, " undoubtedly flourished at
This city was a kind of
;

Edessa in very early times.
the Old Syriac version of the
in the first century, as

metropolis of the Christians in that part of Asia

and

if

New Testament was made
critics

some

have supposed, the
the
translation

conjecture

is

not improbable

that

was

made at Edessa. "f Though the Edessene communion
celebrity for the

attained so general a
origin,
its

antiquity of
in

its

numbers,

and
to

its

steadfastness

those

seasons
it

of

persecution

which, in

common with
;

other churches,

had repeatedly
priesthood or

endure

yet history has preserved but few notices of
its

remarkable characters amongst either
people.

One of these was Bardesanes, who was living at the time when Mesopotamia was conquered by the Romans, in 166. He was a native of Edessa, and a man of strong powers of mind, and great eloquence in the Syriac language. Of this, St. Jerome says, it was easy
to

judge from the force and ardour which his writings
retained

still

when rendered

into Greek.

He

is

also said

to have

been deeply versed in the astrological science of

the Chaldeans.

Abgarus,
56.)

He enjoyed who took part in his
first

the personal friendship of
studies.

(Epiphan.

Ilcsres.

At

he was an orthodox member of the church,
Proleg.
xiii.

*

Walton,

sect.

15.

Pococke's Abulphara-

gius, p. 184.
•j-

" Lectures on the

first

Century."

40

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
its

and one of
over,

most eminent preachers.
efifect,

He

wrote, more-

and with

against the

heresy of

Marcion,

which had wreck of

at that time great currency in those regions.

But the days came when Bardesanes himself made shipfaith.

He

fell*

(ahout

1/2) into the errors
to

of Valentin,

upon whose system he appears

have

attempted certain improvements, originating in the vagaries of his

own mind.

He

afterwards saw his error, and
;

refuted the Yalentinian opinions

yet did not return to

the full acknowledgment of the truth, but became the

founder of a party,

who took

the

name

of Bardesanists.

Admitting the inspiration of the Old and
apocryphal books
rection,

New

Testa-

ments, he extended the same divine authority to several
;

he denied the doctrine of the resurhis religious system with a variety

and peopled

of

"eons" and

"principles," after the

manner

of the

oriental heresiarchs.

Harmonius,
sanes,

or

and became a man of similar

Ammonius, was the sou of Bardepublicity. He had stu-

died at Athens, but wrote in his native Syriac, as did his
father
tions
;

whose errors he followed, mixed up with specula-

on the origin of the soul and the metempsychosis,
the

which he had acquired among the philosophers of Greece.

He was
poetic

first

who reduced
and,

the

Syriac
this

language to

numbers,

along with

talent,

he pos-

sessed considerable skill in music, so that his productions
in

both arts

became exceedingly popular among the
airs,

Edessenes.

But these metrical

while they charmed,

tended, as well, to corrupt, the people, by being
vehicle of the wild

made the
of
St.

and injurious sentiments of the pagan

and heretical theologies.

Even
evils

in

the

time

Ephrem,
influence
*

in the fourth century, they retained their public
;

and

to

remedy the

produced by
to

it,

was

So Epiphanius.

Eusebius, however, held him
first.

have been a

Valentinian in s'-ntiment from the

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
one motive
tliat

41

led

him

to

compose a large variety of
Harmonius.
Syrian,"
the
called

hymns, which were adapted

to the airs of

Of

Ephrem, commonly
church

'*the

eminent deacon of Edessa, and instructor, in an extensive sense, of the at large,

much

could be written

here,

did

it

"comport with our restricted limits.

This

illustrious

ornament of the old Syrian communion was a

native

of Nisebin.

He
;

died about the year 3/4.

He

was of an humble family
it,

but his parents, as he expresses

took rank

among

the nobility of the Christians, as

having confessed their Saviour before the judge.

This

occurred, most likely, in the persecution under Diocletian.

Ephrem was

consecrated to

God from
'*
;

the cradle,

and discovered, in his early years, a delight in reading

and meditating upon the holy scriptures
rished by the bread of
life

being nou-

and with the waters of the

eternal fountain of truth."
his a

And though

the career of

youth was not
cause- of

faultless, the recollection of

which was
;

perpetual

contrition in

after-life

yet

the

principles thus imparted in childhood soon asserted their

rooted hold in his heart, and bore, at length, in his

life

and death, the
siastics of his

richest fruits of holiness.

Ephrem was one of the most able and learned eccleown or any succeeding age his character
:

had the features of a bright intelhgence, great devotedness to God, profound humility, an exquisite tenderness
of conscience, and an ample and redundant love
vras
:

his life

long,

replete with sanctified labours,

and crowned
it

with a blessed end.
constant desire to
flee

Though, while

living,

was

his

from the praises of meu, yet no
life

man
time

in his (in one

manner secluded) sphere of
St.

ever

attained a greater reputation.

Jerome

says, that in his

the

works of
that in

revered,

Ephrem were so celebrated and some churches they were read publicly
His multitudinous

for the benefit of the congregations.

42
writings,

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
of which but a too imperfect outHne will be
this

found in another part of
rank among
the church.

volume, soon obtained a

the most eminent uninspired authorities of

Thus, at the commencement of the proceed-

ings against Nestorius, at Constantinople, in 430, they

were appealed to with such a reference

;

and Theodoret,

who

does the same, styles

him

''

the admirable

Ephrem,

the harp of the Holy Spirit, and the channel which had
refreshed the Syrians with the waters of grace."

They
St.

were extensively read in a Greek translation, which

Jerome extolled as retaining the vivacity of the
While many
writers,

original.

in various

languages,

suffer

by

a

translation, their principal claim to attention having been

the circumstances of a flexible dialect, and a rhetorical
skill in
vitfB, in

the use of

it,

there

is

a substantial worth, a vis

the ideas themselves of Ephrem, which secures
reader, in

for

tongue.

them the homage and admiration of the Nor was his own idiomatic style
;

any

deficient in a

certain beauty
critical

and grace on the contrary, to cite the testimony of Photius, " there are found in the
traits of

works of Ephrem such
most of

eloquence as to leave the

reader at a loss to decide, whether his discourse derives
its power from the beauty of his expressions, or the sublimity of his thoughts." *

tion of the

There were several eminent men who had the designa" disciples of St. Ephrem " as Abba, Abra;

ham, Shimon, Marhas of
master himself

Galilee,

and Zenoba.

They

are

mentioned with various degrees of commendation by their
;

and Sozomen, the

historian, states, that

they were held in great estimation by the Syrians,
gloried in having

who

them

for their religious instructors.
if

Ephrem was
the celebrated

the earliest teacher,

not the founder, of
at

School of Edessa,
students
*

one

time the

grand resort of

from surrounding countries.

Biblioihecn. No. cxcvii.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

43

Both Christians and Gentiles here received instruction in
the science and Hterature of the times.

Among

the suc-

cession of teachers, were Acacius, Assyrius, Barsuma,
others,

and

in

whose names and works maybe found enumerated the Conspectus. This school was ruined by Nestorian-

ism, which, finding great favour with the theologians

who

taught there, so as to render the institution

itself,

in the

estimation of the orthodox or dominant party, a strong-

hold of that error, caused

it
:

to

be put

down by

the

emperor Zeno, in the year 489
in effect

the school, however, was

removed

to Nisebin,*

and flourished there
it

for a

considerable period.

On

the subject of scholastic institutions,

has been

recorded, that,

among

the Christians of Edessa, the

know-

ledge of the

word of God was regarded as the basis of all good education. Hence, as Sozomen tells us, it was the
practice in this

"city of benediction," to inculcate an

acquaintance with sacred truths, before introducing their

youth to the study of human

literature.

On

this

account

Edessa maintained, for ages, a high character among the

Ephrem calls it " the Mother of churches of the East " Rufinus, " the City of the Faithful People ;" the Wise
:

;

and Theodoret,
lous,

''

a city which, though great and popuits

had

nothing so considerable as the piety of
that

inhabitants,

made

it

a desirable habitation for the

good, and an object of aversion to the wicked."
=^

NiSEBiisT, a strong city, of great antiquity, in Mesopotamia, said

Achad where Nimrod reigned. (Gen. x. 10.) The Jews had a rabbinical school there of some repute ; but that of the Christians attained much celebrity. It was founded by Narses, the year Narses was followed after the subversion of the academy at Edessa. in the rectorship by a succession of eminent doctors ; as Maraba, JumiPaul, Jesujabus Arzunita, Abraham of Cascara. and others. lius, an ancient bishop, wrote, that at Nisebin the divine law was
to

be the

expounded by public
rhetoric or science.

professors, just as in other places they taught

The modern town, which

stands near the ruins
or

of the old one,

is

called

by the Syrians Soba, and Nasebin

Nesbeen

by the Arabs.

44

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

SELEUCIA AND CTESIPHON.
These
from
land,
Persia,
cities, like

Babylon and Bagdad, in other days,

their central position in the ancient world, became,

both by water, by the Tigris and Euphrates, and by

through
India,
:

innumerable
China,
this

caravans,

the

emporia of
Africa,

the

west

of Asia,

and

Europe

it

was

which gave them an importance and

splendour which they lost when the commerce of the

world flowed into other channels.
Babylon, having been the metropolis of Chaldsea, forfeited

much

of

its

consequence when that country became
Alexander, indeed,
it

a mere district of the Persian empire.

had announced his intention of making
his

the capital of
it

immense
it

territories,

and of giving

a

brilhance

greater than

had ever

disj^layed.

But, after his untimely

death,

Seleucus Nicator,' one of his lieutenants, having
Asia,

become master of that part of
city of Seleucia,

founded in the same
expence of Babylon

neighbourhood, near the western bank of the Tigris,* the

which rose

at the

;

and, subsequently, the establishment of a town on the east
side

of the river,

which took the name of Ctesiphon,t
for a time

gave an additional blow to the old metropolis, which,

though renovated
soon
fell

by the patronage of Trajan,
;j:

into irretrievable decay.

Seleucia, in

community with the

sister city,

soon became

a place of great rank, and the seat of the court alternately

with Antioch.
Christian era,

A hundred and
it fell

forty years

before the

hands of the Parthians, and was at length taken from them by Trajan and again, under M. Aurclius, by Cassius, who burned Seleucia, and
into the
;

massacred forty thousand of the inhabitants
stroke
it

:

from

this

never fully recovered.
A,
p. 53.

It

was brought under the

* See note

f Written by the Syrians, Katispon. ^ See note B, p. 53.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Maliomednn yoke by the caliph Omai'
dation of Bagdad,
fell
;

45

and, by the founlike its ancient

in

its

own

turn,

predecessors, into final ruin.

The Syrian writers sometimes call Seleucia and Ctesiphon, Medith'6 ArsJiocitho, " the cities of the Arsacides," a
Parthian dynasty
cities."
;

and sometimes simply Medith'6, " the
two
cities

In a similar manner the Arabians called them

Almoda'in,

" the

;

" and hence their modern

name Modaina.
Here, from the primeval days of the gospel, a church

had

existed, which,
trials,

though often shaken by a succession
remained for ages one of the most
of Christianity in those coun-

of formidable

considerable
tries.

monuments

By

the constant testimony of the Eastern ecclesiastical
it

writers,

appears, as
first

apostle

was the

we have seen, that St. Thomas the who fully preached the doctrines of

the cross in Mesopotamia, Assyria, and Persia, and that the earlfest Christian settlements in those lands were of
his planting
:

hence he

is

always placed at the head of

their several series of spiritual rulers.

But

it

was Mares,

a

companion of Adseus, of the seventy disciples, to whom is attributed the founding of the church of Seleucia, of
first

which, too, he has been ever reputed the
This

bishop.

man

already

of whom a short notice has been given, was " in labours more abundant " and
of God,
;

upwards of three hundred churches are said
the fruit of his evangelic toils.*

to

have been

He was

succeeded in the episcopate by Abres,
;

who had

been his disciple

and who, being
was

at

Antioch at the time

of the death of Mares,

called,

by a legation from
take the seat of his

the Christians of the two

cities, to

master

:

he held the

office sixteen

years,

and was buried

in the church at Seleucia.
*

Bar HebrjEus.

46

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
The next bishop was Abraham,
said to have been

related to the family of James, the brother of our Lord.

Of him

a tradition has been

handed doAvn,

that,

by having

cast out a

demon from

a servant of the krng of Persia, he

was instrumental in allaying a persecution which that monarch was waging against the Christians. He governed
the church twelve years.

Abraham was followed by Jacob,

or James,

who had

been ordained by Jose, the bishop of Jerusalem, and who
held the episcopate for eighteen years A.D. 139.
:

he died about
in 162,

His successor was

was followed
This

Achadabues, who, by Schiachlupha.
was the
first

bishop

who,

according

to

Bar

Hebrseus, took the
title

name

of cathoUcos or "primate ;" * a
;

which was

also

assumed by three others

those,

namely, of Persia, Armenia, and Iberia, v>ith an implied
subjection in certain matters to the bishop, or, as he was

afterwards styled, the patriarch, of Antioch.

But when

the Nestorian controversy had issued in the formation of
a

new communion, the

catholicos of Seleucia assumed, in
:

498, the full dignity of patriarch

he henceforth exerted
till

an authority over- the catholicos of Persia,
year 1.580,

about the
its

when

the church in that country resumed

ancient independency.

In the time of Papas,
."^26,

who was bishop from 247

till

the heresy of the Manichees let in a flood of evil
of the Eastern churches.

upon many

According to the

Chronicle of Edessa, Manes, the founder of this sect, was

born in the year 240

:

his

original

name was Rubric

a Persian slave by birth, he was ransomed, and adopted
in childhood,

by a lady who provided him with a long by the oriental philosophers.

course of instruction in the learning and occult science
so

much
*

affected

Through

The bishop

of Seleucia was so recognised at the council of Nice.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
her
lie

4/

obtained possession, also, of the writings * of a
;

renowned magos, named Terbinthus
thought he derived
widely

from which

it

was

many of the dogmas he afterwards so promulgated. Endowed with ample resources by
Mahomet

the death of his patroness, and actuated by an ambition

akin to that which, at a later day, brought out

on his yet more successful

career,

he announced himself as
promise made by Christ

a divine teacher, or, in fact, as the Paraclete himself, the

Holy Spirit who, according
to his disciples,

to the

should come.

Extravagant as were these
(as

pretensions,

they were,

nevertheless,

in

numerous

succeeding instances, so telling as to the weakness of our
nature,) submitted to by multitudes.
trines thus invested

The system of doc-

with a factitious importance, and which

spread with a kind of preternatural rapidity, was based

upon the great principle of the Eastern theosophy, the of two co-eternal, independent, and opposing beings the good, the Author of virtue and happiness, and the'EA^iL, the author of sin and misery; and was composed of notions borrowed from most of the great
existence
;

schemes

of religion which

attention of mankind.

had hitherto occupied the The miraculous powers professed
were

by

this heresiarch, as the credentials of his mission,

at length

put to a

test

which could not be evaded.

He

received a requirement from Sapor,f the king of Persia,
to heal a child of his

who was

suffering

from a disease
Manes, com-

which had

baffled the resources of medicine.

* These, according to Socrates Sch., consisted of four books, entitled,

"Mysteries," " The Gospel,"

"The
i.

Common
tolic day.

Places." (Hist. Eccles. torn.

cap. 22.)

Treasury," "Heads, or Terbinth himself

was the scholar of Scythianus, one of

the older Gnostics of the apos-

—Du Val on Eusebius,

cap. vii. p. 31.

is

Hist, de S. Leon, liv. i. So also Bayle. This Greek tradition. Bar Hebragus speaks with uncertainty ; and the more common belief among the orientals is, that Manes perished not under Sapor, but Varennes I.
the

f Maimbourg,

48

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
it

mitted to the task, undertook

with apparent confidence,

and demanded that

all

physicians should be dismissed

from the court, assuring the king that the cure should
be effected by a supernatural power
;

but the child died,

and Sapor threw the impostor into prison.
for

Manes

suc-

ceeded in effecting his escape, and carried on his designs

some time

in

Mesopotamia
lies

;

but was retaken at

last

by the agents of the king, and put
But the system of
of
in establishing, outlived its author

to a miserable death.

which he had been so successful
;

and, by a

new order
powerful

"

apostles,

evangelists,"

&c,,

developed a

social

organization, both in Asia

and Europe, and conyears.

tinued to act as one of the great antagonisms to Christian truth for nearly five

hundred

Among many
ever,

of the churches of Mesopotamia,
evil

how-

the growing

was materially checked, in the
zeal

life-time of

Manes, by the able

of Archelaus, bishop

of Cascar,

who met

the false prophet in public discussion*.

The
in

particulars of one of those occasions
article in Tillemont's

may

be found

an interesting

Memoires Eccle-

siastiques, (vol. iv.)

drawn up from Epiphanius, Cyril of
This discussion took place at
:

Jerusalem, and the work which was written on the subject

by Archelaus himself.*

Cascar, in the presence of the chief persons of the city

four umpires, Marsippus, Claudius, Egialus, and Cleobulus,
all

learned Gentiles, had been

chosen in preference to

Christians, to set a verdict in favour of the arguments of

Archelaus

above the suspicion of partiality or collusion.

The

result of the discussion

was the triumph of Christianity
Cascar,

in that neighbourhood.

After his retreat from

Manes

established himself in a populous place in the
;

same

diocese, called Diodorida

and, in a series of public dis-

putes with the presbyter there, had well nigh silenced
*

First written in Syriac.

A

Latin translation

is

appended

to

Valesius's edition of Sozomcn.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
him
:

49
he pro-

but,

on an appeal being made

to Archelaus,

ceeded thither, and rendered the same service to the cause
of truth as at Cascar.

The pubHcation of those debates

both in the Syrian and Greek languages, saved not a few

from the snares of the Manicheans.
Several of the bishops of Seleucia and Ctesiphon were

distinguished religious writers.

Among

these, Dodjesu,

Annojesu,
scripture.

and

Ebedjesu were
or

commentators on
bishop
;

holy

Shimon,

Symeon,

and

martyr,

wrote

hymns

for the use of the

church

Sabarjesu com-

posed an Ecclesiastical History, of which some portions
are
still

preserved in the Vatican

;

and Achseus recorded
;

the dying triumphs of the martyrs

the Commentaries of Theodore of Mopsuestia
jabus, Surin,

Maanes translated and Jesu;

and Jesu-bar-nun excelled in controversial
with most of the other Syrian churches,

and dogmatic theology.
In

common

that of Seleucia
secution.'

and Ctesiphon was heavily
first

tried

by per-

On
:

the

introduction of the faith into that
offered

region,

no opposition was power

on the part of the

secular

Artabanes, the then reigning king of the

Parthians, being too intent on prosecuting the wars in

which he was engaged,

left

the Christians unmolested.

The

influence of Abgarus, prince of Edessa,
in their favour
;

much
great.

would also be and under these circumstances, the
far off

gospel having free course, the multitude of believers was

But the days were not

was

to

be tried by a fiery ordeal.

Christianity

when their sincerity The opposition to which Trajan had begun to show while in
and
in these cities, as well as

Italy, displayed itself in greater force in the various stages

of his Eastern expedition
at

;

Antioch and Edessa, the blood of martyrs was poured

out.

In the great persecution which raged under Decius,
the Christians of the East were called to sustain a dread-

50

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
;

ful fight of afflictions

for,

that ferocious

enemy of the

truth,

by methods the most barbarous, destroyed multi-

tudes of his best subjects.

The array of

cruelty employed

in the accomplishment of this insane project, was truly
diabolical
;

while the wheels of torture, the teeth of wild

beasts, lead

and wax in burning

fusion, boiling

oil,

tenter-

hooks, and similar inventions, were applied to the task of

wearing out the saints of the Most High.

Among the
fessed Christ,

Eastern martyrs of this period was Babylas,

the fore-mentioned bishop of Antioch, who, having con-

was put in

irons,

and died

in prison, having

intimated his wish to be buried in the chains in which he
expired.

Alexander, also, the aged bishop of Jerusalem,
at

was presented
tine
;

the tribunal of the governor of Pales-

and, having already confessed Christ, forty years

before, in the persecution of Severus,

had now the glory

of doing this a second time, and of confirming his testi-

mony

with his death

:

he was thrown into prison, where
left at

he died in irons.
librar^f,

He

Jerusalem an ecclesiastical

which he had

collected with laborious care.

The

celebrated Origen was then also in

prison for Christ,

laden with chains, and wearing an iron collar.

Subjected

to repeated torture, he not only remained steadfast
self,

him-

but wrote various exhortations to sustain the patience

of his suffering brethren.

During the expedition of the emperor Cams, and his
son Numcrian, the oriental Christians were again put to
the test of endurance by the tyranny of a foe as malig-

nant as he was powerful.
Kothe,

and Ctesiphon,
;

v^ere

The cities of Edessa, Seleucia, made scenes of relentless

butchery

till,

as

if

Heaven

for

the

preservation

by an interposition of avenging of the remnant of the

church, the imperial persecutor was struck dead by a
thunderbolt. This occurred at Ctesiphon,* in the year 283.
*

December

25th.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Persecution was heavy also in Diocletian's time
especially
;

51

and

under the administration of the semi-barbarian

Maximiu, who, in the former part of the fouith century,
the government of the East. This man had a drunken imagination of being more zealous for the revivisceuce of Paganism than his predecessors, Vvho, in comparison with him, appear to have been under the influence

held

of

some measure of humanity.

But the longest
of

trial

of

this afflictive

kind, to which the churches

Chaldea
for blood

and Persia were subjected, was the inquisition
carried

on by Sabor, or Sapores, king of
a. d.

Persia,

and

which lasted from

330
It

to 370, or during the dismal

length of forty years.
this unparalleled effort

appears from Sozomen, that
first

was

instigated by the Je\vs,

who,

at Ctesiphon,

as in other places,

showed an inexIn conjunc-

tinguishable hatred to the Christian cause.
tion with

some of the leading Magi, they denounced the venerable Shimon Barsabai,''' the then bishop, as guilty of political intrigues with the Roman emperor this led to a
:

long
levied

succession

of intolerable
Christians
;

tributes

and

exactions

upon the
;

the confiscation of their proof their ministers
; ;

perty

the imprisonment

the over-

throw of their and death.
dislike

religious edifices

desolation,

bloodshed,

In the case of Shimon, the real ground of

against

him appeared

in

the fact, that though
life

arraigned as a traitor, he was, nevertheless, promised

and honours on condition of
sun.

his offering adoration to the

On

the day

when he

finally confessed the Saviour,

one hundred other Christians, including several bishops,
presbyters,

and

inferior clergy, received,

with himself, the

palms of martyrdom.

Shimon, whose death was reserved

for the last, stood the spectator of the scene,

bound

in

the same chain with Abdechala and Ananin, the senior
*

Sozomen,

after the

Greek manner,

calls

him "Symeon,

arch-

bishop."

D 2

02

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
;

presbyters of the church
trine

and in a subHme

strain of doc-

and exhortation encouraged

his dying people to hold

fast their steadfastness, that they

might be partakers with

Christ.*

After he had witnessed the last ratification of their fidelity,

his

of blood.

own death consummated the work of that day " For thy sake are we killed all the day long
:

we

are accounted as sheep for the slaughter."

Among

the

" names of the " innumerable multitude

wdio in the course of the same conflict were subsequently

joined to the

army of the martyrs,
Marcas,

are those of Tarbula,

the sister of Shimon, and the bishops Barsima, Paul,

Gadiabes,

Sabinus,

Mocius,

John,

Hormisda,

Roma, Maxres, Aga, Bochres, Abdia, In the course of this Ab'djesu, Abram, and Milles. persecution, which was checked at last by the remonstrances of Constantine, the historian Sozomen says, that
Papas,
Jacob,

seventeen thousand persons
victims, besides
collected.

of consideration

fell

as its

multitudes whose names had not been
test

The

throughout appears to have been the

worship of the sun.

The
of

early part

of the fourth century was

marked

in

the annals of the eastern churches by the establishment

MoNACHiSM.

This institution, which soon became,

both in the East and West, so deplorable a caricature of
Christianity,

was founded

in

Egypt

in the year 305,

and
soli-

introduced into Palestine and Syria by the famous
tary,
;

whose disciple Aones or Eugenius comHilarion menced the system in Mesopotamia, at the afterwards celebrated monastery of Mount Izla, near Nisebin. These brief recollections bring us down to the period

when

the Christian societies of this

part of Asia took

* Et sacrarum scripturarum testimonio ostendebat hoc quidem modo mortem oppe'ere veram esse vitam : Deum vero prae ignavid prodere mortem esse certissimam, ^c.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
that

53
in

new developement,

-which

set

them

a state of

separation from the Byzantine and Latin churches, and

rendered them a distinct communion of themselves.

Note A, page 44. The city of Seleucia was not built upon the Tigris, but about a league from the river, on a canal which communicated between it and the Euphrates. The ruins on the western bank of the Tigris, (opposite to those of Ctesiphon,) which are mentioned by some travellers as those of Seleucia, .are in reality the remains of Koche or
close

Coca, a city of far greater antiquity. Ctesiphon, also, according to St. Ephrem, (Comment, in Genesim,) occupied the site of a very ancient settlement called Chalene. There are three other places to which the name of Seluk, town in 1. or Seleucia, is given by the Jacobite waiters Isauria ; 2. Another in Syria, now called Pieria, at the embrochure of the Orontes ; 3. Seleucia Beli, to the south of
:

A

Antioch. Note B, page 44. All this part of Mesopotamia is strewed with the debris of cities and towns, Babylonian, Persian, Greek, Roman, and Arab, confounded in similar ruin. Adrien Balbi has well observed, that their edifices, from the nature of the country, could not conveniently be built of marble, but of bricks, made of the native argillaceous clay, with bitumen and lime. These, though capable, in architectural masses, of producing very imposing effects, as appears by the testimony of ancient writers, were not adapted for those delicate details of sculpture which gave such a finish to the more enduring marbles of the western cities. But by facility of transport, when one of these Babylonians settlements fell, its materials served for the one which replaced it elsewhere a circumstance that accounts in a great measure for the comparative paucity of the remains now found on sites once unquestionably crowded with prodigious assemblages of

buildings.

54

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

THE NESTORIANS.
I.

ORIGIN OF THEIR DOCTRINAX ERROR.

theological dogma Mtiicli lirts been associated \\ith name of Nestorius, and which effected so vast and permanent a schism in the oriental church, did not originate

The

the

\Tith that prelate

;

for;

about ten years

earlier,

Leporius,

a

member

of some monastery in Gaul, had broached the
St.

same doctrine, but, having been refuted by

Augustine,

had published a retractation of
Nestorius appear also
to

it.*

The opinions of

have been formed under the

influence of his master, the eminent Theodore, bishop of

Mopsuestia, a most voluminous writer, and a commentator of pre-eminent repute in

those days

;

but a divine
verities

whose
time

principles, in relation to

some of the great

of revelation, were such as would be classed in our
v»'ith

own

those distinguished by the term "rationalism."
to have been the forerunner of a school, the

He seems
members

of which have not scrupled to consider the teach-

ings of holy writ amenable to the sovereign tribunal of

human

reason

;

does not agree in
tions of the

and every discovery of revelation which all respects with the dictates and prescripof man, capable of being modified so as

mind

to produce such a conformity.

In the course of his investo the task of divest-

tigations

Theodore appUed himself

ing the glorious and awful reality of
of whatever
inscrutable.

the incarnation
as mysterious

had hitherto been regarded

and

He

considered this to be a service to the

cause of truth, by removing a stumbling-block to the

conversion of the more intelligent Pagans,

who

affected to

be either shocked or amused by the idea of '*a God having
a

mother,"

"a God
'

three

months

old,"

and "a

Aug.

Ep'mt. 219.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
God who
could die
!

00

"

The wise and holy men who had

been the instructors of the church for more than three hundred years, had never dared to attempt bringing

down
had

to

the

and enfeebled reason that divine
declared' to

handhng and inspection of man's limited fact, which inspiration
be
''

without controversy a great mys;

But Theodore had essayed to do this and in " In the estimation of his disciples had succeeded the womb of the virgin was conceived by the Holy Ghost
tery."*
:

that

Son of Man, in whom,

as in

a temple, the divine

Word

dwells as a perpetual inhabitant."
;

Hence, he

who

was born was the ma7i and not the God and he who died, the same. This certainly was sufficiently simple and
inteUigible
tion
;

nevertheless,

however paradoxical the

asser-

may

seem,

these
;

very pretensions condemned the

theory as untrue
explicitly

for,

where the word of God has so
as a
*'

announced the subject

great mystery,"

the Christian believer feels himself obligated to reject a
doctrine- which

would prove
II.

it

to be the reverse.

NESTORIUS.
this

Nestorius, with
wards so universally
tery near

whom

doctrine became afterto a

identified,

had belonged

monas-

Antioch.

His character

had been not only
excellence
;

irreproachable, but adorned with
in the offices of catechist

much

and

and preacher, he had become

widely

known

as a zealous antagonist of

many

prevailing

errors of the time.

Habituated to a

life

of self-denial

and indefatigable study,
ness of expression, which
ries of

is

and endowed with a copioussaid to have called up memothe place
of
Sisinnius,

the eloquence of Chrysostom, his elevation to the
in

see

of Constantinople,

was

regarded as an auspicious event for that great diocese.
Soon, however, the hopes of the faithful were changed
* 1

Tim.

iii.

16.

56

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES^.
for the

into apprehensions

cause of truth

itself,

which

seemed

to be

now

in danger of betrayal

by the man who

had been esteemed as one of its ablest defenders. Nestorius did not propound his doctrine fully art the outset, but commenced by an attack upon a custom in many respects certainly questionable in itself, and liable to serious abuses and the discussion of which naturally led to the
;

the more complete developcment of his own opinions usage, namely, which had become established in the
;

Virgin the

Greek and Latin churches, of applying to the blessed The title of 0sor6>co§, or " Mother of God."

reverence and honour so undeniably due to the

her

who was "most

blessed

memory among women," had even
its

of
at

that period been exaggerated far beyond

proper limits,

and was rapidly verging upon that absurd and guilty creature-worship, which soon became one of the distinctive

features of the church's

apostasy.
title

How justifiable

soever might have been such a
logic principles,
yet,

used in the apostolic
ture-precedent,

upon abstract theoinasmuch as it had been neither age, nor warranted by direct scripwas, moreover, capable of leading

and

as

it

to injurious misapprehensions in the

minds of the simple

and unlearned,

as well

as of presenting a distorted view

of Christianity to the eyes of the numerous philosophic
spiritualists of the Platonic

and Alexandrine

schools, so as

to create an invincible objection to their reception of the gospel, the choice of it at the first, and the subsequent maintenance of it as a sort of catholic " shibboleth,"

must be rightly considered only as a calamity. Nestorius did not commence the aggressive

in person,

but employed a monk, named Anastasius, an early friend
of his at Antioch, to attack from the pulpit the favourite
title

of the Virgin.

By

this plan the

bishop

first

appeared

in the matter, not as the direct
prejudice, but as an

impugner of the popular

authoritative judge on a subject of

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
controversy.

.>/

Anastasius

performed the task

assigned
effect

him
was

in an
to

elaborate train of

argument

;

but the

shock rather than convince the
All

minds of

his

auditors.

men

looked at once to Nestorius,

who was

not slow to give a decision in favour of the preacher, and
to follow

up

this

first

stroke himself by a series of dis-

courses in which he affirmed the correctness of the views

unfolded by his friend, and entered largely into a defence
of them.

[In his sermon, delivered on Christmas-day, a. d. 42v^,

he speaks to
birth to a
flesh.
all
;

this
;

effect

:

— " No,
which

Mary hath not given
born of the
being,
flesh
is

God

for that

is

A

creature could not bring forth the Creator of

but she brought forth a

human

who was an
afterwards

instrument or temple of the Deity."
''

And

In the resurrection

of Christ,
I
it
;

God
I

resuscitated that

in

which he was incarnate.
of

adore the vestment

on
is

account

him who wears
sake of the

adore

that which

external- for the

God who

dwells inseparably

within it."

And

in another, delivered in the beginning

of January, apparently on the day of the Epiphany, he
argues, that it was wrong to say, that the Divine Word was born of Mary, or that he died for those accidents
;

could be affirmed only of the
dwelt.
views.]

man

in

whom

the

Word

These references will show what were really his
advocate of Constantinople,

An

named
first

Eusebius, then

a laic, but

afterwards bishop of Dorylea, took the lead

against Nestorius.
subject,

At the bishop's

sermon on the

he denounced the doctrine as heretical in the
;

open congregation
against
it,

and, shortly after, put forth a protest

addressed to the whole church, in which he

pointed out the contrariety of the

new

doctrine to that of

the established symbols of faith and the teaching of the
fathers.

Nestorius, in reply, admitted the correctness of

D

5

58
the
authorities

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
which
his

adversary

had

alleged,

but

denied that they were applicable to the subject under
consideration.

They proved the

belief of the

church in

the supreme Divinity of our Lord, but that was a truth

which he had never denied

;

but he maintained that

all

such passages were to be understood of the divine nature,

and not of the humanity, of Jesus Christ.
observed at once, that in this distinction of

It will

be

two Per;

sons

in the Saviour, the heresy of Nestorius consisted

a distinction unheard
therefore be refuted
ble,

of

till

then, and which could not
to the ancients.

by appeals

So pkusi-

however, wx^e the arguments and illustrations by
it

which

was

set forth, that the

opinion was speedily em-

braced by

many

iu Constantinople, and, in a short time,

owing mainly
triumphant.

to adventitious causes, became almost The imperial court sided with Nestorius

his disciples w-ere zealously active in the dissemination of
his doctrines,

and numerous copies of

circulated in the East

his discourses were and West, and so multiplied by the

labours of the monastic pen, as soon to occupy the attention of the entire theological world.
III.

DOCTRINE OF THE INCARNATION.
thus brought out by Nestorius presented a
reign of

The dogma
new
pliasis

in the

human

error regarding the

person of our Saviour.

The

early Gnostics, so far

back

as the lime of the apostles themselves, denied the reality

of his incarnation

;

and taught that
sufferings,

his appearance

and

agency among men, his
tion,

death,

and resurrec•'

were merely phantasmal or visionary.

Sabellius,

an Egyptian bishop in the third century,

like his

master

Nootus, in endeavouring to explain the mystery of the

Holy Trinity, maintained that the Father, Son, and Holy
*

Hence

the

name sometimes
to

is

given them of Doceta

;

from the

Greek

Zok^lv,

"to seem,

appear."

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES,

59

Ghost were but one and the same Person, with three
names, and manifesting himself under three economical
or official relations.

Hence, according to him, the per-

son of the Redeemer vras essentially that of

God

the

Father, on which account the followers of Sabellius were
called
'^

Patripassians," or such as believed that the Father

suffered.

In the following century, Arius, in his proof
this

fessed horror

opinion,

fell

into

the disastrous

heresy which has been ever since distinguished by his

name, and taught the essential inferiority of the Son to
the Father
;

arguing,

not from the supreme and only

lawful authority of revelation, but by the wavering dictates of a

partially-enlightened reason

;

that, since the

Father

who

begat

must have had a

priority of
latter could

being
not be

before the

Son who was begotten, the

eternal, nor, consequently, in the absolute sense, divine.

In the progress of this controversy, which convulsed the
universal church, Apollinarius, a bishop of Latakia, while

he " earnestly contended for the faith 'once delivered to
the

saints" on the supreme Divinity of our Lord, was
literal

betrayed into the error of denying his

humanity

;

not, indeed, in the old Gnostical sense, but

by maintainthe

ing that the Saviour did not possess a
divine nature supplying within

human mind,
who

him

the place, so to speak,
be-

of the rational soul

;

while Photinus, and those

lieved him, held that the Messiah was simply and purely

a man, yet favoured in an extraordinary

manner with the
all

presence

of

the

Deity.

But divergent from
in

these

lines of error

was that into which the mind of Nestorius
;

had been

beguiled

that

the constitution of

our

Saviour there are two Persons, (one, the eternal and co-

equal Son of

God

;

the other, the

man

Jesus,) not

hypo-

statically united,

but each person subsisting per

se, indivi-

dually and distinctly.
this

Now,
truth,

to

dogma from

the

mark the variation of we must remember thiat

60
diviue

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
revelation

most

clearly
is

that the

Saviour of
is

mankind
as really

really

makes known, first, and truly God
;

secondly, that he

and truly man

thirdly,

that he has therefore a two-fold nature,, the divine

and
and,

the

human

;

the one pre-existent and eternal, the other
;

conceived by the Holy Ghost, and born of the Virgin

fourthly, that, nevertheless, these tw^o natures constitute,

in a

manner
the

altogether inexplicable,

one Person,

wdio

is

Christ.

On
i.

first

of

these propositions compare the fol:

lowing classes of scriptures
2,

a.

John
xxii.

i.

i

with Heb. 6;
iii.
;

i.

10

— 12;
1


3.

3

;

1

John
Isai.
h.

Rev.
vi.

13;

xxi.

6;
2.
1

xliv.

xlviii.

12,

with
X.

Tim.

16; Psalm xc.
i.

Phil.
iv.

21

;

John
23
i.
;

28—30;
xi.

2 Peter
;

c.
;

Cor.
ii.

5

Rev.
;

ii.

Matt.
;

27
6

John
Heb.

vi.

46

John
1

24, 25

Acts
i.

24

1

Cor.

iv. 4, 5.
;

d.
i.

Col.

i.

16,
e.

17; John

3,

10;
xiv.
5'9
;

1

Cor.

viii.

10;

iii.

4.
1

John
i.

V.

23;
ii.

1,
;

13,-14; Matt,
2 Cor.
xii.

xxviii.
1
i.

19;

Cor.
11
i.
;

2;

Acts

vii.

8;
Cor.
;

Thess.

iii.

2 Thess.

16, 17

Rom.
8
i.
;

i.

7

;

1

3

;

2 Cor.
viii.

Eph.
1

iii.

6

;

Isai. xlii.

Jer. xvii. 5

1

Cor.

4

2; 6
;

Thess.

V.

9; Heb.

6;
ii.

Phil.

ii.

10; Rev.
ii.

v. 8,

14;
;

2 Tim.
1

iv.

14.

/. Phil.

6

;

Col.
;

9

;

John
i.

xx. 28
8.
viii.
;

John
Tim.
3
; ;

v.

20
ii.

;

Rom.
Heb.
Acts

v. 20,
ii.

21

ix.

5

;

Heb.
v.

Prop.
1
i.

10, 15,

11;

John
1
ii.

27;

40;

ii.

5; Rom.
5
;

v.
xiii.

19;
;

Cor. xv.

21

Rom.

ix.

23
4

Luke
5

52

;

Matt. xxvi.

38

Luke xxiv. 37—40. Prop. hi. Rom. i. 3,

;

ix.

;

John

vi.

62

;

viii.

14

;

iii.

11—13
Prop.
(1.)

;

Heb.
Li

vii.

28.
this

iv.

making
\oyoc,

known,

inspiration

de-

clares,

That in the incarnation the Son
6

of
14.

God
(2.)

became

man,

cr«p^ zyzvzTo,

John

i.

Hence that the self-same Redeemer who is God, is likewise man. Observe, for example, the way of speaking in

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Hebrews
i.,

61

where, to him who, verse

8, is called

God,
;

it is

said, verse 9,

'^Thy

God hath anointed thee,"
i.

&c.

and, (3,)
is

That, on the other hand, the self-same Jesus
is

who

man
:

LIKEWISE God, Rom.

3 compared with chap.

ix. 5

not simply (as taught by the heresy under notice) a
in

man
himattri-

whom God
God.*

dwelt, but hypostatically

and

really

self

So to Jesus Christ, as the Christ, the

butes and perfections of the Deity are ascribed as personally his

own

;

while actions, states,
to

and properties
are predi-

which physiologically belong
cated of his

Godhead

;

just as

human nature, when qualities

or things
to his

are affirmed of an entire

man, which belong only

soul, or only to his corporeal frame.

In this manner of

speaking revelation declares, that the individual person

who was

also God that He who was subsisting " form of God, became obedient to the death of the cross;" (Phil. ii. 7;) that the Lord of
flesh

was

;

{{)7cap')(^o)v)

in the

Glory was crucified, and the Prince of Life was killed.

In a word,

He " who was

the brightness of the Father's

glory and the express image of his person, and upholding
all

things by the word of his power,"
sins."

He

it

was who " by

HIMSELF purged our

(Heb.

i.

3.)

A

passage to

which, as an eminent expositor f remarks, the hypostati" For of whom does the apostle cal union is the only key
:

speak,

when he

says,

'

When
who

he had by himself purged
is
'

our

sins,'

but of him

the brightness of the

Father's glory, and the express image of his person?'

He,

'

by himself, purged our

sins

;

'

yet this was done

by

the shedding of his blood."
* Col.
ii.

In that higher nature, howall

9.

" For
is,

in

him dwelleth

the fuhiess of the
*

Godhead

and substantially. Sw/uan/cws Vere, (says Glassius,) perfectissimt Est inhabitatio ilia et unio personalis. •\- Rev. R. Watson. To the same effect Cyril of Alexandria "The Divine Logos is immortal in his own nature. He is life itself; but because the body, which is his own, suffered, we say that he himself suffered and died," &c Epist. 2, ad Nestor,
really
:

BODILY

;" that

62
ever,

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
he could not sufFer death
;

and nothing could make

the sufferings of his humanity a purification of sins by

himself but such a union as should constitute one person

The matter thus brought
which enters

into controversy was,
;

it

will

be seeu, very far from a mere question of words
essentially into the
itSclf.

but one

modus

ojierandi of the

ATONEMENT

A

careful

study of the foregoing scriptures will also

show how accurately the church of England has enunciated the true doctrine

on the Person of our Saviour in
is

her second

i\.rticle

:

*'

The Son, which

the

Word

of the

Father, the very and eternal God, of one substance with

the Father, took man's nature in the
Virgin,

womb

of the blessed

of her substance
is

;

so that
say, the

the two whole

perfect natures, that

to

and Godhead and manvery man."

hood, were joined together in one person, never to be
divided, whereof is one Christ, very

God and

These terms are perfectly accordant with those of the
great Confessions of antiquity.

So the Creed called the
confess,

Athanasian

:

"

We

believe

and
is

that our Lord

Jesus Christ, the Son of God,

God and man.

God, of

the substance of the Father, begotten before the v/orlds

and man, of the substance of
world.
soul

his

mother, born in the

Perfect God,

and perfect man, of a reasonable
;

and human flesh subsisting who, although he be God and man, yet is not two but one Christ God, not
;

by the conversion
ing of the

of the

Godhead

into fiesh, but

by takFor, as

manhood

into

God

:

one altogether, not by

confusion of substance, but by unity of person.
the reasonable soul and flesh are one man, so

God and
fathers of

man

are one Christ."

And
:

in like

manner the

the council of Chalcedon

"

We

confess, with one voice,
;

one only and the same Jesus Christ our Lord
perfect
in

the same

Godhead, perfect in manhood

;

truly

God and

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
truly

63
a

man,
:

tlie

same composed of a reasonable soul and

body

consubstantial with the Father as to the Divmity,
;

consubstantial with us as to the humanity
like us, sin

in all things

excepting
t^yo

One only Son Jesus

Christ,

the

Lord, in

natures without confusion,
;

without

change, without division, without separation

the union

making no
sole

difference in the natures
is

;

but, on the contrary,

the property of each

preserved, and concurs in one
;

person and one sole hypostasis

so that
is

he

is

not
sole

divided nor separated into tv/o persons, but

one

and only Son,

tlic

GodAVord, our Lord Jesus
maintained that the

Christ.'"^

man Jesus, born of the holy Virgin, was another person from the Divine Y\^ord, who dwelt in Him. He regarded the visible
NoY>^ Nestorius

Christ, not

(by reason of a substantial union

with the

Deity) to be 0=o^,

"God," but

anSpooTro^ ^so^popMv, ''a

man
or

bearing God."

He

did not acknowledge the
;

hcti<ris,

" adunation " of the two natures in Jesus
that thermion of the
^otpaa-Tixcnv,

but taught

Godhead with the humanity was xctra companionship;" xoiTu yjxpiv aui svooxiuv^ "by grace and good-will;" Kara. rauToSovKiav xcci svepysiuv, " by oneness of sentiment and operation;" and xotr ct^nxv kui la-oTi^iuv, " by an elevation of the human nature to a participation of divine dignity." The fact of the incarnation, in his vievv', did not consist in the natural and substantial union of the Divine Word with the manhood, but the inhabi-

"by

a species of intimate

tation

of the

Word
;

in

the

human

nature

of Jesus,

as

by itself a simple indwelling, as a God in a temple. The early Syrian followers of Nestorius were fond of illustrating this kind of union by a variety of
subsisting

analogies

;

as

that,

for
;

example, between

the

monarch
or the

and the purple robe
red
;

or that of the fire with iron heated

or a vestment with the
*

body of the wearer
lib. ii. cap. 4.

;

ri(/^EvAGiiii Hist, Eccl.

64

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
tlie

diadem with

bead

;

or the king with his ambassador

;

or friend with friend.

According to them,

it

was Hke

the union between the faculty of thought and the voice
or the writing which gives
it

expression

;.

or the sun

and
his

the mirror, which becomes itself an orb of glory
rays
;

by

or the pearl and the eye, which catches

its

image

or the signet with the wax, or the ring with the finger
all

forms and modes of union that,

it

will be observed,

are either accidental or conventional, or moral, or affective,

and not

essential, hypostatic, or substantial.

Hence,
''

also,

such words in their language as ^loo) usia,
)ZoZ).J
ithutkaf "essence fix

sub-

stance;"
fy

or

existence;"

p

}i.»3

hjona,

person,"

"nature;" jsc^ip hiuma, "hypostasis or when used in reference to Jesus Christ, they
in

were accustomed to express in the dual number, as declaratory of their belief, that

him

these things were
visible ap-

twofold

;

while
;

|2i0,j.2) pay^sopa,

"person, or
]j^::.

pearance

" l-^--^ tsalma,

"image;"

tsebyona,

"will;" j^Qj
chaila,

riliiiD niab'domitha, "operation;"

^

_^^

"power;"

liAl^a^

sliultona,

"authority;"

were put

in the singular, as

indicating the truth of their

oneness in the Being of our Lord.
But, from the doctrine of Nestorius
follow, first, that Jesus Christ is not
it

would obviously

God, but only the

receptacle of the Deity, in
ple.

whom

he dwells as in a temattributes,

Secondly, that the statements of scripture which
to his

ascribe

names, and Godhead only and which affirm things done or suffered by the manhood to have been accomplished by the Godhead * are unwornature
actions,

human

which

are predicable of the

;

;

thy of being regarded as
the death of Jesus Christ
*

literally

true.
cross,

Thirdly,

that

upon the

was rot the

As

in

Acts xx. 28.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
death of a divine person, nor, on
tliat

65

account, an ade-

quate, because infinitely available, atonement for
guilt.
It

human
worthy

would

also result,

fourthly, that the worship

offered to Christ as to a person

who

is

in himself

of supreme honour and adoration, implies a Quaternity,

instead of a Trinity, in the persons of the blessed God-

head

;

all

of

them conclusions from which the thoughtwould turn with the strongest disapproval.

ful Christian

We

are not to suppose that Nestorius

had the

slightest

inclination to follow out these consequences of his sys-

tem, for the deadly errors involved in
dently his abhorrence
;

them were

evi-

yet,

by a not unparalleled tenacity

in holding fast a favourite error, with a steadfastness of

purpose in rejecting others which claimed a necessary
kindredship with
it, he still maintained a deeply-sincere and openly-avowed communion with the faith of the

universal church, on
salvation of

all

the other verities relating to the

mankind.

He

held the personal distinction
Sabellians.

in the Triune Essence against the
not, with Arius, regard the

He

did

Son

as inferior in nature to

the

Father;

nor maintain, with the Docetee and the

Gnostics, that his

humanity was merely phantasmal
and others in

;

nor,

with Apollinarius, that he had but the exterior of our
nature
;

nor, with Paul of Samosata

after-

days, that he

was a perfect man, and only a man.

But

Nestorius
heresy.

fell,

notwithstanding, into a great and grievous

He

denied the Son, not indeed in his divine and

eternal pre-existence

nate

character,

in
;

but in that his perfect and incarwhich only he could become the
;

Saviour of our race
its

an error which, without judging of
yielded to by any

remote results in this particular instance, must be
if

seen to possess tendencies which,

mind,

will lead it at

once to hopelessness.

as

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
CONTROVERSY.

IV.

COUNCIL OF EPHESUS.
dis-

Cyril, then bishop of iUexandria, a man -whose
cal learning

tinguished capabiUties of intellect and brilliant theologi-

were counterbalanced to a melancholy degree
as the oppo-

by much

that has the semblance of malignity of temper

and an overbearing love of power, appeared
faith.

nent of Nestorius and the champion of the orthodox
In a series of epistles to the

monks

of Egypt,

to Nestorius himself, to Celestine, bishop of

Rome, (who

likewise took an active part in the defence of the true
doctrine,)

and

to the

emperor Theodosius, he laboured

with great

ability to

overthrow the portentous heresy and

to restore tranquillity to the church.

The
feeling
ficed,

spirit of

controversy w^as

now

universally in the

ascendant, and manifested itself in those excesses of bad

by which the

charities of religion

have been

sacri-

times without number, to the pride and obstinacy

of the

human

heart.

To bring

this state of things to

an

issue, the

emperor, at the request of both parties, sum-

moned

the celebrated council of Ephesus, which opened

in the church of St. ]Mary, in that city, in the

June of
fifty-

the year 431, with the presence of a hundred and
eight bishops.

Arcadius and Projectus,

bishops,

and

Philip, a presbyter, attended as the legates of Celestine.

Theodosius had deputed, as his
Irenseus and Candidian, both

own

ministers, the counts

imbued with the opinions The bishops of the Syrian churches, howof Nestorius. Under the influence ever, had not presented themselves. and conduct of John, metropolitan of Antioch, (who was
actuated both by dishke to Cyril and by partiality for
Nestorius, though he

had not committed himself

to the

doctrine of that prelate,) and

reluctant to participate in

the deposition of one endeared to
ties

many

of

them by the

of

country

and early

association,

they purposely

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES,
delayed their arrival at Ephesiis
of
till

6/

an advanced period

the council.

On

the opening of the transactions,
his residence in the
city,

Nestorius,

who had taken up

Yvas three times formally cited to

appear

;

but alleging

his determination to await the arrival of

oriental bishops, he refused the

summons,

John and the in which he

had the concurrence of the emperor's representatives.
This determination being found unalterable, the council,

having discussed the dogma that had brought them together,

and taken a review of the controversial proceedings and deposed him from

issuing in the crisis then pending, pronounced the doctrine of Nestorius to be heretical,

his

episcopate.

Five days afterward, John of Antioch

made his appearance, attended by forty-two bishops among whom we find Alexander of Apamea, John of
Damascus, Dexian of Seleucia, Alexander of Hierapolis,

and the eminent Theodoret of Cyrus.
ately

These immedi-

announced their dissent from the decision of the
;

council

and, in

a

synod held apart by themselves,
of

deposed Cyril, and Memnon, bishop

Ephesus, and

anathematized the twelve propositions* of the former as

unsound.

There follov/ed upon this a wearisome

series

of contention
fied

and

intrigue, in

which

all

that was digni-

in

the episcopal

character was forfeited, on both

sides,

by the indulgence of personal animosities.

The

imperial counts, v.ho took a decided part with the Eastern
bishops, intercepted the letters of the council to Theodosius,

and, by ex-parte statements, so

filled

the

mind of
how-

the emperor with misapprehension and ill-feeling, as to

induce him to consign Cyril to prison.
ever,

A

letter,

from the orthodox, conveyed by a messenger who

rnade his v»ay to Byzantium in the disguise of a mendicant, with the epistle enclosed in the hollow of a cane,

gave Theodosius, at length, a true exposition of the case.
* See the note at the end of this article, page 133.

68

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

At the same time the arguments of the orthodox at home, and the intercessions of the empress Pulcheria, produced a change in his views, which resulted in the ratification
of the decrees of the general council.

N^storius himself

was

restricted at

first
;

to his

ancient monastery of St.

Euprepius, at Antioch

but,

on the further spread of his
his

sentiments, he became the victim of an unrelenting persecution,

by which, deprived of

property, he was

banished to the oasis on the confines of Libya, where,
after

many

painful vicissitudes, he died in great bodily

misery in the year 436.
V.

PROGRESS OF THE SCHISM.
mind the
favourite
to the

In tracing the developement of Nestorianism among
the

Eastern churches, we must

first

call to

influence exercised over their divines

by the writings of
the

Theodore already referred
doctor of the age
;

to.

He was

and the

bias he

had given

opinions of Nestorius was communicated as well to those
of his Eastern contemporaries
the Greek language.

who were

conversant with

Hence the

partiality for Nestorius

displayed by them, even before the council of Ephesus.

Thus, on the publication of the twelve chapters or ana-

themas of
himself,

Cyril,

John of Antioch, ostensibly shocked

at

the strong language in which that writer had expressed

to the error of Apolhnarius, directed

and apprehensive of a tendency in some of them two of the bishops

of his province to draw up formal replies to them.
of tliese was done by

One

Andrew

of Samosata, whose pro-

duction received the approval of his episcopal brethren in
a provincial synod,

thereby already committing

them-

selves to the side of Nestorius.

The other was by Theothe

doret Syria
;

of Cyrus,
a divine

a small diocese in

Euphratensian

no

less celebrated for his piety

and benethan

ficence, his various erudition

and powerful

talents,

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
for his indefatigable

69
usefulness.

labours and
Cyril

extensive

To each of these and ample answers
them.

treatises,
:

pubhshed methodical

first,

stating his
;

own

thesis

;

then,

the strictures of his antagonists

finally, his refutation

of

This work was translated into Latin, for the use

of the Western church,

by Marius Mercator.

Then, subsequently to their return from the general
council, the dissentient bishops

met

in synod at Antioch,

and wrote

to the emperor, declaring their abhorrence of

the twelve articles of Cyril, and praying

them

to be taught in the churches.*

him not to They also

suffer

sepa-

rated from their

communion Rabbula, bishop of Edessa,
latterly given in his

who, though
tion to Cyril,

at first disposed to coincide in their opposi-

had

adhesion to the

About the same time, also, Theodoret (who, however, in after-days, became recondoctrine
of that
father.
ciled to the

orthodox party) wrote his

five

books on the

Incarnation, in defence of the views of Theodore and
Nestorius, and a Letter of Consolation to the

numerous

people of Constantinople,
to the deposed patriarch.

who

retained their attachment

At length a compulsory reconciliation was
obedience to the
imperative

effected, in

commands

of Theodosius,

between Cyril and John.
requisite to the

But whatever concession was As
for Cyril, while

accomplishment of such an occurrence,

was made by the bishop of Antioch.

he gave explanations of some topics in his writings on
the controversy, disavowed the false constructions which

had been put on them by

his adversaries,

and professed

his forgiveness of the contumelies

he had endured from

them, he remained unalterable as to any principle involved
in his twelve articles.

hand,

—whether
*

John of Antioch, on the other
not decidedly adopted
till

as a

man who had

the opinions

of Nestorius,

but had kept

then his

Baluz.

Synod, cap. 39.

Fleury,

xvi 150.

70

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
in

judgment

suspense, and was at last satisfied
;

by the

explanations of Cyril

or as one willing to sacrifice points
;

of doctrine for the peace of the church
tical,

is still

problema-

—met the wish

of the emperor and the

demands of
Cyril's

his adversary,

by acknowledging the orthodoxy of

doctrine, the justice of the deposition of Nestorius,

the validity of his successor's ordination, and

and by anathewhile, to

matizing the Nestorian dogma.
of

In this measure several
concurred
;

the

bishops

of his province

others, the

conduct of John was a subject of surprise

and indignation.

Some

of the latter held a council at

Anazarba, where they confirmed the pretended deposition
of Cyril at Ephesus, and pronounced excommunication upon all who should hold communion with him till they had condemned his twelve obnoxious articles, which they

affirmed

it

to

be their own determination to

resist to the

death.*

One

of the vigorous measures of the emperor to accom-

plish an universal

harmony of
find,

doctrine, v/as the expulsion

of recusant bishops from their sees.
this

In consequence of
nine
of the

measure,

we

in

the

year 436,

Asiatic prelates deprived of their charges
exile.

and driven into
;

Two
;

of these were metropolitans

Alexander of

HierajDolis, wlio

was sent

to

the mines of Tamothis, in

Egypt
Tyre.

thopolis,

and Eutherius of Tyana, who, banished to Scyand driven afterwards from thence, died at
steadfastness of these confessors gave a
still

The

greater prominence to the cause for which they suffered.

Meantime, in

Cilicia,

the scene

of

the

more

direct

influence of the opinions of

Diodorusf and Theodore, the

Synod, cap. 113. Diodorus of Tarsus, metropolitan of the first Cilicia, aiid master of Theodore of Mopsuestia, wrote on the scriptures at large, on the Trinity, and the Incarnation. His works are stated by Ebed Jesa to have been sixty in number, but none of them remain.
*
•j-

Baluz.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
new
cloctriue

/I

was gaining an established ascendancy.

Here the leading men of the party were employed in
multiplying and circulating copies of the works of those

two bishops
died in
still

;

who, although the primary authors of the
nevertheless,

heresy for which Nestorius suffered, had,

communion with the church, and
it

were, therefore,

possessed of the authority of cathoKc doctors.

By

was attempted to remove the odium of heterodoxy from the memory of Nestorius and to show, that the sentiments for which he had been deposed were
this

measure

;

not pecuhar to himself, but had been maintained before

him by the
sacred

greatest

divines,
;

Vvhose

names were

still

among

the faithful

and

that, in effect, the exiled

patriarch was a confessor for the ancient truth once deU-

vered to the saints.
translated,

Following up this enterprise, they

with consummate diligence, those works of
the subject,

Diodorus and Theodore which bore upon
into Syriac, Persian,
to insure'

and Armenian, and spared no pains

them

circulation

among

the Christians of those

communions.

This was a measure which gave no small

vexation to the orthodox clergy in those parts.

One of

the latest acts of Rabbula of Edessa, then blind with

extreme age, was to anathematize the works of Theodore
in

the public congregation,

and

to

dictate a

letter

to

St. Cyril,

expressive of his grief
its

and alarm that Nesto-

rianism was striking

roots so deeply in the East.

Not a few also of the friends and disciples of Nestorius, who had been proscribed by the imperial severities, found refuge in Mesopotamia and Persia where, under the
;

Persian government, they obtained
ration.

more than mere

tole-

Patronized by the royal favour, their party soon

acquired a predominance over the orthodox.
tained possession
of

They obthis

the churches,

and employed Rabbula

advantage in moulding to their opinions the sentiments of
the multitude.
Iba, the successor of in the see

72

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

of Edessa, and Acacius, Paul, Maraba, Josepli, Ezekiel,

of their high station

and other archbishops of Seleucia, gave the influence the eminent reto the cause
;

chises of the monasteries of Beth-aven

and IMount
;

Izla

employed the labours of the pen in its service Barsuma, Narses, Maanes, and other professors
great
theological
schools,

while
at

the

imbued with

their

favourite

doctrine the fountains of rehgious instruction.

VI.

NESTORIANISM TAKES A CHURCH-STATUS,

In the year 498 the archbishop or catholicos of Seleu-

and Ctesiphon assumed the title of "patriarch of the East," or of the Orientals and from henceforth the various bishoprics under his jurisdiction constituted a distinct anti-Byzantine communion, one of whose peculiar
cia
;

features

was the maintenance of the Nestorian tenet.*

This communion, though universally distinguished by the

denominative " Nestorian," has, nevertheless, constantly
disclaimed
it.

Their sentiment upon this point

is

thus
;

by Ebed-Jesu, one of their metropolitans '' They are unjustly and injuriously called Nesturoyee whereas Nestorius was never their patriarch, nor did they even understand the language in which he wrote but
expressed
;

when they heard how he defended
two natures and two persons
in

the orthodox truth of

one Son of God and one
to
his

Christ, they gave their confirmation

testimony,

because they themselves had entertained the same doctrine.

So that

it

may

rather be said, that

Nestorius

followed them, than that they were led by him."t

And

Quum Antiocheman

patriarcham dicant ab orthodoxd fide post
ei

Nestorii depos'Uionem defecisse, ejus prerogativam volunt ad Seleu-

ciensem episcopum, qui anlea
tarn fuisse
;

subjacebat, integre et plene, transla'

eo

scilicet

quia, ut effutiunt, illibatam

Nestorianam
•f

esse dicunt conservavit.

— Asseman.
iii.

ille

fidem quam

Ebed-Jesu

in Margarita, pars

cap. 2.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
to the

73 " The name of
simineyertheless,

same

effect Jesu-jabus,

of Nisebin

:

Nestorius
larity of]

still

adheres to us on account of [the

his sentiments [with our

own

;]

the most ancient apostoHcal rehgion has been ours from
the age of the apostles
East,

themselves,

who

instructed the

and has never been changed."*
is

[This aversion from their general denominative

con-

"Nestorian," says the late Dr. Grant, a Missionary to the East, " is a name dishked

tinued to the present day.

by the people thus designated. They rarely apply it to themselves, and they are averse to have it applied by others. The reason which they assign for objecting to
the use of this

name

is,

that they never derived either

their doctrines or their rites

from Nestorius.
use

They

reve-

renced him for raising his voice against the worship of
images, and against
'

the

prevalent

of the

title

of

mother of God.' "]
VII.

EXTERNAL VICISSITUDES.

Among

the Zoroastrite monarchs of Persia, Firuz and
for their pa-

Chosroes Nuschirouan were distinguished
tronage of the sectators of Nestorius
;

not indeed from

any favourable incHnation for Christianity, but through a
spirit of dislike to the

Byzantine emperors.

They recog-

nised the patriarchal dignity in the person of the bishop
of Seleucia and Ctesiphon, and treated with

him

as the

head of the Christian church in their dominions.
of Jesus was governed

But

the general conduct of those princes towards the followers

dislike of their religion,

by caprice, or rather by a practical which could only be intermitted

by the occasional requirements of political expediency. The experience of the church alternated therefore between
tranquillity

and

suffering,

more or
Assem. E

less severe, just as the

*

Jesu-jabus

apwrf

Bib, Orient, torn. 2.

74

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
fitful

regnant power was actuated by
craft, or

kindliness, political

an undisguised hatred and intolerance.

In one of the latter seasons, under the persecutions of
Abruizius, the patriarchal see
for

was

vacanl;

from

a. d.

603

twenty years,

till

re-established

by the elevation of
till

Jesu-jabus, of Gadala.

He

superintended the church

the year 647, and saw the last of the kings of Persia,

and the subversion of

their empire

by the Arabs.

The

brevity of these sketches permits us only to allude

incidentally to the events of that

memorable epoch.

The

character of the great Arabian impostor, his vast purposes,

and

his
is

immense
to

success,- are

matters with w'hich the

reader

already conversant, or which

may

be

commanded

by recourse

our literature

some of the beautiful narratives with which is so amply furnished. The religious and
world at the beginning of the

political condition of the

seventh century, was eveiy way favourable far the triumph
of an enterprise like that of

Mahomet.

The day-glory of

Rome had
still

long ago retired, and the feeble twilight which
in

glimmered

the Byzantine empire was fast giving
night.

place to an

endless

The power of

Persia, too,

was

in its last stages of decadence.

An

universal dege-

neracy of manners had corrupted the mass of society
while,

among

the eastern Christians especially, a multi-

tude of minds, by the incessant agitations of controversy,

had become

in

a

manner bewildered and

doubtful of

truth, or prepared to

rendered attractive

comply with any system which was by the inducements of carnal interest,
of oppression.

or formidable by the terrors

But such
irre-

was Mahomcdanism.
sistible

Armed with
it

a hideous and

power, which gathered strength with the acquisicould
inflict a

tions of each passing year,

summary
it

ruin

pn

its

opposers

;

while,

on the other hand,

proffered

repose from the conflict of the mind, participation in

new

causes of temporal prosperity, and the fruition of eternal

THE SYRIAN CHUHCHKS.
pleasures in the
life to

/O

come.

The

result is history.

The

submission of Arabia was but the prelude to more rapid

and far-reaching successes
the

;

and one triumph prepared

way

for another,

till

the idea of absolute empire over

the minds and fortunes of the

human

race at large

had

ripened in the breast of the adventurer into a steadfast
expectation.

ing projects of their founder.

up the aggrandizThe system rose at once to a hiero-military despotism, the more undeniably authoritative in the apprehensions of its victims, by the supposed sanction of the Deity., The Islamite armies went With "hell behind" them forth from victory to victory. and "paradise before," and with the inducements of rapine and indulgence to fill up the interim, they accomfirst

The

khalifs vigorously followed

phshed the predictions of the apocalyptic
had foreshown
the
fertile hills

vision,

(which
the

this calamity

from the

first,)

and became
wastes,

scourges of

the world.

The Arabian

and plains of

Syria, the holy places of Pales-

tine,

the imperial magnificence of Persia, formed but the
still

nucleus to a

wider dominion.

The multitudinous

peoples of northern and eastern Asia, with the best portions

of Africa, confessed the mission of the prophet,

while the last pale splendours of the old philosophy in
its final

asylum in Egypt, went out

at

the presence of

the crescent.

In a word, the Saracenic empire, at the
century, extended from the

commencement of the eighth
Indus to the Pyrenees.

The choice of a successor

to

the arch-impostor had

been a bone of contention among his chief adherents.
Abubekir, one of his fathers-in-law, took the precedence

of Ah, the husband of Fatima, Mahomet's only surviving
daughter, and assumed the
prophet.
title

of khalif, or vicar of the
acquisitions of the

Many empire were won

of

the

territorial

in his days,

and those of Omar and

E 2

76

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES*
after the

Othman, within twenty-five years
of the khalifate.
attained the throne

estabUshmeut

On
;

the assassmation of Othman,

AU

but from the long-expected dignity

he was soon struck down by the hand of a murderer

employed by Moawiyah,
miades.

who

x'endered

the

khalifate,

hitherto elective, hereditary in his

own

family, the
;

Om-

They held

that

power about a century
II.,

when,

in the reign of

Merwan

the sect of Ali, steadfast to
succeeded, in 750, in trans-

their

ancestral partialities,

ferring the supremacy to
ants,

Abul Abbas, one of his descendof the celebrated dynasty of

who became

the

first

the Abbassides.

Almansor, his brother and successor,

distinguished himself by the foundation of Bagdad, destined in the times of his descendants to be the of the East.

emporium One of the most celebrated of this line of princes was Haroun Al Raschid, who, as leader of the armies of the khaUf Al Mahadi, had already rendered his name formidable to the western world by his victories
over the Greeks
7S6,
;

and, on his accession to the throne in

became the munificent patron of civiHsation, and made the court of Bagdad the palace-home of science and literature. To Almamon, who followed him, belongs
also

the character of a

beneficent and paternal ruler.
its

But the khalifate had now reached
ness,

meridian bright-

which was almost

immediately impaired by the
decline.

commencing tokens of
Haroun, the
])y

Even

in the days

of

territorial integrity of the

empire was broken
Edres-

the extensive rebellions of the Aglabites and

sites.

The

political

character of the khalifs began also

to deteriorate.
dislike

Motassem, who followed Almamon, excited

by the employment of a personal guard of Toorkish

or Tartar soldiers, who, as in similar instances, becoming
a privileged
selves

the

disposal of

and formidable power, arrogated to themthe sceptre, and drenched the
Then, as a religious

throne of the Abbassides with blood.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
fabric,

//

Mabomedism was
strife

increasingly agitated and rent

by the
and
this

of opposing parties, who, true to the spirit

of their system, appealed to the arbitrement of the sword,

demonstrated
by. the

the

correctness

of

their

doctrinal

opinions

superiority of

martial

prowess.

In

way the Karmates upheld their sectarian predomiThe nance by an army of a hundred thousand men.
nominal chiefs of the unwieldy and wavering empire,

hidden in luxurious seclusion, made few and ineffectual
attempts to uphold their estate, and prevent the ultimate
ruin.

In 910, an Arab of Yrak, said to have descended
effected a revolution

from Fatima, (daughter of Mahomet,)
in

Africa

and

Sicily,

and was acknowledged
faithful,

as

Emir

Almoumenin, or prince of the
of those countries.

by the Moslemin

This dignity passed to his descend;

ants, the dynasty of the Fatimites

one of whom, in 969,

made
(the

the conquest of Egypt, built the city of Al Kaira,
victorious,)

and consolidated a monarchy which
by-gone brilHancy of the
at

resembled for a season the
Pereian Abbassides.

Meantime

Bagdad the khahfate
office

had been divested

in reality of its temporal power, retain;

ing only the executive of the pontifical

and from
his

thenceforward the secular importance of the vicar of the

Prophet became a mere shadow.
superscription, his

The coinage bore

name was

recited in the public prayers,
religion of Islam
;

and he was revered as the head of the
/but the nations

who had once

paid homage to the kingly

sceptre of the

rulers of their their

more vigorous of his predecessors, had now own, who, though theoretically holding investiture from the khalif, were substantially so
princes.

many independent

Such were the men under whose tyrannical yoke the Nestorian church dragged through a succession of weary On the first setting up of the Saracenic centuries.
power, the patriarch Jesu-jabus succeeded in obtaining

7S

THE SYRIAN CHUKCHES.

the guarantee of protection and religious liberty for the
Christians, on condition of their paying a certain tribute.*

From Omar he subsequently

received a diploma of a

more

favourable character, by which the tribute was remitted ;f and these immunities were afterwards confirmed to his
successor

Mar Ema, by

the khalif

Ebn Abi

Taleb, in a

charter, expressive of high esteem for the Christian reli-

gion, its saints, priesthood,

and worship.

When

the city

of

Bagdad became the
where
In
it

oriental metropolis, about 762, the

Nestorian patriarch transferred thither his ecclesiastical
see,

continued during the existence of the khaUf-

ate.

fact,

carried

their

good-will
;

some of the earher Mahomedan princes towards the Nestorians beyond

mere protection a circumstance which has been dubiously accounted for by the assistance which the prophet himself is said to

have received in the concoction of his theo-

logy from a so-called Christian of that communion.
this as
it

Be

may, the Nestorians enj«yed, in several ways, the preference of the khalifs, who favoured their commerce, employed them as secretaries and physicians, and
raised

some of them

to municipal dignities.

But these
;

instances of patronage were not likely to continue

and

under the dominion of the Saracens, which endured for
six

hundred

years, the church

had

to maintain its existtrials. |

ence

through innumerable vicissitudes and

Its

collective

history during those long years of bondage, is

one of determined perseverance and of admirable zeal for
the

extension of the gospel under the almost habitual

experience of

complicated oppression and injury, from

* Bar Hebr^eus, Chron. Syr. Mares in Vita Maremee. X Under the persecuting reign of Almahadi, for example, cruelties were inflicted on the followers of Jesus more frightful than those emThere were Christian ployed by the Healhens of the first ages. women, who received a thousand lashes each, with thongs of bulls'
-f-

hides, and

who

yet held fast their profession.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

79

the fickleness and often relentless cruelty of the reigning
potentate, the
avarice

of local rulers, the mahgnity of

the Islamite doctors, and the immitigable hatred of the

\Vlien

Mahomedan .people at large we consider the terrible

to

the

Christian

name.

ordeal through which these

communities were called to pass, and in the endurance of which myriads of families, through successive generations,
with the certainty that, to abandon the faith of the cross,

would insure secular freedom, and advance

their prosperity,

preferred, nevertheless, to maintain their integrity in the

bearing of incessant hardships from the tyrants

times poured out their blood like water, and ordinarily
tlieir

who at made
out,

tenure of
is,

life

itself

a matter of tribute

;

the cause

of wonder

that the church was not utterly

worn

and the name of Christianity wasted from those regions
of the earth. Nor can
to age,

we regard

its

sustentation from age
its

under circumstances so adverse to

very exist-

ence, in

any other view than as a standing miracle of

grace, a visible confirmation of the Redeemer's promise to
his

church, that " the gates of hell should never prevail

against it."

[From the establishment of the Nestorian patriarchate the taking of Bagdad by the Tartars in 1258, that body was governed by the following patriarchs in suctill

cession

;

namely, Acacius, in 499, Babeeus,

iSilas,

Narses,
I.,

Elisseus, Paul,

Mar Aba
III.,

I.,

Joseph, Ezekiel, Jesu-jabus
II.,
;

Sabarjesus

I.,

Gregory, Jesu-jabus

of Gadala

;

Mar
John,
III.,
II.,

Ema, Jesu-jabus
Ananjesu
Ananjesu
I.,

of Adiabena

George

I.,

Salibzaka, Phetion, Jacob II.,

Jacob

II.,

Timothy

I.,

Joshua bar Nun, George
Theodosius,
III.,
I.,

Ananjesu

III.,

Abraham
Israel,
I.,

I.,

Sergius,
IV.,

Enos,

John
II.,

II.,

(bar Narses,)

John
VI.,

John

Abraham
II.,

Emanuel,

Ebedjesu

Mares, JohnV., JesuII.,

jabus IV., Elias

John
II.,

Sabarjesu

Ebedjesu
III.,

Machicha

I.,

EHas

Barsuma,

Ebedjesu

Jesu-

80
jabiis IV.,

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Elias III,/ Jaballaha II.,

Sabarjesu III., Sa-

barjesu

IV.,

Machicha

II.,

in

125/.*
so

The names of
nobly a perpe-

these venerable men,

who maintained

tuated testimony to the truth of Christianity during those

ages of hardship and terror,

are recorded upon these humble pages, because I am not aware that they have hitherto had a registry in our English ecclesiastical literature.]

VIII.

MISSIONARY ZEAL OF THE NESTORIANS.
thus engaged on the one hand in strugghng

While

for existence at

home, the Nestorian church was

indefati-

gably employed on the other in extending the knowledge
of the gospel in distant lands.

With an heroic
first

charity,

which breathed the

spirit

of the

evangelists,

and

proved her apostolical descent, she sent forth a sustained
succession of missionaries- and pastors,

who

should an-

nounce the kingdom of God, and extend the foundations
of his church, in the regions able that these

beyond her.
carried

It is

remark-

enterprises were

on with the
to the rehgion
is

greatest vigour, at the time

when

the

Mahomedan power
often
;

was putting forth
of Jesus
:

its

matured antagonism
it,

so true is

that our spiritual force

developed in seasons of great natural disadvantage
that, as the inspired writer expresses
it,

and
are

"

When we
this

weak, then we

are

strong,'*

And

thus,

oriental
afflic-

church, though undergoing so "great a fight of
+

low.

The earlier The list

bishops of Seleucia and Ctesiphon, are given as fol-

begins with the apostle of the East

;

but, properly

speaking, Mares, the fourth in order, was the founder of that church,
as

we have already

seen.

Thomas,

apostle

;

Adaeus, Aehaeus, Mares,

(ob. an. 82,)

Papas, minus, Tomarsa, Cajuma, Isaac, Aehaeus, Jaballaha, Maanes, Marabocht, Dodjesu, Babseus, a. d, 485.

Abres, Abraham, Jacob, Achadabues, Schiachlupha, Simon bar Sabce, (martyr A. D. 330,) Sciandosth, Barbase-

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
tions,"
still

81

had grace

to hold aloft the standard of the

cross to

the

sight of the

nations, and, like the mystic

witnesses of the Apocalypse, " to prophesy," though " in

In the East," says Mosheim, in his account of the seventh century, " the Nestorians, with incredible
sackcloth."
**

industry and perseverance,

laboured to

propagate the

Christian rehgion from Persia, Syria, and India,

among

the barbarous and savage nations inhabiting the deserts

and the remotest shores of Asia and that their zeal was not ineflScient, appears from numerous proofs still exist;

ing.

In particular, the vast empire of China was enlight-

ened by their zeal and industry."
previously

What had been done
Cosma
by

may

be gathered from the statement of

Indicopleustes, a writer of the sixth century, (quoted

Assemannus,) who speaks of there being in that day
(a. d.

540) a multitude of Christians in Persia, Tapro-

bana, India,
catholicos

and Arabia

Felix, that

were subject

to the

or patriarch of the

Nestorians,

from

whom
of

their bishops received ordination.

Cosma speaks
;

him

as accustomed to send bishops or other clergy to Calliana,

Malabar, and the
over says, that

isles

of Silan and Socotora

and more-

among

the Bactrians, Huns, other Indians,

Persarmenians, Medes, Elamites, as well as in the whole
Persian empire, the Christians were considerable for their

numberless churches, their martyrs, and their monastic
institutions.

Of

these great missionary undertakings the details have

not come

down

to us.

The

foreign evangelical agencies
is

of our happier times receive a record which

destined to

guide the ecclesiastical historian in the distant ages of
futurity.

But in the days of which we speak, no such But with respect
to the

accounts were maintained, or they have perished with the
great mass of Syrian literature.

Nestorian missions to China, some idea

may

be obtained

from the celebrated tables discovered in 1625 in the proE 5

82
vince
of

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Shen-si
;

which,

engraven in the

year 780^

names of the principal missionaries, the leading doctrines they promulgated, and the Bescriptions of success which attended their labours. this remarkable monument, which exhibits almost the sum of our knowledge on the subject it commemorates,
constitute a memorial of the

may

be found in Kircher's China Illustrata, and in the

works of Assemannus, Du Halde, the abbe Le Compte, and the *' Indian Church History " of Mr, Yeates.* These
accounts show, in substance, that in 1625, at Sin-gan-fu.
a large city on the Yellow River, and capital of the province of Shen-si, there was discovered a table of marble,

ten feet in length, and five broad, which had been buried

under the ruins of some building.

On

the upper part,
the
cross.

which

is

pyramidal,

appears the figure of

The Chinese title shows that the stone "was erected to the honour and eternal memory of tX\e Law of Light and Truth, brought from Ta Cin, (or Syria,) and promulgated in The body of the inscription, also in Chinese, China." contains seven hundred and thirty-six characters, divided
The inscriptions
are in Syriac

and Chinese.

into twenty-one sections, or verses. a

These, after giving

summary

of the leading facts of the gospel, record that

a Syrian missionary,
to

named Olopwen, " came from Judea
The emperor, when

China in the year of our Lord 63C, having escaped

great dangers both

by sea and land.

he heard of his
as
to

arrival, sent his

^olau to meet
city,

him

so far

the

suburbs of the imperial

with orders to

conduct him to the palace.

When

he came thither, his
;

law was examined, and

its

truth acknowledged

and the
ordered a

emperor made an

edict in his favour.

He then

* The authenticity of this monument has been shown by RexauBOT, in his work on " Certain Ancient Relations concerning India and China," Paris, \'i\8 and in the eleventh of Lebrt'n's Dissertations
;

ITistoriques et Dogrnatiqnes siir la Messe.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
cliurch to be built,
for the service of it."

83

and named one-and-twenty persons

The remaining sentences " form a sort of chronicle of the design, labours, progress, and success of the mission, from its first arrival in China to the time of the erection
of the stone
it
;

"namely, from a. d. 636 to 780."
(i.)

In this way

commemorates,
of

The commencement of the mission
(ii.)

in the reign

the emperor Tai-cum, a. d. 636.

An

imperial edict passed in favour of the Christian
in

reli-

gion,
(iii.)

the twelfth year of that monarch, a. d.

639.

A

grant for

building

a

church

at

the

imperial

and an appointment of twenty-one attendants, The success of the mission under the emperor Caocum, son of Tai-cum, who reigned from 650 to 684, when Christianity was promulgated in the ten provinces
charge,
(iv.)

of China, and churches built,
(vi.)

(v.)

A persecution
(vii.)

in 699.

A

second persecution in 713.

The happy
arrival of

state

of the Christians under the emperor Hiuen-cum,
to the persecution,
(viii.)

who put an end

The

a second mission in the country, under the direction of
Kie-ho, John, and Paul,
for the building of a
(ix.)

The emperor So-cum grants
of churches,
(x.)

number

State of

the Christians under the emperor Tai-cum,

He was accustomed to to 780. commemoration of our Lord's nativity ; he abounded in charity towards all men, and showed an especial regard
from 763
for

who reigned "honour the

the

ministers

of the

sacred

law."

(xi.)

State .of
to

Christianity uncler Kien-cum, or Te-cum,

who began

reign in 780.

" He was a great favourer of the religion
Jesu, ^Itl)"*^)
is,

of Usu."

(i. e.

(xii.)

The date anderectior»

of the stone, that

the second year of Kien-cum, on the
;

seventh day of the

month of autumn, on the Lord's day

in the ministration of

Him

Ciu, bishop of the cliurch in

China.

On

each

side

of

the

chronicle

there

is

a.

marginal

84

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
and the other
in Chinese) of tlie

register (one in Syriac

clergy

who had
:

been, and were, engaged in the mission,
classes or companies,

and whose names are arranged in
as follow
1.

Mar Johanan, bishop
Christian,

;

Isaac, Joel, Mikael, George,
priests.

Mahahad,
2.

Ephrem, Abi, David, Moses,

Achaicus, Elias, Moses, Ebedjesu, Simeon, Johanan,

priests
.3.

and monks.
Peter, Job,

Aaron,

Luke, Matthew, Johanan, JeLuke, Constan-

suema,
tine,
4.

Johanan,

Sabarjesu, Jesudadus,

Noah.
Adadsaphas, Johanan,
Enos,

Mar

Sergius,

Isaac,

John, Phuses, Simon, Isaac, Johanan.
.5.

Jacob, priest

;

Mar
;

Sergius, priest

and chorepisco-

pus of Shiangathus George, priest and archdeacon of Cum-dan Paul, Simeon, Adam, Elias, Isaac, Johanan,
;

Johanan, Simeon, priests.
6.

Jacob, Ebedjesu, Jesudadus, priests

;

Jacob, Johanan,

Sergius, Simeon, Ephrem, Zacharias, Cyriacus, Baccus,

Emanuel.
7.

Gabriel, Johanan, Solomon, Isaac, Johanan.
;

Also, Constantine
Isaac, Ethiopian
;

Saba, an Ethiopian

;

Mar

Sergius
;

;

Paul, Simeon,

Adam,
;

priests

Zuhan,

an Egyptian

;

Matthew, an Ethiopian
;

Anania, a Copt
Jacob, Mahadad,
;

Gabriel, Luke, priests

Susen, bishop

;

Arius, David, priests

;

Asba, an Ethiopian priest

Abba
:

Syrus, Abraham, Simon, Peter, Luke, Matthew, priests.

At the base of the whole is a subscription in Syriac " In the days of the chief father, Ananjesu catholicus,
patriarch
;

Adam

the priest, chorepiscopus and papas of
:

the

kingdom

of China

in the year of the Greeks, 1092,

(a. D. 781,) iNIar Jazedbuzid, priest

and chorepiscopus of
(Turkestan,)
set

Cum-dan, a royal
Dalach, a
this stone city

city,

son of the blessed Miles, priest of

of

Adatchuristan,
is

up

monument, whereon

inscribed the dispensa-

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
tiou of our

85

Redeemer, and the preaching of our spiritual

fathers, to the

king of China.

Adam, the deacon, son
;

of Jazedbuzid, the

chorepiscopus

Mar

Sergius, priest

Sabarjesu, priest
siarch of

;

Gabriel, priest, archdeacon,

and

eccle-

Cum-dan and Sarug."
a memorial of two missions from Syria*
first
;

We have here
to

in the year 636, under Olopwen (Aloho punoya, " The conversion of God " his ordinary
:

China
in

the

;

name

Syria was Jaballaha

;)

the second, headed

by

Kie-ho, John, and Paul, in 719.

We

have also a notice

extant elsewhere, that, five years previously, a metropoli-

tan had been ordained for China by the patriarch Salib-

zacha

;

and

further, that in 77S, Subchaljesu,

a learned

monk

of Bethaven, having been sent by the patriarch

TimoGelee,

theus, as a missionary bishop to the Dailamites

and

had, after a course of successful labours in those regions,

passed onward into China.

And, subsequently

to his

death

by the hands of barbarians on his homeward route, we find the same patriarch appointing two other bishops for
the prosecution of the same work.

Of the

fifteen bre-

thren

who had accompanied them,

seven were afterwards

ordained bishops, some of

whom

laboured in China, where

one became metropohtan.
In a canon of Theodosius, bishop of Edessa, a. d. 800, is mention of the " metropoUtans of China, Hindia,
;

there

Persia

of the Merozites of Sciam
;

;

of the Raziches, the
far distant,

Hariuns

and of Samarcand, who are
mountains
prevented

who, by reason of infested
seas,"

and and turbulent
let-

being

from attending the four-yearly

convocation with the patriarch, are enjoined to send
ters of salutation to

him, with their ecclesiastical reports,

every six years.

Gohus, in his notes on Alfragan, has cited the
*

testi-

The document

says Ta-sin

;

that

is,

the country including Syria

and Palestine.

S6

TOE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
of an Arabian author of the tenth
century, called

mony
Felix,

Abulferaj,

who

speaks of a

monk

of Nageran, in Arabia-

who had

returned from China in the year of the

Hegira, 377, or a. d. 987, whither he had been sent seven
years before with five other persons,
catholicos.

by the Nestorian

Further,

Marco Polo

states,

that he

had seen
6.5 ;)

tv/o

churches in the city of Cingian-fu, which were built by
the Nestorians, a. d. 12/4
certifies
;

(lib. ii.

cap.

a fact that

their

operations as yet continued towards the

close of the thirteenth century.

By
was

the labours of these various missionaries, the gospel

diff"used

through a considerable extent of the Chinese
call,

empire.

But, as at the time of her primeval
visitation."

China

" knew not the day of her by

The perpetuation

of the ministry from other lands was probably interdicted
rulers, as unfriendly to the Christian cause as their pre-

decessors had been disposed
fidelity of the native converts

to

advance

it

;

while the

gave way before the terrors

of those impious edicts which rendered the profession of
their faith a punishable crime.

This spirit of evangelical enterprise was not extinct in
the Nestorian communion, at a period
sleep

when

a sepulchral
For, in

had

fallen

upon the

entire western church.

the tenth century,

when

"all are agreed," (to use the
state of Christianity

words of Mosheim,) " that the

was

most wretched on account of the amazing ignorance, and the consequent superstition and debased morals, of the still," says he, " the age, as well as from other causes
;

Nestorians,

living

in

Chaldsea,

introduced Christianity

into Tartary Proper

beyond Mount Imaus,
zeal

where
(in

the

people had hitherto lived entirely uncultivated and uncivilized."

Thus "the

of

the

Nestorians"
!

the

picturesque language of one who, himself, alas

an enetny

of the Saviour of the world, pays an inconsistent

homage

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

87

to the self-sacrificing beneficence of these disciples of his)

—"

the zeal

of

the

Nestorians

overleaped

the

limits

which had confined the ambition and curiosity both of The missionaries of Balkh and the Greeks and Persians.

Samarcand pursued, without
of the valleys of

fear,

the footsteps of the

roving Tartar, and insinuated themselves into the camps

Imaus and the banks of the
of the powerful

Silinga.!'*

The conversion
called Karith,
fruits

Mongul

tribe or nation

on the confines of China, was among the

of this enterprising charity.

The king of that

people,
river

whose residence was at Kara-korum, a city on the Orchon, about six hundred miles west from Pekin,

received baptism,

and became the subject of much exag-

gerated renown in Europe, under the well-known appellation of *'Prester" or presbyter John.

of this prince was
valent to the title

Ung

The true name Avenk Khan, which was equigiven him by the Syrians, of Malek
or

Juchanon, or king John.
or grand-daughter of
like himself,

D'Herbelot mentions a niece
Sarkutna, who,
to

Ung Khan, named

was a Christian, and was married

Tuh,

son of Genghis Khan, and governed the states of her

husband

after his death.

Abulfaragius, speaking of this

princess in his book of " Dynasties," represents

her as

strongly attached to the faith of Christ, and the friend

and patroness of " It is placed

its

ministers.

controversy," says Mosheim, " that the kings of the people called Carith, living on

beyond

the borders of Cathai,

whom some

denominate a tribe of

Turks, and others of Tartars, constituting a considerable
portion of the Moguls, did profess Christianity from this

time onward

;

and that no inconsiderable part of Tartary,

or Asiatic Scythia, lived under bishops, sent

among them
writer,

by the pontiff of the Nestorians."
in

The same

another place, adds, " In Tartary and the adjacent

Gibbon,

88

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

regions, the activity of the Nestorians continued daily to

gain over more people to the side of Christianity

;

and

such

is

the mass of testimony at the present day, that
that bishops of the 'highest order,

we cannot doubt but
or metropolitans, with

many

inferior bishops subject to

them, were established

at that period in the provinces of

Cashgar, Nuacheta, Turkistan, Gendee, Tangut, and others.

Whence

it

will

be manifest, that there were a vast multi-

tude of Christians in the eleventh and twelfth centuries
in those countries

which are now devoted

to

Mahomedanall

ism, or to the worship of imaginary gods.

That

these

Christians followed the Nestorian creed, and were subject
to the superior pontiff of the Nestorians residing in Chal-

dea,

is

so certain as to be incontrovertible."

An idea of the extent of may be derived from the
subject to the patriarch:

the

communion
list

at this

period

following

of

metropoliall

tan sees, each the centre of various bishoprics, and

1.

Elam, of which the metro2.
jVise-

politan resided
bin,

at Grandisapor, in Chusistan.

or

Soba,
4.
6.
7.

in

Mesopotamia.
or

3.

Perathmesin,
5.

or

Bassora.

Adiabena and Moussul.
Ilalavan,

Bethgerma and
the
confines
9.

Carach.

Halach,

on

of

Media.

Persia.

8.

Mara, in Korassan.
11. China. 12.

Hara, in
13.

Camboja.
Armenia.

10. Arabia.

India.

14.

Syria

and Damascus.
Tarbistan,

lo. Bardo,

or

Adorbegen.
Sea.
19.
17.

16.

Raja and
18.

on the Caspian

Dailem.

Cashgar and Turkistan.
22.

Samarcand and Mavaralnahar. 20. Balkh and Tocharistan.
23. Chantelek. 24. Tan-

21. Segestan.

Hamaden.

chet, or Tangut, a country of Great Tartary.

25. Chas-

emgar and Nuachet.
**

She sent out her boughs
river.

unto

the

sea,

and her
goodly

branches unto the

The

hills

were covered with the
like the

shadow of
cedars.

it,

and the boughs thereof were

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
"
all

89

Why hast

thou then broken down her hedges, so that

they which pass by the

out of the
field

way do pluck her ? The boar wood doth waste it, and the wild beast of the

doth devour it. " Return, we beseech thee,

God

of Hosts, look

down

from heaven, and behold, and

and the vineyard which thy right hand hath planted, and the branch It is burned with that thou madest strong for thyself.
visit this vine,
fire,
it

is

cut down,
!

countenance

they perish ac the rebuke of thy " (Psalm Ixxx.)

IX.

DOCTRINE AND DISCIPLINE.
to take a brief survey of the ecclesiasti-

In proceeding
cal

characteristics

of the Nestorian church,

it

may

be
its

observed,

that

our statements apply principally to
;

condition in the middle ages

though

in several respects
still

they are descriptive of the

communion which

survives,

in the lowest state of depression, at the present day.
1.

RULE OF FAITH.
the Nestorian church has always

In

the

first

place,

cherished a remarkable veneration for the holy scriptures.

Their

rule of faith
(the

has been, and

is,

the

written

word of God.
tion,

This they have always had in a translaSyriac,)
for its

Peschito
critics

held in

universal

esteem

among
upon

biblical

oriental origin,
I

unrivalled

antiquity,

and great

faithfulness.

may

note, however,

this topic, that the Nestorians

have been accused of

interfering with the purity of their
in certain passages

New-Testament

text,

which bear upon

their peculiar view of

the

mode

of our Saviour's incarnation.

The passages

in

question are,

Hebrews ii. 9, where the true text of the Peschito has, JIu ger Aloho betaibutheh chaloph cTilnosh tein mautho ;*
ya:^^ wAA^^s w2.:^A* a\LQ.z^^,^

l?i^

j.-*^.

got

#

90

THE SYRIAN CHURCttES.
his grace for every maiD, hath " the copies in use among the Nestorians

" For God himself, in
tasted death
;

have. Hit ger sethar

tha ;*

men Alaha choleph cidnosh tern man"For he apart from GoDf for every man hath
So in
the

tasted death."

charge of St. Paul to the
*'

Ephesian presbyters. Acts xx. 28, they read,
therefore to yourselves,
Spirit of Holiness

Take heed

and

to all the flock for

whom

the

hath estabhshed you the bishops, that

Ve

should

feed"

(j^^^^c^ oiZ
And, in

^^

Vidtheth

dame-

shicJia)

" the church of the Messiah,
1

whom

he hath pur-

chased with his blood."

John iii.

16:" In this

we know
us."
that the

his love towards us, because he gave himself for

But

in this last passage

it

ought to be remarked,

name

of God, though found in the Vulgate Latin,

(In hoc cognovimus charitatem Dei,) and supplied in our English translation,
of the
general.
[^Yllile
is

wanting

also in the purest copies in

Greek,

and

in

the ancient eastern versions

touching on the Nestorian text of the scrip-

tures,

it

may

be added, that their manuscripts are exe;

cuted either in the large character, termed, Strongila
or
a

smaller one,

called

by the

other Syrians, Nestu-

royee.

alphabet of a
that, in
fact,

The Maronites and Jacobites employ a third more simple and beautiful appearance
in

which the language

is

usually printed.

The Nestorians,
tion
is

again, conserve the old

method of puncletters.

tuation, in which, the vowels being absent, the pronuncia-

guided by lines above or below the

But

the rest of the Syrians not only use the lines, but certain
figures
letters,

as well,

having some resemblance to the Greek
live

which express the

vowels.

This method was
f^uH)

IZGi:^ >Q:^^ u^llili w2.1^^
r

)nl^ ^^
praster,

w-*^OOT *
of,

Vn lAco

sethar

men

;

excepting, out

apart

from.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
first

91

century.
it,

employed by Theophilus, of Edessa, in the eighth The earhest manuscript known which exhibits
one of about a. d. 861, in the Vatican.

is

As

to pro-

nunciation, the eastern Syrians or Nestorians,

retaining

more of the genuine Chaldean orthoepy, differ in some respects from the Jacobites and Maronites. While, for instance, the latter pronounce the final olaph as 0, the
easterns sound
it

as broad

A

:

thus,
authority.'*

Nestorians

|lA^a.^ shuUana, "
.

Western Syrians
Nestorians

.

shultono.

]5oiqj
.

nura,
nuro.

*'

light.'*

Western Syrians
ern usage
is single,

.

In some words they double a
thus
:

letter,

which

in the west-

Nestorians

lcn.1^

Allaha, ''God."

Westerns
Nestorians.........

Aloho.

1^^ a ^addisha, "holiness."
kadisho.

Westerns

The
torian

entire

body of scripture

is

not found in any Nes-

manuscript, the sacred canon being divided into

separate portions, (as the Oretha, or
or Psalms in
;

Law

;

\}i^.^Mazmuree,

the Egurtha, or Epistles, &c.,) and transcribed

distinct

volumes, each divided throughout into the
church-services

sections

appropriated for the successive

during the year.

On

these scarce volumes they set an

extraordinary value, as their recension of the scriptures

has never been printed.

Their attachment to the Bible

has been a conservative principle to this church, amid
the changes and wastes of time in which other Christian

communities have disappeared.
the
tion

Those who have
" Of

visited

modern Nestorians, bear testimony of the same feature of character.

to the perpetuaall

the na-

tive Christians of Asia, the

Nestorians are the best armed
;

with rational arguments against the Papists

and

their

92

THE SYRIAN CHL'RCHES.

frequent and generally correct citations from scripture
struck
tlie

American missionaries with admiration.

With

the exception of a rare reference to the ApostoUcal Canons,

no appeal was made
fathers
;

to the authority of either councils or

and they seemed
as

to feel the force of a citation

from the scriptures

an ultimate standard."
2.

DOCTRINE.

Their

adherence to the opinion of Nestorius, already

considered, has always been the chief diversity in creed

between them and the orthodox church
though, during the
first

at large.

But
their

ardour of that controversy, the

eastern partisans of Nestorius

went further than
communities.

master, the language of their later doctors became less

discordant

with

those

of

other

Some
atis

writers, as Strozza

and Father Simon,* have indeed
that
;

tempted

to

prove

the

Asiatic

Nestorianism

a

heresy only in
effort is

name

but their success in this liberal
as the

more than dubious,
is

agreement between

the systems reader

only verbal and illusory.
that, in

The

theological

knows

the western church, the leading

terms in that discussion, hypostasis, " substance or essential being, " and j)^'osopon, " person," were in general
used indiscriminately
as.
;

[hence such oft-recurring phrases

Hypostases sen personce Trinitatis.

Credamus Patretn,

Filium, et Sjnritum Sanctum, vere differre, ut supposita
intellectualia sen personas,"

&c

;]

but

among

the Nestoitself

rians

it

has been otherwise.

A

personal substance in

subsisting,

they expressed by the Syriac word knuma,
to the

which thus answered
always used
* P. la

Greek hypostasis

;

but while

they retained the word prosopon, altered to parsopa, they
it

with the restricted and definite significa-

Sur

Strozza De Dor/matis Chaldceorum, Romas, 1617. Simon, Creance des Nations du Levant. This was the opinion also of Luther, Basnat^e, and others.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
tion of a visible
sistence aspect, or personal appearance
;

93
a sub-

some outward form to the sense of vision. Thus, the flame in the bush at Horeb, and the they called the parsopa of God the Father
in
;

made manifest

appearance of the descending dove at the baptism of our
Lord, the parsopa of the Holy Spirit.

With

these uses

of the terms in discussion, the later Nestorian teachers

had no

difficulty in

affirming a creed which should be

verbally concurrent with that

of the universal church,

namely, that in the Redeemer there w^ere two natures in
one person
;

meaning, that in the one personal appearance

of Jesus Christ was seen the

Son of God manifested
first

in

the flesh.

This would seem at
;

sight to be suffi-

ciently correct

but on a closer examination, the radical
Whilst admitting the existence
natures in the visible person of

error will

still

be detected.

of the divine and the Saviour,

human

when pressed with the old cpicestio vexata, " Were these natures united, and how ? by a mere moral consociation ? or, so as to constitute, in an ineflable manner, truly and substantially one Immanuel ? " though
employing the same general phraseology as other Christians, the

genuine Nestorian would be probably found to

diverge as readily from the truth, as did the most "zealous

founders of his school.*
the

With

these points, however,
little.

common

people intermeddle but

They

believe

in the Lord Jesus Christ as
* Yet some of manner which it

God manifested
construe

in the flesh,

their theologians speak
is

on the incarnation in a
in any other

difficult

to

than in a

true orthodox import.
tion of the

Here

is a

passage from a Nestorian exposi-

Orienialis

:

— " On account of his (the Messiah's) union with the true
:

Nicene Creed, given by Asseman, in his Bihliotheca

and substantial Son, we confess one Son." B^yad chodutheh d'am Bara ithyuya vashrira chad Bara maudeenan. Thus, too, the patriarch Timothy " The humanity of the Messiah, not by nature, but on account of its union with the divine nature, is, and is called, God." K''ayoneh nashia da-Meschicha kad-lau haVyona, ella mrtnl chodutho d^am k''yona Alhoia, Aloha ithawai vemethkra\

94

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
a divine
little

and only Saviour

;

while of Nestorius they

know

more than that he was a good man, who

resisted, to

his own ruin, the growing tendency of the Greek church to the idolatrous worship of the Virgin Mary and as such they honour his name.
;

2.

They hold

also, that in

our Saviour there are but one
to,

will

and one operation, which they attribute
the perfect

and attempt

to demonstrate by,

harmony

subsisting be-

tween the human nature and that of the Deity within him.
3.

In

common

with the

Greek and other eastern
of the Holy
Spirit

churches, they deny the procession

from the Son.
4.

With

these exceptions,

the theology of the Nestoall

rians has
verities of

symbolized upon
our
faith,

the great and essential

the mystery of the Triune Essence,

redemption by the atoning death of Christ, salvation by
free

grace,

and

sanctification

that

of

all

true

Christian

churches

with by the Holy Spirit, throughout the

world.
5.

They have always
offer

steadily

denounced the doctrine
souls of the dead,

of purgatory, though in the celebration of the eucharist

they

intercessions

for the

upon

the principle that the merit of the atonement pervades the world
of
separate
spirits,
all

and that an universal

import, as apphcable to

men, whether in the flesh or disembodied, may be given to the term. " world," in John But in how much this reai. 29, and similar passages.
soning
lies

open

to fatal objections, needs scarcely to be

pointed out.
6.

A

great controversy

was once maintained among

them on the
heaven.
sight of

subject of the beatific vision of the Deity in

Some of their expositors held that the intuitive God was, and would be, for ever impossible, not
But
this, as well

only to the saints in glory, but to angels themselves, and
even to the humanity of Christ.
as a

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
participancy in the sentiment of Origen on
restoration
tlie

95
ultimate

of the lost, was a private

or

unauthorized

opinion of various inclividaal divines, but never counte-

nanced by the approval of the church
3,

at large.

SACRAMENTS.

On
Jesu,

the

writers are loose

number of the sacraments, the Nestorian and indeterminate. According to Ebed
are seven,

there

which he thus enumerates
2.

:

1

Kohenutha, "priesthood, or orders."
kadish-utha, "holy baptism."
iitha,

3.

Mahmuditha Meshcha demashich-

4. Kurhona da j)hagerck vadamch da Mashicha, " the oblation of the
oil

"the

of anointing, or unction."

body and blood of Christ."
"remission of

5.

Chusoya
6.

dachothee,

sins, or absolution."

Chemira kadisha,

" the holy leaven." 7. Rushema da tsiliba machyona, " the sign of the saving or vivifying cross." * Whereas
the patriarch

Timothy f makes them
of

to be,

orders, the

consecration
eucharist,

churches,

baptism

and

unction,

the

the benediction of monks, the office for the

dead, matrimony.

To

these, in the treatise devoted to

them, he adds, in a supplementary chapter, absolution.
Several other of
their divines,

though holding to the
in various ways, sub;

number
others

of seven, enumerate

them

stituting some,

and omitting other, ceremonies

while
to

augment or diminish the number, according

their private opinions.
[It

appears that the same uncertainty on this point

prevails

among

their descendants.

A

Nestorian bishop
:

recently enumerated the sacraments as follow

Baptism,

eucharist, ordination, consecration of churches, marriage,

the consecrated leaven, and consecrated
ecclesiastic, of the
*

oil

:

yet another

same rank, gave them
cap.
i.

as baptism, the

Ebedjesu in lib. Margarita, pars iv. t De sept. Sacr. apud Assem. torn. iii.

p. 5/2.

96
eucliarist,

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
ordination, matrimony, burial, the sacred lea;

ven,

and confession

admitting, however, " that auricuit,

lar confession

had long been abolished, and with

of

course, sacerdotal absolution."]
is, that the term ]i]j rozee, " sacraments," has not been used by the usually rendered

The

truth,

however,

Syrians in the closely-defined sense in which the corre-

sponding word
their

is

employed in the western church.

By

word
acts,

ro2;ee,

the Syrians denote certain mystej'ies, or

emblematical signs, whether given in objects or ceremonial

forth to the mind.

by which analogous spiritual truths are set As a church, the Nestorians have
though divers individuals among them
a leaning of

never had the same doctrine of the sacraments as the
later

Romanists

;

may have had
specific

towards

it.

They have no
confession

service

confirmation.

Auricular

they hold in abhorrence, and extreme unction they have
never regarded
as

sacramental.

The only ordinances
and ordination.
In the

which, as a church, they consider to have this character,
are baptism, the Lord's supper,

administration

of the

first,

they follow a ritual which,

according to
the apostles.

its

title, is

derived, like their liturgy,

from

formity as to

But there has never been a vigorous unithe use of it, or the manner in which the
Considering baptism as

ordinance

itself is celebrated.

having the same relation to the Christian dispensation

which circumcision bore
proper for
this
is

to the Jewish, the eighth

day

after the birth of the child is the time
its

ordinarily held
cases,

administration.

Yet, in

numerous

departed from by postponement

has varied,
sion.

The mode also but has been most commonly that of immeroil

Anointing the baptized with holy
is

immediately

follows the ordinance, and

considered an indispensable

accompaniment.
"With respect to the eucharist, while as a church they

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
are certainly opposed to the

97

there have been occasionally

dogma of transubstantiation, among them divines who
Ebedjesu,
of

have propounded
for

it

in

no questionable terms.
the grossest manner.

example,

metropolitan
it

Soba in the fourteenth

century,

teaches

in

''When-

we meet we embrace him, and, by the same reception (of him), we are united with liim. For his sacred body is commixed
soever," says he,
to these mysteries,

" we come

with Christ himself.

We

bear

him

in our hands,

with our bodies, and his precious blood

is

mingled with

our own.
is

For, by faith,
is

we know
his

that the body

which
the

in heaven

also

with us in the church."

And

patriarch Elias III., in
says plainly,
is

Exposition of the Creed,*

" The substance of the bread and the wine

changed into the substance of the body and blood of

the Messiah."

But the older Nestorians had not so learned Christ. They considered the eucharistic elements as emblematical of the Lord's body, which was broken, and of his blood, which was shed, for us. With their views of the incarnation, indeed, it was impossible for them to have approved the doctrine of transubstantiation, as held by modern Romanists, and propounded by the council of Trent, that "in the most holy sacrament of the eucharist

there are truly, really, and substantially contained

the body and the blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, together with his soul and divinity." f
it

This,

we submit,

was not possible

for

a Nestorian to believe, consist-

ently with his pecuhar ideas
*
•f-

on the constitution of our

Renaudot,

ii.

77.

III sanctissimce eucharistice

sacramento contineri vere,

realiter, et

sanguinem una cum anima et divinitate D. N. J. C Can. i. ses. xiii. Thus Leontius of Byzantium, in his book " On the Impiety of the Nestorians," charges them with having held that the bread set forth in the Lord's supper is only the type of the body of Christ.
substantialiter, corpus et

F

9S
Saviour's

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
person.

Hence,

when

this

dogma began

to

agitate the church, they gave

it theii'

resistance.

Their most able theologians, in the spirit of the sentiment which pervades their sacramental* liturgy, taught that the bread and wine were made to the believer the body and blood of Christ, after a spiritual manner, by the vivifying grace of the Holy Ghost, which they Their doctrine on this believed was imparted to them. point seems to harmonize more fully with that of consubstantiation, as held by the Lutherans, than with any

They considered that the presence of the Saviour by some inexplicable union with the bread and wine, whUe the nature of those substances "As the humanity of themselves remained unaltered. the Messiah," says the patriarch Timotheus II., "not by
other.

was associated

nature,
nature,

but on account of the union with
is

the

divine

and

is

called

God, so this bread and wine,
are,

on account upon them, " The called the body and blood of the Messiah." * body which is in heaven," says Bab8eus,f "and that which is (sacramentally) in the church, is one body in two different natures." And still more clearly, Georgius,

which are not

flesh

and blood by nature,

of the grace of the Holy Spirit which falls

"Certain Theophori,'' % says he, bishop of Arbela " aflSrm that this sacrament is really the body and blood
;

of Christ, and not the

body and blood.
perfect in their

sacrament, or mystery, of To whom we reply Some things
:

his

are

by Thus we say that (in the incarnation) God became man, and man was made God, not certainly by a change of nature, for we aflSrm
nature, but others are perfected
a nature conjoined with theirs.
Lib. de Sacr. cap. iv. § 3.

own

f Surnamed "the

Great," an archimandrite in the sixth century.

X " God-carriers," a term of reproach applied to those who believed they received the Deity in a bodily manner in the eucharist.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
that the Deity remained unalterably the same,

99

and we
of)

deny that man became God by
nature
;

(a transmutation

by the union, God became man, and man was made God. So do the bread and wine become flesh and blood, not by (transmutation of their) nature but
but,
.

;

(mystically)
this

by union (with the divine presence). For reason we call the bread and wine a sacrament
it

thereby rendering

manifest that the same are the body
are

and blood
blood,

(of Christ) in a mystery, because they

not such by nature.

For

if

they were

literally flesh
;

and

they could not be called a mystery

but since

they be a mystery, therefore they are not physically flesh

and blood.
vice versa.

For a mystery

is
is

that in a sign which

it

is

not by nature.

Whatever
as, after

natural

is

not mystical, and

And

our way of speaking, the dea-

con represents the mystery of an angel, and the priest
the mystery of Christ, the holy place (chancel) heaven,
the altar the seat of Christ, the bema Jerusalem, and so
forth,

which things are unquestionably not in themselves
;

what they (emblematically) represent
blood
wine."
It

so are the bread

and wine, by a certain mystical union, the body and
of

Christ

;

but by nature they are bread and

may

also be not

unworthy of remark

that, as if to

give a perpetual
ite

though

silent protest against the favour-

dogmas of the Romish church, the formula, " This is my body," on the enunciation of which the change of substance in the elements is said to transpire, has no place in the -sacramental service of the Nestorians. They consider the invocation of the Holy Spirit, which may be
seen in the Liturgy further on, to indicate the
of effectual consecration.

moment

When some

of the Nestorians

conformed

to Popery,

among

other alterations to which
divine,

their Liturgy

was subjected, that
was incorporated
F 2

but misinter-

preted, sentence

for the use of the

new

100

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
This was done also for the Liturgy of the

communion.

Syrians of Malabar, by the unwelcome interference of

Menezius, the Portuguese archbishop of Goa.

As
oil

to the circumstantials
it

of the eucliarist, they use

bread with a leaven in

called vialcha,

together with
raisins.
it

and

salt

;

and

for

wine the juice of grapes or
this sacrament,

Wlien the patriarch celebrates
with covered head.

he does

[Tn the Journal of Dr. Grant, an American Missionary
to the

Nestorians

of

Koordistan

in

1834,

there

is

a

pleasing account of a sacramental service at which be

was present one sabbath
mountains.

in an

old church

among

the

"The

bread and the wine," says he, "were

consecrated in the sanctuary, or holy place, of the church,

and then brought out by a
each

priest

and a deacon, while

member

of the church went forward in rotation, and

partook of a small piece of the bread from the hand of
the priest,

who

held a napkin to prevent any morsels
;

from
care

falling

from the mouth of the communicant
off the wine,

and

then he drunk

which was held with great

by the deacon, so that not a drop should be spilled. But there was none of that idolatrous adoration of the host, so characteristic of the mass of the Romanists and
of the other Oriental churches.

On

the contrary, there

was an honest scriptural simpHcity in the observance of The priest who had officiated in this solemn ordinance.
the prayers and the instruction of the congregation,
first

partook of the sacred elements, and then invited
partake

me

to

["

I

could not but regard them as a branch of the true
the
dai'kness

church of God, though immersed in
not of death.
ter

of

gross ignorance, superstition, and spiritual torpor, yet

But there was still much in their, /characand circumstances of deep and lively interest. My

heart was drawn towards

them

in

warm

affection

;

and

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
selcloni liave
I

101
love of Christ

commemorated the dying

under circumstances more deeply interesting than among these primitive Christians in the wild mountains of
Assyria.

There was a great

stillness

and propriety of
all retired

deportment in the congregation, and
noise or confusion.
at

without

In pa.ssing out, each person received

the door a very thin leaf of bread rolled together,

and enclosing a morsel of meat.
feast'

This was the 'lovefirst

of

the

eaa-ly

Christians

of the

and second

centuries."]
4.

MINISTERIAL ORDERS.
klirikee,

The
Greek

ministers of the Nestorian church are, as a body,

sometimes designated
xk-^pog'

a term evidently from the

but more generally by a word of their

own
from

language,

idimiai/ee,

" churchmen,

ecclesiastics,"

J^,^^

idth€(j

"the church."
This form

Their regimen has always been episcopal.

of church government, so undeniably general very soon
after the

apostolic age, appears to have been a neces-

sary developement of Christian order.

In an isolated

church, or assembly of faithful men,

sup erin tended by

a single pastor, there would exist a specimen of simple
or congregational episcopacy
;

but where, a« in most of

the churches constituted by the apostles themselves, there

was a plurality of presbyters, and especially

(as

soon

became the
its

case)

where a number of churches held a
regimen,
first

connexional relationship, an episcopal
parochial,

in

and then in
find the

its

diocesan, extent of exercise,

became a measure, not only of prudence, but of necessity.

Hence we

same principle in operation in

our own day, even in communities which, by a species of
inconsistency, disavow the external

of episcopacy.
consistories

name and attributes The moderator of the Vaudois, or of the and synods of the Refonned churches in

102

THE SYRIAN CHtJRCHES.
tlie

France, or of the General Assembly of

Presbyteriaa

kirk of Scotland

;

the " superintendent " in the Lutheran

and the " chairman " of a district comprising some fifty ministers of the Wesleyan communion, whom he summons around him, annually, for the investigation
church
;

of character,
will, each, in

and the review of their pastoral agency

;

the discharge of the duties he owes to these
officio,

bodies of ministers, be practically, and ex

though
in the

not by

title,

a bishop

;

and that diocesan who,
is

episcopal church in America, presides at the stated four-

yearly convention of the bishops,

indubitably a metro-

politan, or archbishop, though' such titles are

unknown

in

that ecclesiastical body.
titles

But in these matters names and
over the
decisions of

arouse our prejudices, and mere circumstantials too
exercise

often

the influence

our

judgments, which should be allowed only to fact and
reahty.

The episcopal
tion

office
is

they

may


;

let

men

call it

by what appellaa

indispensable

to

well-regulated

church economy

and,

accordingly, the earliest notices

we have of

these

eastern
it.

Christian

societies

are inse-

parably associated with

The question
I

as to

whether

bishops and presbyters, though different in degree, are the

same order,
detained
:

is

one on which
be

have no disposition to be

let

every one be fully persuaded in his
observed,

own
as

mind.

It

may

however,

in

passing,

germane
sidered

to the present topic, that if the

judgment of the

early theologists of this very ancient
as having

communion be conits

any weight in

determination,

it

would be assuredly given

in the afiirmative.

In the

esti-

mation of the able and apostolical

men who

in the second

century prepared the Syriac version of the

New
titles

Testa-

ment
same

for the use of the oriental churches, the bishop

and

presbyter of the apostolic ordination were
individual.

of the

Hence

in texts

wherein the Greek word

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
STTio-xoTTOf,
*'

103

bishop/' occurs,

it is

rendered in their version

by the Syriac word kashisha, "presbyter;" examples of
which
there
is

I

have given in another treatise.*
littje

Nevertheless,

doubt

that, as years rolled on, the ideas of

the Syrian churches kept pace with the tendencies of the

Greek, Egyptian, and Western communions, towards the
full

unfolding of those imposing hierarchies, which

dif-

ferent men, according to their peculiar habitudes of mind,

have pronounced the glory or the bane of true Christianity,

In the Nomo-canon of Ebedjesu, of Soba, the orders of
the

Nestorian church are exhibited as follow
;

:

I.
;

The
the

DiACONATE
deacon,

comprising

the harooya^
;

or

reader

hoopodyakona, or
II.

and the shamshona, or under which are The Presbyterate
sub-deacon
;

ranged the kashisha, presbyter, arkidyakona, archdeacon,

and the periodevtes,
cluding
the
bishop,
patriarch.

visitor.

III.

The Episcopate
and

;

in-

metropolitan,

catholicos,

or

been held

Much in these various forms of office has in common with the corresponding ones of
These coincidences we
shall leave un-

other churches.

touched, and confine ourselves to matters peculiar to the
Nestorians.
1

ter,"

The deacon is called shamshona, " servitor or minisfrom ^,A^^^A shamesk, " to serve :" he is the attendant
|

or assistant of the priest, in the routine of the
teshmeshthtti or public
service

^-^^-i^Z
also

of God.
;
;

They have
a
title

the

office

of

deaconess, meshamshonitha

some-

times apphed to the wives of the deacons
to females,

but, officially,

whose duty

is to

attend at the door by which
to

the

own
2.

women enter sex who are

the church,

dress adults of their

candidates for baptism, as well as to
of the sick.

perform various

offices in the visitation
is

The presbyter

styled

kashisha,

from

* Hor<s Aramaicce, p. 49.

104

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
:

kashash, "to be elderly, or old," senuit

his status corre-

sponds with that of the presbyter of the Western church.

He

has

also

the titles of

^^

kohen, (Hebrew, tjl^)

and Ip^iCoo
Levitical,

kwnora,
*'
:

(Chaldaic, 1?:D1^)

both

signify-

ing " a priest

the fonner originally taken from the
Gentile, priesthood.

and the other from the
offices are filled
;

Three superior

by presbyters

:

I

.

That
the
2.

of church treasurer, or steward

called rabhaitha, **lord of
affairs of

the house," or administrator of the secular

church

:

but this

office

is

often

merged

in

that of,

The archdeacon,
church,"
or

called

also
3.

rish-idtha,

"head

of the

ecclesiarch.
;

presbyter," or visitor
tion

an

officer

HhQ periodevt a, "circuitwhose duty is the visitacertain

and inspection of the churches, within a

compass.

He

held the place of the old chor-ejnscapiis, or

rural bishop of the Greek church.

Morinus derives the

name
the

from \^^:^ parida, "vigilant;"* but Assemann, with greater likelihood, pronounces it to be
periodenta

Greek

zjspio^suTYji,

circuitor.

This

office

is

held

among the
3.

Nestorians and Jacobites, but not,

I believe,

by the Maronites.

The names of episcopa,f metripoleeta or metran, The or patriarka^ are all from the Greek. bishop is consecrated by the patriarch, or by a metrokatoleeka
politan

the act.

and bishops, the patriarch subsequently confirming The service of consecrating bishops, and that

also of the patriarch,

may

be seen in the work of Mori-

nus, just referred to.

The

titles

of the head of the

Nestorian clergy are

those of catholicos or archbishop of Seleucia and Ctesi-

phon, and patriarch of the East
stated,

:

his residence, as already

was formerly

at

Seleucia,

and

in

after-days at
called alsQ

Bagdad, Mosul, and Ormia.
*
j-

This last

city,

De

sacris Ordinationibus, pars 2.
is

The bishop

sometimes

called khalfa^

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Urmia and Ooroomiah, became
the
a patriarchal residence, in
all

105

removal thither

of

Mar Shimon,

1580.
ordei-s of

by The
the

patriarch has the supreme control of

clergy, and- the regulation of whatever concerns the per-

formance of divine service in the church.

Among

the

independent Nestorians of Koordistan, in the present day, he exercises a secular, as well as ecclesiastical, authority.

He

bears,

indeed, nearly the same relation to his people

that the high priest did

among

the

ancient

Hebrews

:

excision not only from the privileges of the church, but

even from society,

is

a

common form
his

of severe punish-

ment

inflicted

by him, and

ban

is

greatly dreaded

by
an

the people.

[So Dr. Grant,

who

in his travels

among them

gives

instance in the case of " a

man

of high influence living

near the river on the direct road from Lezan,"

who was

then resting under such a malediction

;

in consequence of

which
*^

-the

people held very
(for the

little

intercourse with him.
I

For this reason,

purpose of avoiding him,)
circuitous route

was desired
Asheeta."]

to take the

more

by way

of

In modern times the patriarchate has not been elective,

but in

some
is

sort

hereditary

;

the

incumbent himself

choosing his successor from
the nominee
for the oflice, with

among

his
is

own

relatives.

If

of juvenile years, he

regularly educated

strict attention to

a certain physical

regimen,

as well as to a proper

course of ecclesiastical

instruction.

On

his

investiture

with

the

dignity,

he
to

takes the

ofiicial

name of Simeon,

or Shimon.

Up

the time of the recent massacre, his dwelling was near

Joolamerk, in the Hakary district of the mountains of
Koordistan.

The age
Nestorians,

for admission to
is

clerical

orders,

among

the

not strictly defined.
;

Deacons have been
presbyters as early

ordained at seven or eight years old
F 5

106
as seventeen.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Should an
ecclesiastic apostatize,

he has to
is

be

re-ordained after
all

proof of repentance.

Marriage

permitted to
patriarch.

the orders of the clergy, excepting the

In numerous instances the clergy have been
to

accustomed
character.*

engage in secular business, this not having
of them, from the deacon

been considered to interfere with or impair the ministerial

None

up

to the

patriarch, have been obliged to
either as to
laity,

wear any peculiar habit,

form or

colour, to distinguish

them from the

unless
;

whDe engaged

in the perfonnance of divine

service

they are then dressed in appropriate vestments.

The

officiating presbyter

wears a long descending mantle,

surmounted by

a guitar cowl or

hood

for the head.

The

bishop, metran, and patriarch, are each robed in the maa-

phra, called, also, phakila, and kaphilay a loose flowing

garment, open at the breast

:

his

head
;

is

covered with

the biruma, an ornamented turban
sions he holds in his

and on high occastaff.

hand the chutra, or pastoral
is

The colour of the
the patriarch.

biriana varies according to the taste of

In the history of Amrus, there

a

list

of

no

less

than fourteen colours or shades of colours, with

the names of the patriarchs
5.

who have used them.

MONASTIC INSTITUTIONS.
life

The
a

eremitical

was probably adopted
of persecution.

at first

as

refuge from the

violence

In

those

instances the followers of Christ literally abandoned the

world, and sought, in the solitudes
safety

of the

desert,

the

and

tranquillity denied

them among

their fellow-

men.

The growing prevalence,
it

also, of ascetical doctrines

and sentiments
life,

lent a pecuHar interest

to that

kind of

decked The

with the attributes of pre-eminent holiness
tlieir

*

Nestorian clergy are poor,
of the bishops

means of support being

derived from inconsiderable fees, and the produce of their
bour.

own

la-

The income

is

augmented by

a small poll-tax.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
and merit, and exalted
fection.
it

107

to the ideal of spiritual per-

Yet

let

not the

memory
;

of those

men

be treated with

unreflecting

harshness.

Though mistaken, they were
vices of the

nevertheless sincere
Christianity.

the martyrs to a false conception of

The wretched imbecihties and
afterwards
for

monastic character, which
years became

a thousand

the opprobrium of the church, are in no
to

wise to be referred

them,

except as the

first

wellerror,

meaning
results.

votaries

of a system which,

founded in

was carried by

their less-virtuous successors to its natural

The western church borrowed the monkish
from the
tury,
orientals.
St.
It

institute

was

in Egypt, in the fourth cen-

Anthony first effectually attempted the the numerous ascetics of the Thebais into an organized community. His disciple, Hilarion, whose reputation for this species of sanctity pervaded the East, introduced the system into Palestine and Syria. [His biography was written by St. Jerome, who places his death in 372.] Meanwhile Eugenius, whom the Sjrrians call Aboon, " our father," (altered by Sozomen and others
that

consolidation of

into Aones,) together with Gadianus, Azyzas, and others,

extended

it

into Mesopotamia.

In these countries, as

elsewhere, this heartless system had a wide- spread and

melancholy
proved

success,

cheerful, active,
itself,

which gave a new phasis to the and beneficent religion of the gospel, and
evils

by the

which

it

engendered, to have

been one of the elements of that consummate deception

by which the infernal

spirit

has sought to defraud our

world of the benefits of Christianity.
This tendency to deterioration was checked for a sea-

son in Mesopotamia, about a. d. 500, by the exertions of

Abraham,

who founded
near

the

celebrated

monastery

of

Mount

Izla,

Nisebis,

from which branches were

108'

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
members
of

established in the neighbouring provinces, the

of which,

devoting themselves to works of usefulness,
the conversion of

were instrumental in
Heathen.

many

the

Among
novices,

the Syrians, as with the Egyptian and Greek
life
:

church, there were three degrees in the monastic
the
professed,

the

and the

perfect.

The general
"
solitaries,'*

names given them were \^.^2L^

chidoyee,

(Gr. (/^ovci^ot) and )^aiv^ onoyee, " ascetics."
also particular appellations according to their
life,

They had

manner of

as the IaI^j dairoyee

and

j^-

" ccenovcai^ umeroyee,

bites," those living in a convent or

monastery;

lIxl^isoJ

nukeroithee, "recluses," strangers to the world, and^-3|,!bD

medabriee,

" dwellers

in

the

wilderness,"

or eremites,

who, from

their several peculiarities, were subdivided into
'

\L*^\ abilee, " mourners,"

|

a ^-^:: chabishee,
stylites,"

" the en-

closed," and 1~*JC.^) estenoyee, "

or those

who

passed
life,

much

of their time on columns.
it

But the

stylitic

though

found some favour among the Monophy-

sites,

was never embraced by the Nestorians.*
a monastery was called \^\ ahhcr, " \^y rabba^ or with the pronoun z^'^ rabbmiy
;

The principal of
" father
;

" our master i.^,^^5
1

\j^^h

^'ishay

" chief
of

or

superior,"

or

rishhdaira,

" chief

the

convent,"

and

,V,^^V£ meshablanoy "
titles

director."

The

principal of a

nunnery had the

of jv^j

emmay "mother;" ]^^y

rabtka, "mistress ;" ]i-^\£,marthci, "lady;" liuiifc.^-4^
*

This kind of superstition, founded by the celebrated Simeon,

never met with

certain Walfilaicus much patronage in the East. attempted the same thing near Treves, but was at once forbidden

A

by the neighbouring bishops.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
nieshamshonitha,
fl

109
rishtka,

**

deaconess
'*

;

"

and

1Iva~*j

or

7

V

X

lfA.^ivA.*i

rishath-daira,

chief of the convent."
].^j

The
*'

common
thren
;

address
anjd

of the

monks was

achee,

bre-

"

that of nuns ]L\niil achothee,

''sisters."

Among

the

Nestorians in Assyria or Koordistan at the

present time, there are no monastic institutions, nor else-

where, unless in a modified form
only ad
lihitiim,

;

the profession being
life.

and not for the term of

6.

CHURCHES AND SERVICE.
to

The
^D^rr]
to

edifice consecrated

the worship of

God has
;

been usually called

[I^^ot AazA/a,

" the temple " [Heb.
its

and in the principle

of

construction refers

that at Jerusalem.

Thus, distinct from the body of
is

the church occupied by the congregation, there

" the
;

holy place," which

is

accessible to the priesthood only
it

nor do even they enter
prayer.

without previous fasting and

Such

is

the feeling which has been transmitted

to the Nestorians of our

own

day.

"

"V\lien

the sanctuary

or holy place has been polluted

by the entrance of any

unhallowed person,

it

can be used for divine service."
strangers

must be consecrated anew before it During such an interval
it,

and others

are permitted to enter

but under
the Rev.

no other circumstances.

A modern

traveller,

Eli Smith, describing a Nestorian church, says,

"

I-

ob-

served that a door conducted into the sanctuary, and was

about to enter.

But the bishop commanded
I

me

in an

authoritative tone to stop.
priest
;

told

him

that I too was a

but he replied, that that place could only be
that

entered by fasting, and betrayed by his manner such an
earnestness,
I

desisted."
size of
is

Besides the

sanctuary,

which

is

about half the

the space appropriated to

the congregation, there

also a small recess at the

end

110
of the former,

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
called
it
''

the holy of holies."

There
;

is

nothing within

but the simple figure of the cross
churches

and

no one enters.
are commonly of great The traveller meets with them in strength and various parts of Assyria, and gazes at them with veneration, as the antique monuments of a storm-tried and

The

Nestorian

durability.

persecuted, but indestructible, faith.

A

very substantial
that

one which Dr. Grant saw in
to the

the north part of

country, was at an early day in the Christian era erected

memory

of the apostle Bartholomew,

in that region, especially in the district of Albagh.

who preached Some
was
the
built

of the Syriac writers have affirmed, that

it

by
a

Bartholomew himself
later date.

;

but the learned

among

modern
it

Nestorians, probably with

more

correctness,

assign

Other places were pointed out to him where
;

Thaddeus and Mares proclaimed the gospel and in Media, near the lake of Ooroomiah, is a church called Mar

Tooma, or Thoma, from the apostle Thomas, who
have made that his
last

is

said to

stopping-place before proceeding

on his
history

way toward
of churches

India.

The Nestorians have the
more than two One in the city of
the second cen-

now

standing in Adiabena, or the

central part of Assyria, that were built

centuries before the

Mahomedan

era.

Ooroomiah
tury
;

is

said to have been built in

and another, which was taken from the Christians
in

by the Moslems, bears a date
repairs

the Cufic character, of

made by them about seven centuries ago. The Mahometans say, that it was an old building at that time. But the roofs of their Its dome is about sixty feet high. churches are commonly arched. One which Dr. Grant saw in the mountains was " a very ancient structure, made by
enlarging a natural cave, by means of heavy stone-walls in
front of the precipitous rock.
It
it

stood far up on the side
as dark as midnight,'*

of the mountain, and within

was

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES,

111

In the celebration of divine worship, the prayers and
the singing or chanting of the psalms are ancient Syriac language
tures,
;

still

in the

but in the reading of the scripin

the priest gives a translation

the

vernacular

spoken by the people.
of popular

The
in

exposition of the scriptures,

in the best days of the Nestorian church,

was a province
clergy attained

instruction

which

their

great excellence.

Many
eminent

of them, as

may

be seen by a

glance at the conspectus of their literature in the present

volume,
or

were

as

{.i

fiA'^^
this

maphashkoneey
in

COMMENTATORS.

But

in

as

most other
on the

respects,

the glory has long

waned

into

a melancholy

gloom.

The remark of the writer

just quoted,

darkness of the interior of the Alpine church,

may

be

almost employed as symbolizing that spiritual obscurity

by which the minds of the

priests, as well as the people,

have been forages overshadowed.

[Some have
adorned their
to be

affirmed,

that

the

ancient

Nestorians
if

churches with

images.

But

by

this

term we are to understand statues of the
observed, that there
it.

saints, it

ought

is

no

historical evidence to

prove

In common, indeed, with the Christians of the

Greek communion, their temples were often garnished
with pictorial representations of the Saviour and of distinguished saints.
says,

Thus the
painted the

historian of the

life

of Mares

that

''he

image of the Virgin, and
the continuator of the

those of the saints," &c.

And

" Chronicle of Abulfarai," describing the persecutions of
the Christians under Neuruzo, in
their churches were
sor,
left

1295, mentions, that

with neither cross, image, cen-

nor gospel.

But

in

both these

citations, the

word
it

\iQQ^ yukono,
likeness,

like

the

Greek

eixwv,

to

which

is

evidently related, signifies a representation,

'^(^apaxTYip,

or

while the very phraseology employed by the

112

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

biographer shows, that such was the import in which he

used

it

:

'*

He painted

the images," &c.

So the Arme-

nian Constabula, in his letter to the king of Cyprus con-

cerning his embassy to the Great Khan, in the year 1248,
Tartar country of Tenguth, which had been evangelized by the Nestorians, writes, " The people
referring to the

of this land are Christians

:

T

myself have been in their

churches, and seen paintings of Jesus Christ, of the three

kings," &c.

[The modern Nestorians,
the figure of the cross

it is

certain,

have a great ab:

horrence of images in places of divine worship
itself,

* yet, for

though without the figure of

our Saviour upon

it,

they cherish a deep veneration.

On

entering their temples they salute the cross with a kiss.

They

also

use occasionally the sign of the cross, which
left

they perform like the Greeks, from the right to the
shoulder.
Jacobites,

In this act they employ two fingers.

The

on the contrary, sign from the
in Faith."

left to

the right.

These mysteries are explained by Elias of Damascus, in
his

book ''On AgreemcLt
from the
left to

The Jacobites use
;

one finger, to denote their behef in the one nature
sign
to bring us

and

the right, to show that Christ died

from

sin to grace.

But the Nestorians emto the left, because the
left infidehty.]

ploy two fingers, as expressive of their belief in the two
natures,

and sign from the right

right side indicates faith,

and the

7.

ECCLESIASTICAL CALENDAR.
of
far

The

annuary

public

services

in

the

Nestorian

church dates so
Adiabena,
*

back as the time of Jesujabus, of

who was

patriarch in G5.5.

The

ecclesiastical

Lebrun mentions a case which occurred in the town of Caturta, by papal influence, an image was set up in the church, the people resisted it, on the ground that they were Christians, and
that when,

not worshippers of idols.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
year
begins with the
at

113
the western
subora,

Nestorians,

as with
call

church,

Advent,

which

they

j-:^^^

" the Annunciation."

The following

is

the circle of their principal church-

The four Sundays of the Annunciation from the commencement of December. The Nativity of our Lord after the Flesh. [Note. The ordinary First Friday after the nativity. name for Sunday among the oriental Christians is

j^^^ ^
day they

chad heshaho,

*'

the

first in

the week."

Fri-

eruvthoy call "sixth day," and also ]Z\^of^ " the eve," because under the former dispensation it was

the eve of the sabbath. dar
I

But

in this abstract of the calen-

have used the terms

common among

ourselves.]

First

Sunday of the

nativity.

Commemoration of the Second Friday of the nativity. Lady Maria. Second Sunday of the nativity. The Manifestation of our Lord. [Epiphany,
in Syriac
rising.]

|^j^

dancho,

a

word expressive

of the

sun-

First Friday of the manifestation.

Commemoration of

Mar Juchanon Mahamdona
First

(the Baptist).

Sunday of the manifestation.

of the apostles,

Commemoration Shimun Kipha, and Paulos. Second Sunday of the manifestation. Third Friday of the manifestation. Commemoration
Second Friday of the manifestation.
Third Sunday of the manifestation.

of the four evangelists.

Fourth Friday of the manifestation.
of

Commemoration

Mar

Stephanos, the

first

martyr.

Fourth Sunday of the manifestation.

114

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Commemoration
doctors
of

Fifth Friday of the manifestation.

Diodorus,

Theodorus,

and

Nestorius,

of

the

Greeks.
Fifth

Monday

Sunday of the manifestation. * of the Prayer of the Ninevites.
of the Prayer of the Ninevites.

Tuesday of the Prayer of the Ninevites.

Wednesday

Thursday, thanksgiving.
Sixth Friday of the manifestation.
of Ephrem,
Narses, Abraham,
Julianos,

Commemoration
Juchanon, Mi-

kael. Job, Eshai,

and Barsuma, doctors of the Syrians.

Sixth Sunday of the manifestation.

Seventh Friday of the manifestation.
of the patriarch Maraba.

Commemoration

Seventh Sunday of the manifestation.

Eighth Friday of the manifestation.
of the forty martyrs.

Commemoration

Eighth Sunday of the manifestation.

Ninth Friday of the manifestation.
of the dead.

Commemoration

Sunday of the entrance on the fast. (Lent.) The Sundays and holidays of the Fast proceed
the seventh, called the sabbath of hosannas
:

till

then follows

passion-week, of which the Monday
second day of the fast
;

is

called

"the

last

" the Thursday, " the
''

fifth

day of

the pascha ;" the Friday,

the sixth day of the passion,"
;

or "Friday of the passion, and of the mysteries
rist ;)

" (eucha-

and the Saturday, "the great sabbath." To this succeeds " the week of the resurrection ;" beginning with the first Sunday of the resurrection, or Each day of this week takes the Sabbath of sabbaths.
its

name from
is

that of the sabbath, except the Friday,

which

called

"the

sixth

day

of

confessions

or

praises."

Monday

is

called second day,

Tuesday

third day, &c.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
The
five

115

Fridays,

in

Sundays of the resurrection follow, with their which different saints are commemorated
into heaven.

then comes,

The day of our Lord's ascension
First Friday of the ascension.

Sunday of the ascension. Second Friday of the ascension. Sunday of Pentecost.
First Friday of Pentecost.

The
last of

six

Sundays
;

after pentecost are called sabbaths of

THE apostles
them
is

the Friday or sixth day following the

the commemoration of the

seventy-two

disciples.

Then follow the seven Sundays of summer, with
the Fridays
saints
;

the latter being commemorative of various

and martyrs.

The three Sundays of Elijah, with commemorative
Fridays.

The beginning of the month Elul (September). Commemoration of Rabban Hormisda. The four Sundays of the finding of the cross,
called, also,
last of

Sundays of Elijah
is

;

the Friday following the

which

the commemoration of that prophet.

The first Sunday in the month Tisri (October). Commemoration of Mar Sabarjesu, and others. In the commemorations of this month is that of Mikael and the
angels.

The Sundays
between the
vember.

of

Musha,

(Moses,)
cross,

more or
first

fewer,

festival of the

and the

of No-

The four Sundays of November

are called those of the
;

Ohudotha,
companions.

or dedication of the church

and the

first

Friday of this month commemorates St. Eugeuius and his
Besides these several commemorations^ they have others

116

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
;

on stated days
6th;

as that of the Transfiguration,

August

the Assumption,
:

August

15th;

St.

Thomas, the

apostle, July 3d, &c.

but the circumcision of our Lord,

the nativity of the Virgin,

and the days of the other

apostles, are not in their calendar.

8.

FASTS.
:

The

seasons for these are
;

1.

The

forty days' fast, or
call

that of Lent

from the Sunday which they

the comingtill

in of the fast,

(and the Latins, Quinquagesima,)
;

the
;

Sunday of the resurrection 2. The fast of the apostles from the first Monday after pentecost, till the first of the *' Sundays of summer.'* 3. Tsamo da-shunona, " the fast of the migration," (i. e.
of the Virgin,) from the beginning of August
till

the feast

of the assumption on the fifteenth

Tsamo d' Elijah, *'the fast of Elijah," from^the first Sunday till the Wednesday after the seventh Sunday of Elijah o. Tsamo da subora, " the fast of the annunciation," from the first Sun;

4.

;

day of the annunciation till the feast of the nativity; 6. Tsamo da Ninevee, " the fast of the Ninevites," or daboheutha, ''of the supplication" (rogation)
;

from the third
7.

Monday

till

the Thursday before

Lent

;

Tsamo da-

bethulotha, " the fast of the virgin," three days after the
feast of the manifestation, or epiphany.

Several of these

seasons are merely nominal, or binding only on the clergy

and monastic persons.
enjoined, however,
to

The

laity

are

use them voluntarily as they may.

recommended to They are strongly
on

observe abstinence habitually,

the fourth and sixth days, Wednesdays and Fridays.
fasts, festivals,

The

and sabbaths begin and end

at sunset.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
9.

117

SCHOOLS.*

The
times
;

sciences were cultivated in Chaldsea in very early

and

to

so

great

an

extent

tliat

the

name
in,

of a

native of that country

became synonymous with that of a
the Old
the
captive

philosopher.

We
as

have notices of this fact

Testament

;

when

Hebrew youths were

received into the palace of Nebuchadnezzar, to be indoctrinated in " the learning

and tongue of the Chaldseans.'*
7.)

(Dan.

i.

3; comp. ch.

iv.

The Christian church had
tion of sacred

institutions for the inculca-

knowledge from the most primitive days.

An

order of teachers for the instruction of youth, or of

adults converted out of Heathenism, was one of the provisions

made

for

'^

the edifying of the church " by

its

adorable

Head.

within six

Antioch years after the ascension, we read of " certain
(See
iv.

Eph.

11.)

Thus

at

Teachers, f as Bar-Nabas, Simeon, who was called Niger, and Lucius of Cyrene " (Acts xiii. 1 :) and in the early
:

centuries, every one
cipal Christian

knows that the schools of the princhurches had become illustrious for the
is

wisdom, learning, and piety of their public instructors.
Thus, with the church of Jerusalem
relation the

associated in this

name
;

of Cyril

;

with that of Caesarea, Pam-

philus

;

with Antioch, those of Theodoras, Chrysostom,
while the mere name of Alexandria brings mind the venerable forms of Pantaenus, Origen,

and Nestorius
before the

Didymus,
*

Pierius, Clemens, Alexander,

and Dionysius.
eskulastikee,

The words

eskula,

lars," are visibly adopted

" school," and eskuloyee, from the Greek ; but

" scho-

in addition to these

Syrians have several terms supplied from their own tongue : Beth'sophra, " the house of books ; " beth-drashia, " the house of instruction ; " madreshtha, " an institution ; " and, beth-yulphana,
the

"the house of teaching."
favourite.
-|-

But

the

Greek terms are the more

Greekj di^acrKaXoi, Syriac, malphonee, " doctors or instructors."

118
In
the

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Syrian
church,
the

most celebrated
St.

school

was that of Edessa, of which
great
divines

were the ornament.

Ephrem and Some account
''

other
of
it

may

be found in the second book of

th*e

Ecclesiastical

History of Socrates." As already stated, it was suppressed by the emperor Zeno, in 489. That of Nisebis was founded immediately after, by
Narses.

the one at Nisebis.

The school of Modaina, or Seleucia, was a branch of The first rector was Acacius, who was followed by Isaac and Romjesus. That of Dorkena was founded by Abdas, in 385. Its first teacher was Ebedjesu it was destroyed during the persecution under Pherozes, but was subsequently restored and maintained for several centuries. At Bagdad, a school was instituted by the patriarch
;

Mahuzza, about 832.
fact, six scholastical

In or near this city there were, in
establishments.
schools, also, in the province of

The Nestorians had

Garmaea, and in other parts of Persia, Khorassan, Adia-

bena and Arabia, of which notices may be seen in the
Bibliotheca Orientalis of Joseph Assemanni.*

Besides these
tion in hterature

several coUegiate

foundations,

instruc-

and theology was given

in various local

churches and monasteries.

Of the course of instruction for ecclesiastics in those we must not form our ideas by the habits and advantages of our own times. It was seldom then deemed necessary for a minister, or even a bishop, of the
days

church to be extensively learned in science, philosophy,
or general literature.

The Christians denominated these
as

classes of studies, external,

belonging, in their judg-

ment, more to the Gentile world than to themselves.

*

Tom.

iii.

p. 935.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
"
It
is

119

certain," says the admirable Fleury,

" that the

apostles

and

their first disciples did not apply themselves
St.

to these things.

Augustine did not esteem a neighbecause he was not skilful either

bouring bishop the
in
dialectics

less,

or grammar.

And we

see

how sometimes

they elevated reputable fathers of families, merchants,

and

artisans,

to

the

episcopate,

—men

prosecuted these kinds of study.
ledge of languages deemed

who had never Nor was the know;

more necessary

this

not

being cultivated even
necessities of

among

the Heathens, unless for the

commerce, excepting some of the Romans,
literature,

who, desirous of
Greek.

sought an acquaintance with

And

as all public prayers

and

lectures were deli-

vered in the common language of the country, the bishops

and
is

clerks, for the

to say, Latin

most part, understood no other that was spoken in the West, Greek in general
;

in the East,

and Syriac

in the higher Syria

;

so that in

the councils where bishops of different nations assembled,

they spoke by interpreters. cons

Sometimes there were dea;

who were unable

to read

and

this it

was which was
the knowledge
re-

then called not being literate.

"What

then," continues Fleury,
?

"was

required in a bishop or a priest

To have read and

read the holy Scripture, so as to
heart
;

know

it, if

possible,

by

to have well digested

it

by meditation,
all

so as to be

able to produce
faith,

from

it

the proofs of

the articles of
;

and

all

the great rules of morals and discipline

to

have learned, whether from the living voice or by reading,

how
the

the ancients have

explained

it

;

and then

to

know

canons,

namely, the rules of disciphne, written or

unwritten, and to Hve in the careful practice of them.
this measure of learning they were content, provided was united with great piety and prudence for governNot but that there were always both bishops and ment.

With
it

priests well instructed in profane science

;

but these were

120

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
as

commonly such
of
it

had applied themselves

to the study

before their conversion, as St. Basil and Augustine
to apply
it

and well they afterwards knew how
defence of the truth." *

to the

This attachment to the study of the text of holy writ
is illustrated

by Eusebius

in his

book on " the Martyrs of

Palestine

;

" from the example of Yalens, a deacon of the

church of Jerusalem, v/ho could repeat at pleasure whole
pages of the scriptures from
martyr,

memory
''

;

and of another

named John, who had
it,

the scriptures, as the his-

torian beautifidly expresses

not written upon parch-

ments, but on the fleshly tables of the heart, and inscribed
in his pure

and illuminated mind."

The method of study among the Nestorians gave a prominence to the scriptures. The divine volume held the first place, and every other attainment seems to have
directed to of their
its

better elucidation.

Besides the writings

had, as

own theological doctors and commentators, they may be seen in our conspectus, a tolerable selecGreek fathers rendered into the Syrian
lan-

tion of the

guage.
various

To the Greeks also they were indebted for treatises on what they called the yulphee baroyee,
of,

"external teachings," or philosophical literature.

[iVmong the Jacobites the course of study consisted
1.

The

scriptures.

2.

The

fathers.

3.

The philosophers.

In the Nomo-canon of the Maphrian Bar Hebr8eus,f there
a summary of theological studies, which may serve for an idea of those pursued in the schools of the other communion.
is

[The beginners are to read the Psalms, then the
the commentators.

New

Testament, afterwards the Old, then the doctors, lastly

[The doctors specified

are,

—Dionysius

of Athens
viii.

;

three

* Disc, sur les six premiers Siecles.

— Hist. Eccles.

22.

f

Part

vii. c. 9.

TRE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
orations

121
;

and ten

epistles

;

Basil,

twenty-nine orations

Gregory Nazianzen, forty-seven orations and thirty-one
epistles
;

three volumes of the orations and epistles of

Severus

;

two

hundred and fourteen orations of SS.
;

Ephrem and .Isaac
various

one hundred and eighty-two orations
;

of St. James of Sarug

and one hundred and

fifty-five

homilies

of
;

Arcadius, and others
of Palladius
;

SS. Chrysostom, Cyril, Theodotus, " the patristic history or " Paradise
;

the Hexaemeron of Basil

and the orations

of Jacob of Edessa.

[The commentators mentioned are Ephrem, Chrysostom, Moses Bar Cepha, and Dion Bar Salibseus. [On the ** external doctrines " are appointed a work of

Anthony of
sciences.*]

Sagrit, the

books of Aristotle on

logic,

meta-

physics, rhetoric,

and poetry, and a work on the natural

^yith the substitution of certain theological authors in

agreement with the

relative opinions of

each body, these

studies of the Jacobite clergy

may

give us no improbable

conception of those pursued by the Nestorians in their
seats of learning.

X.

DECADENCE.
we
shall not linger
college
at

Having

given this general idea of what the Nestorian
its

church was in
*

better days,

on the

The

course at the
is

modern Syrian

Ain
to the

el

Warka

(Maronite)

of a far more slender description than that pursued as

above by the ancient eastern clergy.

According
first

Rev. Mr.

Jowett, the age of entering this varies from eleven to thirteen.

The

term of study

is

four years.

In the

year they learn the Syriac

Grammar ; in the second, the book of Church Offices, both in Syriac and Arabic; in the third, they study what one of the youths called Prosody, but could not tell what it was, as he had not entered on that probably belles lettres ; in the fourth year they are occupied year, with moral theology, not dogmatical. AU who are admitted must See Jowett's " Researches study with a view to the priesthood.

in Syria

and Palestine."

G

122
spectacle of

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
its decline.

The conquests of the

Seljoucide

Turks, in the middle of the eleventh century, gave the
last

khalifs, and inflicted upon the Christians of Mesopotamia and Armenia a complication of injuries and sufferings. The expectations awakened in the Eastern church at

blow to the secular power of the

as well

the epoch of the crusades were not destined to be
filled.

ful-

Not yet was come the fore-doomed hour for the downfall of Islam and the hopes of those brighter days,
;

then thought to be nigh at hand, when

the crescent

should wane and the cross be in the ascendant, died away

amid the gathering of a heavier gloom.
this great but

The

failure of

mistaken enterprise
it lit

left

the actual state of
;

Asiatic Christianity worse than

had been

and,

among

the catalogue of curses which

upon

its

impoverished

and persecuted church, the pen of the
will inscribe the crusades.
.

faithful historian

While the noise of these calamitous wars

in Syria

had

not yet subsided, the newly developed power of the Tartars

was

visiting the nations to the east with fresh desolations.

At the time when the Latin princes were making such ineffectual sacrifices to regain to Christendom so small a
territory as

Palestine^

the indomitable Djenguis Khan,

emerging with his barbarians from the fastnesses of
"Western Tartary, overran a considerable portion of the
entire

continent,

and founded an empire which soon
Djenguis himself
:

extended from the Levant to Siberia.

was neither a Christian, a Mahomedan, nor an idolater he professed a belief in the One God, and held himself to be the instrument of his providence " to banish injustice

from the realms of wicked kings." The dynasty of which he became the head, and who held their court in
the palace of the khalifs, were in
able to the religion of Christ.
relation

many

respects favour-

There had been a marriage

between Djenguis and the family of that Ung-

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Khan
wlio, as

123

we have

seen, professed

and served the
;

cause of the gospel in his
feeling

own

territories

and the kindly
alli-

towards the Nestorians resulting from this

ance,

was displayed
-

in

many

instances

in

which he

favoured the Christians while treating the

Mahomedans

with severity.

A

similar disposition

was manifested by
last of

several of his successors.

Thus, at the taking of Bagdad

by Houlacoo, the grandson of Djenguis, while the
the khalifs*
streets,

was ignominiously dragged through the
to a death of torture, the Nestorian

and consigned

patriarch f was the object of the conqueror's protection.

Turachina, the wife of Ucthai, the immediate successor of
Djenguis, was a Christian.

Her son Gujach, who
;

fol-

lowed him in the throne, held the same faith
ijjse,

Christiam'.s

says the chronicler,

Ch'istianorumque fautor.

So

also the

mother and the wife of him who overthrew the
were followers of Jesus.
Abgara, the son of
still

khalifate

Houlacoo, did not profess Christianity, but
it

regarded

with a certain degree of reverence and favour.

Tacho-

dor, brother of Abgara,

had been baptized

in infancy,
fell

but arriving at manhood, like Julian with Paganism,

back into Mahomedanism, for which he had always indicated
a

predilection

;

propter societatem Saracenorum

quam dilexerat. On attaining the throne, which he did by usurpation, to the prejudice of his nephew, he renounced the Christian profession, and, taking the name
of

Mahomet Khan, he devoted

his energies to the sub-

version of the church, and

the re-establishment of the
after a

waning influence of the Koran. He perished, reign of two years, in 1 284 and Argonius, the
;

rightful

heir,

who succeeded

to the crown, cultivated relations of

amity not only with the oriental Christians, but with the
bishop of Rome, and
several

European princes.

The

* 3Iostazem.

f Macbicha.

G

2

.

124
period,

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
indeed,

of

the

Tartar

or

Mongul

dynasty

some grateful intervals of breathing for the Nestorian church, and was attended with the enjoyment
afforded

of greater freedom and tranquilhty, though occasionally broken in upon by the apostasy, fickleness, or brutul
disposition of the civil ruler.

But these milder and more luminous scenes,

like late

snatches of sunshine in autumn, gave place to the congregating clouds of that tremendous tempest which swept a
large portion of Asia with ruin

by the wars of Tamerlane.

This man, whose

name

is

enrolled on the page of history

among those whom the just and awful voice of the Deity has called forth from time to time, to become the scourges
of guilty nations, was related to a branch of the family of Djenguis Khan, which had been settled in the government of the province of Maurenahat, of which he was a native. His true name was Temur-Lenc, the latter being a denominative for one who is lame Temur the Lame. He
;

began his reign in 13/0, and shortly
career
India,
Syria,

after

commenced
of

a
:

scarcely paralleled in the annals

bloodshed

China,

Tartary,
all

Parthia,
fell

Persia,

Mesopotamia,
:

and Egypt,

groaning before his legions
It

his

course was from conquering to conquer.

may,

indeed,

be said of him, that " shrouds formed his ban-

ners," and that the outcry of suffering,
desolation,

and the wail of accompanied and swelled the thunder of his
" Loud the din of
Distant,

hosts.
battle roar'd,

War

and

Want

the hollow wind ; went before, and death were left behind."
terror

down

and having, after this fashion, devastated the entire East, and subdued, as it has been remarked, more kingdoms in the course of
;

lie sent from Damascus alone, and thousand camels laden with plunder

at

one time, eight

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
his

125
in the

personal wars, than ancient

Rome had won

space of eight denturies, he celebrated his achievements in
his

palace
at

at

Samarcand, with a composite ostentation

which

once partook of the brutism of the Scythians,
khalifs.

and the luxmious refinements of the southern
But for the inherent
very

vitality of the Christian faith, the

name

of our religion in those parts of the earth
:

must, at that time, have become extinct
local

as

it

was,

many

communities

fell,

to

rise

no more.

Henceforward

the Nestorian churches in Transoxiana, Turkestan,
cania,

past.

Hyrand Khorassan, existed only in the annals of the In Persia, and Mesopotamia, multitudes of the
were added to the innumerable martyrs
;

faithful

while not

a few were driven from the

homes

of their ancestors, to

seek refuge in other lands, and, especially,

among

their

from immemorial times, the seclusions of the Assyrian mounbrethren
tains.

who

tenanted, as had their forefathers,

But when this " tyranny was overpast," and the Supreme Arbiter had made wars to cease for a time in the ends of the earth, the Nestorians were assailed by an evil which has subsequently proved as adverse to their stability and progress as the sword of the political oppressor their strength being now weakened in the way by the malign effects of internal discord men rose up among them who were willing for selfish considerations to forego the Christian liberty which their ancestors had held so dear, by submission to the claims of the Roman pontiff. A tendency to such a schism had betrayed itself so early as the year 124/, and also in 1288 but
;
:

;

in

1552,

an important secession took place in

conse-

quence of disputes regarding the election of a patriarch

At that time the
the same family
this
:

office

had been long hereditary in

the body of the clergy, objecting to

monopolizing system, resisted, on the death of the

126
patriarch, in

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
1551,
the usual claims
of his

nephew

to

succeed him, and, convening in the city of Mosul, pro-

ceeded

to

the

election

of

a

more popular candidate,

named

Siud, or Sulaka.

Their canons, however, required

that his consecration should take place in the presence of
at least

three metropolitans,

a

provision which
difficulty

they

were not able to meet.
to

In this

they resolved

the

throw themselves on the patronage of "the pope of West " and Sulaka, having gone in person to Rome,
;

and discharged the necessary
non, or John

preliminaries,
title

was conse-

crated patriarch by Julius III., with the
:

of

Mar Yucha-

his successor, also, Ebedjesu, received his

authority from the same quarter

subsequently broken
patriarchate, in

but the connexion was The incumbent of the new 1580, Shimon Denha, driven from Cara;

off.

mit by his

rival

Elias, fixed his residence at

Ooroomiah,
Eliyah, or

with the

title

of

Mar Shimon,
;

to w4iich his successors

have ever since adhered
Elias,

while that of

Mar

has distinguished the primates of the old body.
III.

Of the latter, Eliyah II. and Rome, which did not terminate
with that church.

made

overtures

to

in a permanent junction

Assemanni,

who

sets forth the dates

when

these various treaties were effected, accounts for

their repeated failures

from the operation of four causes.
Because

In his judgment the successors of Simeon and Elias did

not observe their concord with the Papal see

:

1

.

when they entered

into

communion with

it,

their ritual

and office-books were not purged of the errors with which
he conceives they abound
liar
;

for in those books their pecu-

doctrines

are

contained,

and the memory of their
2.

heretical leaders cherished.

Because of their almost
their

exclusive attachment to the
3.

works of

own theologians.
They

Because the intercourse between them and the court of
has been liable to continual interruptions.

Rome

have had no representative there, nor adequate commu-

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
nications

127
4.

from

it

by legates or

epistles.

And,

Because

the

Romish

missionaries,

who went

in those days into the

East, were either ignorant of their languages, or failed to

penetrate so far as to the residence of the patriarch
transacted their
affairs

;

but

with persons of inferior or

no
in

authority

;

and, instead of employing their strength in
it

reclaiming the Nestorians to a pure doctrine, wasted
controversies

on

rites

and observances, more calculated

to irritate than to tranquillize the prejudices of

men

so

tenacious of their long-established customs.*

place,

But in the year 1681, a more permanent schism took which resulted in the consolidation of what has

since been called

the Chald^.an church.
;

This

new

body was composed of converts, both from the Nestorian and Jacobite parties and Yousuf, or Joseph, the Nestorian
metropoUtan of Diarbekir, who had gone
off

from the
spiritual

mother church
superior,

in

a

disagreement

with

his

was appointed

to be its first patriarch
this papalized

by Inno-

cent Xl.f

The members of
numerous

communion

are found mostly in the rural districts east of the Tigris.

They

are

at Elkoosh,

where they have a large
;

monastery called Rabban Hormuz
residence
is at

but the patriarchal

Bagdad

:

the present incumbent, a zealous

Romanist, was educated at the Propaganda.
efforts are

Strenuous

being made by this party, to reduce the whole

body of the Nestorians
are left untried,

to the

Romish sway.

No means

the inducements of gain, or the infliction
priest at
2.

of

ill

usage.

The Nestorian
iii.

Amadieh, in pour-

* Biblioth. Orient, vol.
•j-

pars

The pope having sent him the pallium, the De Propaganda Fide assigned him a pension of five hundred crowns, and the Roman Catholic

ambassadors

at

the Porte

employed

their influence to obtain

his

confirmation in the patriarchate by the sultan.

This Joseph,

Rome, had a nephew, a priest at Paris, where he resided for twenty years. His name was Abdelahad but the name by which he was known in Paris was M. Dominique.

who

died at

;

128

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

ing his lamentations, on this subject, into the ear of Dr.
Grant, stated that his

own

father

had been bastinadoed,
till

to

compel him to become a Roman Catholic.

The members

of the Nestorian church,

very recently,

might probably have approached, the number of two hundred thousand. The region principally inhabited by

them has been the mountainous country

in the interior

of Assyria, a district they have possessed for ages as an

independent people,'^ though subject to frequent collisions

with the Nomadic tribes of Koordistan.
It is, indeed, by no means a baseless theory, as is shown by the author just referred to, that this branch of the Nestorians, which may now be considered as the main body of their genuine church, are Hebrew in their origin, and descendants, in fact, of those Israelitish tribes which were brought into this very country at the captivity, and which never returned into Palestine the indications of history, sacred and secular, their own traditions, their language and immemorial customs, in striking accordance
:

with those of the ancient Hebrews,
conclusion
;

all

tend to such a

and invest with a redoubled claim upon our

regard a people of a descent so noble, and possessed alike
of the venerable prerogatives of the old covenant, and the

more glorious

privileges of the

new

one.

Who

that has the true feelings of a Christian cannot

but regret, that this interesting branch of the Redeemer's

church should, in these
suffered
to

last ages

of hght,
conflict

have been
with perse-

uphold their hereditary

cution and adversity, without the fraternal aid, the intercessory prayer, the cheering message or epistle, the pity,

almost without the knowledge, of their more favoured
Protestant brethren of the

West

?

But

let

us hope that a better era has begun.

A

dis-

*

And

hence called Aahiret, "'free from tribute."

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
position for

129

moving
;

in this

good cause has providentially
if

been called forth
with

the impulses of which,
will

carried out

crowned with incalculable good. The American Board of Missions, whose oriental enterprises evince a dignified philanthropy, which blends,
perseverance,

be

if I

may

so speak, the classic with the apostohcal spirit,

established about ten years ago

some of

their

agents

among

the Nestorians of Ooroomiah, and the mountains

of Koordistan.

This was attempted, not with the ques-

tionable design of proselyting the

members of

that old

communion to a new system of but with the profoundly Christian purpose of instrumentecclesiastical

discipline,

ally reviving their personal religion,

and re-edifying them

as a church

"in the

faith once delivered to the saints."

The

efforts of

these evangelists were understood by the

people on whose behalf they had been undertaken, and
received the
arch,
full

the

clergy,
as

" regarded

and grateful concurrence of the patriand their congregations. They were public benefactors," and their " arrival was

hailed with general joy."

"The

Nestorians welcomed

us," say they, " with the greatest kindness

and

affection.

Their bishops and priests took their seats at our table,

bowed with us
with childlike

at

our family

altar,

drank-in instruction

docility,

and gave us

their undivided influ-

ence and co-operation in the prosecution of our labours

among

their people.

They regarded us
rivals or

as

coadjutors

with them in a necessary work of instruction and .im-

provement, and not as their

successors.
;

We

had come not to pull down, but to build up knowledge and piety, and not to war against nal forms and rites.
"

to

promote

their exter-

We

found much, in their character to
have them diffused
all

raise our hopes.

They have the
were desirous

greatest reverence for the scriptures,

and

to

among

the people in

a language which

could understand.

In their feehngs

G 5

130

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

towards other sects they are charitable and liberal;'^ in
their forms

more simple and

scriptural than

the Papal

and other oriental churches.
tory

But they abhor image-

worship, auricular confession, and the doctrine of purga;

Protestant Christians.
into ignorance

and hence they have broad common ground with But they had, as a people, sunk

and

superstition.

None but

their clergy

could read or write; the education of their females was

and they attached great importance numerous fasts and feasts, to the neglect of purity of heart and life. Still there are some who now
entirely neglected
to
;

their

appear to lead exemplary
degradation
of
their

lives,

and

to

sigh

over the

peoj)le.

Indeed,

we cannot but
continued to
ages of the
forth
it

hope that something of

vital piety

may have
earliest

burn upon
church, and

their

altars

from the
it

we

trust

will

again

shine

in
is

a

resplendent flame.
surprising that

In such a state of things

not

we have been permitted

to prosecute our

labours without a breath of opposition from the ecclesiastics or the

people." f At the time that these communications were given to the public, about twelve or fourteen free schools had been

*

"

We
will

admit," said the bishop of Jamalava, "

all

the twelve

Christian sects to our communion, if they will come; but none of

them

admit us

to theirs."

See

Smith
is

and

Dwight's "Re-

founded on the idea that the twelve apostles " each founded an orthodox sect, with different usages and rites." Compare Condek's " Analytical View of all
searches."
allusion to twelve sects

The

Religions,"
-f-

p. 75.

"The Nestorians, or the lost Tribes Grant, M. D. This faithful and laborious
Mosul,
in April, 1844.

found."

By

Asahel
at

missionary expired

and her remains, with two of their chil Iren, lie by the Nestorian church in Ooroomiah. "I heard a voice frjm heaven saying unto me, Write, Blessed are the dead which die in the Lord Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours ; and their works do follow them." (Rev. xiv. 13.)
five years previously,
:

Mrs. Grant died

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
opened in
tlie

131

villages

of the

plain

;

a

seminary
in

and
of

boarding-school

had

been estabhshed

the

city

Ooroomiah
torians, a

;

considerable portions

of the scripture

had

been translated into the vernacidar language of the Nes-

mixed

dialect of the Syriac

;

the churches had

been

opened for the mission-schools

and preaching

native helpers fulness
;

up and quahfied for usethe mission had been reinforced by accessions
raised
press, with suitable type,

had been

from America, and a printing
set in operation.

A

calamity,

however, which overtook

the

mountain

Nestorians in 1843, has cast a disastrous shadow
the hopes of the
field

upon
in-

missionaries in that quarter of their

of labour.

Four thousand of the Nestorians,
fell

cluding their patriarch himself,

under the murderous

hands of the Koords.

This cruel massacre was brought

about, according to good authority,

by the
but

intrigues
active,

of

Romanist emissaries,

whose

occult,

influ-

ence has since manifested itself in the court of Persia, by

an order from the government, requiring the Protestant
missionaries to leave Ooroomiah.

Against this ordinance,

an appeal has been made to the Persian monarch, but
with what success the writer has not as yet been able to
learn.

The history of the Nestorian church has been heretofore a perpetuated struggle with those portentous systems

of oppression which have been in
to Asia,

a

manner indigenous

and have extorted the groans of successive genewith the machinations of a foe more steady to

rations, or

the purpose of destruction than the most implacable of her
ancient persecutors.
subsists, is

That

this Christian

community

still

an impressive manifestation of the regal provi-

dence of the Saviour.

The flames of the furnace have
;

weltered around her for seventeen centiu-ies

but, like the

bush of Horeb, she

is

unconsumed.

Shall

it

not be seen

132
that

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
He who
does nothing in vain, must liave a purpose

in this miraculous spectacle
its

worthy of himself?
fulfil

May

not

preservation be destined to

designs of infinite

beneficence to the benighted regions to which, in a happier

and not

far-off day, its
all

priests

and

evangelists will

have access, with
contiguity,

the advantages of language, local

and

affinity of habits

and manners, so needful

to the missionary,

but so
this

ourselves
v»ith

?

Should

attainment among communion become illuminated
difficult of

the

wisdom and

spiritual

understanding of true
doubtless be

Christianity,
blessiiigs

and be endued with the fulness of the
it

of the gospel of peace,

will

rendered a chosen and effectual instrument in the evangelization of the

East.

The days of Mahomedism

are

and w hen that Titanic barrier to human improvement, now wavering to its fall, shall have thundered down, and a hundred millions of mind-enslaved

numbered

;

beings have become accessible to the truth
likely to be prepared to step

;

who

are so
toil,

forth

to

the glorious
missionaries,

as

the

descendants of those

olden

who,

traversing
Saviour,

deserts and seas to bring lost souls to their " pursued without fear the footsteps of the

roving Tartar, insinuated themselves into the camps of
the valley of Imaus, and the banks of the Selinga, entered

China by the port of Canton, and were found,
Socotora and Ceylon

as well,

on

the Pepper coast of Malabar, and the isles of the ocean,
?

"

When

the promised times of reviviscence
the

from the
expecting

presence of

Lord have come upon

his

church, the graces of the Divine Spirit will not surely be

withheld

from a people who have
" but as the
will

patience, and for his name's sake have laboured,

"borne and had and not

fainted

;

dew

that

and mount Zion,

the holy influence

came down on Hermon fall upon the
it

waste places of this ancient heritage, and make

as the

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
garden of God.
regeneration

133

Let us pray, then, that the day of her
speedily come,
:

may

Lord may thus be made known
her,

and that the end of the
that he hath sustained

her througK these weary ages in the wilderness to humble

and prove

her,

and

to

do her good in the latter day.

NOTE.

THE TWELVE CHAPTERS OF

ST.

CYRIL.*

These
low
:

celebrated theses,

when

maledictory phraseology,

may

divested of their harsh and be stated in substance as fol-

Therefore the Virgin, inas1. That Immanuel is God much as according to the flesh she gave birth to Him who is the Word made flesh, may be called " Mother of God." 2. The Word who proceedeth from God the Father is hypostatically united to the flesh, and with his human nature maketh one sole Christ, who is alike God and man.
:

3.

This union
is

is

not a mere connexion of dignity, authority,
apostles and

or power, but
4.

substantial and real.

Hence the things affirmed of Jesus by the

evangelists are not to be attributed to the

man

as considered

separately from the divine nature, nor to the latter considered apart from the fact of the incarnation.
5.

Nor can we accurately
a
as

call the

Lord Jesus

(?jeo(j)6pov

avOpcuTTov)

inasmuch
nature.
6.

man who carries, or bears, the the Word was made flesh, — made

divine nature,

partaker of our

Nor

that the

Word who

the

God

or the Lord of Jesus Christ

himself
flesh
7.

God and man

proceedeth from the Father is the Redeemer being in one person ; for the Word was made
;

divine

Nor that the Lord Jesus, as man, was actuated by the Word, and invested with the glory of the only begotten

Son, as being another person than himself. 8. Therefore in off'ering that worship which is due to Jesus Christ, we do not adore the human nature as with the Word, nor the divine nature as apart from the humanity ; but we worship and glorify one Immanuel, the Word made flesh. must not say that Jesus was glorified by the Holy 9. Spirit, as receiving from him an extraneous power for the performance of miraculous works ; for the Spirit by whom he performed those works was his own Spirit.

We

* See

page 67.

134
10.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
And with
Priest hath offered for us unto God,

regard to the sacrifice which Jesus as our it may not be said that our High Priest is not tlie Word of God himself, but a man born of a woman, as if he were another person than the divine Word ; nor that he Avho knew no sin offered that sacri-

High

fice for himself.

11.

The

flesh of the

Lord

is

vivific

;

because belonging

hypostatically to the

Word, who proceedeth from the Father,

and who quick eneth all things, and not to another only morally one w^ith the Word through his dignifying inhabitation.

12.

The Word, the Lord and Giver of life,
and was
crucified,

suffered according

to the flesh,

and was the first-begotten from

among

the dead.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

135

THE JACOBITES.

When
nist

Nestorius promulgated
lie

liis

doctrine of two per-

sons in the Redeemer,

had not

a

more zealous antagoBut while dogma,

than EuTYCHES, an archimandrite of a monastery of

three hundred monks, near Constantinople.

prosecuting

his

opposition

to

that

erroneous

Eutyches himself was carried away by a too
in his OAvn turn, the author

common

tendency of our nature to run into extremes, and became,

and advocate of a new heresy.

In contending for the oneness of the person of Christ, he

began to teach that the two natures in that one person
Avere

so blended

as to have

become one nature

;

or, in

other words, that the humanity of our Saviour had, by

some mysterious process, been transmuted
tified with, his divine nature.

into, or iden-

It will

not consist with our brief limits to discuss the
controversy occasioned by
of the

demerits of this particular opinion, nor to detail minutely
the progress of the
it.

He

who has

received the plain teachings

inspired

volume regarding the person of our Lord,
salutary lesson on the infirmity of the
its

will learn a

human mind, and
fact, that

proneness to err in things spiritual, from the
at

an idea

once so contrary to the letter of scripture,
liad

and the general economy of redemption, should have
[Observe
natures
1

an advocate, in other points of character, so respectable.

how

emphatically the distinctness of the two

is
iii.

enunciated in such passages as

Rom.
ii.

i,

3

;

Peter
ii.

18; Heb.

ix.

14; John

i.

14; Phil.

6,

7;

Col.

9,

&c.

would follow from the Eutychian doctrine, that the Messiah not being really man with men, and physically
[It

incapable of death, could not have redeemed our nature

136

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
tlie

by

atoneraeut
his

;

*

nor would he
is

have that eternal
so graciously
ix.

sympathy with

church which

made
vii.

known
24
;

to us in the gospel.
ir.

Compare Heb.

12;

and

15.]

The
nople,

defection of Eutvches

from the truth was made

a

subject of complaint at an occasional synod at Constanti-

by the same Eusebius, then bishop of Dorylea,

who

while a layman had taken so active a part in re-

pressing the heresy of Nestorius.

Summoned

before this

assembly, and declaring his unchangeable determination
to abide

by the position he had taken, the archimandrite
his nbbey.

was degraded, and deprived of

The flames of polemical animosity were now kindled Eatyches had a multitude of partisans both in afresh. Constantinople and the East, at the head of whom was Dioscorus, bishop of Alexandria, and successor of St. Cyril.
This dignitary prevailed on the emperor to

summon

a

general council for the purpose of allaying the returning
troubles of the church
;

and an assembly was convened
its

at

Ephesus, which, from

heterodox decisions,

its

deter-

mined

pai'tiahty to Eutyches,

who was

absolved from his

penalties,

and

its

brutal treatment of Flavian, the patriill

arch by

whom

he was deposed, and who died of the

usage in a few days, has been denominated in ecclesiastiprcedatorius synodus. cal history the " piratical synod,"
Theodosius, prejudiced in favour of the

new

opinion,

was

in vain requested

by the bishop of

Rome

to indicate

* Fleury

relates
to

been converted

Christianity,

an anecdote of Almondar, a Saracen, who had and who, being urged by certain
to their

3Ionophysites to come over

way

of thinking, resisted them
:

" He said, ' I have on one occasion by the following argument received letters which send me information that the archangel
Michael
replied:
is

dead.'

'

That,' cried they,

'

is

impossible.'

Almondar

'And how,
o)ir

then, if Jesus Christ

without having
us,
if,

had been simply Divine, human nature, could he have been crucified for
is

as

you say, even an angel

incapable of dying

?

'

"

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
another general

137

assembly to

revise

the proceedings at
after called

Ephesus.

Marcian, however,

who was soon

to the throne, with greater zeal

requisition,

compUed with the Papal and summoned around him the fourth ecu-

menical council in the church of St. Euphemia, at Chalcedon.

In this assembly, which convened on the 8th of October, -457,

and consisted of

six

hundred and thirty bishops,

the acts of the Ephesian synod were rescinded, the teach-

ing of Eutyches formally condemned, and a symbohcal
declaration of the true doctrine
set forth for the use of the

on the subject in question

church.

Yet these
satisfaction.

decisions

were far from giving universal
Demi-Eutychians,

There was a numerous party in the East,
characterized
as

not

unaptly

who,

while they did not agree with that doctor in one of his
errors, that the flesh of Jesus Christ
tial

was not consubstanaccount they soon

with our own, held
;

fast,

nevertheless, his primary
this

idea of the one nature

and on

obtained the

name

of

Monophysites.*
which succeeded the
Dioscorus,
the

The principal
council

seat of the agitation

of

Chalcedon was
deposition
of

church of Alexandria.
patriarch

There

the

the

on

account of the part he had taken with Eutyches, was
followed

by a

train

of proceedings which have

disho-

noured the annals of that communion with treachery,
violence,

and bloodshed.
it

And

as

it

regards the Oriental

church at large,
turbulencies

may be

said, that

the discussions and
the
yet

of

this,

along

with

unsubsided
length

Nestorian,

controversy, convulsed

it

in its

and

breadth,

and

produced

disruptions

and schisms that
strife

have never been repaired.

The Monophysites not only waged a
catholic, or orthodox,
*

with the
contro-

on the great topic of
"single," and
(pvcris,

this

From

fiouos,

"nature,"

138
versy, but

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
were so
ill

agreed

among
such

themselves, as to be

speedily marshalled into various divisions
of theological sectarianism
;

and subdivisions

as, 1

.

The Eutychians,

properly so called,

who denied

the literal reality of the

human

nature of our Lord, and were, on this ground,

sometimes called by the revived names of Phantasmists

and Docetae.
2.

selves

The Acephali ; those who, having separated themfrom the existing patriarchal authorities, were as
;

yet without a settled church status

having, as the term

applied to
3.

them means, no
Julianists
;

ecclesiastical head.

The

from

their leader, Julian of Halicar-

nassus,
bility of

whose distinguishing tenet was the incorruptithe flesh of Christ.

And

these,
:

described, branched into three parties

(1.)

more stiictly The fi.rst held

that the body of our Saviour was a created substance, but

on account^ of its immaculate conception. The second affirmed, that the body of Christ, from the moment of its immaculate conception, was not only incorruptible, but uncreated while, (3.) The third party asserted, that the sacred body might in itself have been corruptible, but was never corrupted, by virtue of its
incorruptible,
(2.)
;

union with the
4.

Word

incarnate.
;

The TheopaschitcB

who, as a consequence of the

Eutychian view, believed that the divine nature of our
Saviour underwent the passion which atoned for sin.
iy.

The Severians ; followers of Severus, or Souarios,

a

distinguished Monophysite leader,* who, by the patron-

age of the emperor Anastasius, had been intruded into
the patriarchal see of
doctrine
nature,

Antioch.

With

respect

to

the

of

the

Trinity,

he

confounded

person

with

however,

and taught a species of tritheism. His partisans, had several variations or shades of opinion.
him
in

* See notices of

Evagrii

Hist. Eccles.

lib. iii. cap.

33,

and

Fleury,

torn. vii. 182.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
There were,
(1.)

139

The Bamianitce, who held that the
in himself, but
(2.)

Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, were distinct per-

sons
in a

;

each not

God

God by

participation

common

divine nature.

The

Petritce, sectators

of Peter of Antioch,

who

professed to believe that each
is

person in the blessed Trinity

in himself God,
;

pendent nature, substance, and individuahty
these merely symbohzed, (3.)
ers of

by indeand with

The
;

Cononitce, or follow-

Conon, bishop of Tarsus
so
called

while, (4.)

The Fhiloof

jmniaci,

from Philoponus,

a

schoolman

Alexandria, holding the same views with the Peterites on the Tnnity, differed from
doctrine.
(5.)

them on several other points of The Agnoetce, or Ignorantians, who held,

with respect to the second person of the Trinity, that

though

all

things were

known
(6.)

to him, yet,

on account of

his hypostatical union with our humanity, he willed to be

ignorant of some things.

The Condob audit ce, (from

the place where they were mostly found,)

who

attributed

ignorance to Christ, and denied the co-equality of the
three persons in the Godhead.

Besides these, there were

the followers of Paul the Black, the Sergiaui, the Xicobitse,

and other

sub-sects,

which

it

would be useless

to

enumerate.
This painful anarchy of doctrine, with the manifold
evils

attendant upon

it,

continued to

afflict

and desolate
During
this

the church for
time,

more than seventy

years.

though the authority of the council of Chalcedon
of faithful

was resolutely maintained by a minority, and often a
small one,

men, the Eutychian, or rather

^louophysite, cause, by the success of factious intrigue

the entire East.
less

and the partiahty of the emperors, held sway over nearly The emperor Basilicus compelled no
than
five
;

hundred bishops

to

condemn the creed

of

Chalcedon

while the Henoticon, or Irenical Decree, of

Zeno, though in words condemnatory both of Nestorius

140

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
silence

and Eutyclies, maintained a

on the authority of
equivalent to
at

that council, which was considered as
least a toleration of its opponents.

At one period during

the reign of Zeno, the three great patriarchates were held

by men of avowedly heretical sentiments
Mongos,
at

;

Moggos, or and

Alexandria, Acacius at Constantinople,

Peter the Fuller at Antioch.
to the throne,

Anastasius also, on coming

made

it

one of the leading objects of his

administration to establish the Monophysite interest, and

with such vigorous
lates gave

effect,

that

most of the

oriental pre;

in their adherence to the
till

dominant heresy

nor was

it

the time of Justinian,

who

attained the

imperial dignity in 527, that the down-trodden cause of

truth was relieved of
at that

its

accumulated oppressions.

But

epoch a better day seemed to have dawned for the

The advocates for the early faith were once church. more permitted to defend it openly before its enemies, and the result, as at Constantinople, was the confutation
of error.

At the

fifth

general council, the decisions of

Chalcedon harmonizing with the three which had preceded
it,

were solemnly recognised

;

while peace, in holy

unison with truth, once more returned to the majority of
the oriental churches.
It

was then that the communion since known by the
of Yakobee, or Jacobites, began to be consohdated
sectaries

name

from the various
Euphrates,

who

held to the Monophysite

doctrine in Syria, and the

countries on the Tigris and

This

was brought

about

mainly by

the

agency of Jacob Zanzala, a
disciple of Sever us.

monk who had been a zealous Jacob is sometimes known by the

cognomen of Al Bardai, which was given him, according
to

D'Herbelot, from the circumstance of his wearing a
stuff,

garment fabricated of a species of

similar to felt,
it

which the Arabs
as derived

call

harda

;

though others consider
city in

from the name of Bardaa, the

Armenia

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
of which
it is

141
his

said he

was a

native.

He commenced
when
;

labours at a time (about a. d. 550)

the interests of

Monophysitism had been reduced

to a very low ebb

and

his ordination to the episcopal office

was received, accord-

ing to tradition, from the hands of certain bishops of
his
sect,

edict.*

then in prison by the force of the imperial Having been authorised by them, he fulfilled the
in zealously preaching

duties of a missionary prelate in various parts of Syria

and ^Mesopotamia,
to be the truth, in

what he believed

the settlement of congregations, the

ordination of presbyters and bishops, and the organization
of a united ecclesiastical system.

Here, then,

we

are to

draw a
as

line of distinction

between

the Monophysites in general, and the Jacobite church in
particular.

The

latter,

a

specific

communion, was
;

consolidated in Syria and Mesopotamia
gical

but the theolo-

dogma

of the one nature has been held in

common

with them by multitudes in the patriarchates of Constantinople, Alexandria,

and Ech-miazin. The Jacobites have always protested against being considered followers of Eutyches. But while they profess to anathematize that heresiarch, they merely reject some
minor opinions of
ing
error
his,

and hold

fast his great distinguish-

of

the absorption of the

humanity of our
think, that, in the

Saviour in his divine nature.
incarnation,

They

from two natures there resulted one.

In

other words, they beheve that the Redeemer does not
possess

duahus naturis, non in duahus
coalescentihus,
their

two natures, but one, composed of two (ex ; id est, ex duabus in unum
:

non duahus

dogma

in this way,

remanentibus
''

:)

illustrating
;

Glass

is

made

of sand

but

* The ordination of Jacob to the episcopate has been questioned. Renaudot, on the authority of Marus and Amrus, affirms, that while ordaining bishops and presbyters, he himself was no inore than a

simple priest.

142
the whole
is

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
only glass, no longer sand
:

thus, the divine

nature of Christ has absorbed the human, so as that the

two are become one."
There have been those among them, indeed, who have

pursued a kind of middle path between Eutychianism and
orthodoxy.

Of

this school

or Philoxenus, bishop of

was the celebrated Xenayas, Mabug, whose name has been

given to the later Syriac version of the

New

Testament.

Xenayas, in a book monutho,
in
''

]

Zqi^a h^ ^ii ^^
composed of the

Methgash-

On

the Incarnation," maintains the existence
nature,
divinity

Christ

of one

and

humanity, but without
mixture.

conversion,

confusion, or com-

He

teaches that the Son, one of the Trinity,

united himself with a
in the

human body and

a rational soul,

womb

of the virgin.

His body had no being
it

before this union.

In this he was born, in

he was

nourished, in

it

he suffered and died.

Yet the divine

nature of the

Son did not

suffer or die.

Nor was
real.

his

human

nature, or his agency, or death, merely visionary,

as the Phantasmists taught, but actual
over, the divine nature

and

More-

was not changed or transmuted
or confused

into

the

human, or commixed

therewith

;

neither was the

human

nature converted into the divine,
it
;

nor commixed or confused with

but an adunation of
equivalent to that

the two natures took place, of a

mode

which, by the union of body and soul, makes a

being

:

for as the soul

and body are united

nature, so, from the union of the

human human Godhead and manhood of
in one
}x-.s

our Lord Jesus Christ, there has arisen a nature peculiar
to itself
;

not simple, but complex

;

|2i.*2iii

«.«*

chad kyono ephipho,
St. Cyril's,

" one double nature,"

which

he

designates by employing a (perhaps ill-judged) phrase of

Xenayas,

"the one only nature of the Word Incarnate." therefore, and a numerous class of the

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Jacobite
divines

143
this
:

with

liim,

receded

in

equally from the Eutychians and the Catholics

— From
and
or

doctrine

the old Eutychians, in maintaining that the flesh of the

Saviour taken from the virgin was actual and
united with
division
that,
;

real,

his

Deity,

without

confusion,
well,

change,
in

but

from the orthodox as

teaching

after

the union, the two natures were no longer

two, but one, composed of two.

[The Eutychians, and Monophysites in general, had a manner of speaking of the human nature of our Lord, which implied that it had an actual existence prior to the incarnation of the Word. This was well animadverted upon by St. Leo, in his admirable letter to Flavian of
Constantinople, at an early stage of the

controversy

where he observes, that
to
say,

it

was scarcely a

that before his advent the
it

blasphemy Redeemer had two
less
still

natures, than to say, that after

he possessed but one.]
taken of

The view of Xenayas appears
this mysterious subject

to be that

by the

ecclesiastics of the Jacobite

communion

at the present day.
all

The

laity, as

among

the

Nestorians, and

other fallen churches, enter but rarely

into the examination of religious doctrines, content with

enough inculby their priests. On the topic in question, they have some imperfect idea that the Saviour is God and man in the same nature a mystery which they indicate by making the sign of the cross with only the middle
passively receiving the instruction sparingly

cated

;

finger of their hand, holding the others so as to render

them invisible. The Jacobites
the Holy Spirit
;

believe in

the personality and Deity of the Greek church,

but, in

common with

deny

his procession

from the Son.

Yet there have been
truth.

some among them who have asserted that
parts of their

In the

service-books which relate to the Holy
reference
to

Ghost,

they say, in

that

Divine

Person,

144

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
frora
tliee,

"Who
With

Father, proceedeth, and taketh of

(or from) thy Son."

respect to the sacraments,

it

has been generally

said, that the Jacobites

hold the septenary number, like

the Romanists.

But

this

must be taken
service
it

in a qualified

sense, as they have

no

distinct

of confirmation,

nor do they use extreme unction, unless
imparted to members of the priesthood.
fession, too, is

be sometimes
Auricular con-

scarcely

known among them.*

And

in

the

eucharist, \rhile
it

they profess to recognise the real
in the Papite sense

presence,

must not be understood

of transubstantiation, but

the presence of the Saviour

which accompanies, in an uu described manner, the elements of the bread and wine a species of consubstan:

tiation, illustrated

by Bar Salib,f under the idea of iron

in union with
light

fire,

and receiving from
its

it

the properties of

and heat, while

^own nature remains unaltered.

So also Bar Hebrseus, adopting an explication, probably from the Nestorians, says, '' As the humanity of the Lord, not by [its own] nature, but on account of its
union with the divine nature,
is

called

God

;

so

this

bread and wine, not being flesh and blood by nature, but
(metul Taibutho da-rucho da-alaihun) on account of the
grace of the Spirit which
is

upon them,

are called
:

the

body and blood of Christ."

And

again

"

We

call

the

bread and the wine, because of the Spirit's grace, the

body and blood of God, (laa ha-hjono,) not by nature,
but from their union with God.":}:
In the administration of the eucharist they use newly-

made unleavened bread, commixed with the communion is not restricted to one
*

salt

and

oil

;

and

kind.

But most

Brerewood,

chap. xxi.
fol.

t
+

In Matt, xxvii. {Codd. Syr. Clement. Vatic. 16,

29.] of the

Bar Hebr^eus,

Menorath Kudshee,

or

the

"Lamp

Saints," fundam. vi. sect. 2.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
commonly the cake
the Nestorians.
is

145

dipped into the wine, as among

Tn the administration of baptism, the old Jacobites
are reported to have signed the child in the face, or the

arm, with the figure of the cross by the imprint of a

burning iron.*

They pray,

as

the other

Syrians, for the dead,

but

deny the doctrine of purgatory.

The Jacobites of Syria and Mesopotamia have a
first

tradi-

tionary belief, that they are lineally descended from the

Hebrew
:

Christians.

Dr. Wolff, speaking on

this
*

point, says

" They

call

themselves the Bnee Israel,

the

children of Israel,' whose ancestors were converted
apostle James.

by the

There cannot be the

least

doubt, that

their claim to being the descendants of the Jewish Christians of old is just.
ship, their

Their physiognomy,

mode

of wor-

attachment to the Mosaic law, their liturgy,
so
similar to the Jewish, the technical

their

tradition,

terms in their

theology,

all

prove that they are real

descendants of Abraham." f

The clergy of the Jacobite church
the model of a perfect hierarchy.

are constituted

on

Extremely tenacious
St. Peter as the first

of their ecclesiastical status in this particular, they glory
in

an apostolical succession from
of

bishop of Antioch, and exhibit what they hold to be an

unbroken

series

bishops of that see from his day to our own.
So Brerewood, but on what authority he does not

more than an hundred and eighty But withstate.

*

("Inqui-

ries," p. 188.)

With

regard to baptism, they believe that the Holy
the water, and regenerates the subject of the the

Spirit descends into

ordinance.

The

face of the child, or person, is turned toward
is

East, and a triple affusion of water
priest.

made by

the left

hand of the

Chrism

is

added

to

baptism, and confirmation follows after

seven days.
-f-

Journal, 1839.

Saligniac, in his
still

Itinerary,

viii.

c.

1,

asserts

that in his

day they

used circumcision.

H

146

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

out insistiug upon the fact, that the tendency of authentic
history
is

opposed to the assertion that
it

St.

Peter was

ever bishop of Autioch,
his episcopate
specific
five

may

be observed, that could

there

be estabhshed, the Jacobites, as a

body

ecclesiastic, date

from a period more than

hundred years

after the death of that apostle.

The

earliest

bishop of Antioch
is

whom

they can rightfully con-

sider as a chief pastor,

Severus, surreptitiously intruded

upon
who,

that patriarchate
tried

by the emperor Anastasius
title to

;

and

by the

test of

proper ecclesiastical law, would
the episcopal

be found to have had but a dubious
dignity at
all.

Their orders, moreover, have never been

cleared of the suspicion

thrown upon

their genuineness

by the statements of the historians Maris and Amrus,
that Jacob Al Bardai, being only a simple presbyter, gave
ordination, nevertheless, to a

multitude both of priests
topics of this kind

and bishops.*
it is

But upon controverted

not our province to enter.

The

subject of a succesfor,

sion of individuals, each duly qualified

and

legiti-

mately constituted
the apostles

in,

the episcopal office from any of

downwards, when examined with even a
difficulties

merely canonical exactness, to say nothing of a scriptural

judgment, becomes a labyrinth of

:

and

it

would seem that Divine Providence had
which have made such a claim, as
tensions of those
to

so overruled or
all

permitted certain events in the history of

churches

confound the pre-

who

are disposed to glory in the adven-

* Antiocheni Jacobitarum patriarchcB, quamvis snccessionem hahent propriorum ex sua hcereai antis/itum, ea tamen non adeb certa est, qnum Severus Antiochenus et Jacobus Baradceus multas contra

communem
validitas in
illis

ecclesice

disciplinam

dubium

vocari poterat.

Nestorianos testantur

quorum Et sane parum commode sensisse de Maris et Amrus, qui Jacobum Baradceum
ordinationes celebrassent,
;

simplicem sacerdotem fuisse scribunt
sacerdotes bis millenos et amplius.
torn.
i.

— Renaudot,

ordinasse tamen episcopos et
Liturg.
Orient.

p.

365.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
titious externals of Christianity, rather

147
its intrinsic

than in

spiritual

and immutable excellences.

In

the Jacobite

communion
and

the ministerial
:

orders,

beginning with the lowest, are as follow
1.

The

janitor, acolyte,

exorcist.

These are conthe

ferred,

without imposition of hands, by a simple com-

mission of the bishop; and to them

maybe added

rab-baitho da-idfho, or steward of the church, and the
meshamsJionitho, or deaconess.
2.

The mazmorono, or singer
the

;

the

horny o, reader
;

phelgiith-mashamshono,
the deacon
;

half-deacon

mashamshono,

and rish-masJiamshonee, " head of the deaor

cons," or archdeacon.
3.

Kashisho

koheno,

the presbyter

or priest,

the

chorepiscopus,
4.

and the periodeutes, or
;

visitor.
;

The

bishop

metropolitan,

maphrian

and aho

darisTionee^

"father of the chiefs," or patriarch.
class are

Those in the third
the same
is

by the same ordination

;

true of the higher dignitaries of the fourth,

with the addition of a few circumstantials.
In the ordination of a bishop, the person elected reads
a confession of faith in the presence of the patriarch

and

of two or three bishops,

who perform

the entire cere-

mony, no
gospel
is
is

priest or

deacon assisting.
with

A

portion of the

read upon the head of the
the
the
episcopal
robe,

elect, after

which

the

investiture

habits,

namely,
of

j^oj^^ VjD

matsyaphtho,
linen,

or

vestment,

wrought
phaino,
pallium.

].ja^2as
and

the
]>3ol

black

hood,

]j ^g)

the

mantle,

urroro, the

stole

or

the cross

The Maronite bishops wore formerly the on the breast, and the mitre but these
;

ring,
latter

decorations have never been in use

among

the Jacobites.

The imposition of hands then takes

place, preceded

by a

thanksgiving from one of the bishops, and followed by

H

2

148

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
who
signs the

the annunciation of the patriarch,

newly

ordained in the forehead, and proclaims his ordination as
bishop or metropolitan of such a

church or diocese
then recited by the

another lesson from the gospel

is

new
staflf.

bishop,

who

receives at the conclusion the episcopal

The

Ji^LSiiiC mcqihriono, holds

a

dignity peculiar to

the Jacobite church.
patriarch.

He

takes

precedence next to the
this office

The Syrian writers deduce

from
to be

that sustained by the

disciples of the apostles, Adseus,
itself

Achaeus, and Mari.
DO

The name
7

some consider
a

a corruption of
7

^^I^^d

maJphono,

doctor

;

but
it

others, with a greater appearance of correctness, derive

from waLs] aphri, a word designative of fruitfulness, and suggesting the idea of paternity the maphrian being
;

considered as a bishop of bishops, or a pater patrum.

In

former days his power was

all

but supreme.

He

instituted episcopal sees, ordained

and deposed bishops,
pontifical functions in

and discharged in general those
the
regions
to

the

East,

undertook in the West.

which the patriarch himself But the office in the present
by
lot,

day

is

merely

titular.
is

The

patriarch

elected

in

a

synod of the
college.

maphrian and bishops, the consecration being performed

by the senior members of the episcopal
style,

His
is

or dignity, as proclaimed at his enthronement,

"patriarch of the city of Antioch,
;

and of the whole

" and in his epistoJj^^o] domain of the apostolic see " Ignatius, patriarch lary and official communications,
of Antioch, the city of God, and of the whole

East."

The name

Ignatius, after the

illustrious

martyr of Anti-

och, has been

assumed ever since the year 878.
but
it

The
is

patriarchal residence has been variously at IMabug, Mar-

deen, Rhesa, Caramit or Amida, and Alep

;

now

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
generally at

149

the

convent of Deyr Safran, at Merdeeu.
lived

The maphnan has Mosul, and Bagdad.
rian,

usually

at

Tagrit,

Nineveh,

After the East became subject to

the Mahomexlans, the Jacobite patriarch, like the Nesto-

commonly

received from the khalif, sultan, or other

regnant potentate, a charter or diploma, called by Bar
Hebrseus, .a*2^^

^m

sigilion,

by which he was confirmed

and protected in

his authority.

Some
first

of the Jacobite patriarchs have at various times

entered into

communion with

the see of

Rome.

The

who

did this was Ignatius, in 1552,
It

who

sent his

profession to pope Julius III.

was

at the

same time

that Moses, a priest of Mardeen, brought the manuscript

of the Peschito

New

Testament into Europe for the purit.

pose of procuring a printed edition of
non, Ign. Daoud, Ign. Nahemus,
Petros,
-

The example

of that Ignatius was afterwards followed by Ign. JuchaIgn. Andreas, and Ign.

patriarchs,

and

by

Gregory,
of Alep,

metropolitan

of

and Taizonius, bishop of Jerusalem * but few of these " reconciliations " were permanent. The congregations which have been converted to Romanism, are designated by the steadfast Jacobites, Maghlobeen, the " Beaten," or " ConDamascus,
Ignatius,

bishop

;

quered." f

When

will

something be attempted by our Protestant

Missionary Societies for the true evangelization of this
venerable church?
*
•\-

EvoDius AssEMANNi,
The

BibUoth. MedicecB.

Jacobites mostly abound in Mesopotamia, especially about

BIosul and Mardeen.
are a few families in
:

In Palestine there are scarcely any.
in

There

Damascus and

Nebk, the

villages of

and Karysteen small congregations also subsist in and Aleppo. In Jerusalem they have a monastic house and a
resident bishop.

Sudud Hooms, Hamah,

Exclusive of those in Malabar, their entire number

does not probably exceed 150,000 souls.

150

THE STRIAN CHURCHES.

THE SYRIAN CHRISTIANS OF
Of
first

INDIA.

the

time and manner in which Christianity was
his-

brought into India, the testimony of authentic
is

tory

not

so

clear

as

to

admit of no difference of
have commonly inclined to

opinion.

But they who have well weighed the evidence
us,

which has come down to
the behef that
it

was the apostle Thomas who led the
This, as

way of all other we have seen, is
churches.
''

missionaries into that region.

the
are

constant tradition of the oriental

We

taught," says Bar Hebrasus in his

"Syrian Chronicle," "that the divine apostle Thomas announced, the Christian message to the eastern country
in the

second year after our Lord's ascension.

As he

passed through on his journey to India, he preached to
divers

nations

;

the Parthians, Carmanians, Bactranians,

Margues, and Indians."
So,

down

to the present day, as

we read

in the Asiatic
localities

travels of the

American missionaries, there are
rested

held, in

a manner, sacred by the Nestorians, as places

where
India.

St.

Thomas

and preached on

his

way

into

This, too, is recognised as an

historical

fact in

the public service-books of the jMalabaric church.
in their ancient Syriac Breviary,
it

Thus

is

said in one of the

antiphons, that " the Hindoos and Chinese, the Persians,

and they of

Syria, Armenia, Greece,

veneration the

name

of

Thomas

:

and Rome, hold in " and a memorial for

the second nocturn in the office for the day of that apostle states,

that " by his instrumentality the errors of the
It

Indian idolatry were dispelled."

was

in

India that,
toils

according to uniform tradition, he finished the
life

of
to

by martyrdom.

" He had returned from China
:

the coast of Coromandel

" the chiefs of that country showing a willingness to receive the gospel, " Thomas

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
baptized the king,"
Salivahan,

151

" and his brother, and
to

many

of the

nobles,

and began

preach with great

boldness.

Then went he up

into a

mountain of India,
;

and there proclaimed the gospel of God

and being there and buried
was

thrust through with a lance by one of the Heathens, his

body was conveyed
there."

to Calamina, (Meliapore,)

This

is

thought to have been in the year 68.
it

According to a Syrian historian, quoted by Yeates,
**

by reason of the innumerable conversions

to the faith

of Christ that he had exposed himself to the hatred of the Bramins
apostle,
;

who, having raised an uproar against the
;

overwhelmed him with stones

but another of
alive,

the Bramins,
thrust

when he

perceived that he was yet
lance,

him through with a
far

of St.

The scene of this Thomas," is not

and he expired." martyrdom, still called " the Mount
from Meliapore.
It is

described

as a rocky, yet

wooded, ascent, and has a small church

towards the summit,

hewn

out of the solid stone.

The
met
by

population around. Pagans as well as Christians, hold the

immemorial
his end.

belief that here the apostle of the gospel

We

must connect with

this the tradition recorded

Eusebius,* that so early as about the year 190,

when

Pantsenus went from Egypt into India, as an evangehst,

he found there the Gospel of

St.

which was said

to have

been

left

there

Matthew in Hebrew, by Thomas, or his
council' of

coadjutor Bartholomew.

Next,

that at the

Nice, in the year 325, there

was a bishop of India, whose

name, Joannes, was subscribed in the acts of that assembly,
its

and who was charged with the duty of promulgating ordinances in " the great Indies." f
read also that some twenty years later than the

We

council of Nice, the emperor Constantius sent a mission

*

EusEBii

Eccles, Hist. v. 10,

f Fleury,

liv. xi. c.

25.

152
to

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
the

Homerite

Arabs,
to

by a

certain

Theophilus, an

Indian,

who
isles

is

stated

have been a native of Bin, or
for an

BivU) an old
dives,
''

Indian
of Mala
;

name

island

;

(hence Malis

") and which, in this instance,

thought to point out Ceylon.
his

After having discharged

mission in Arabia, this Christian priest passed, says

the historian, into the island of Divu, his country, and

from thence

sic xvjv

uWyjv

IvSjxrjv, ''into
;

the other India,"
visited several

probably the main continent

where he

churches, and reformed certain irregular customs.*

So also Cosma, the Egyptian merchant, and afterwards
a

monk,

writing,

about

the

year

547, his

Christian

Topography, says expressly that the Christians had then
churches in the island of Taprobane and Malabar.
''

In

Taprobana insula ad interiorem
et fideles reperiuntur,

Indiam,

ubi

Indicum
clerici

Pclagus exstat, ecclesia Christianorum habetur, ubi

an ulterius etiam ignoro.

Similiter

in Male, ut vocant, ubi gignitur piper.

In Calliano vero

episcopus est: in Perside ordinari solent."f

Now some
Thomas
who, according

authors have

sought to identify the

St.

of the Indian tradition with a disciple of Manes,
to Theodoret,

was sent by that heresiarch
it

as a missionary to India.

But by the same authority

appears that the Manichean
Persia,

Thomas returned again

into

whereas the true apostle to the Indians sealed his
Paolino, a missionary thirteen

doctrine by martyrdom.

years in that country, says that
is

the Manichean

Thomas
is

entirely

unknown

there.

According to a second theory, the Thomas of India
sect of Contemplatists.
till

no other than a certain Tamo, a Chinese of some renown
as

the leader of a

That

sect,

however, did not spring up even in China
*
froi

about a. d.

Philostorg.
Collect.

lib.

iii. c.

4

6.

Conf. the
iv.)

Commentary of Godetorn.
ii.

on the Theodosian Code (tonie

with this place in Philost.
178.

t

PP.

et Script.

Gr. (3Iontfaucon,)

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
582
;

153
thirty-five

yet,

on the personal testimony of Cosma

years previously, there were Christian churches in Ceylon

and Malabar, having long-estabhshed connexions with
those of Persia.

There
or,

is

yet another Thomas, an

Armenian merchant,

according to others, an Aramsean by nation, and a
of the Nestorian church, to
is

member

whom

the introduc-

tion of the gospel into India

attributed.

But, accord-

ing to the best accounts, he did not arrive in that country
till

the time of

Cerram Peroumal, emperor of Malabar

in

the tenth century.

On

the other hand, that the

Indian missionary was

the apostle

Thomas

himself,

is,

as

we have

said,

not only
all

the tradition of the country, but also that of
Syrians, both

the
as

Nestorians and Jacobites

;

who concur

well in the belief that the remains of the martyred apostle

were, at a subsequent period, carried from Meliapore

to Edessa.

as weir of

And this, it is well known, is the testimony many of the Greek and Latin fathers.
appears that a Christian church was formed in

Thus
of
its

it

India in the apostolic age itself; but the circumstances

and probably ever will be, on unknown. It formed, however, a kind of nucleus for that communion with which the western church became acquainted, when those parts of the East became more accessible to Europeans. In what other way the Indo-Syrian church holds a relation to the aposearly history are,
earth, altogether
tolic

labours of St.

Thomas
the

is

not discoverable.

We

can

scarcely suppose

that

people

converted under his

ministry would adopt the language as well as the faith of
their instructor
;

whereas the Syriac
the beginning.

has been in use

among them from

Their traditions also

refer to Syria as their ancestral country.

So that while

the fruits of the primeval mission formed the basis of

the communion,

its

subsequent magnitude and strength

H

5

154

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

were probably the results of successive emigrations from
Syria,

Mesopotamia, and Persia, in consequence of the

persecutions and disruptive wars which wasted so
of the Asiatic churches.

many

There are not wanting traces along the
the

line of ages of

occasional intercourse between these Indian societies and

Syrian mother church.
the

Unquestionable documents

prove, that in

sixth century the Christians of India

formed a part of the jurisdiction of the Nestorian patriarch
;

[Mosheim, cent.

vi.

part

2

;]

and the episcopal

canon of Theodosius of Edessa, in the year 800, to which

we have
of

partially referred before, enjoins the metropolitan

India

(who,

with others

whose churches were

in

remote countries, was dispensed from attending the fouryearly convention of the patriarch and bishops) to send
letters of salutation

to

the patriarch every six years

;

in

which he

is

to

make known

the pubHc affairs

of his

charge that require advice^ and
small, according

when

all

cities,

great or

to their ability

canons of the fathers, are to

and the precept of the send what is due for the

maintenance of the patriarchate.

priests,

Twenty-two years afterwards, we find two Xestorian Sapor and Parges, landing from Syria at Coulan.
St.

At that time the
prosperity,

Thome

Christians were in

great

of society.

and holding a high rank in the Hindoo scale At an after-day they were incorporated as a

distinct people or nation, with a

government and mortarch

of their

own.

For when Yasco de

Gama

arrived on the

coast of Malabar in

1503, he saw at Cochin the sceptre
learned that the Syrians of
in possession of regal

of the Christian king, and

that country

had been once

power

which, on the demise of Beliarta their last sovereign,

who

had passed king of Cochin and Diamper.*
died without children,

into the

hands of the

Buchanan's

Researches.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
It

155

appears also that their metropolitan,
residence
at

who had
as

held
to

his

Angamala,
with,
all

had been
as

accustomed
of certain

exercise a

measure of
as,

temporal,

well

spiritual,
cri-

power
minal

;

inasmuch

the reserve

cases,'

he judged

other causes without appeal.

This privilege had been accorded by the emperor Cerram

Peroumal.

But

their

interests

were

now

in

all

respects

in a

declining state.

Towards the

close of the fifteenth cenas to

tury, the priesthood

was so diminished

be inade-

quate to the instruction of the people, and the solemnization of public worship, while episcopal succession

among

them was verging upon extinction. "They had more churches than priests, and congregations than pastors the distress of the people was great, for more than thirty
;

thousand families were but
guides."

ill

supplied with
*'

spiritual

A

deputation of three

faithful

men" was
arrived
in

sent to the patriarch of the East in 1499, for the purpose of obtaining

other bishops.
safety,
;

Two

of

them

Mesopotamia in

and were ordained

to the priest-

hood by the patriarch who also consecrated two bishops. Mar Thomas and Mar Joannes, who should return with them to India. On their coming thither, " the faithful
received
the

them with very great joy they met them on way with the gospel and the cross, and the censer and torches, and conducted them to the church with Then great pomp and singing of psalms and hymns.
;

and ordained many priests,- fur had had no spiritual fathers." In 1503, Elias, patriarch, commissioned two bishops, Denha and Jacob, and a metropolitan, Jaballaha, whom he sent "into the land of the Hindoos, and to the islands of the sea lying about Dabag, and Tsin, and Matsin." In an official letter written by these bishops to him
they sanctified the
altar,

that of a long time they

shortly after their arrival, they state, that on the coast of

156

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
of the

Malabar there were ''thirty thousand families
Christians of our

communion. They now," says the epistle, "begin to build more churches, having abundance of every thing, and are, blessed be God, meek and
peaceable.

And moreover
These

the monastery of

Mar Thomas
are sedulous

begins to be occupied by Christian men,
for their degree.
live

who

remote from the aforesaid

Christians, about twenty-five days' journey, situated near

the sea, in the city called Mehapore, of the province of
Seilan.
visitations

The provinces of India
of the churches

take

are many, and the up a journey of six

months.

Every province hath
it is
is

its

own proper name
the
it

whereby
inhabit,
cities
;

called

;

and

ours,

where

Christians

called the Malabar, having in

about twenty

three of which are celebrated for strength, namely,

Cranganore, Palor, and Culam, and, with others adjacent,

have in them
far

many

Christians and churches, and are not
city of Calicut, a city of

from the great and strong
and idolaters."
after,

infidels

Seven years
that in their

they

state, in

their

Syriac report,

communion
souls.

alone

there were

then

two

hundred thousand
there
is

In this form of expression,

a reference to the Nestorian

tinguished from that of the Jacobites,
for
several

communion as diswho had possessed
interest
in

centuries

a

considerable

India.

PrcBter Nestorianos,
in

says Asseman, etiam MonophysitcB
patri-

Indiam pervaserunt ; and Renaudot speaks of a

arch of Alexandria of that creed sending a bishop to
India so far back as the end of the eighth century.
It

would appear that
There

this

body subsequently received

their

metropolitan from the Jacobite
is

patriarchs of Antioch.

extant a catalogue

made towards

the close of

the sixteenth century, which reports thirty-five churches, the metropolitan of
Neranatta.

whom, Mar Thoma, was

residing at
states the

Another account, in the year 1760,

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
entire

15/
fifty

body

at that

time to consist of about

thousand

members.
It

was an

evil

day for

this

ancient people

when

the

Portuguese found their way amongst them.
the intolerant bigotry of Romanism, they

Fired with
a

commenced
for

kind of crusade against the peaceful

Syrians,

the

purpose of reducing them to a subjection to the pope,

and an exact conformity with the
the Latin church.
at

rites and discipline of The Inquisition was already standing

Goa,* and

the Dominicans,
wheels,

having prepared their

dungeons,
torture,

furnaces,

and other instruments of

had entered upon

their infernal vocation.

The

discussion which

the Portuguese

now commenced with

the Syrians, was the controversy between a timid flock

A sudden gloom overThe people saw with dismay some of their clergy " seized and devoted to the death of heretics." Their metropolitan. Mar Joseph, was sent a
of sheep and a horde of wolves.
cast

the church.

prisoner

to

Europe,

and
Alexis

at

a

compulsory

synod

at

Diamper, under

Don

de Menexes, archbishop of
of the Syrian clergy were
several

Goa, one hundred and
imperatively required

fifty

to

abjure the

points

on

which they
benefices.

differed

from Rome, or
great

suffer deprival of their

This, to a

extent,

was complied with,
;

and the churches nearest the coast became Romanized
with
divine

the

concession granted them of
their

still

celebrating

service in

own

ancient language, a matter
their

which they declared they would yield only with
lives.

In this synod of Diamper, the Portuguese inquisitors
that "in order monuments may remain "
decreed,
*
It

that

no pretended apostolical

in vindication of the doctrines

inquisitor,

had been established at the request of Xavier. The first Don Alexius Diaz Falcano, commenced his functions at

Goa

in 1560.

158

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
cburcli

or discipline of the

then to be transformed,

all

the Syrian manuscripts which could be found should be

burned, and the service-books in current use be subjected
to such modifications as

would

assimilate

them

in princi-

ple

to

the

Latin Breviary.

These barbarous decisions

were carried into
rity inland
ists,

effect as far as possible.

Some

of the

church-books and records were carried to places of secubut too many were destroyed by the Romanwhile " the people wept at the sight of the flames,
;

but were obliged to hide their tears through fear of their
persecutors."

The
are

acts of the

Synod of Diamper enregister

forty-four

churches, thus reduced to the Papal regimen. Most of them

on the coast of Travancore, and their members have

since been designated Syrian

R-oman Cathohcs.

A

very

good idea

is

given of their general state by the account

published by the late Dr. Kerr.

"The

Syrian

Roman

Catholics were constrained to join the Latin church, after
a long struggle for the

power of maintaining
still

their purity

and independence
distinct

;

and

appear a people perfectly

from the Latin church, being allowed to chant
all

and perform
pope.

the services of the Church of

Rome

in

the Syro-Chaldaic language, by a dispensation from the

They

live

under the authority of the metropolitan
the bishop of Yerapoli, and dress
priests.

of Cranganore, and
differently

from other

They wear a white
Madras.

surplice,

while the priests of the Latin

comm^union wear black

gowns, like the Capuchin
Catholic Syrians,
it

friars of

is

thought, are

The Roman much more numerous
Their clergy
and, by retain-

than the members of the original church.
are spread through the ancient churches
;

ing their language, and acting under the direction of

Rome, they

leave

no means unessayed

primitive brethren to the Latin

to draw over their communion. There are

said to be eighty-six parishes subject to the diocesses of

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Cranganore and Verapoli.

159

Their priests, to the number
is

of four hundred, are styled catanars,^ which
appellation.

a Syrian

Their congregations are reported at ninety
last

thousand, old and young included, agreeably to the
returns transmitted to

Rome.

There

is

an inferior order

of priests, called chiamas, in

and twenty.
or
to

Attached to each church

number about one hundred is a convent, where
is

the catanars reside in community, there being three, four,
five,

each church, and the service

performed

weekly, in rotation."

Verapoli

The Syro-Papal church has a seminary, or college, at the priests attached to which are all Car;

melites, united to

''

the apostolic mission" at

not subject to

it.

as at Goa, scarcely

Bombay, but The education achieved here, as well goes beyond the knowledge of the
far

Missal.

But while the plans of Menexes were thus

accom-

plished in the subjugation of the churches on the coast,

they met with a stouter resistance from the Christians of
the interior.
bishop's

At

first,

indeed, the

vigour of the arch;

measures caused many of them to waver

but

their love of religious liberty,

and

their deep attachment

to the ancient faith,

overcame the fears and counteracted

the other motives which had induced a partial submission
their
;

and " binding," so to speak, '* the simple gospel to heart," they abandoned whatever advantages would

have accrued to them from her friendship, and committed
themselves to an eternal hostility to Rome.

These protesting churches are

known by

the

common
They
of

name

of the

Syrian Christians of St. Thomas.

consist of ancient branches of the Nestorian

and Jacobite
tenets party, the

communions.

Nestorianism are

To what extent the peculiar still retained by the former

* Rather casanars, not a Syrian but a native appellation. See " Madras, Mysore, and the South of India." By the Rev. E. Hoole.

160

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

accounts we possess are too slender to enable us to form
a correct judgment.
It

woLdd appear

that, like

their

brethren in Assyria, they
torius,

who

retain the

dogma

of Nes-

form.

it in a modified, and comparatively innocuous, But of the sentiments of the Jacobite party we may have a more distinct idea from an official statement

hold

rendered

by

their

metropolitan,

in

1806,

to

colonel

INIacaulay, at that time the British resident in Travancore.

Of

this creed the following version has
:

been given by Mr.

Yeates

" In the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, we,
the Christians, believers in the religion of Jesus Christ,
subject to the jurisdiction of

Mar

Ignatius, patriarch of
:

Antioch, being loyal Jacobians, hold the following creed

**We beheve

in

the

Father,

Son, and

Holy Ghost,
and Three

Three persons in one God, neither confounding the persons nor dividing the substance.
in One.
'*

One

in Three

The Father generator, the Son generated, and the
after other
;

Holy Ghost proceeding. " None is before nor
in Unity.
*'

;

in majesty,

honour,

might, and power, co-equal

Unity in Trinity, and Trinity

We We

do not

believe,

with Arius and Eunomius, that

there are three different and separate substances.
'*

do not beheve, as Sabellius

believes,

by confusion
that

of substance.

"

We
We

do not believe, as Macedonius
is less

said,

the

Holy Ghost
'*

than the Father and Son.

do not

believe, as

Mawnee and Marcianus

said,

that the

body

of Christ

was sent down from heaven.
was

"We
*'

do not

believe, as Julianus said, that Christ

only man,

We

do not hold, as Nestorius, the doctrine of two

natures and two substances in the ^lessiah.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
''We do not
" But we
the
believe,

161

as the Clialcecloiiians said, that

there are two natures in the IMessiah.
believe,

by the doctrme of the Trinity, that

Son
;

is

co-equal with the Father, without beginning

or end

that in the appointed time, through the disposi-

tion of the

Father and Holy Ghost, without disjoining
side of the Father,
;

from the right
for the

he appeared on earth

mankind that he was born of the virgin Mary through the means of the Holy Ghost, and was incarnate God and man. So that in the union of
salvation of

the divine and

human

nature, there

was one nature and
discipline
first

one substance.

So we believe."

But of the peculiar sentiments and general
arrival

of the Nestorian body in India, at the time of the of the

Portuguese,

much

information

may be

gathered from the allegations of archbishop Menexes, put
forth

by him

in justification of his

procedure in enforc-

ing his so-called reformations.

"
rius,

1.

-They obstinately maintained the errors of Nesto-

and, besides that, they received no images, admit-

ting

2. only the errors, which they much honoured. They affirmed that the souls of the saints did not see 3. They acknowGod before the day of judgment.

ledged but three sacraments
;

;

namely, baptism, orders,

and the eucharist and in the form of baptism there was so great an abuse among them, that in one and the same
church different forms of baptism were in use, and by
reason of that
null
;

it

happened often that the baptism was
secretly re- baptized

so

that

archbishop Menexes

most of that people.
especially of the poor,

There were also a great many,

who

lived in the woods,

never been baptized, because baptism cost
nevertheless,

who had money and,
;
:

though they had never been baptized, yet
besides,

they went to church and received the sacrament

they often enough delayed baptism for several months.

162

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
4.

nay, and for several years.

They made use of no
that

holy

oil

in the administration

of baptism, unless

finding in their rituals that there was mention

made

of

anointing after baptism, they anointed children with an

unguent made of Indian nuts without any benediction, and they esteemed that unction holy. 5. They had no knowledge of confirmation or of extreme unction, nay,
not so

much

as the

names of them.
and as
to

6.

They abomineigh-

nated auricular confession, except a few

who were

bours to the Portuguese

;

the eucharist, they
festival

communicated on Holy Thursday and many other
days,

without

other

preparation
7.

than

coming
full

to

the

sacrament fasting.
derable
errors,

Their books were
their

of consi-

and

in

mass there were a great
8.

many

additions inserted by the Nestorians.
little

They
salt,

consecrated with

cakes

made with

oil

and

which the deacons and other churchmen, who were but
in inferior orders,

baked in a copper

vessel,

having for
little

that purpose a separated place in the form of a

and while the cake was baking they sung several psalms and hymns and when they were ready to conse;
;

tower

crate,

through a hole that was in the

floor

of that

little

tower, they let the cake, in a small basket
slide

down upon

the altar.

made of Moreover, they made

leaves,

use of

wine made of water, in which some dry grapes had only
been infused.
nary clothes,
9.

They
it

said

mass but very seldom, and
stole over his ordi-

he that served at

wore a kind of a

though he was not a deacon.
that
celebrated,

always the censer in his hand, and said almost as
prayers
as

he

He had many adding thereto many
10.

unknown and impious

ceremonies.

They had

so

great a veneration for orders, that there was not a family

where some one held them not
was, because as orders

;

and the reason of that
incapable of other

made them not

employments, so they had eveiy where the precedence.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Beside,

163

they observed not the age requisite for priest;

hood and the other orders

for they

made

priests at the
;

age of seventeen, eighteen, and twenty years

and v/hen
wives

they were priests, they married, even with widows, and
passed to second or third marriages.

The

priests'

had some place before
elsewhere,

others, as well in the churches as
to be

and they were
11.

known by

a cross

which
to

they wore about their neck, or some other thing that
distinguished them.

They went

daily to church
;

read the Liturgy aloud in the Chaldaic tongue
did not think themselves obhged to repeat
neither
12.
it

but they

elsewhere,

had they any Breviaries for saying it in private. They committed simony in the administration of
for

baptism and the eucharist, setting rates of the price they

were to receive

them.

For

their

marriages

they

made use of the first priest they found, especially those who lived in the country. 13. They had an extraordinary respect for their patriarch of Babylon,
matic,
;

a schis-

and head of the Nestorian sect on the contrary, they could not endure that the pope should be named in
their churches, where,

most commonly, they had neither
to mass, yet

curate nor vicar, but the most ancient [priest] presided in

them.

14.

Though on Sundays they went

they did not think themselves obliged thereto in conscience
;

so that they were at liberty not to go

:

nay,

some places where mass was said but once a year, and others where none was said in six, seven, and ten years. 15. The priests discharged secular employments. The bishops were Babylonians, sent by their patriarch, and lived only by sordid gain and simony,
there were
selling

publicly holy things,

as

the collation of orders
16.

and the administration of other sacraments.
ate flesh

They
failed

on Saturdays, and were in

this error in regard

of the fasts of Lent and Advent, that if they
to
fast

had

one day, they fasted no more, thinking them-

164
selves

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
not
obliged
fast."

thereto,

because

they

had already

broken their
These

charges,

notwithstanding

the

narrow-minded
eastern com-

bigotry which breathes through their entire course, serve
to convey information

on the

state of this

munity

at the

period to which they refer, which would

otherwise have been lost to us.
selves are considered

The allegations themby Father Simon in his work on the
to

religions
city,

of the Levant, in a spirit of generous catholihis

ahke honourable

extensive knowledge and

Christian candour.

On most

of the points in question,

he vindicates the Syrians, and condemns the intolerant
folly of

Menexes.
recent

An
his

account of the more

condition of these

Christians has been given

by the

late

Dr. Buchanan in

" Christian Researches." *

From

this volume, which,

though published
able freshness,

several years ago, retains

an imperish-

we cannot

refrain

from extracting a brief

series of illustrations.

COUNTRY OF THE INDO-SYRIANS.

They
or

inhabit the interior of Travancore and ^Malabar,
in

Malayala,

the

south of India,
earliest ages
I

and have been

settled there

from the

of Christianity

From
car,

the palace of Travancore,

proceeded to Maveley-

and thence
of the

to the hills at the

bottom of the high

Ghauts, which divide the Carnatic from Malayala.
face

The

country in general, in the vicinity of the
hill

mountains, exhibits a varied scene of

and dale and

winding streams.
tains,

These streams

fall

from the moun-

and preserve the valleys in perpetual verdure.

The

*

These

will be read with greater advantage in connexion with

the excellent Life of Buchanan,

by

the

Very Rev. Dr. Pearson,

Dean

of Salisbury.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
woods produce pepper, cardamoms, and
cassia,

165
or com-

mon
gums.

cinnamon,

also

frankincense and other

aromatic

What adds much
is,

to the grandeur of the scenery

in this country

that the adjacent mountains of Tra-

vancore are not barren, but are covered with forests of
teak wood, (the Indian oak,) producing,
largest timber in the world.
it

is

said,

the

THEIR PLACES OF WORSHIP.

The

first

view of the Christian churches in this seques-

tered region, connected with the idea of their tranquil

duration for so

many
is

ages, cannot fail to excite pleasing

emotions in the mind of the beholder.
oldest buildings

The form of the
of

not unhke that of some of the old
style

parish

churches in England, the

building in
roofs,

both being of Saracenic origin.

They have sloping

pointed arched windows, and buttresses supporting the
walls.

are orn'amented,
circular

The beams of the roof, being exposed to view, and the ceiling of the choir and altar is and fretted. In the cathedral churches the
on each side

shrines of the deceased bishops are placed of the altar.

Most

of the churches are built of a red-

dish stone, squared

and polished

at the quarry,

and are

of a durable construction.

The

bells of the

churches are

cast in the foundries of the country,

and have inscrip-

tions in Syriac

and Malayalim.
I

In approaching a town

from the country,

once heard the sound of the bells

among
a

the

hills,

a circumstance that
I

made me

forget, for

moment, that

was

in Hindostan,

and reminded

me

of

another country.

The
car
;

first

Syrian church which

I

saw was

at

Maveleythe

but the Syrians here are in the vicinity of
Christians,

Romish

and are not so simple in
in

their

man-

ners as those
often visited

nearer the mountains.

They had been
former times, and

by Romish emissaries

166
they at
nion.
first

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
suspected that I belonged to that

commu-

They had heard of the Enghsh, but strangely They had been
so
little

supposed that they belonged to the church of the pope
in the ^Yest.

accustomed to see
I 1

a friend, that they could not believe that

was come

with any friendly purpose.

Added

to this,

had some

discussions with a most intelligent priest in regard to the
original

language of the four gospels, which he main-

tained to be Syriac, and they suspected, from the com-

plexion of

my

argument, that

I

wished to weaken the

evidences for their antiquity.

Soon, however, the gloom

and suspicion subsided,
fellowship
in

they- gave

me

the right

hand of
their

the

primitive manner,
to

and one of
to

number was deputed
in the interior.

accompany me

the churches

THEIR ESTIMATION OF THE PESCHITO.

"How
the Bible

shall

we know,"

said

an old

priest, in the con-

versation alluded to above, " that your standard copy of
is

a true translation
It
is

?

We
first

cannot depart from
used by the Chris-

our

own

Bible.

the true book of God, without

corruption, that book which was
tians of Antioch.

What
;

translations

you have got in the

West, we

know

not

but the true Bible of Antioch we

have had in the mountains of Malabar for fourteen hundred years,
or longer.

Some

of our copies are from

ancient times, so old and decayed that they can scarcely

be preserved

much longer."* In the same discussion, " You concede," said one of
our language
;

the Syrians, " that our Saviour spoke in

how do you know it?"
the

"From

Syriac expressions in

Greek

Gospels.

It

appears that he spoke Syriac

when he walked by

the way, (Ephphatha,) and

when he

*

Pearson's "Life

of Buchanan," p. 70.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
sat in the house,

167

(Talitha cwni,) and
Eli,

the

cross

(Eli,

lama sahacthani) ^

when he was upon The Syrians

were pleased when they heard that we had got their lan-

guage in our English books.
these last

The

priest observed that
:

were not the exact words
I

Ail, Ail,

lamono

sabachthani.

very like Eli,
said he,

answered, that the word must have been " True," for one said, " He caUeth Ehas."
yet
;)
it

"but
il,

was more

likely to be Ail;
is

(pro-

nounced

or eel

for Ml, or hila,

Syriac for

'

vinegar,'

and one thought he wanted vinegar, and
diately a sponge with
it.

filled immeBut our Saviour did not want

the medicated drink,
he,

as they

supposed.

But," added

"if the parables and discourses of our Lord were in

Syriac,
is it

and the people of Jerusalem commonly used

it,

not marvellous that his disciples did not record his

parables in the Syrian language, and that they should

have recourse to the Greek

?

"

I

observed that the gospel

was for

all

the world, and the Greek was then the uni-

versal language,

and therefore Providence selected
into

it.

"It

is

very probable," said he, " that the Gospels were

translated

immediately afterwards
;

Greek as into

other languages
original.

but surely there must have been a Syriac
in Jerusalem could not read

The poor people

Greek.

Had

they no record in their hands of Christ's

parables which they had heard, and of his sublime discourses recorded by St. John after his ascension?"
I

acknowledged that

was believed by some of the learned that the Gospel of St. Matthew was written originally in " So you admit St. Matthew. You may as well Syriac.
it

admit

St.

John.

Or was one Gospel enough
?

for

the

inhabitants of

Jerusalem

"

I

contended
in

that

there

w^re

many Greek and Roman words
"True,"
said he,

their

own

Syriac

Gospels.

"Roman

words for Roman

things."

1G8

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
THEIR CLERGY.

When we were approaching the church of Cbinganoor, we met one of the cassanars, or Syrian clergy. He was
dressed in a white loose vestment, with a cap of red silk

hanging down behind.
you."
diately

Being informed who he was,
''

I

said to him, in the Syriac language,

Peace be unto

He was
answered,

surprised at the

salutation, but

imme-

" The

God

of peace be

with you."

He

accosted the rajah's servant in the language of the

country to

know who
at

I

was, and immediately returned to

the village to announce our approach.
I

When we

arrived,

was received

the

door

of

the

church by three
in like

kasheeshas, or "presbyters,"

who were habited

manner, in white vestments.
Zecharias,

Their names were Jesu,

and
of

Urias,

which they wrote down in
to
his

my
of

jomnial, each

them adding

name

the

title

kasheesha.
'*

There were also present two shumshanas, or

deacons." The elder priest was a very intelligent man, of

reverend appearance, having a long white beard, and of

an

affable

and engaging deportment.
This
is

(P. 116.)

Candenad, a church.
attached to the church.
first

the residence of ]Mar
resides

Dionysius, the metropolitan.
I

He

in a building
his

was much struck with

appearance
a large

;

he was dressed in a vestment of dark red

silk,

golden cross hung from his neck, and his

Such, thought was the appearance of Cbrysostom in the fourth century. On pubhc occasions he wears the episcopal mitre, a muslin robe is thrown over his under-garment. and iu
I,

venerable beard reached below his girdle.

his

hand he bears the

crosier, or pastoral staff.

He

is

a

man

of highly respectable character in his church, emi-

nent for his piety, and for the attention which he devotes
to his sacred functions.
in general learning to
I

found him to be

far superior
I

any of his clergy

whom

had yet

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
seen... His
official

169

designation

is

Mar

Dionysius, metro-

politan of Malabar.

In a conversation on the subject of ordination, the
metropolitan's chaplains

expressed their
;

doubts

as

to

Romish and English
" if there
it

ord^ers

but their conviction that

is

such a

thing in the world as ordination

by

the laying on of hands in succession from the apostles,

was 'probable that they possessed

;

it

" and that " there
to

was no record of history or tradition
claim."

impeach

their

They expected that

in

any

official

negotiation

on the subject of an union with the church of England, " the antiquity and purity of Syrian ordination " should
be expressly admitted.

THEIR WORSHIP.
In the evening the church
(at

Maveley-car) was lighted

up

for prayers,

at

which a good many of the people
at this service.

attended.

Nothing objectionable appeared

The

priests

pronounced the prayers without book, and

chanted their hymns, having their faces turned towards
the altar.

They have no images
I

;

but on the walls were

paintings from subjects of scripture-history.

Next day, being Sunday,

had an opportunity of

seeing the whole service, morning and evening, as I sat
in the chancel with one of their books in

my hand

:

the

people were very decently habited, and
Again, at Ranniel,
I

filled

the church.

attended divine service on the
is

Sunday.

Their Liturgy

that which was formerly used

in the churches of the patriarch of Antioch.

During the
for

prayers there were intervals of silence

;

the priests prayhimself.

ing in a low voice, and every

man praying
to

These

silent

intervals

add much

the solemnity and

appearance
churches.

of
It

devotion.

They

use

incense

in

the

grows in the woods

around

them, and

contributes much, they say, to health, and to the
I

warmth

1

70

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

and comfort of the cliurch during the cold and rainy
season of the year. At the conclusion of the service, a the ceremony takes place which pleased me much priest, or bishop if he be present, comes forward, and all
:

the people pass by

him

as If

they go out, receiving his

benediction individually.

any

man

has been guilty of
;

any immoraUty, he does not receive the blessing
this, in their primitive

and

and patriarchal
Instruction

state, is

accounted

a

severe

punishment.

in use

among them now

by preaching is little They have some ceremonies
Here, as in

nearly allied to those of the Greek church.
all

churches in a declining,

state, there is too

much

for-

mality in the worship.
scriptural Liturgy,

But they have the Bible and a
will

and these

save a church in the

worst of times.

Yet, although the

body of the church

appears to be ignorant and formal, there are individuals

who

are alive to righteousness,

and are distinguished from and are sometimes cen-

the rest by their purity of

life,

sured for their too rigid piety.

According
Swinton
to

to

a recent statement

made by
the

captain

the

Royal Asiatic

Society,

primitive
fifty-seven
five

Syrian Christians of Malayala

now compose

churches, comprehending about thirteen

thousand
;

hundred families, or about seventy thousand souls while the Romo-Syrians have ninety-seven churches, comprising
about ninety thousand souls.
nan, the Church
carried
*'

Since the days of Bucha-

(of England)

Missionary Society has
in

on extensive operations

that part

of India.

Their stations," says the Rev. Dr. Wilson,* "have

now

for

many

years enjoyed the services of able and pious

agents.

The estabUshment of a

college at Kottayam, for

*

Of the

Free Church of Scotland's Mission at Bombay.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
the
instruction

171
ministry in the
offices

of candidates

for

the

Syrian church, and which, through the kind

of

Major-General Munro, the resident of Travankur,

now

an

influential elder of our

own

church, received a large

from the Rani of that country, formed At first it was a part of the plan of the missionaries.

endowment

in land

thought practicable to conduct their operations so as to
preserve the integrity and authority of the Syrian church
;

but experience has shown the necessity of receiving parties

disposed to leave

its

community
of

for the

enjoyment of

a purer doctrine and discipline, into the English church.

The

excellent

missionaries

the

Society at Quilon have hkewise, to
the good of the Syrians.'*

London Missionary some extent, sought

I

2

172

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

THE MARONITES.
The
state of the eastern

church towards the middle of

the seventh centuiy

had become most deplorable.

De-

vastated by the ravages of war, famine, and the oppressions

of

the

triumphant Moslemin, she was

destitute

withal of those internjil consolations which Christianity

has never failed to impart in times of the greatest gloom,

wherever
spirit

its

doctrines have been held inviolate, a.nd
;

its

devoutly maintained

but, in her case, the

*'

unity

bond of peace " was gone, and the light of truth was obscured by the cold shadows of heresy, the undue love of speculation in minds too
of the Spirit in the

ignorant of the
of scripture
;

letter, or too regardless of

the authority,

while a reckless disposition for schismatic

dinsions, the spirit of partisanship, ''bitterness and wrath,

clamour, evil-speaking, and.malice,"

all

tended to

I'estrain

the grace, or to banish the presence, of the Divine
forter.

Comof

Among
less,

the

divines

who

received

the

decisions

Chalcedon, there were some

who

maintained,
;

neverthein

the doctrine of one operation in Christ

other

words, believing in the truth of the two natures in the
Saviour, they did not consider that each nature

had an

operation of

its

own, but that as both natures constituted
thus making the one-

one person, so the modus of acting in or by that divine
person was single, or individual
;

ness of the operation a consequence of the oneness of

the person.

The

first

who gave

a dogmatic expression

to this sentiment appears to have been Theodore, a bishop

of Pharan, in Arabia,

who soon found

a powerful coad-

jutor in Sergius, a Syrian of Jacobite origin, and then

holding the patriarchal chair of Constantinople, who, as

one

false principle

may seldom

be held alone, in acknow-

ledging his approval of Theodore's doctrine, advanced a

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
step

173
in the

beyond

its projector,

and asserted that

GodAt

man
first

there was one only will as well as operation.
sight this speculation
;

may appear

sufficiently

harma

less

but

they

principles of

who have well apprehended human redemption, will form

the great
at

once

The doctrine struck out by these men, and which soon obtained the name of
seriously different conclusion.

MONOTHELiSM,* though exhibited professedly as a remedy against the error of Eutyches, was but in fact a
branch of the same system.

Eutyches taught, that the
" the union
his

human
such,

nature of the Saviour had no real existence, as
after

what he

called

;

" from which

the consequence results, that
resurrection were

sufferings, death,

and

equally unreal.

On

the other hand,

the Monothelites, while they spoke of our Lord as both

God and man,
of
its

yet,

by denying

to his

manhood

the dis-

tinct possession of a will

and an idiosyncratic operation

humanity, and denied in

own, they interfered with the perfection of his effect that " in all things he had

been made like to his brethren. "f
tion-truth in evangelical theology,

Now

it

is

a founda-

that the

Son of God
:

saves only that nature

which he has taken

but

if

he

took not the

human

willy

he could not take the nature of
Admitting,

MAN, nor rescue
therefore, the (in

that nature by redemption.

some

respects) questionable sincerity of

Sergius in patronising this system as a means of healing
the

wounds

inflicted

ches, its inefficiency for such an

on the church by the heresy of Eutyend must be obvious.

Sergius, to give authority to his

dogma, represented

it,

not only as being in general agreement with the past
teachings of the

church, but as having been expressly

affirmed by Menas, a former archbishop of Byzantium, in

a writing addressed by

This document, under the
*

him to Vigilius, bishop name of Menas, but
i^6\7j<rts,

of

Rome.

of which
ii.

From

ixovoSf

" one," and

"

will,"

-|-

Heb.

I7.

174
Sergius himself
circulated
sible

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
is

considered to have been the author, he
the Mouophysite bishops for the osten-

among

purpose of laying open a principle upon which they

could honourably return to their former positions.

The emperor Heraclius was then
prosecution
of

in the East, in

the

those

campaigns against the

Persians,

which won for the oriental provinces a transient season of
repose.
Affecting, in

common, the opposite
this

characteris-

tics of the warrior

and the theologue,
to

monarch, in
doctrine,

the course of his progress, held repeated conferences with

the ecclesiastics devoted

the Monophysite

and who desired
doctrine

its

triumph, whether by that of the
at
;

condemned

Chalcedon,

or the scheme

now

advocated by Sergius

and from these men received those
the

impressions in favour of the latter which induced him,

on

his return to Constantinople, to extend towards

it

imperial patronage.

Among
when
idea,)
sites

those

whom
Cyrus,

Sergius had brought over to his

sentiments was

metropolitan

of

Phasida,

who,

elevated to the patriarchal chair of Alexandria, (as

a speedy fruit of the emperor's predilection for the

new

was successful in re-uniting many of the Monophythe former making no difficulty with the orthodox
;

to such a

step, as

in

their opinion

the doctrine of the

one will was symbolical with that of the one nature.

[The act of union, which
or canons,

is

dated the Egyptian month

Pauni, indiction vi,=:May 14th, 633, recites nine propositions

expressive of
;

the

doctrines

of

the

Trinity and the incarnation

the seventh of

them

declares

one operation
dric,

in

Christ,

or deivirile, that

yet so one, as that

which it describes as thean" divine-and-human in one;" the distinction is only on the part of
is,

our

own understanding.
it

When
subject

the union, solemnized

on the third of the next month had taken place, the

Monophysites made

a

of triumph

that

they

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
had thus brought the Chalcedonians
the question so long at issue
;

175

to surrender to

them

since,

by the concession of

the one operation, they had sufficiently affirmed the one
nature.
I

mention

this incident to illustrate the affinity

between the 'two systems.]
Sergiiis,

in the plenitude of his zeal, opened a corre-

spondence with Honorias, bishop of Rome> and succeeded
in obtaining his

suffrage for the doctrine itself,

and

his

concurrence with the measures adopted for the promotion
of
it.

Let the advocates for Papal
it

infallibility

attempt
for ever

to reconcile

with their theory

if

they

may

;

it

remains a
to

fact, that

the pope here gave in his adherence

a palpable heresy.

Seduced by the hope that by a

latitudinarian connivance at

what he might have deemed
good accomplished thus

an unimportant error, a multitude of souls would be regathered to
the church,
evil

the

counterbalancing the

in the

means employed

;

or

entering from conviction into the views of his brethren
in the East
;

Honorius indited his distinct confession of
its

Monothelism, and thus secured to

propagators the

united patronage of the highest dignities both in the

church and the empire.
Against this formidable demonstration
truth the

cause

of

was nobly asserted by
of Alexandria,

Sophronius,

an humble
give his

monk

whom

Providence, as

if to

testimony the greater weight in the eyes of the world,

had raised to the see of Jerusalem. The elaborate arguments of this good and faithful servant of Christ, in which he not only set forth the true doctrine, but showed
that
it

had ever been the

faith of the

church by

six

hunthe

dred passages from the fathers, were met on the other
side

by an

ecclesiastico-state

document, issued in

name
title

of the emperor, but drawn

up by

Sergius, under the

of the Ecthesis, or ''Exposition of the Faith" to

be received by authority in the then disturbed state of

176
the
cliiirch.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
It

contained

an
;

ortliodox

confession

of

the Trinity and the incarnation
distinction between the

marking with care the
expressly affirmed

two natures, and the unity of the
it

person of Christ

;

but along with this

the oneness of his operation and will.
at once confirmed

The Ecthesis was
for sub-

by a council, and sent forth

scription,
tion.

under penalty of deprival and excommunica-

Sophronius
;

had been meantime

called

to

his

reward

and Monothelism

w^ould, to all appearance, have

now

gained an unquestioned supremacy, but for the death

of Honorius, and the advancement to the papal chair of

John

lY.,

who

did not hesitate to throw his influence on

the opposite side, and to pronounce on the Ecthesis his

prompt and solemn condemnation.
After eleven years of controversial
strife,

the emperor
called

Constans

promulgated, in
is,

648,

a

decretal
;

the

Type, that
which was
silence

the form, or formulary

the purpose of

by imposing method of settling religious investigation, by placing truth and error on the same level, contented neither side. The zeal of the Moto

put an end
parties.

'to

the discussion,
this

on both

But

nothelites

was too ardent

to be restrained

by the imperial

veto

;

and the defenders of the true

faith

would never

consent to remain quiescent, w^hile a verity so important
as the perfect
set

aside

as

a matter of indifference.

humanity of the Redeemer was practically The measure of

the emperor might have been considered a wise one

by

the merely secular politician

;

but

it

was, in fact, an invato the

sion of the liberty of the mind,

and an indignity

imprescriptible rights of truth.

Sergius

of Constantinople had

been, meantime,

fol-

lowed in the patriarchate by two others* of

like senti-

ments

;

while, on the opposite side, the cause of orthodoxy
St.

was ably maintained by

]Maximin in the East, and the

Pyrrhus and Paul.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
bishops of Rome, Theodorus and Martin. The
as St.

177
latter, as well

ples

Maximin, attested the profound by the endurance of sharp and complicated sufferings.*

sincerity of his princi-

Thirty-two years after the publication of the Type, a

more legitimate measure was adopted
council.

by Constantine
controversy
its

Pogonatus, in the convocation of the sixth ecumenical

In this assembly the entire

was

reviewed, and the question examined at

foundations.

The true doctrine having been

established, the

anathema
the latter

of the council was sent forth against the originators and
abettors of the Monothelistic error.

Among

was pope Honorius,
described as

whom Leo

II.,

then bishop of Rome,

in expressing his concurrence with the acts of the council,

one " who,

instead

of purifying

the

apostolic

church with the doctrine of the apostles, had

thought to overturn the faith by a profane treason."

The Maronites
state
rise,

of the Libanus,
to

of whose church-,

we now proceed
as

take a brief survey,

owe

their

a people, to this Monothelite controversy.

An

origin

more agreeable

to the partialities of their

modern
but
of

condition has been contended for by some
selves,
it

among them;

and by certain writers of the Latin church
of the Lettres
:

does not carry the suffrages of true history.

One

the

authors

Edifiantes,

^c, has thus
its

stated the tradition

" The Maronite nation derives

Abbe Maron, who must not be confounded with another of the name, a Monothelite heresiarch. The holy abbot Maron was born in
the celebrated
* Maximin. This illustrious confessor, when the question between him and his persecutors came to an issue, was scourged with
bull-thongs, his right
the roots.

name from

hand was cut

Martiv, who

off, and his tongue cut out from brought upon himself the unmanly ven-

geance of the emperor by his
to pass

official

testimony against the Type, had

through a great fight of

afflictions in the

endurance of

treat-

ment of which no one can read without indignation.
riously in exile in 655.
I

He

died glo-

5

178

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
He
there spent the hfe of
disciples,

Syria in the fourth century.
a hermit.

He had under
his

his

conduct several
living.
St.

uho embraced
his

manner of
great,

holiness

was so

that

The reputation of John Chrysostom

wrote to him from the place of his
to obtain

exile, to entreat

him
After

from God by his prayers grace to endure his
with patience

excessive pains

and courage

Maron had

finished his days, his disciples built a second
river Orontes.
it

monastery near the

The

better to recom-

mend
a time

it,

they gave

the

name

of their father, and after
St.

it

was

called the

monastery of

Maron.

The
it

emperor Justinian rebuilt the church,
''

and gave

a

handsomer appearance than the former one.
In the number of hermits in this monastery there

was one named John, who, having distinguished himself among his brethren for his virtues, was elected abbot and in honour of their first father he was surnamed the
abbot Maron.
This secon'd Maron powerfully combated
schismatics.

the heretics and

He

converted
his
it

many

of

them,

and

so successfully

defended

nation
all sides,

from
that

schism and heresy, which surrounded
it

on

alone, in the Levant, has

remained constantly and uni-

versally devoted to the chair of St. Peter.

" The abbot John
first

of his nation

the patriarch of

]\Iaron, of whom we speak, was the who was honoured with the title of He received the patrithe Maronites.
see.

archate from

the holy

His successors, after their

election, never omit,

up

to the present day, to depute a

person to the pope, in order to receive his confirmation

and the pallium'' *

Such
cliini,

is

the imagination maintained by Dandini, Sac-

Nairon, and others,

who have wished
far
is

to

make

it

appear that this people have been an orthodox church

from the beginning.

So

this
i.

from ha^^ng been
109.

Lelt. ed. et cur. vol.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

179

the case, that the ancient Maronites are not only chargeable

with Monothelism, but with taking part also with

the

Monophysites themselves.

Thus, in

common with
who took

the Jacobites, they adopted the addition which Peter the
Fuller (the -surreptitious patriarch of Antioch,

the lead

of-

that party)

made

to the Trisagion, in the

words, '*who wast crucified for us," as applied to the
divine nature of the second Person of the Trinity.

John
of this

of Damascus, in the eighth century,
addition, says, that to use
the
Trisagio7i.)
it

speaking

was to Maro7iize. (Epist. on

And

the same author, in a formulary

prepared by the order of the metropolitan of his church,
expressly classes the Maronites with those

who

held the

same

faith

as

Sergius, Cyrus,

and other Monophysites.
but that the monas-

Against the

first

Maro, the contemporary of Chrysostom,

nothing heterodox
tic

may

be alleged

;

community of which he was founder retained the Christian doctrine uncorrupted amid the deluge of errors
which .overspread the East
turies, is

in the sixth

and seventh cenTheir

improbable in every sense.

connexion
affirmed by
of

with the Monothelites of Syria
that valuable historian,

is distinctly

William,

archbishop

Tyre.

[Be Bello
part taken

sacro, lib. xxii. cap. 8.]

So prominent was the

by the

disciples of the later

John Maroun,

at

the time of the controversy on the one will, that, accord-

name of Monothelism among The influence of John was not limited to the inmates of the (Deir Maroun) monastery and church over which he presided at Hamah on the Orontes,* but extended to large numbers in the surrounding country, who even then had taken the name
ing to D'Herbelot, the very
the Arabs
is

Marouniah.

of

3Iarou7iioun,
* It

Subsequently

to

the

sixth

general

or

was here that Heraclius retired when Emessa refused him admission to their

the inhabitants of
city,

Hems

because he was a

Monothelite,

ISO

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

council, when the decrees of that assembly were enforced upon the Monothelites by the edge of the sword, a mul-

titude of the Syrian partisans of the sect took refuge in

the fastnesses of the Libanus, and laid the foundation of
the present communion.

The inhabitants of that region
early as the greater part

had not embraced the gospel so
of Syria.

Constantine overthrew the celebrated temple of
lib. iii.

Venus on Mount Lebanon, [Euseb. de Vita Const,
cap.
^D,']

but did not succeed in the establishment of

The conversion of the Libaniotes is attriexhortations of St. Symeon the Stylite, buted The community about the middle of the fifth century. formed by the coalition of tlie previous inhabitants with the new settlers, however feeble in its origin, was destined to outlive the powerful empire whose persecuting The name by which they laws had made them aliens. were at first known in the Levant was that of Mardaites, but the style soQn adopted by themselves was or rebels
Christianity.
to the
;

the

Maronite nation.
orthodox
or

[The adherents of the

dominant party
terms that would

were distinguished from the Mardaites, by the name of

Melchites,
politics

royalists, or imperialists

;

of themselves betray the powerful influence which secular
exerted in these ecclesiastical movements.
still

The

Greek Catholics of Mount Lebanon
Melchites.
sent diff^erence

call

themselves

Between them and the Maronites, the preis,

that the religious services of the latter

are performed in Syriac

and Carshun

;

but those of the

Melchites in Arabic and Greek.]

For a considerable time the Maronites retained their
liberty both

as a

church and people.

Selim IL, sultan

of the Othmanides, attempted in vain to subjugate
in their mountains.

them

But they were

at length

brought

under the Turkish yoke in the reign of Amurath IIL,
(anno
91^2,)

by Ibrahim, pascha of Kaira.

In modern

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
own

181

times their internal government has been in the hands
of chieks of their
;

but a tribute

is

always paid to

the sovereign power in Syria.

Their pecuharities as a distinct communion, prior to
this junction

Brerewood
the Father.

:

— " That

with the Latin church, are thus noted by
the Holy Ghost proceedeth only from
all

That the souls of men were

created toge-

ther from the beginning.
together.

Not

to baptize

male children

That heretics returning to the church are to
That the child
till

be re-baptized.

is

made unclean by the
;

touch of the mother

she be purified

which, after a
female
;

male

child, is forty days,

and eighty

after a

for

which reason they baptize not
terms.
rist in

their infants before those

That they celebrated the sacrament of the euchaboth kinds
;

and

in unleavened bread

;

distributing

to

all

the communicants each one a piece of the same

bread,

which they consecrate

in great masses
:

together

with these words of the Gospel

*

He

blessed,
eat,'

and brake,
&c. (Matt,

and

ga.ve to his

disciples, saying.

Take,

xxvi. 26.)

To

distribute the sacrament of the eucharist

to children before the use of reason,
after

and

first

presently

baptism.

Not

to

reserve
it

the

sacrament of the

eucharist.

Not

to carry

to

any sick person in danger

To omit confirmation by the bishop. To exclude the fourth matrimony in every person as utterly
of

death.

unlawful.

That marriage

is

not inferior to single hfe.

case of adultery, and That the father may dissolve the matrimony of his son or daughter if he mislike it. Not to

Utterly to dissolve matrimony in

marry another.
ordain young

men

priests

or deacons except they were

married

;

but yet to restrain their second marriage.
old

To
That

create children five or six years

sub-deacons.

ral

no man entereth the kingdom of heaven before the genejudgment. Not to fast on the Lord's day, nor on the
sabbath.
in

In the days of fasting not to celebrate mass
evening.

the

Not

to eat

any thing strangled, or of

182
still

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
blood.

Their main

error

Monothelites,
Christ." *

touching

one

only

was the heresy of the and action in "will

By
ites

uniting themselves with the

Roman

see,

the Maron-

did

not

make an

unconditional surrender of their
titular supre-

church-hberties.

While acknowledging a

macy

in the pope, they have always elected

their

own
both

batrak,

or patriarch

;

the clergy retained the right of

marriage, and the perpetuation of their
in language

own

ritual

and ceremony.

The
Antioch

patriarch,

who

resides

most commonly
style

at

the

monastery of Kanubin, takes the
;

of patriarch of

and assumes

at his consecration the

surname of
the
patri-

Peter, as his rival of the Jacobite church,

who wears

same

title,

takes that of Ignatius.
his

The Maronite

arch receives

confirmation to the dignity, together

with the pallium^ from the Vatican.
in that department

He

does not inter-

fere with the secular interests of the church, but

employs

two chief deacons or administrators.

Neither the patriarch nor the bishops
the bishops there are two classes, f

may

marry.

Of

one, effectually such,

with regular episcopal charges

;

the other, simple abbots,

bishops in ^wsse, but without the actual cure of souls.

They
cross.

are

habited as other

monks

;

except

when they
mitre

occasionally say mass,

then

they wear the

and

The patriarch has commonly two or

three bishops

residing with him,
&c.,

who sometimes make
Besides
those
at

the visitations,

in

his

place.

residing

on Mount

Lebanon, there are Maronite bishops

Damascus, Alep,

and the island of
^-

Cyprus.;};
p.

Brerewood's " Enquiries,"
Simon,

220.

-f

Histoire Critique de la Creance, ^c.
to the several offices of lector,

X In the Maronite church ordination
exorcist, acolyte, sub-deacon, deacon,

presbyter, archpresbyter, and

bishop,

may
;

one another

be conferred on the same person within a few hours of the entire transition from a layman to a bishop being

effected within the

compass of a day.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

183

In the performance of divine service, several priests

They use altar. The communion is made The bread used both by laics and priests in both kinds. in the sacrament is unleavened. The water for baptism is consecrated, or blessed, by the recital of certain appointed prayers. They plunge the candidate three
engage at a time, standing round the
incense at their worship.

much

times, but

pronounce the formula but once

;

this is fol-

lowed by unction, the baptized person being anointed on
the head and the breast.

[They are fond of anointing the sick with
which, as
in their

oil

;

for

among the ritual. On a
:

Jacobites, there

is

a distinct office
office, in

Syriac copy of this

the

Medicean library
following note

at Florence,

Evodius Assemann has the

Oleum infirmorum, quod oleum lampadis

Syri vocatit, in ecclesia orientali non solum episcopi, sed
etiam simplices preshyteri, per delegationem consecrant.

In ecclesia Syronmi
oleo benedicto,

turn

Jacobitarum turn Maronitarum
sed etiam benevalentes et
;

nan solum

cegros,

poenitentes presbyteri promiscue inungunt
ipsos
vi7n
esse,
:

imo et semetesse,

ka?ic

tamen unctionem nee sacramentum
habere,

nee

sacramenti

sed benedictionem

tantummodo

adjirmant, etiamsi eodem oleo fiat, quod in extrema

infirmorum unctione adhibetur.^

The Maronites had no service of confirmation till it was introduced among them by the Romanists and the
;

same

also is true of auricular confession.

Their minor services, as held most

commonly
daylight
;

in the

monastic chapels,
call

are, at
;

midnight, nocturns,

or, as
;

some
tierce

them, matins

laudes, or prime, at
;

immediately before the mass
three o'clock
;

sexts at
;

midday

nones at

and complines after supEach office is composed of a preface, and of two or per. Their principal three prayers, with intervening hymns. fasts are at Lent, when they do not eat till two or three
vespers at sunset

184

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
;

hours before sunset
the
year,
:

all

Wednesdays and Fridays through
nativity

and twenty days before the

of our
till

Lord

on these occasions they abstain from food

the

afternoon.

Those Maronites who reside in the neighbourhood of
the far-famed cedars of Lebanon, have been accustomed

on the day of the transfiguration
service at

to celebrate a rehgious

an

altar of

unhewn

stone,

under the shadow of
Maronite

their

mighty branches.
Arabic

The modern vernacular language of the
nation
is
;

but

their church-services, in

common

communions, are performed in the old Syriac. Of several Liturgies and offices in use, both among themselves and the Jacobites,
with the other ancient
eastern

the favourite

is

that of St. James, the brother of our
I

Lord, of which

have attempted an English translation

in another part of the present volume.

The

principal seat of learning
el

among

the Maronites

is

a college at Ain

Warka.

Here the term of study,
in the
;

which may begin

at

any time between the ages of eleven
:

and eighteen,
learn

is

four years

first
is

of which they
in

the

Syriac

Grammar

this

followed,

the

second year, by the study of the book of Church
holy orders
ing,

Offices,

the scholars being admitted solely for a preparation for
;

the third year

is

devoted to general learn-

and the fourth

to practical theology.

There was for
a

a long time a house, or college, in

Rome, where

num-

ber of Maronites received a gratuitous ecclesiastical education
:

but that establishment was broken up about the
I

time of the French Revolution, and, unless
informed, has never been resumed.

am

mis-

Considered in

their

secular
respect.

state,

this

people have
industrious,
;

many
frugal,

claims

on

our

They

are

and hospitable. Polygamy is disallowed and the tone of domestic and public morals is, in general, correct

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
and elevated.
still,

185

In

common

with the other orientals, they
strict

however, adhere to the anti-christian law of

retaliation.

to

arms.

The entire male population are accustomed The poniard, and not uncommonly the musborne on the person as the
articles

ket, are as constantly

of out-of-door clothing.
lar

Consequently, though no regu-

troops are kept up, the people are military in their

habits,

and would be able on any sudden emergency
in their

to

muster a force of between thirty and forty thousand men.

But though martial
actual
life
is

latent

disposition,

their

spent in the pursuits of agriculture.

In

these they are

eminently successful

;

and the romantic
is

scenery of their mountains and valleys
interesting

rendered doubly

by the

laboriously-raised

terraces, the vine-

grounds loaded in the season with clusters of enormous
magnitude, the plantations of the cotton and
fields of
olive,

and
the

corn in the highest state of cultivation, which

are

interspersed
;

through

the

entire
it

district

of

Kesrou'an

a district which, though

may

be passed by

the traveller in a few hours, maintains a population of a

hundred and twenty thousand.
this

Malte Brun, speaking of
hberty of worship

region of the Libanus, says, *'The sound of bells,
attest the

and the pomp of processions,
teries rigorously observe the

here enjoyed by the Christians.

Two hundred monasand a

rule of St. Anthony,

considerable

number

of hermits dwell in cells and caverns.
recalls the ages

The fervour of devotion which reigns here
of the primitive church."*

In this account the number

of monastic

houses

is

greatly overrated.

Mar Hanna
time
but

Maroni, a bishop, stated to the Rev. Mr. Jowett, in 1827,
that there

were in Mount Lebanon at
;

that

eighty convents
lic,

which about ten were Greek Cathothree Armenian Catholic, and one Syrian Catholic,
of

the rest Maronite.

The monks
* Geog. de

dress in a

brown woollen

V Asie,

186

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

up to the letter of their rule, never taste They have no concern with the duties of the clergy, but are ordinarily employed in the cultivation of vine and mulberry plantations, and the* other labours
garb, and, living

animal food.

of husbandry.
[Since these pages were written, in April, 1845, these
Christians of the Libanus have suffered
ties

immense calami-

from a disastrous war with their powerful and hereThe entire Maronite counditary enemies, the Druses.
is

try

at the present time a scene of desolation.

Their
their
laid

churches
dwellings,

and

convents

have .been

destroyed;

tillage,

gardens,

and mulberry groves,
thousands
of
their

waste

;

while

the

blood

of

men,

women, and children, has been poured out like water. '* The present condition of our mountain," writes a correspondent from Beyrout, in June, 1845, "would make
stones weep, from the enactment of horrors and cruelties

which are not
parallel of St.

credible.

From

the

Nahr

el

Kelb to the
a

Jean d'Acre, nothing

now remains but

few houses and convents.
has been destroyed by
trees

All the remainder, including

even the silk-worms, the sole sustenance of the people,

cut down.

and nearly all the mulberry on the coast we have not less Here
fire,

than thirty thousand poor Christians, emigrants, who have had every thing burned
that
it

Fortunate
:

it is

for

them

is

the

summer

season

were

it

winter, the greater

part would perish with cold

["At the urgent request of the consular body, and
under their guarantee, some of the chiefs of the Druses and Christians yielded themselves up in Beyrout, and an
armistice was

signed by
it

them on the second

instant

;

but on the sixth

was violated

in every article.

The

Druses, having obtained entrance into the Maronite convents, destroyed the priests,

and sacked their monasteries

and churches,"

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
[And
stice

187

again,

from another hand

:

" Although an armicovered with

has been formally concluded between the belligerents

in the

Lebanon, the mountain
;

is

still

fire

and blood
cruelty.

and the Druses exercise the most

pitiless

It is

impossible that such a state of things can

be prolonged, without an appeal to the intervention of
the government to
the sovereignty of rather the

whom
Syria.

the European powers intrusted

The voluntary

inaction,

or

connivance, of the Turkish authorities only

yielded to the pressing entreaties of the European consuls.
It

was

at their

summons

that the lieutenant of the Pasha

convoked, at Beyrout, the Druses and Maronite chiefs, to
conclude an arrangement preparatory to a general pacification.

invitation.

desire to

The delegates of the two parties attended, at his The Christian chiefs gave proofs of their They arrived at Beyrout efiect a reconciliation.
;

several days before the Druses

and the
all

latter

conducted

themselves in

a

manner

to

justify

the accusations

made

against them."
political details,

[Without entering on

which are foreign

to the character of the present

work,

it

may be

observed,

that the conduct of the

Ottoman government, throughdistinguished for
their

out these melancholy transactions, has betrayed the pre-

dominant influence of a party

Mahomedan

fanaticism, who, desirous of witnessing the

annihilation of Druses
to foment, rather

and Maronites

alike,

would seek

than appease, their mutual animosities.

[Thus, within a short space of time, both the Nestorian

and Maronite churches have been the victims of a similar
calamity.
Still,

though

'*

cast

down," they are
yet

''

not

destroyed."
laid
is
''

" The Heathen have devoured them, and
their

waste
the

dwelling-places:"

may He who

God

of their salvation, for the glory of his name,

help them, and dehver them, and purge away their sins
for his

name's sake!" (Psalm

Ixxix. 7, 9.)]

188

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

LITURGIES OF THE JACOBITES AND MAROXITES.
The
Syrian churches are rich in sacramental Liturgies.

in treating on each separate community, because many of them are used by the

Of these we have not spoken
Jacobite,

Maronite,

and

Indian churches in

common

and the subject

itself

could be more advantageously con-

sidered in a distinct article.

The

Liturgical service

OS (Jj^ioc ^urhono,
-x

"the

obla-

tion or access ;" also

j^^oD

fu'dsho,

''the holy ritual")

of

all
;

the the

Syrian
first

churches, consists of

two principal

parts
tion,

being performed in the public congregaalike
;

composed

of the

faithful

and the general

(l^d!;^^.) hearers

but the second available only to the
This latter part
is

baptized, or behevers.

caUed )ias].j],
to

anaphora,

or,

" the uplifting," a term referring both

the presentation of the eucharistic materials on the altar,

and

to the devotional elevation of the

mind

in the

communi-

cants.

Of these Anaphoras,
;

a few are the productions of

Syrian fathers
the Greek.

the rest are versions or adaptations from
will

We
first
is

enumerate them under the names of

their respective or reputed authors.
1.

The

the Liturgy of St. James, which shall

be described more at large in page 198.
2.

The

lesser Liturgy of St.

James

;

an abridgment of

the

first,

by Gregory, cathoUcos
is

of the East, about a.d.

1591.

This

used on comparatively private occasions,

as baptisms
3.

and matrimony.
St.

The Liturgy of

Peter,

chief of the apostles

;

probably in use in the patriarchal church, Antioch, which
held a supposed relation to the apostle Peter, as
bishop.
its
first

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
4.
5.
6.

189

That of " Peter, pope of Rome."

Another of Peter, chief of the apostles.

printed,

The Liturgy of Clement, of Rome. This is not and nothing certain is known either of its age
it

or the church in which
7.

originated.

That

of" St.

DioNYSius, of Athens.
is

In the printed
title
;

Missale Chaldaicum, there
it

an

office

with this

but

work of Dionysius Bar Salib, a Jacobite metropolitan of Amida. 8. The Liturgy of Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, and
is

in reality

the

martyr
have

;

the printed and manuscript exemplars of which
variations.

many

Of

course,

no one beheves
It
is

it

to

be the work of the great Ignatius.
character,

Jacobite in

of that

and probably the work of one of the patriarchs communion, who in latter times assumed the

name
9.

of the Antiochian martyr, as their

common

title.

That

of St.

Mark,

preacher and evangehst, used
St.

by the Jacobites on the day of
of respect
for

Mark, and

as a token

the

church of Alexandria, from whose

Liturgy

it

was adapted.
but
the

The

editors

of the

printed

Maronite copies of this form have not been sparing in
their

alterations

;

Latin

version

we have

in

Renaudot's collection was made from the manuscripts.
10.

The Liturgy of John the

evangelist, printed in

the Missflle Chald., and extant
office

in

ms.

There
it is

is

an

under the same name in Ethiopic, but

described

as being different 11.

from

this one.

The Liturgy of the twelve apostles, printed also at Rome, but with many variations from the mss. It is said the 12. That of Julius, pope of Rome. Monophysites have held the name of this pope in much
honour, on account of certain
fictitious

epistles

of his, the

which are favourable
person of our Saviour.
13.

to their

peculiar

doctrine on

This

office is

not printed.

That of Eustathius, patriarch of Antioch, in

190
great repute

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES,
among
the
Syrians,

and printed in
of

the

Maronite

collection.

The Latin version

Renaudot

was from a ms. in the king's hbrary
14, 15.
or, as

at Paris.

Two
St.

with the name of St.

John Chrysostom,

the
'*

Syrians call him.

dahabo,

these differ

Mar Yuchanon Phumo daBoth of John of the golden mouth." One from the Greek Liturgy of Chrysostom.
some exemplars, bears the name of

of them, indeed, in

John the Haranite.
16.

Another of

St.

John

the apostle, in ms.

17.

of

The Liturgy of Mar Marutha, metropolitan the East, and a contemporary of Chrysostom,
The Liturgy of
it

printed.
18.
St.

Basil the Great.
It

This

is

unquestionably one of the most ancient church-offices.

Masius rendered

from Syriac into Latin.

may

be

found

also in the sixth

volume of the Bibliotheca Patrum,

and

in the second

volume of Renaudot.
hav^e also the Liturgies of, 19.

Besides these

we

Cyril
ms.

of Alexandria, printed.
21.

20.

Thomas
22.

of Charchel,

Moses Barcepha, ms.

by John, surnamed the Great, loxenus, bishop of Hierapolis, ms.
Antioch, ms.
25.

The sacred Doctors, 23. Phia patriarch.
24.

Severus

of

Dioscorus

of Alexandria, ms.

26.

Jacob Barad.^us, ms. 2». 27. Jacob of Sarug. Jacob of Edessa, ms. 29. John, patriarch. 30. John Bar-Maad, MS. 31. Gregory Bar Hebr^us, ms. 32. Dioscorus, bishop of Gordaea. 33. John, bishop
of Bassora.
34. Ignatius, patriarch of Antioch.
patriarch,

35.

Michael,
printed.

ms.

36.

Matthew

the

pastor,

37.

bishop of Rome, printed.

John Barsusa, printed. 38. Xystus, 39. The twelve apostles,
be mentioned, 40. The Liturgy of
;

sometimes called after the evangelist Luke.
In addition

may

Proclus

of Constantinople

and that

of,

41.

John Kar-

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
REN SIS, which may
at Paris.

191

be found in the Bibliotheque

Roy ale

The Liturgies used by the Nestorians, we will consider by themselves. Though most of the foregoing devotional offices have been in use, more or less, in the Jacobite and Maronite
churches
St. alike, the

Liturgy distinguished by the

name
be

of

James has been always held
still

in the greatest favour

by both communions, and

continues

to

their

CANON
The
mined.

of divine worship.
precise age of this ritual cannot be

well deter-

Many
it

of the Greeks

and Syrians have professed
and, as such,

to believe
tolical
is

to be, in reality, the composition of the aposis

man whose name
the

affixed to it

;

it

cited in

thirty-second

canon of the council

in

Tridlo, in

692.

Dion Bar Salib gives the tradition

as

held

among

the Syrians on the subject, that, " on the

third day after the Pentecost,

Mar

Jacob, apostle, cele-

brated the Liturgy in

all

respects as

we now have

it.
it,

And when he was

interrogated whence he had received
liveth, I
I

he rephed, *As the Lord

have neither added unto
*
;

nor taken from that which

have heard from our Lord
all."

and therefore

is

this

Hturgy the most excellent of

On

the other extreme, several learned Protestants have
its

denied both

authority and antiquity, and affected to

treat it as a forgery of

modern

times.

The truth does
would lay
proper

not appear to be on the side of either party.

That the apostles and their coadjutors *

down

certain principles

and regulations

for the

observance of public worship in general, and of the com-

munion of the Lord's supper
inferred, not only

in particular,

may be

fairly

from the nature of the

case,

but from
xxviii.

several passages in the

New

Testament. (See Matt,

" The apostles," says Epiphanius, " were the ordainers of the Lord." Adv. Hceres, 70. No. 3.
*

mysteries, with James, the brother of our

192
20
;

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
1

Cor.
it

xi.

23,

34

;

Titus

i.

5

;

1

Cor.

xiv.

40.)

Hence,

is

neither unreasonable

nor unscriptural to

suppose that St. James, during his long superintendency
of the church
of

Jerusalem, would follow a generally-

defined order in conducting the solemnities of the house

and the
those

table of the Lord,

and an order that would be

by The same remark holds good So that it becomes far of the other primeval churches. from improbable, that the written Liturgies of later times comprised in their leading and essential parts the trareligiously followed, with as little variation as possible,

who succeeded him.

ditional outline, or plan, of the procedure adopted

by the

congregations of the apostolic day.
greatly

That they have been
comparatively

enlarged, and that,

not only by

unworthy, but positively corrupt, accessions, no enlightened

man

will

doubt

;

but,

notwithstanding these dis-

paragements, they

may

be fairly considered as exhibiting

of the

some idea both of the open' and the sacramental worship first and second centuries. ^Ye see the great con;

stituents of Christian worship in all time

the uplifting

of the heart for divine assistance

;

confession of sin, and

prayer for pardon and acceptance, for renewal and sanctification
;

the recognition of the fraternal relation

among
;

believers

;

the joint exercise of thanksgiving and praise
of

the

adoration

the

divine

excellence,
;

with

especial

acknowledgments of redeeming love
scripture
;

the lecture of holy
faithful in the

the breaking of bread

by the

holy

supper,

with
all

prayer

for

themselves,

the

whole

church,

and

conditions of

mankind, such are the

essentials of the Lord's-day solemnities of the Christian

sanctuary in

all

lands and ages, and such are the leading

provisions of the most ancient Liturgies.

But that any written form was adopted
after the

in or soon

apostolic day,

may

not be aflSrmed with confifor con^

dence

;

on the contrary, there are strong reasons

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
eluding that the
practice

193

of

reading

prayers

from a

manuscript form was
for the
first

unknown

in the Christian church

three hundred years.

There

is

no mention

of such liturgical documents by any contemporary author.

The
Ndce

principle of secrecy with

was generally

associated,

which the eucharistic serwould render the common
In the exqui-

use of written prayers highly improbable.
sitions after Christian

books during the persecutions by

the

liturgy

Pagan emperors, no intimation appeared that any was in existence. Some bishops and lectors,
the stress of torture,
delivered

yielding to

up

to

the

magistrate the manuscripts and sacramental utensils of
their churches
gical
;

but no instance occurred in which

litur-

writings

were

so

delivered,

though the enemy
avowal

inflicted the

most intense

cruelties to extort the

of

all

that took place in the synaxes.

Again, in the several notices
Christian worship
in

we have

of the

manner of

the writings of the ante-Nicene
indications of extempore prayer.

authors,' we find plain

Metrical compositions or

hymns

for congregational sing;

ing are traceable in the earliest days

the

Christians

having caught the
(Col.
iii.

spirit of the old

Hebrew psalmody.
to

16.)

Thus
a

Pliny, in his celebrated letter

Trajan,

speaks of the
**on
certain

practice

of

those of
it

Bithynia,

meeting

day before

singing an

hymn

alternately to Christ

as

was Hght, and God."* And

an author of the second century, named Caius, cited by
Eusebius, refers, in defence of the Divinity of our Lord,
to "

many psalms and hymns
of

of the brethren, written at

the beginning by the faithful, which do set forth the
praises

Christ

as

the

Word

of
is

God,
said
to

and ascribe
have com:

Divinity to him."t
*

So Ignatius

Quod

essent soliti stato die ante lucent convenire

Christo quasi

Deo

dicere

secum invicem.

— Lib.

carmenque

x. ep. 97.

f EusEB.

Eccles. Hist. lib. v. cap. 28.

K

194

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
congregation
at

posed hymns for the
dishke to
the truth

Antioch, which

Paul of Samosata (see ante^ page 28) aboUshed, from his
celebrated in

them.*

But while

there can be no doubt on the early use of -written

hymns,

the notices

we have

of the prayers offered in the Christian
first

assemblies of the

three

ages,

lead us to consider

them

as the utterances of spontaneous devotion.

Justin

Martyr, describing the worship of the sabbath-day, says,
that, after the

reading of as

much

of *Hhe

prophets

and apostles " as time would allow, the bishop made a
sermon, wherein he
to the
^*

instructed and animated the people

They then " rose up together " and prayed. After which followed the salutation of peace, the communion of bread and
practice

of

such lovely precepts."

wine mixed with water
vice

;

the bishop concluding the ser-

with prayer and

thanksgiving,
(Jxtol

according

to

his

ability, \

an expression

dvva.[j,is)

which evidently
So

betokens an extempore

effort,

and which precludes the

idea that he used a defined and limited document.

Tertulhan,

after stating

the manner of solemnizing the

sacraments of baptism and the eucharist, uses language which shows conclusively, that even in those services no
written order as yet had place
:

Harum

et

alianim ejusscripturarum

modi

disciplinaimm
:

si

legem

expostuleSy

you demand a written law for these and other practices, you will find none "J which
nullam invenies
If
;

"

he could not have then extant.
St.

said,

had there been written

ofiices

The same thing appears

in a discussion of

Cyprian

on the practice of mixing water in the

wine used in the Lord's supper, in which, in favour of
*

EusEB.

Eccles. Hist. lib.
3,

vii.

cap. 24.

f

Apol.

ii.

87.

% De Coron, Mil. No.
that the Christians prayed

4.

Tertullian says, in another place,

pectore,

for the emperor sine monitore, quia de "without any monitor, because they prayed from the heart."

^Apol.

30.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

195

that practice, he appeals not to any written sacramentary

of the apostoHc day, but to unwritten

tradition

:

* but

had there been a received form at that time in existence, he would undoubtedly have referred to it, as to a standard authority
;

just as, in after-days,

when

liturgies
fell

had

been adopted, the fathers of the sixth council

back

on that of

St.

Chrysostom, in defence of the same ob-

who had rejected it. Hence may be drawn the undeniable inference, that James, Peter, and Basil could not have been the authors of those liturgies known by their respective names. They
servance against the Armenians,
are productions of later days than theirs
;

and were deto those

nominated by their present

titles,

not perhaps in the

way

of pious fraud, but as a tribute of

honour

distinguished men,

who were such

bright ornaments

of

the churches in which the liturgies in question originated.

With regard
affirm,

to

the Liturgy of St.

James,

we may

with an approach to certainty on the one hand,
composition,
;

that, as- a written

it

dates subsequently to

the council of Nice

a point determined by the use of
as
is

the word

" consubstantial," which,
it

well
;

was

first

employed by that assembly, a.d. 325

the other side,

must have been reduced

to

known, on writing, and
while,

have become an authoritative formulary in the Syrian
church, before the council of Chalcedon, a.d. 451, foras-

much

as

both the orthodox and the Monophysite seceders

(as in the case of the Peschito version of the scriptures)

continued to
services.f

employ

it

in

common

in

their religious

This Liturgy was

first

used, according to
St.

all

appeardied

ance, in the church of Jerusalem.

Cyril,

who

bishop of that church in 385, makes distinct allusions
to several parts of
*
it

in his instructions to the newly-

Cypr. Epist. ad CcbcU. 63. f The Fifth Mystagogic Catechesis.

K

2

196
baptized.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
lu one of these, after speaking of the deacon

bringing water to wash the hands of the bishop and presbyters,

and of

his proclaiming,
tells

an holy kiss," he your
hearts,'

" Sakite one another with them, " The priest cries, ^ Lift up
'

and ye answer,
saith again,
' ^

We

lift

them up unto the
to do.'

Lord.'

He
*

Let us give thanks unto the
It is

Lord
sea,

;

and ye answer,

meet and just so

After this

we make mention
irrational, visible

of heaven

and earth and
and arch-

the sun, moon, and stars, and the whole creation, ra-

tional

and

and

invisible, angels

angels, dignities,

dominions, principalities,
;

and powers,

thrones

seraphical
baoth.'

and with them we sing the and cherubims hymn, 'Holy, holy, holy. Lord God of SaAfter which

he would send forth his

we beseech the merciful God that Spirit upon the elements, and
Christ,

make

the bread the

blood of Christ.
sacrifice

body of Then after
is

and the wine the and unbloody
for the

this spiritual

and

service

performed,

we beseech God
allies, for

common
and the
saying,
*

peace of the church, for the tranquillity of the
the sick
;

world, for kings and their armies and
afflicted
;

in a word, for all that

want assistance

We beseech
I

thee for them, and offer this sacrifice

unto thee

fallen asleep

Then make we mention of those that are Then we say that prayer which our Saviour gave to his disciples, calhng God by the name of
' *

Father

;

'

after

those that are holy

which the priest says, ' Holy things for and the people answer, * There is
:

'

one holy, one Lord Jesus Christ.'

Then one

is
'

appointed
taste

to sing those words of the thirty-third psalm,
see that the
cates,

and

Lord

is

gracious

; '

and every one communithis,

saying,

*Amen.'"

In

all

the reference to

the Liturgy of St. James must be considered as unquestionable.

then,

it

But it is still impossible to say, whether, even had assumed a written form or whether the
;

allusions of St. Cyril were

made

to

the ordinary plan of

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

197

worship at Jerusalem, and to such forms of phraseology
as were delivered

from memory

in the celebration of the

eucharist.

As

to the

comparative antiquity between the written
is,

Greek and Syrian Liturgy of James, the probability
that the one" did not long precede the other
;

as large

numbers of the Christians of
guage than their own.

Syria,

especially

in

the

rural churches, were unacquainted with

any other lan-

198

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

THE SYRIAN LITURGY OF

ST.

JAMES.
of the

We
which

have ali'eady observed that the
accessible only to

full .service
;

Syrian churches consists of two
is

parts

the

second

of
this

the baptized.

Nor has

order of things, resulting from the circumstances of the

church in the primitive ages, become improper among
the Christian communities of the East,

who have
subsists

still

to

maintain their confession in juxta-position with Heathen-

ism or Mahomedanism

;

in fact,

it

in

most

churches at the present day.

We
.

shall,

first,

give

an abstract or breviary of the Order of the pubhc wor-

fN->]^q^
;

ulsZJ

or

Common

ship

and, then, a free translation of the Anaphora, or

Formulary for the Eucharist.

PUBLIC OR PREPARATORY SERVICE.
1.

The

priest lays aside his ordinary habit, laves his

hands, invests himself with the dress to be worn at the
altar,

prays

for

remission

of

sins

and
is

purification

of

heart for the solemnity on which he
requests the intercession of the people.
2.

entering,

and

He
:

ascends to the

altar, saying,

**

*

I will

come unto

the

altar of Aloho,
'

unto Aloho, who maketh glad ray
Lord, before thy throne, and

youth

* behold me,
all

pardon
left,

my

sins."

He

salutes the altar

on the

right,

and middle, saying, " Bind our

festal

oblations

f

with cords unto the horns of the altar."
.'3.

The deacon, uncovering
;

his head, lights a candle

on
see

the right of the altar, saying, " In thy light shall
light

we

" and, on kindhng the other,
lift

offers brief exhorta-

tions to

up the

mind

for celestial illumination.

* Syr. vers, of
-f-

Psalm

xliii. 4.

Or "our

festivities,"

Psalm

cxviii. 27-

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES. may

199

While the priest puts incense into the censer, the congregation prays that
Trinity.
it

be acceptable to the Holy
gifts
;

The

priest

then

uncovers the
it

and the

deacon, taking the
signs
this
altar,
it

bread, presents

to the priest,

who

with the cross, and prays that
of the
faithful.
it

God would
it

accept

offering

Then placing
veil,

on the

and covering

with a

he repeats the words

'' He was led as a lamb to the slaughter," &c. Receiving the cup, he says, " I will take the cup of salvation, and call upon the name of the Lord " and,

of Isaiah,

;

pouring into
our Lord

it

the wine, " This wine

is

the type of the

blood drawn from the side of thy Son Jeshumeschicha
;

I

pour

it

into this

cup in the name of the
;

Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost

" and,

mingling

it

with a

little

water,

*'

Let this be mixed as a

type of the water which flowed from the side of Jeshumeschicha.*'
this water

[The Jacobites add here, " Unite,
is

Lord,
united

with this wine, even as thy Divinity
'^

with the humanity."]
4.

Incense and praise.

the Lord, &c.

Kyrie, eleeson.^^

come let us sing unto Our Father. Glory be

to the Father," &c.
5.

Prayer

for all believers, for all estates, for all the
;

necessities

of the living and the dead
of,
*'

concluding with

an acclamation from the people,

Glory to God in

the highest, and on earth peace, good-will to the sons of

men." 6. The sedi'o or hymn generally a composition of St. Ephrem, or of St. James of Nisebin. 7. The deacon recites an instruction on the nature
;

of the sacrament.

He then

reads

the epistle
by an

for the
accla-

day, and a portion of the Psalms, followed

mation of praise.
*

" Lord, have mercy."

This Greek formula

is

retained

by the

Syrians without translation.

200
After which

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES,
is
it

read

the gospel

in Syriac

;

an under-

deacon reading

in the vernacular Arabic.

The deacon

then exhorts the people to retain the good seed of the

word of God, and prays that
obey
it.

all

who have heard may
;

The general congregation is now dismissed the deaDraw con saying, " Go in peace, hearers go in peace.*
;

Let the doors be closed." nigh, ye baptized, in peace. After which follows the versicle, " The Lord reigneth, he
is

clothed

with majesty.

Alleluia

!

"

with

other brief
liv-

ejaculations

of praise, prayer for the faithful, both

ing and dead, and the recital of the Creed.
again laves
the people.
*
liis

The

priest

hands, and requests the intercessions of

Zehi be shalmo, Shomuee

;

like the Ite, missa est of the

West-

ems.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

201

ANAPHORA * OF THE HOLY
JACOB,

APOSTLE,

MAR

THE BROTHER OF OUR LORD.

FIRST PRAYER BEFORE THE SALUTATION.

Our God
and
these,
;

who

and our Lord, Lover of mankind make us, are so unworthy, to be meet for this sal!

vation
crisy,

that, being

cleansed from

all

guile

and hypo-

we may salute one another with the kiss of sanctity and godliness, as united in the bond of peace and of love, through our Lord God 'and Redeemer Jeshumeshicha, thy only Son, by whom, and with whom, unto
thyself be ascribed glory

and honour and strength, and

with thy

Spirit.

People. Amen. The Deacon then delivers mi exhortation
thanksgiving.

to

prayer and
Lord,

Priest.

—Thou

who

alone

art

the

merciful

upon 'these who bow

their necks before thy holy altar,

send forth thy blessing.

Thou who

dwellest on high,

and hast regard unto the humble,
the grace, benignity,

bless them,

through
be

and love of Meshicha, thy onlythyself,

begotten Son, by
glory.

whom, and with whom, with

People.
Priest.

—Amen. — God

the

Father,

who

in

thy great and

unspeakable love to mankind didst send thy Son into the
world, that the sheep which had wandered might be restored
this
;

turn not

away thy

face

from us while we observe
For not in our own

solemn and unbloody

sacrifice.

righteousness do
fore supphcate

we

trust,

but in thy mercy.

We
this

there-

and implore thy grace, that
salvation,

mystery
not be

which hath been appointed for our
*

may
\£LD

Vide Missale Chaldaicum, pag.

*.i
*

K

5

202

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
;

unto the condemnation of thy people
blotting

but

unto

the

out of sins, the forgiveness of transgressions,

and the receiving of thy bounty through the grace and tender mercy of thy only-begotten Son by whom, and
;

with whom, with thyself, be glory.

People. Deacon.
in charity

—Amen. — Let
faith,

every one salute his [or her] neighbour

and

which are acceptable
for,

to

God. Let us

stand reverently, praying with fear and trembhng, with
humiliation and devoutness
;

behold, the oblation

is

The gates of heaven are opened, and the Holy Spirit descends upon these mysteries to overspread them. Stand we in the dreadful place, with cherubim and seraphim surrounded Brethren and companions are we made in the watches and services of angels and of spirits, who are as flames of fire Moreover, no one is bound who may dare to
brought nigh, and the glory
arises.
!

approach the mystery, because the
grace sent forth, and

veil is lifted up, and mercy over-poured, on every one

who

prays with pure heart and good conscience.
lifts

The Priest
thrice
ivith

up

the

veil,

and

signs

the people

the cross, saying,

— The

love of the Father,

the grace

of the Son,

and the communication of the
all.

—Amen. Priest. — up your People. — They Priest. — Let thanks God. worthy and People. — Priest, bowing down. — Truly
People.
Lift

Holy

Spirit,

be with you

hearts.

are lifted up.

us

give

unto

the

Lord

our

It is

right.
it

is

worthy and just
glorify, thee

and meet and our bounden duty thee to
to
bless,
!

thee

to

celebrate,

thee to worship,

thee

to

Unto Him, the Maker of every creature, visible and invisible to Him, whom heaven and the heaven of
praise
;

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
heavens and
all

203
sun and moon

their

powers do glorify
;

;

and
in

all

the host of stars
is
;

earth and seas, and whatever
first-

them

Jerusalem the heavenly, the church of the
;

born who are written in heaven
cipalities, dignities, thrones,

angels, archangels, prin-

dominions, the powers super-

nal, the celestial

bands, the cherubim with

six-winged seraphim, they

many eyes, who with twain wings
silent,

the
veil

their faces, with twain their feet,

and with twain toge-

ther flying,

with lips never

and with speech

di-

vine and unceasing, sound forth the

hymn

of victory, of

majesty, of praise,
saying.

—with
all

triumphant voice praising and

— Holy, holy, holy Priest, bowing down. — Holy,
People.
eternal,

!

indeed,
;

art

thou,
is

King

and of

holiness the giver

and holy

thy only-begotten Son, our Lord and God and Saviour Jeshumeshicha and holy is thy Holy Spirit, who search;

eth

all
;

things,
for

even the depths of thyself,
art
;

God
all,

the

Father

thou

holy,

who

possessest

the

Om-

nipotent,

the

Good

and with thy Son, wdio became a

partaker of sufferings, and that for the sake of

man thy
;

workmanship,

whom

thou didst make

from the earth,

and didst cause

to dwell in the blessedness of paradise

whom, when he had
Good
;

transgressed and had fallen, thou

didst not abandon, neither didst thou forsake him,

thou

but didst restore

mercies.

Thou

calledst
;

him as the Father him by the law, thou
"^

of tender
directedst

him by

the prophets

but,

last,

to

renew thine image,

thou didst send into the world thine only-begotten Son,
incarnate by the Holy Spirit from the holy mother of God,f and always virgin, Ma+
-f-

who descended and was

Or, relead.

This

epithet, if not a later

insertion,

shows that the Liturgy

could not have been written a great while before the council of Ephesus, A. D. 425.

204
riam
;

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
and conversed among the sons of men, and
he shall take
the portion,
insti-

tuted * whatever pertained to the salvation of our kind.
Rising,

and say

:

In the

day before that of his passion, he took bread in his holy
hands, and lifted up his eyes to thee,
the Lord of
sanctified,
all,

God

his Father,
-f-

and praised

thee,

+

and blessed,

and

+

and brake, and gave
this,

to his disciples, saying.

Take, eat of

aU of you

;

for -f

-f

This

is

my body,

f
had
and
of

And, placing and taketh the
supped, he
praised thee,

the eucharist upon the plate, he blesseth
cup, saying
his
:

So likewise
pure hands

after they

took into

this

cup, and
-f

+
is

and

blessed, -f
:]:

and

sanctified,

gave to his disciples,

saying. Take, drink of this,

all

you
for

;

for this

the cup of

my
shed

blood of the new cove-

nant, (which

is

the mystery of the faith for ever,) that

you and

for

many

is

for

the

remission

of

sins.§

People.
Priest.

—Amen. — do
This

in

remembrance of me.

For when-

soever ye shall eat this bread, and the mixture of this

cup ye shall drink, ye declare
resurrection, until I come.

my

death, and confess

my

People.
Priest.

Lord, commemorating thy death, third day from the house of the and thy resurrection the
* Or, " spoke whatever," &c.

—Thy —Thus

death,

Lord, will

we commemorate.

f The
X

Jacobite wss.

add,

"Which

for

you and

for

many

is

broken and given for the remission of sins and life everlasting." " So likewise the cup after they had supped, mixing Jacobite
:

the wine and the water, and giving thanks,
Banctified,"
«&;c.
:

+ he

blessed,

+

and

ing,

"And gave to his disciples and holy apostles, sayTake, drink of this, all of you this is my blood of the New Testament, which for you and for many believers is shed for the remission of sins and life everlasting."
§ Jacobite
:

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
dead, and thy ascension into heaven,

205

and thy session at hand of God the Father, and thy second coming with terrible power and glory, when thou shalt judge the. world in righteousness, and when thou wilt
the
right

recompense unto every
offer

man

according to his works,
awful and unbloody.

we

unto thee this

sacrifice,

Not,

then, according to our sins deal thou with us,

Lord,

nor according to our iniquities reward us
to thy great

;

but according

men, blot out our

and unutterable mercy towards the sons of sins, and hear the suppHcation which thy servants, who are thy people and thine inheritance, supphcate of thee, and through thee, and with thee,

unto the Father, saying.
be merciful unto us.

—Be Priest. —We,
People.
all.

merciful,

O

God, the Father Almighty,
give

thy

weak and

sinful

servants,
all,

thanks to thee,
account of

Lord, and praise thee for

and on

People. ^We praise thee, we bless thee, and adore thee; we give thanks unto thee, and pray to thee for Lord God, be merciful unto us, and hear pardon.
us.

[Priest.

—We —
for

celebrate

the

memory

especially

of

Mariam, holy,

glorious,

and ever Virgin,
Lord, her

the

blessed

mother of God. Deacon. Remember,
prayers
;

pure

and

them spare and be merciful
awful
is

to us,

and holy and
fearful,

hear us.]

Deacon.

— How
cometh and

this

hour

!

How

my

beloved,

the time

when

the Spirit, the Living and

Holy One,
tuary,
to

from the

highest

heavens,
in
this

and,
sanc-

descending, hovereth over the eucharist
bless

sanctify it!

With reverence and
Spirit.

fear let us stand

and pray. Priest, bowing down and invoking the Holy

206

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

Have mercy upon us, God, the Father Almighty, and us, and upon these oblations here set forth, thy Holy Spirit, the Lord and Author of life, who is equal in thy throne with thyself, Aloho Abo, and with thy Sou, is equal in thy kingdom, consubstantial and
send upon
CO- eternal,

thy new covenant,

who spake in thy law, and thy who descended in the
at

prophets, and
likeness of a

dove on our Lord Jeshumeshicha
ness of tongues of

the river Jordan,
in the like-

and who descended upon the holy apostles
fire.
!

Answer me, Lord People. Lord, have mercy Priest. to overspread this That, coming down mystery. He might make it a living body, -\- a saving body, + a heavenly body, -j- foi" our souls and bodies the body of our Lord God and Saviour Jeshumeshicha, and that they who take it may do it unto the remission

— —

!

:

of sins and

life

everlasting.

—Amen. Priest. — And
People.
salutary
life,

this

cup [some copies, "the mixture

of this cup "] to be the blood of the
[or

new covenant,
blood
that

-f the

saving]

blood,

-f -f

the

giveth

4-

the heavenly blood,

the blood all-cleansing

for our souls

and bodies

;

the blood of the Lord God,
sins

and our Saviour Jeshumeshicha, for remission of and life everlasting unto those who receive it.

People.
Priest.

—Amen. —That they

may

be to us, and to

all

those

who

receive

and participate of them, for the

sanctifica-

tion of our souls

and bodies, the bringing forth of good

works, and the confirmation of thy holy church

whom
whilst

thou hast founded upon the rock of the
gates

faith, that the

of sheul might

not prevail against
all

her

;

thou deliverest her from

heresies,

scandals of unlawful works, until

and from all the the consummation of

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
the
M'orld,

207
compassion

by the

grace,

mercies,
;

and

towards

men

of thy only Son

by whom,

and with

whom, with People.
rulers.

— Amen.

thyself, be glory

and honour.
its

The deacon exhorts
Priest,
Lord,

to

pray for the church and

bowing down.
this
sacrifice,

—For
awful
holy,

this

offer w^e

to

thee,

and

unbloody,

on

the

behalf of thy holy places which thou hast glorified
the manifestation of the Meshicha thy Son.
especially
for
;

-f-

by More
the
:

Sion
for

the

the

mother of
all

all

churches
that

and

thy holy church in

the world

thou,

Lord, wouldst confer upon her the rich

gifts of

thy Holy Spirit,

bishops,

who have
and
with

divided unto us rightly the

truth

;

especially
all

Remember, Lord, our godly word of our fathers, and our patriarch
-f-

Mar
preserve

the

residue

of

orthodox bi&hops.

Grant to them,

Lord, an honourable old age, and long
to

them

be the pastors of thy people in

all

Remember, Lord, this presbytery, (valkashishutho hodee,) and those likewise in every place, and the deaconhood in Christ, and the residue of the holy ministry, and of every churchly order. Lord, the poverty of me, whom, Remember, though unworthy to call upon thee, thou hast made worthy. The sins of my youth and my ignorances remember not; but according to the multitude of. thy mercies remember thou me. For wast thou, Lord, to
piety and holiness.

+

mark

iniquities,

Lord,

who

could endure before thee

?

But because that with thee is the propitiation, (chusoyo,) visit thou me and purify me that, where sin hath abounded, there may thy grace be more abundant, -f
;

Remember,
imprisonment
;

Lord, such

as

are

lying in bonds
are in exile
spirits are
;

and

our brethren

who
evil

the sick,

the diseased, and

them who by

persecuted

208

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

and troubled.
rains,

+ Remember, Lord, the air, and the and the dews, and the fruits of the earth, and the crowning of the year for the eyes of all hope in thee, and thou givest them their meat in the good time, while
:

thou openest thine hand and
every living thing of thine

satisfiest will.

all,

and

fillest

own good

Aloud.

Deliver us,
distress,

Lord God, from every

aflliction,

scourge, and

from every injury and assault of

evil men, from every attack and violence of demons, and Aloho, on from every plague sent from thyself, and preserve in the right faith,* account of our sins and in the observance of thy holy and lively command;

ments, us and

all

those

who have

agreed to stand before

thee, waiting for the plenteous mercies

which are from
have mercy
:

thee

;

for thou art a

God who

wiliest to

to

thee be glory

People.

—Amen.
to

The deacon bids
ber those

pray 'for the

Priest, bowing down.

— Again

afflicted.
it is

who

are with us standing,

meet to rememand with us pray
:

our fathers, brothers, and masters, and those
absent.

who

are

Remember,

Lord, those

who have

instructed

us to bear them in mind in our prayers unto thee our

God
offer

;

which regard
behalf each

Lord, and unto every one' grant those requests, Remember, Lord, such as their salvation. oblations at thy holy altar, and those on whose
is offered,

and such
;

as are willing but have

not the power to offer

such as each hath in his own

mind, and such as
Aloud.

—Be

now

are

named.
Lord, of
all whom we have whom we have not

mindful,

now remembered, and
thought
;

of those of
to

and,

according

the

greatness

of

thy

clemency, bestow upon them the joy of thy salvation.
* B'haimenutho tritsath shubcho. Compare the Greek orthodox.

" In the

faith

light glorious."

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Accept their
sacrifice in tlie

209

heaven of thy greatness, and
;

make them meet by thy visitation and thy help fortify them by thy power, and from thy munition arm them
;

for thou art merciful,

and

wiliest

doth

it

become us

to offer

mercy and unto thee glory and honour and power,
:

and

and to thy Spirit. People. Amen. The deacon bids to pray for kings, ^c. Priest, bowing down. Lord, our pious Remember, kings and queens. Take hold of shield and buckler, and arise for their help and subdue all their adversaries and foes, that we may lead peaceable Hves in all godliness
to thy only-begotten Son,

;

and obedience.
Aloud.

— For

thou art the

saving

refuge,

mighty helper, and the leader of victory unto

who

cry to thee and hope in thee,

Lord.

and the them To thee be
all

the glory and the praise.

People.

—Amen.
life

The' deacon bids to commemorate the saints departed.

Priest, bowing down.
the power of

Therefore,

because thou hast

and death, and art the God of compassion and of love towards mankind, enable us to commemorate all those who have pleased thee from of old
;

the holy fathers and patriarchs, the prophets and apostles

;

Juchanon, the forerunner and baptist
nos, chief of the

;

the holy Stepha-

deacons, and

first

of

the

martyrs
;

Mariam, the
Antonius,
Geargis,

holy and glorious mother of

God

Mar

Mar Barsomo, Mar Shimun Estunoio,* Mar
all

and

Aloud.
* St.

the saints.
supplicate from thee,

^\Ve

Lord,

who

art

Symeon

the Stylite.
:

The

Jacobite form has several other
the metropolitans
;

commemorations

Jacob,

head of

Ignatius,

Clement, Dionysius, Athanasius, Julius, Basil, Gregory, Dioscorus,
Syrians

Timothy, Philoxenus, Evanius, Cyril, Severus, "the crown of all the " Jacob Baradai, " the precursor of the true faith ; " Saints ;

-Ephrem and Abeia.

210

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
who
the things impossible canst

great in mercy,
possible, to
set

make
;

even ns in that blessed congregation

bestow on us a portion with that church, ordain us by
the hand of thy grace
written in heaven
;

they

also,

among those choseiT ones who are now do we remember them, that standing before thy high throne, may remember
for

our misery and necessity, and with us
this sacrifice,

may offer up
who

to thee

awful and unbloody, for the protection of
are so miseraall

those
ble

who
who

are alive, the consolation of us

and unworthy, and the remembrance and repose of
in the true faith

those

have heretofore fallen asleep,

our fathers, brethren, and masters, through the grace,

mercy, and compassion towards us of thy only-begotten
Son, by

whom, and with whom,

to thyself

and

to thy

Spirit be glory.

People. A.men. The deacon bids
church.

to

commemorate the doctors of the

Priest,
holy bishops

bowing

down.

— Remember,
;

Lord,

those
divided

who have

already rested
;

them,

who

unto us the word of truth
chief of bishops, apostle

them, who, from Jacob, the

and martyr, until this day, have preached the orthodox word of faith in thy holy church.
Aloud.

—The

lights

and teachers of thy holy church,

who have fought the good contest of the faith, who have borne thy holy name before the Gentiles, and kings, and
the sons of Israel
tions
their
;

that by their prayers and supplica-

peace

may
all

be unto thy church.

Grant, that in

doctrine
;

and confession, our

souls

may

be

con-

firmed

cause
;

hurtful heresies to cease speedily from
to stand without confusion at the
;

among us
last

and give us

before thy dreadful tribunal

for thou,

Lord, art

holy, and

thou dwellest in the holy places, the finisher
saints
;

and perfecter of the

People.

—Amen.

and unto thee be glory.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
The deacon exhorts
have departed.
to

211

commemorate the faithful who

Priest,

bowing down.

—Remember,

Lord,

those

orthodox presbyters

who have

before us entered into rest

the deacons and subdeacons, musicians, readers, interpreters, singers, exorcists,

monks,

solitaries, hearers,

perpe-

tual vu'gins,

and secular persons, who
all

in the true faith

have heretofore fallen asleep, with

such as any one
be

hath upon his mind.
Aloud.

Lord, the
all

God

of the spirits of

all flesh,

merciful to
faith
souls,

those

whom we
spirits
;

remember, who in the true
Give rest to their

from

this

world have passed.
deliver
;

them from the condemnation that ends not for ever and make them meet for the joy which is in the bosom of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, where shines the light of thy face, and where affliction, griefs, and sighs are afar off; not imputing unto them their offences. Enter not into judgment
bodies,

and

with thy servants
tified,

;

for

nor

is

any
all

guiltless

none living before thee are jusfrom sin, nor pure from ununless alone

cleanness,

of

the sons of men,

by our

Lord Jeshumeshicha, thy only begotten Son, by whom we also trust to find mercy and forgiveness of sins, which,
for his sake, are for us

— Give them Priest. — God, remit
People.
;

and

for them.

rest
sins,

wilful

and forgive all our and involuntary, known and unknown (our
;

sins)

of word, of work,
nifest

of thought, hidden or open
error,

and ma-

our sins of former times, of

and those

(committed while) knowing thy holy name.
Aloud.

—Keep us
wilt,

Christians to the end, and gather us
elect,
;

without sin at the feet of thine

when thou

wilt,

and

where thou

and how thou wilt

only hide us from
all

the shame of our offences, that so in this as in

things

we may

glorify

and praise thy all-honoured and blessed

212

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
and thy
to gene-

name, with that of our Lord Jeshumesliicha Holy Spirit.
ration,

—As and from generation be the age Amen. Priest. — Peace be with you. People. — And with thy Priest. — The mercies God be upon us
People. and
it
is,

was,

will

to

of ages.

spirit.

of

all

!

We

believe,

we draw

near,

we

sign,

and break

this eucharist,

the bread celestial, the body of the living
into the cup

Word
;

of God,

of salvation and of thanksgiving
filled

signed

with the cross, and

with supernal mysteries, in the
life
;

name

of the living Father, unto

and of the only-

begotten Son, and of the Holy Spirit, the principle of
perfection,

and the
;

seal of all in

heaven and [who were
;

once] in earth

of one virtue, power, and will

one true

and blessed God, most high and undivided, from Cometh salvation for evermore.

whom

People.

—Amen.

The deacon now rentes^
the preceding devotions.

in

a loud

voice,

the general

or catholic prayer, which comprises a kind of

summary of

Priest.

God, the Father of our Lord Jeshumeshi-

cha, the Father of mercies

and the God of

all

consolation,

who
the

sittest

above the cherubim, and art worshipped by

seraphim,

and before

whom
who

stand

thousands
angels,

of

archangels,
exalted

and myriads of myriads of
celestial hosts,
offer

those
gifts
:

and

unto thee the

and

fruits of perfectness,

an oblation of a sweet savour

Vouchsafe to sanctify and perfect by the grace of thy
only-begotten Son, and by the inhabitation in us of thy

Holy

Spirit,

Lord, our souls, and bodies,

and

spirits,

that with pure heart,

and illumined mind, and unconto call

fused face,

we may be bold

Father
to say.

of heaven, the Omnipotent

upon thee, God, the and while we pray,
;

Our Father, who

art in the heavens.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
People.

213

—Thy name be
; ;

sanctified,

thy kingdom come,
Give to us the
as also

thy will be done, as in heaven also in earth.

bread of our need to-day

and forgive us our debts
For thine
is

we

forgive our debtors

and lead us not into temptation,
evil.

but dehver us from the

the kingdom,

and the power, and the glory, to the age of ages. Lord our God, lead us not into Priest. Yea, temptation which we are not able to bear and make also


it

;

with any temptation a way of escape, that we
to endure
;

may

be able

and dehver us from

evil

by the Meshicha
thyself,

Jeshu, our Lord, by

whom, and with whom, with

be rendered glory and honour and dominion, with thy
Spirit.

—Amen. —Peace be with People. — And with thy Deacon. — Bow down your heads
People.
Priest.
you.
spirit.

before the

God

of

mercy,. before the propitiatory altar, and before the body

and blood of our Saviour, in whom there is hfe for those who receive him, and receive the blessing from the Lord. Priest. Unto thee do thy servants bow down their

heads,

expecting the riches of thy grace

:

thy plenteous

benedictions shed forth,

Lord, and sanctify our souls,

and bodies, and spirits, that we may be worthy to partake of the body and blood of the Meshicha, our Redeemer,
through the grace, mercy, and love of the same Meshicha
Jeshu our Lord
thyself in heaven and earth,

— —Peace be with People. —And with thy Priest. —The mercy God be with you. People. — And with thy Deacon. — Let one with and
People.
Priest.
you.
spirit.

To whom be blessing and glory with and with thy Spirit. Amen.
:

of

spirit.

every

fear

trembling

look unto God, and supplicate mercy and grace from the
Lord.

214
Priest.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

Holy,

holy,

holy

Lord God of

sabaoth,
exalted,
all

heaven and earth are
earth.

full of

thy praises.
let

Be thou

God, above the heavens, and

thy glory be in
eyes,

the

Unto
and
as

thee do

I

hft

up mine

thou Inhabitheir

tant of the heavens.
lords,

As the eyes of servants unto
Lord our God,
until

the eyes of handmaids unto their lady, so

are our eyes unto thee,

thou shalt

have mercy upon us.
Then,
taking the eucharist in his hands y he saith in

a high

voice,

The Holy to the Holy,
sanctity, be delivered.

in perfection, purity,

and

The people,
Lord,

with one

voice.

—One
and

holy Father, one

holy Son, one Holy Spirit.

Blessed be the
:

name
unto

of the

who

is

one in heaven and in earth

Him

be

glory for ever.
to the

Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and
all-sanctifying
all-cleansing.

Holy Ghost, the

[Priest.*

— In

thee,

Lord, do

we

truly

and

verily

believe, even as the holy

and universal church in thee

beheveth, that
glory.

Amen

!

Thou art one holy Father, to whom be One holy Son, to whom be praise. Amen
!

One Holy
ever.

Spirit, to
!]

whom

be glory and thanksgiving for

Amen

After a brief exhortation from the deacon, the priest
dips a part of the eucharistic bread into the chalice,
signs therewith the remainder with the
in the

and

form of

the cross,

name of

the Trinity
:

in the chalice, he says

;

then immersing the fragment

[Thou hast combined,
with
our mortahty,

Lord, thy Godhead with our
;

humanity, and our humanity with thy Godhead

thy

life

and our mortality with thy life. Thou hast taken what is ours, and hast given to us what Unto is thine, for the life and salvation of our souls.
thee be glory for ever.]
*

The paragraphs

in brackets are used only

by the Jacobites.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Then taking the body of
lioly

215

Christy he saith^

Grant, Lord, that our bodies

body, and that our souls

may be sanctified by thy may be purified by thy
sins.

atoning blqod, that they

may

be for the forgiveness of

our transgressions, and the remission of our
thee,

Unto

Lord God, be glory

for evermore.
to

Afterwards he distributes the eucharist
priests

the other

and deacons^ then to the congregation, saying, The body and blood of our Lord Jeshu Meshicha, given unto thee for the forgiveness of transgression, and
Priest, after the reception.

the remission of sins, in both worlds.

—We

give thanks to thee,

O

Lord God, and above all \re praise thee for thy great and unspeakable love towards mankind. Thou, Lord,

who
will

hast

made us meet
:

to partake of thy heavenly table,

not condemn us for the reception of these thy holy
spotless mysteries

and

but keep us,

in righteousness

and

holiness, that

thou Good Being, we may be meet, by
those holy ones

the communication of thy Holy Spirit, to find a portion,

a

lot,

and an inheritance, with
this

all

who

from

world have pleased thee, through the grace,
;

mercy, and love of thy only begotten Son

by whom,

and with whom,

to

thee belong glory and honour and

dominion, with thy Spirit.

People.
Priest.

great and wondrous, who hast bowed the heavens, and hast come down for the salvation of the sons of men, look upon us in thy mercy and benignity, and bless thy people and keep thy inheritance that faithfully and in all time we may glorify thee, who art the only true God, the God and Father of thy begotten Son, and thy Holy Spirit, now and ever. People. Amen.
;

—Amen. — God,

Deacon.

— — Give thy Priest. — May be
all

blessing,

my

lord.

blessed and preserved.

216

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

Deacon.
praises

I

will

bless

the

Lord in
hear
let

all

time

;

liis

shall

be ever in
;

my

mouth.

In the Lord shall

my

soul

exult

the poor

shall

and be glad.

magnify the Lord with me, and
together.
I

us exalt his

name

sought the Lord, and he hath heard me,

and delivered me from all my sorrows. Look to him, and hope in him, and your faces shall not be confounded.
This
is

the poor,
all

who invoked

him, and he heard him,

and from

his tribulations set

him

free.

The host

of

the angels of the Lord encampeth about those

who

fear

him, and dehvereth them.
is

Taste and see that the Lord

good, and blessed
rich are

The

who confideth in him. made poor and hunger but they that fear
is

every one

;

the Lord have want of no good thing.

Come,

children,

hearken to me, and

I will

teach you the fear of Aloho.

What man

willeth Ufe, and loveth to see good days ? Keep thy tongue from evil, and thy Hps that they speak no guile. Shun evil, and do good seek peace, and run
;

after her.

The eyes

of the

Lord are upon the

just,

and
Lord

his ears (are open) to hear them.
is

The

face of the

memory from the The righteous have cried, and the Lord hath heard them, and dehvered them. The Lord is nigh to the contrite of heart he will save the humble in spirit. Many are the afflictions of the just, and out of all the Lord delivereth him. He keepeth all his bones, not one of them is broken evil shall slay the wicked, and the haters of the just shall fail. The Lord shall keep the souls of his nor shall any who hope in him be condemned. servants
against the wicked, to blot out their
earth.
;
: ;

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

217

LITURGIES OF THE NESTORIANS.

The
church

Ritual most
is

called

commonly used by the Nestorian " the Liturgy of the Apostles." Besides
;

this they

have two others

that of Theodore the
:

Com-

mentator, and that of Nestorius

these latter are used

only on certain days in the year.

A

Latin translation of

them may be seen
lectio of

in the Liturgiarum

Onentalium Colare devoted to

Renaudot.

Our present pages

the ordinary service.

The

full title of this is,

" The Oblation, or Liturgy of

the blessed Apostles, composed by

Mar Adseus and Mar
There
is

Maris, Doctors of the Children of the East."

a

simplicity reigning throughout this venerable office

which

of itself attests

its

great antiquity

;

and the

tradition of

the other Syrian churches concurs with that of the Nestorians themselves in referring
it

to a period anterior to

the council of Ephesus.
basis of
it

It

seems highly probable that the

was in use

at Edessa,

and among the neighThis, too,

bouring congregations, at a very early period.

which the Nestorian missionaries carried with them into Tartary, China, and the Indies.
was the
ritual

Menexes, the Portuguese archbishop, in his crusade
against the Nestorians of Malabar in the sixteenth century, not content with suppressing

and burning the two

secondary

Theodore and Nestorius, introduced a variety of changes into that called after " the Apostles,"
offices of

which have been the subject of severe criticism among
the Romanists themselves.

A

formulary of consecration

was supphed, corresponding with that in use in the Latin church the host was to be elevated and adored after the
;

consecration

;

the

name

of the pope, as the head of the

218

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
was substituted for that of the patriarch commemoration of the Virgin Mary,
;

universal church,

of the East
the
title,

;

in the

" Mother of God," was employed
saints.

the names

of their favourite doctors were blotted out in the com-

memoration of the
other

By

these and a

number of
essential

changes,

their

Liturgy

underwent

an

alteration of character,

and no longer represented the old

Nestorian worship.
[In their zeal against these supposed heretics, Menexes

and
he

his coadjutors

hold in

common with
in this

made

condemned much that the Nestorians other churches. " The reformation Liturgy," says father Simon, *' was
is

improper.

And

there

nothing worse digested than the
it

mass of the Nestorians, in the manner in which
found (thus perverted) in the Bihliotheca Patrum.

is

The
Latin

whole order of

it

is

changed in endeavouring to accomto the

modate that Liturgy
in these words,
'

opinion which

the

divines have of consecration,

This

is

which they make to consist my body,' &c. Whereas the
the priest has ended the
'

Nestorians believe, as
secration
is

all

the Orientals do, that the contill

not completed
call

prayer
Ghost.'
priests

which they

the

Invocation of the

Holy

Nevertheless

Menexes

makes

the

Nestorian

adore the host so soon as they have pronounced
*

these words,

This

is

my

body,' though they believe

it

not

to be as yet consecrated."

The omission of these words of

our Saviour

is
it

not altogether peculiar to the Nestorian
is

sacrament

:

observable in the Jacobite Liturgy of

Dion Bar

Salib,

and

accounted for this

Nairon and Simon have others. on the principle that the Syrians,
invocation to

unlike the Latins, do not place the essential of consecration in those words, but in the
Spirit,

the Holy
Others, as

which obtains in

all

their Anaphoras.

Asseman and

Renaudot,

think

that

the

omission

is

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
intended
to
;

219
for

mark a

greater

reverence
it

the words
originally

themselves

while some suppose that

was

intended that the words should be read from a copy of
the

New

Testament, or recited from memory.

These are
to

conjectures of Romanist authors.
be, that the first liturgical writers

The truth appears

among

the Syrians did

not regard the divine words in question as having the

same transmuting

efficacy

which the Western church has

been so fond of attributing to them.]

The Nestorian Liturgy, thus corrupted by Menexes, was translated into Latin in Malabar, in 1599, and
printed seven years after at Coimbra.
It is also incor-

porated, as before said, in the Bibliotheca Patrum, under
title of Missa Christianorum apud Indos. Of the genuine Nestorian Liturgy of the Apostles, as used by the older churches in Mesopotamia and Assyria,

the

there has never been a printed edition, and manuscript
copies are extremely rare in the West.
father

One, procured by

Simon from a Chaldean

presbyter,

may

be

still

seen, I beheve, in the cathedral hbrary at Rouen.

The

only Syriac exemplar which

examining,

is

that

I have had the advantage of marked No. 70 in the Bibliotheque

Royalcy at Paris.

This, however, proved

to

be a copy

adapted to the use of those Nestorians
into

communion with Rome, and
was considered
to be

are

who had entered now known by the
The document,
as

denomination of the Chaldean church.
therefore,

ineligible

a proper

representation of the Nestorian service.

On

this account

the following Liturgy is not directly from the Syriac, but from the much esteemed Latin version of Renaudot.

Le Brun, a

priest of the Oratory, in the third

volume

of his Explication Historique et Dogmatique de la Messe,

has given a reprint of the Malabaric Ritual in Latin, with

marginal indications of the chief particulars in which

it

l2

220

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Seve-

was altered by the innovations of the Portuguese.
ral

occasional

prayers, canticles, and
it

diaconal exhorta-

tions,

render

a

more ample

service than the

Chaldean

one which

now
I

follows.

The
*'

title

give as in Renaudot.

That of the manu:

script in the king's library, before referred to, reads thus

By

the power of our Lord Jeshu Meshicha,

we begin

to

write the order of the (Kiidsha) Oblation of the Apostles^

which

is

the

first

Oblation."

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

221

LITURGY OF THE HOLY APOSTLES, OR THE ORDER OF THE SACRAMENT.
Glory
thy name
:

to

God

in the highest

Our Father who
heaven also in earth.
to-day,

art in the
;

heavens, be sanctified

thy kingdom come

thy will be done, as in

Give to us the bread of our need

and forgive us our debts as we also forgive our debtors and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. For thine is the kingdom and the power
:

Amen. to the age of ages. Strengthen, Lord our God, our w^eakness by thy grace, that we may administer this holy mystery which
and the glory
is

given for the renovation and health of our degraded

nature, through the compassions of thy well-beloved Son,

thou Lord of

all.

Let
and

the

name

of thy adorable

and ever-blessed

Tri-

nity be worshipped, glorified, praised, celebrated, exalted,

blessed in heaven and earth, thou Lord of

all.

PSALM.*

Lord, who
rest in

shall dwell in thy tabernacle?
?

who

shall

thy holy mountain

He who walketh
teousness,

without defilement, and doeth righin his heart,

and speaketh truth
not
evil

and speaketh

not deceit with his tongue

He who doeth

unto his neighbour, and taketh
;

not a reward against his neighbour

And who

reproveth the vindictive with his eyes, and
;

honoureth them that fear the Lord

And sweareth

to

his

neighbour and
;

lieth

not,

and

unto usury giveth not his money
*

In the Malabaric service the priest and the deacon

recite these

alternately.

222

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
taketh not against his innocent neighbour a re-

And
ward
:

he who doeth these things

is

righteous,

and

shall

not be moved for ever.

PRAYER.

Before
and

the bright throne of thy majesty, the high
of thy glory, the

lofty seat

tremendous throne of

thy almighty
glory, f

love,

even the mercy-seat which thy will

hath established in the place of the habitation of thy

we

thy people,

with thousands

of

cherubim

praising thee, and myriads of seraphim sanctifying thee,

do draw near, adore, confess; and glorify thee evermore,

Lord of
all

all.

On commemorations and
times

Fridays.

— It

is

meet that

at

we

confess,

adore,

and

glorify the great

and
race,

holy, illustrious, blessed,

and incomprehensible name of

thy glorious Trinity, and thy mercy towards our thou Lord of
all.

incense.

When

thou. Lord, dost breathe

upon us the fragrance
to
receive

of thy mercy,

our souls are enlightened by the know-

ledge of thy truth, and

we

are

made meet

from thy holy heaven. There will we praise thee, and [here meanwhile] will we glorify thee without ceasing in thy church, crowned and
the manifestation of thy love
filled

with

all

strength and good
all.

;

for

thou art the Lord

and Creator and Father of Then Incense. Hymn.
ceded by these prayers.

is

read the scripture, pre-

Illuminate our minds,
receive the

Lord our God,

to hear

and

sweet lessons of thy divine and

enhvening

words, and grant that by thy mercy and grace
derive

we may

from them whatsoever
* Others,

shall

conduce to charity

— " In the place of thy pasture."

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
and hope, and health both of body and soul
thee will
;

223
and unto
all.

we

ascribe praise unceasing, thou

Lord of

Thee, splendour
of his person,

of

thy Father's glory, and image

who

art revealed in the

body of our huand
celebrate,
at

manity, and art risen upon us in the light of thy gospel,
thee

we

confess and worship,
all.

praise

every time, thou Lord of

And

after the 'proclamation, (that

is,

of the gospel

by

reading, with occasional instruction,)

We

suppHcate

and beseech

thee,

Lord God Al-

mighty, to perfect in us thy grace, and to confer by our

hands the
Let
it

gift

of thy divine

mercy and compassion.
faults,

be unto us for the expiation of thy people's

and the forgiveness of the sins of [these] the flock of thy pasture, by thy grace and pity, thou Lover of mankind and Lord of aU.

Bow down your heads. The Priest then says in a suppressed the altar, Lord God Almighty, whose
Deacon.
universal

— —

voice
is

before

the holy

church, the sheep of thy pasture

whom
is

thou

hast

purchased by the great

passion of thy Messiah,
Spirit,

and from the grace of whose Holy
of a true priesthood, and
to

who

one in

the Divinity of thy glorious nature, are given the orders

who

hast deigned in thy mercy

make

us

who

are so helpless to be spiritual

members

in the great
ritual

body of thy holy church,
;

to minister spi-

help unto faithful souls

fulfil

now,

Lord, thy

gracious
gift,

work

in us, and shed forth

by our hand thy

and let thy mercy and loving-kindness be upon us and upon the people whom thou hast chosen.

With elevated
thy mercy we
life,

voice.

—And

grant,
all

Lord,

that

by

may one

with another,

the days of our

please thy Divine Majesty, and be

made meet by thy
and adoration

grace to offer praise, honour, confession,

unto thee for evermore, thou Lord of

all.

224

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
dismissed.']
;

[Here the unhaptized are

The priest
his

recites a

sacramental hymn

and

then, (the

deacon having set forth the plate and chalice,) disposing

hands

in the

form of

the cross, says,

"We
ever.

offer praise to

thy glorious Trinity for ever and

The Messiah, who was
and who taught us
this to

immolated

for our salvation,

do in commemoration of his

death and resurrection, himself receive this saciifice at our

weak hands, according

to his eternal grace

and mercy.
shall

Amen. These
coming.

holy, enlivening,

and glorious mysteries

be laid upon the altar of the Lord Almighty until his

Amen.*
The
dle
priest,

bowing before the altar, kisses

it

in the mid-

and

at the right

and

left corners,

and

says,

Bless,
thren, that
to fulfil
this

Lord
the

!

Pray for me,

my

fathers

and breabihty

God may bestow upon me power and
service unto

which

I

have come, and that

oblation

may be
church,

received

from the hands of
eternal

my
and

weakness, for me, for you, and for the whole body of the
holy
catholic

through his

grace

mercy.

People.

—The

Messiah hear thy prayers, and take
;

pleasure in thy sacrifice

receive

thy oblation, and ho-

nour thy priesthood
forgiveness of our

and give to us through thee the ofi"ences, and remission of our sins,
:

through his eternal grace and mercy. Amen.
Inclining towards the altar, he says,
* In the copy translated

—The

God and

by Renauclot there

is

given in this place

new title " Liturgy of the blessed Apostles, composed by St. Adeus and St. Maris^ Doctors of the Orientals :" for what follows But in the Syriac copy, 70, Biblioth. is the true eucharistic service.
the
:

Reg. this

title

does not occur, the service going forward withou

interruption.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Lord of
all

225

be with us

all,

according to his eternal grace

and mercy.
Addressing the deacoriy

— God,

the Lord of
;

all,

con-

and receive this thee, and the whole oblation at my hands for me, and body of the holy cathoHc church, and the universal
firm thy. words and give thee peace

world, by his eternal grace and mercy.

Look

not,

Lord God,

transgressions, nor let thy majesty be turned

on the multitude of our away from
;

us by the greatness of our iniquity
speakable grace sanctify this

but by thy unthat through
;

sacrifice,

it

we may

derive

power

to receive forgiveness

that

when

thou comest at the end of time in the thou hast assumed, we
thee,

man (humanity)

may

find

mercy and grace before

and be meet to glorify thee with the spiritual hosts. Lord our God, we praise With suppressed voice. the abundant riches of thy grace towards us, whom, though sinful and vile, thou hast made worthy, in the

multitude of thy loving-kindnesses, to administer these
mysteries of the body and blood of thy Messiah.

We

supphcate help from thee for the strengthening of our
souls, that in perfect love

and true

faith
off'er

we may adminisunto thee praise,

ter

thy

gift

towards us

;

and we

will

glory, confession,

and adoration now and evermore.

+ —Amen. Priest. — Peace be with you. People. — With and with thy Deacon. — one another People. — And whole church.
People.
thee,

spirit.

Salute

in the love of Christr

the

catholic

Deacon.
Priest.

—Let us
my

(After the salutation.)
give thanks

and pray.

(With subdued

voice.)

Lord God

Al-

mighty, assist

weakness by thy mercy and by the

help of thy grace, and prepare

me

to offer this oblation

L 5

226

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
all,

as for the edification of

and unto the praise of thy

Triune Godhead,

Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
!

Deacon. Watch and attend The Priest removes the covering from
materials, and,
voice.

the sacramental

having offered incense,

saxjs,

with a loud

The grace
God

of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of

the Father,

and the communication of the
all.

Holy

Ghost, be with you

— up your minds. up People. — They and Abraham, be Priest. — Let an Lord meet and People. — Deacon. — Peace be with
Priest.
Lift

People.

f-

Amen.

are

lifted

unto thee,

God
glory.

of

of Isaac,

of Israel, the

King of

oblation

offered

unto God the

of

all.

It is

right.

you.

incense.
Priest. — Lord God Almighty,
of face,
this holy,

give unto us openness

that with confidence in thee
enlivening, fearful,
all

we may accomplish
oblation,
:

and divine

with im-

conscience purified from

malice and bitterness

plant (sow) in us, Lord, charity, peace, and concord one

with another.

Standing up, with a low
ship and exaltation from

voice.

—Worthy
all

is

praise

from

every mouth, and confession from
all

tongues, and wor-

creatures, unto the adorable

and glorious name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, who created the world from his goodness,

and the inhabitants thereof by his benignity

;

and
a

who hath
grace

saved mankind by his mercy, and magnified his

upon the perishing.
spirits,

Thy

majesty,

Lord,

thousand thousand

and ten thousand times ten

thousand holy angels, the intellectual hosts, the ministers

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
and
spirits of fire, the

227

holy cherubim and spiritual sera-

phim, do sanctify and celebrate, and praise, without end, to one another, crying,

People, tvith a loud voice. Holy, holy, holy. Lord God Almighty, heaven and earth are full of his
glory
!

Priest,
thou, Lord

ivith

subdued

voice.

— Holy,
:

holy, holy,

art

God Almighty, with whose

glory the heavens

are filled, and the earth with his substance, as with the honour of his glorious brightness [m.s. 70. Heaven and earth are filled with thy glory, and with thy essential nature, and with the brightness of thy wondrous love :*] as it is written. Heaven and earth are full of me, saith Holy art thou, the mighty Lord. God the Father,
solely and truly, from and earth are named.

whom
Holy

the whole family in heaven
art thou, eternal Son,

by

whom
Spirit,

all

things were

made.

Holy

art

thou,

eternal

by

me

!'

for I

whom all am dumb,
seen
the

are sanctified.

because

I

Woe to me, woe to am a man of polluted lips
;

and among a people of polluted hps do
eyes

1

dwell

;

for

mine

have
is

Lord,
!

the

almighty King.
is

How

none other than the house of God, and the gate of heaven for eye to eye thou art seen, Lord. But now let thy grace be upon
dreadful
;

this place to-day

This

us,
lips.

Lord, to cleanse our defilement and to sanctify our
Join thou our feeble voices, by sanctification, with
of seraphim and of archangels.

those

Glory to thee,

because, through thy mercies, the earth-born have com-

munion with the spiritual. Bowing downy with subdued

voice,

And

with

those
feeble,

celestial

powers we

thy servants,

though poor,

and

infirm, do praise thee, because

thou hast magnified towards us thy great compassion,

which can never be repaid.
*

For thou hast taken upon

So also the Malabar.

228

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Godhead we might Hve
;

thee our humanity, that by thy

thou hast exalted our humiliation, built up our ruin,
raised our mortality, forgiven our transgression, and par-

doned the
hast

guilt of

our sins

:

thou hast illuminated our

minds, condemned our enemies,

Lord our God, and
[Still]

made our

helpless nature triumphant.

by

the compassions of thy grace,
transgression and sin, and

O most merciful, forgive remit my iniquity in the judgand bounty towards us we

ment
tion,

;

and

for all thy help

will offer

unto thee praise, honour, confession, and adoraevermore.

now and

People. Amen. Deacon.- Let us

+•
pray, mentally, for peace.

Priest,
thee.
are

inclining^

and

in a

subdued

voice.

— Lord God
before

Almighty, hear at this time the voice of

Bow down,

Lord, and listen to

my cry my sighs

which

poured out before thy majesty, and receive the sup-

plication of me, a sinner,
sacrifice of this

by whom, through thy

grace, the

hour

is

offered unto thy Father.
;

Have

mercy upon

all

creatures

forgive the guilty, convert the

erring, the oppressed relieve, to the troubled give peace,

heal the sick, console the afflicted

;

and perfect thou the

alms of them who work ris;hteousness for the sake of thv
holy name.
grace,

On me

also, a sinner,
;

be merciful through thy
accept this oblation for
;

Lord God Almighty
church,

the

entire

holy

and catholic

for

the

pious

fathers

and righteous men who

have been

approved

before thee, prophets, apostles, martyrs, and confessors
for all

who mourn,
from

for the poor, the diseased,

and such
and

as suffer

necessities

and

trials,

for the infirm are

the burdened, and for the dead,

who

removed from

us

;

for all

who

ask our feeble intercession, and for me, a

sinner, vile

and infirm.

According to thy compassions,

Lord, and to the multitude of thy lovingkindnesses,

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

229

regard thy people and me, the infirm, and not according
to

my

sins

and transgressions; but
faith

let

them be made
this holy

worthy, by the remission of their

sins,

through

body which with
grace

and mercy.
all

we receive, through thy Amen.

everlasting

Remember,
mercy,
the

Lord, in thy great and unspeakable
pious

pleasing before thee in the

and righteous fathers who were commemoration of the body
offer
altar, as
all

and blood of thine anointed One, which we (now)
unto thee upon thy pure and holy
hast instructed us
;

thou. Lord,

and grant us thy peace
all

the days of

our

life

;

that

the inhabitants of the earth

may
and

know

that thou art the only true

God

the Father

;

that thou hast sent our

thy Beloved
taught us

;

Lord Jeshu Messiah, thy Son and and that he, our Lord and God, came and
and righteousness.
presbyters, deacons,

all

holiness

Remember

thou the prophets, apostles, martyrs, con-

fessors, bishops, doctors,

and

all

the

children of the holy catholic church, which are

signed

with the sign of

life,

(even) of holy baptism.

And
sinful

us also remember,
servants,

Lord, thy lowly, weak, and

who

are congregated in thy

name, and

who now

stand before thee, and receive with joy (accordis

ing to) the form which

from

thee, praising, glorifying,

and exalting
this great,

thee, while

we commemorate and

celebrate

tremendous, holy, and divine mystery of the

passion, death, burial,

and resurrection of our Lord and

Saviour Jesus Christ.

And let thy Holy
rest

Spirit come, upon the oblation which thy servants
sanctify
it

Lord, and
offer, to bless

and

unto the pardon of transgressions, and

remission of sins, and the great hope of the resurrection
of the dead, and the

new

Hfe in the

kingdom
;

of heaven,

with

all

them who were pleasing before him

and accord-

ing to the universal dispensation of thy grace towards us.

230

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
confess

we

and

glorify

thee

without

ceasing

in

thy

church, redeemed by the precious blood of thy Anointed

One, with loosened tongues and with open
glory, honour,
living,

face, ascribing

confession,

and adoration,

to thy

holy,

and

life-giving

name, world without end.

+
Have mercy upon
mercies blot
iniquity,

me,

God, according to thy loving

kindness, and according to the multitude of thy tender

out

my

sins.

Wash me

fully
;

from

my

and cleanse me from
transgressions,

ledge

my

and
I

my sins my sins are

for I

acknow-

ever before me.
evd. before

Against thee only have

sinned,

and done

thee, (so) that thou wouldst be justified in thy sentence,

and wouldst overcome in thy judgment
shapen in iniquity, and in sin did

;

because

I

was

my

mother conceive

me.

But thou hast loved
I shall

truth,

and thy hidden wisdom

thou hast manifested unto me.

Sprinkle

me

with hyssop,
be whiter

and and

be cleansed
Satisfy

;

wash me, and

I shall

than snow.

me

with thy kindness and thy joy,

my

humiliated bones shall rejoice.

Turn away thy
transgressions.
spirit

face from

my
me

sins,

and blot out

all

my

Create in

a clean heart,

God, and a right

renew within me. Cast me not away from thy presence, and thy Holy Spirit take not from me but restore unto me thy loving-kindness and thy salvation, and thy glo;

rious Spirit confirm unto
gressors thy way,

me

;

that I

may

teach trans-

and sinners maybe converted unto thee. thou who Unto thee have I lifted up mine eyes, As the eyes of servants look dwellest in the heavens. unto their lords, and as the eyes of an handmaid unto
her lady, so are our eyes unto thee,
hast mercy

Lord, until thou

upon

us.

Stretch forth thy hand,
let

Lord,

and

let

thy right hand dehver me,
for ever,

thy compassions

abide

upon me

and despise not the work of

thine hands.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
After saluting the altar^ he
arises,

231
:

and says

on high, and the tranquillity to the dwellers upon earth, let thy giver of peace be established in the four parts of the world, and Give peace especially -in thy holy catholic church. make wars to between the priesthood and the empire

Messiah, the peace of

tlie

spirits

;

cease unto the ends of the

earth,

and

scatter

thou the

people

who

desire

wars

;

that
all

we may enjoy

a tranquil

and peaceful habitation in

temperance and godliness.

And pardon
mercy.

the transgressions and the sins of those

who

have deceased from us, through thy everlasting grace and

Benediction of incense.

Let thy

love,

Lord our God, be

as a grateful fra-

grance to our souls, and therewith purify
stains of sin,
sions,

me from

the

and pardon

all

my

offences

and transgres-

both known and unknown.
Incense, towards the mysteries.

Lord,

in the clemency of thy grace, most illustrious, holy, enlivening, and divine mysteries, though we be so unworthy. The priest repeats these words thrice (another copy, "once and again") at each interval, joining his hands

Grant
to

us access,

these

upon

his

bosom in the form of the

cross.

He

then kisses

the altar, and, taking the oblation in both hands, he looks

upward, and says

:

Praise be unto thy holy name,
and adoration

Lord Jesu Christ,
world without end.

People.
Priest.

living and life-giving bread is that which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life to the whole world whosoever eateth of which shall not die,
;

—Amen. — For the

to thy majesty, ever

and they who receive

it

shall be saved

by

it,

and

shall

232
not
feel

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
corruption, but shall live

by

it

for ever.

For

thou

art the antidote to

our mortality, and the resurrec-

tion of our whole frame.

He

then kisses the hread in appearance, yet so as not

to touch it with his lips ;

and having

said,

Glory

be unto thee,

Lord, for thine unutterable

gift for ever

He

proceeds to the fraction of

the bread,
faith,

which

he performs with both hands, saying.

We

draw nigh,

Lord, with true

and break

with thanksgiving, and sign through thy mercy, the body

and blood of our

Life-giver, Jesus Christ, in the

name

of

the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

And

while naming the Trinity, he
:

breaks the bread
sets

into two paints

that in his left

hand he

upon the

plate, and, with the other part in his right hand, he signs

the cup, saying.

The

precious blood

is

signed with the body of our

Lord Jesus

Christ, in the

name

of the Father, and of the

Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

People.

—Amen.
is

And

dipping the same bread midway into the cup, he

signs with it the other portion lying on the i)late, saying.

The

holy body

signed with the atoning blood of our
in the

Lord Jesus

Christ,

name

of the Father, and of

the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

People.

— Amen.

He

then joins both parts, one icith the other, saying.
holy, perfect, complete, united,

Set apart,

and com-

mixed, are these holy and divine mysteries, the one with
the other, in the adorable

name

of thy glorious Trinity,

Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, that they,

Lord,

may

be

for the expiation of guilt, the remission of sins,

and the

great hope of the resurrection from the dead, and of the

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
new
life

233

in the

kingdom

of heaven, unto us,

and

to the

holy church of Christ our Lord, here and in every land,

both now and evermore.

He
from

signs the oblation with the right thumb, crosswise,

the lower iiart to the upper,

and from right
through which

to left,
it

so as to

form a

slight fissure in

it,

may

he intincted, or soaked, with the (symbol of the) blood."^

And, having disposed the
boivs

vjhole

for the communion, he
in the fore-

down ;

then, arising

and signing himself
Lord,

head, says.

Glory
thy grace.

be to thee,

who

hast created

me by
hast

Glory be to thee,

Lord,

who

hast called

me by

thy mercy.

Glory be to thee,

Lord,
;

who
all

constituted

me

the

medium

of thy gift

and for

thy

benefits towards

my

weakness be ascribed to thee

praise,

honour, confession, and adoration,

now and evermore. The deacons approach, and he signs each of them
Christ
receive thy

in

the forehead, saying,

ministry,

Christ
Hfe,

make thy

face

to

shine,

Christ

preserve

thy

Christ

renew thy

youth.

Response. Christ receive thy oblation. Each having returned to his place, and the priest having incliiied, he rises, and proclaims. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of
God, and the communication of the Holy
Spirit,

be with

you The
same

all.

priest,

having signed himself, elevates his hand

over his head, as in the air, the people performing the
act.

* This has been explained as denoting the re-union of the body and blood of our Saviour after his resurrection. The bread and wine consecrated separately, are considered to express the humanity in the
state of death
;

the elements re-united, to symbolize the Redeemer's

risen

life.

I need not say, that neither the rite nor the explication

has scripture-warrant.

234

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

After a brief exJiortatlon from the deacoriy the priest
breaks the (symbol of the) body, and says.

Forgive,

Lord, by thy clemency,

the sins

and
and

transgressions of thy servants, and sanctify our lips by

thy grace, that they

may

give the fruit of praise
all

thanksgiving to thy Godhead, with

thy saints in thy

kingdom.

And make
we may
face,

us worthy,

Lord God, that without spot

ever stand before thee, with pure heart

and open

and with confidence towards
;

thee, mercifully given

to us

People.
full of

— Our Father, &c. —Lord God Almighty, Priest.
:

so will

we

together call

upon

thee, saying,

who

art

good and

mercy, we beseech and supphcate the clemency of
lead us not into temptation, but deliver

thy goodness

and save us from the evil one and from his hosts because thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory, the strength and the empire in heaven and in earth,
world

—Amen. —Peace be with People. — And with thy Holy be Priest. — Let People. — One Holy
People.
Priest.
the

+

without end.

you.
spirit.

given to the Holy.

Father, one Holy Son, one Holy

Spirit.

Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the

Holy Ghost, world without end.

Amen. When the deaThe mysteries are then administered.

con comes to bear the vessel, he says,

We

pray that peace

may be with
Priest.

—The

you.
grace of the Holy Spirit be with thee,
shall receive this.

and

us,

and with those who

Deacon,
Priest.

receiving the vessel.

—The

Bless,

Lord

!

gracious gift of our Lord and Saviour
all.

Jesus Christ be mercifully fulfilled in

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

235

Brethren, receive the body of the Son, crieth the church,

and drink ye of

his

gift.

— Glory be unto him Deacon. — Peace be with you. Priest. — It and meet,
People.
is

cup in the house of his kingdom.
for his

unspeakable

just,

right,

Lord, in

all

days, times,
fearful

and hours,

to confess, adore,
;

and laud the
of
to

name

of thy majesty

because thou. Lord, by thy

grace, hast enabled us

nature, to sanctify

who are mortal men, and weak thy name with the heavenly hosts,
gift,

partake of the mysteries of thy
selves

and

to

deUght ourall

with the sweetness of thy words.

Wherefore

glory and thanksgiving to thy most
ascribed evermore.

high Godhead be

benediction.

Our Lord
we
feel

Jesus Christ,

whom we

serve,

whom,

in

these illustrious, holy, enUvening,

and divine mysteries,
for the bright glory

and honour, make us meet

of his kingdom,

and

for gladness with his holy angels
to stand at last at his

and give us confidence before him,
right hand.

And upon our whole
Amen.

congregation

compassions and mercies be outpoured, both
evermore.

may his now and

END OF the NESTORIAN LITURGY.

There
as

is

another form of benediction, which, as well
prayers
or
collects,

a few occasional

we have not

inserted.

On

reading this Liturgy,
it

it

will be sufficiently evident

that if the basis of

formed the general plan of the Christian sacramental worship at Edessa and other places

in the second century, the formulary itself

was not com-

mitted to writing

till

the days

when

the matutinal light,

the prisca fides, the true apostolical theology, was over-

236

TFIE

SYRIAN CHURCHES.
;

shadowed by anti-evangelic doctrine and practice or that, sound in its original state, it has since been subjected to many alterations for the worse. The Godhead
if

of the ]\Iessiah

is set

forth, as
;

might be expected, accorda

ing to the Nestorian idea
of

and though the great truth
master-principle

the

atonement

is

enthroned as

throughout, while a deep sense of the unworthiness and
helplessness of the worshipper pervades the entire composition,

and both the

privilege of forgiveness

and the

necessity of sanctification are held as revealed and actu-

ating truths

;

yet the true office of faith, as the condi-

tion of pardon

and acceptance,' is not recognised with

suffi-

cient gospel clearness.
is

The confidence of the communicant

directed to repose in the fact of receiving the eucha-

ristic

elements, as the instrument of justification, rather

than in the

atoning work
to be the great

of the

Redeemer himself.
defect, not
;

Such appears
only of
it

and irreparable
other Liturgies

this,

but of too

many

while, as

regards those of the Nestorians and Jacobites, the pre-

sence of various

human

de\dces, less gross indeed

than

some which have been the bane of the Greek and Occidental churches, contributes to throw over their services a

gloom unknown

in

any age

to

those

who worship
The

the

Father, through the

Son, according to the simple but

subhme

prescriptions of his

own word.

principles

which thus blemish and corrupt these ancient rituals, may tend, indeed, to magnify the functions of an imaginary priesthood;

but in that proportion they

eff'ace

from the rituals themselves the impress of real Christianity.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

237

SYRIAN ECCLESIASTICAL LITERATURE.
The
the

author had purposed, in relation to this subject,

merely to append to the present work a translation of

Mimro

of

Ebed

Jesu, a bibliographical poem, or cata-

logue in metre, of
the

many

theological

Syrian tongue,

whether versions from the

works then extant in Greek
Finding, how-

fathers, or productions of native divines.
ever,

that

the

books

enumerated by Ebed Jesu were
to
illustrate

chiefly

Nestorian,

and serving mainly

the
laid

literature of that particular
aside,

community, the idea was

and a more comprehensive inquiry instituted into names and works of the principal authors of the the
oriental churches at large,

whether Nestorian, Jacobite,

or Maronite.

Notliing further has been attempted here than to set

down,- as far as was practicable in chronologic order, a
simple
list

of authors' names, with the subjects of their

principal labours.

By

calling into use the information extant

on the

in-

teresting pages of Photius, the Bihliotheque of

Du

Pin,

the ecclesiastical historians,

and, above

all,

the Vatican

and Florentine collections of the Assemanni, a man of judgment and leisure could indite biographical notices of

many
in

of these writers, and exhibit the general character

of their most remarkable works.

which an undertaking

like

this

But ours are not times would meet with

adequate attention.

A
will

glance at the achievements of these oriental fathers
suffice

to

dissipate

a

too general

idea,

that

the

churches of

the East have been at all times, as now,

immersed

in ignorance

and superstition.

But such was

not the case.

Destitute of most of the advantages of

238

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
times, the older

modern

Aramsean clergy were an order of
its

men

profoundly devoted to the investigation and defence

of religious truth, and the advancement of

triumphs

among
not at

the nations of the earth.

And

in ages when, in
either

the greater part of Europe, the
all,

word of God
to the laity

was

or

was a closed book,

and

priest-

hood ahke,

the illustrious

Commentators

of the Syrians
it

were bringing to the study and exphcation of
entire energies of
life.

the

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

239

CONSPECTUS OF SYRIAN AUTHORS.
FIRST CLASS.

WRITERS WHOSE TIMES MAY BE DETERMINED.
a. d.

Bardesanes,

190
;

:

Dialogues against Marcion,
.

and a Treatise on Destiny the latter extant. Aphraat, surnamed the Blessed, flourished about Homilies. a. D. 320
:

Jacob,

St., bishop of Nisebis, a. d.

325
an.

:

no genuine
Epistles

works now extant.

MiLLES, bishop of Susa and martyr,
and Orations.

330

:

Symeon,
Seleucia,

or

Shimon, bar Saboc,
:

S.,

Catholicos of
Epistles.

and martyr, an. 333

Hymns and
The

Ephrem,
the church
:

St., deacon of Edessa, solitary,

died about an. 378.

entire

and doctor of works of
an

Ephrem comprised Commentaries on
controversial treatises,

the whole Bible,

a book on the Holy Spirit,

immense number of moral and spiritual discourses, and Hymns for public worship. The chief portions of his writings which have come down to us, have been edited at Rome in Syriac by Steph.Evod.Assemanni by Vossius, in Latin, at Antwerp and in Greek at the Universitypress at Oxford. Besides, there are yet a number of
; ;

manuscripts of his in the Vatican, consisting of sermons
in Arabic, Egyptian,
latter language.

and

Syriac,

and some hymns in the

[Some have attributed the invention of the Syrian Ephrem, the hexasyllabic to Narses, the pentasyllabic to Balseus, and to Jacob of Sarug the
heptasyllabic verse to
tetrasyllable,

ter repetitur.

But, long before those au-

thors, there

were poems

in Syriac in

most of those mea-

sures

by Harmonius.]

240

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
of a monastery in Palestine, towards
:

Gregory, abbot

the end of the fourth century

Homilies and Epistles.
:

Marutha,
lation of the

bishop of Tagrit, same date

A

Liturgy,

Commentaries on the Gospel, a Martyrology, and a trans-

Canons of Nice.
a disciple of

Paulona,

Ephrem

:

Hymns and
:

theolo-

gical Disputations.

Gregory, Marutha,
an.

abbot in Cyprus, an. 390

Epistles.

bishop of Maiphercata, in Mesopotamia,

400

:

History of the Council of Nice, a Martyrology,

and Hymns. Absamia, presbyter of Edessa, an. 400 Hymns. Isaac, archbishop of Seleucia and Ctesiphon, ob. 411
:

:

Canons.
Isaac, a disciple of

Ephrem

:

The

Life of his Master.
:

Hymns. last Rabula, bishop of Edessa, 412 Epistles and Canons. A work against Zenobius, a disciple of Ephrem

Bal^us Syrus, contemporary

with the
:

:

Marcion.

AcACius, or Akak, bishop of Amida, 420 Epistles. Mart, a Persian, about 425 Commentary on Daniel,
: :

Remarks on the

Epistles of Acacius,

and a Tract against

certain Magicians of Nisebis.

AcH^us, archbishop
ology.

of Seleucia, ob. 420

:

A

Martyr-

Andrew,
a

bishop of Samosata, 429

:

Expositions, and

work

against Cyril of Alexandria.
patriarch,

DoDJESHU,

430

:

Commentaries, in three

volumes, on the Prophet Daniel, the Kings, and Sirach.
Iba, or Ihiba, bishop of Edessa, 435
Epistle.
:

A

celebrated

[Either this or another Iba wrote an Exposition of the

Proverbs,

Hymns, and Maanes, a Persian,
Seleucia,

Disputations.]

student of Edessa, and archbishop

of

about

the

middle

of the

fifth

century:

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

241

Translated some of the works of Theodore of Mopsuestia
into Syriac.

Alexander,
against Juli^nus.

a bishop of Hierapolis, an. 431

:

a book

value

Narses, .doctor of Edessa, 435 Surnamed, for the and elegance of his writings, "the Harp of the
:

" Commentaries on the Old Testament, three hundred and sixty Orations, a Liturgy, a Treatise on the
Spirit

:

Sacrament of Baptism, another on Evil Morals, various
interpretations, paracletic Sermons,

and Hymns.

KuMi and Proba,
Iba, translated the
suestia,

doctors of Edessa in the time of

Commentaries of Theodore of Mopand the writings of Aristotle, into Syriac. N.
fifth

Xystus, bishop in the

century

:

Ascetical Tracts,
v

and a Liturgy.

Abo Yazidad,
Edessa, 435.

one of the historians of the school of
of Edessa, 449

NoNNUS, bishop
to the

:

A

Synodical Epistle

emperor Leo.
:

Jacob, deacon of Edessa under Nonnus
Pelagius of Antioch.

A

Life of St.

Barsuma,
Epistles.

presbyter

and archimandrite,
ob.

a. d.

435

:

N.

Proclus, bishop of Cyzicus,
lector to St.

446

:

Chrysostom

at Constantinople

:

He had been Two books
centui'y

on the Eucharist.

An

Baradatus, anchorite, middle of the Epistle among the circular letters of
:

fifth

the Council of

Chalcedon.

Simeon, surnamed the StyUte, 450 Epistles to the Emperors Theodosius and Leo two for the council of Simeon Chalcedon, and one to Basil, bishop of Antioch.
;

wrote in Syriac.

Jacob,
tamia,]

S.,

bishop of Serug, [Batne Sarug, in Mesopohalf of the fifth century
:

latter

Two hundred

M

242

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
for

and thirty-one metrical Orations, a Liturgy, a Ritual
Parsenetic and other Epistles, and several Homihes.

Baptism, a Treatise on the Trinity and the Incarnation,
[There are seven
beai'ing

offices for

baptism among the Syrians,

the several

names
;

of,


;

1,

The

apostles, in use
;

among

the Nestorians

2.

St.

James the apostle
4.

3.

Severus, or Soarios, of Antioch

Philoxenus of
;

Mabug
:

(the latter three belong to the Jacobites)

5.

Basil the
these,

Great;

6.

James of Sarug

;

7.

James of Edessa

together with that of James the apostle, belong to the

Maronites.]

John, bishop of

Tela,

an-.

512

:

Canons.
:

Marhas, bishop
extant.

of Amida, 520, Monophysite

Comis

mentary on the Gospels, of which the prologue only

Simeon, bishop
Liturgy.

of Betharsama, a Persian, against Nestorianism,

525

:

A

An

Epistle
first
''

[in

which

he says, that the
said to

Nestorians were those Jews

who
thou,
to

our Lord,

Thou blasphemest, because

being a man, makest thyself God,"] and an Epistle

Simeon, abbot of Gabula, describing certain martyrdoms.

Ebed Meshicha,
erudition.

native of Hirta, flourished 540, is

mentioned by Ebed Jesu as the author of a book of great

Moses, of Charcha,
shapheruth Dubree'].

540

:

a

work of Morals [De-

Zakariah, bishop
tory.

of Meletina, in Armenia Minor, 540,
:

surnamed Malela, or the Orator
Extant.
a

An

Ecclesiastical

His-

John Saba,
Abraham,
Testament.

monk, native of Nineveh, about 550
Raban

:

Thirty Sermons, forty-eight Epistles.
of Beth
:

Commentary on the Old

Jacob Barad^us, the
541
:

celebrated Monophysite leader,

A

Liturgy.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Sergius,
doctor

243

of

the school of Adiabena, 550

Commentaries on Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel.

MosEL of Aghel in Mesopotamia, 550 Translated some of th^ works of Cyril of Alexandria into Syriac. Kajura, .a disciple of Maraba, 550: Expositions of
:

Scripture.

tury

Isaac of Nineveh, towards the end of the sixth cenFour books of Sermons, extant in the Vatican.
:

Thomas

of Charchelj bishop of Germanica, or Marhas,
:

A Liturgy the Philoxenian version of the New Testament (see Horce AramaiccB, p. 32 ;) and Translations of the Liturgies of Gregory,
in Syria, ob. 533
; ;

Basil, Dionysius,

and Chrysostom.
:

Daniel, bishop of Rishana, 550 HomiHes against the Marcionites and Manichees. Bab^us, or Babi, surnamed the Great, archimandrite
of Nisebis, 563, a voluminous writer
:

On

the Incarna-

Zo*,.^

^^^s^

" the Oneness or Adunation "); an
;

exposition of the ascetical treatise of Evagrius of Pontus

a History of the Diodorites, or Nestorians, so called from

Diodorus of Tarsus, one of the masters of Nestorius

Hymns

for worship

through the
;

circle of the
;

year

;

an

exposition of the sacred text
to Joseph, doctor of

monastic rules

an Epistle

Edessa

;

and a biography of certain

monks.

Abraham, and abbot of Mount of monastic discipline, and an exposition of the paradise of the Westerns {Paradisus seu Horhis Monachonim ;) a compendium of the lives and sayings of certain Egyptian monks, in four parts,
disciple of
:

Dodjesu, a

Isla,

near Nisebin

A book

;

first three compiled by Palladius, a monk, about 3SB, and the fourth part by Jerome. John of Dalaida, monk, about 560, N. monastic

the

:

writings.

Hanna,

native of Persia, and rector of the school of

M

2

244
Nisebin in 570
Proverbs,
:

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Commentaries on Genesis, Job, Psalms.
Canticles,

Eeelesiastes,

the Twelve Prophets,

the Gospel of St. Mark, and the Epistles of St. Paul;

an exposition of the Nicene Creed, and of the sacraments,
church.

with occasional

pieces

on the

festivals

of

the

Maraba, patriarch, N., and martyr, about 570 commentary on the Old Testament.

:

a

Peter
Liturgy
;

the Younger, patriarch of Antioch in 578
a book
against
;

:

A
of

Damianus

;

the

doctrine

Damianus on the Trinity see ante^ Art. Jacobites. Bud, periodevta^ undefr Ezekiel, patriarch in 570: Orations on the Nicene Creed, and against the Marcionites and Manichees also a work called Aleph Mighin, or, as Assemann suggests, Aleph Millen, " A Thousand Words," probably a collection of sentences and an explanation of
;

;

the fables of Baidba, or Bidpai.

Joseph,

patriarch, N., ob. 567

:

Epistles

;

and a

serial

of the bishops of Seleucia.

Paulus, 570 an introduction to the Dialectics. Ezekiel, patriarch, N., 580 Synodic Canons.
: :

Abraham bar Kardoche,
570
:

N.,

doctor of Nisebis,

Homilies, orations, and parade tic sermons.
of the monastery of Barkosra, at

Barduksin, founder
Mosul, 570
:

and heresy, N. John, bishop of Asiaf: an ecclesiastical history. Job, a monk, 580, N ascetical writings and sermons. Joseph, surnamed the Seer, rector of the school of Nisebis, 580, N., wrote an immense number of works,
three books against astrology
:

among which were

:

An

exposition

of

the

Vision

of

Ezekiel; a book called ''Theory and Practice;" a trea* See church-offices, ante, pages 103, 104.
-|-

This general

title is

thought

to indicate his

having the superin-

tendency of the Jacobites located in Asia Minor, Caria, Lydia, and Phrygia.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
sury of solutions of
a great pestilence,
difficult

245
;

questions

an account of
;

and of the persecution under Chosroes

and an exposition of the chapters of Evagrius. Gregory, bishop of Tagrit, 580 a treatise on the
:

incarnation

;.

and an

epistle to the

monks

of Nineveh.

Meshicha Zaka,
Izla,

Mount Marjahab, ("the Lord
:

C' Christ has conquered,") N. an ecclesiastical history. 590,
gave,")

monk
:

of

monk, 590, N.

an

epistle.

Thomas
tracts.

of Edessa, disciple of Maraba, N.

:

sermons,

disputations, a treatise against astrology,

and occasional

Sergius

of Rhesina, sixth century

:

translation of the

Categories of Aristotle.

Bautha, monk, 595

:

two poems, extant in the Vatiof

can. (Cod. Amidensi, S.)

Paul

of

Nisebis,

disciple

Maraba

:

commentary,

disputation,

and

epistles.

Sabarjesu,

(" Jesus

the

hope,")

patriarch,

596

:

ecclesiastical history, fragments, extant,

N.
:

Gabriel
ries

of Aria, or Chorasan, 596, N.

commentaa

on

select parts of scripture.

Gabriel
martyrology.

of Taurata,

monk,

N., 596

:

a sermon,

Abraham
N.
N.
:

of Nephtar, beginning of seventh century,

eight sermons, extant in the Vatican.
('*

Jesujabus,
:

Jesus gave,") bishop of Arzunitha, 000,

twenty-two questions on the sacraments, synodical

canons, epistles, and disputations.

Babi

of

Maare near

Nisebis, 600, N.

cepts, a Turcico-Syriac vocabulary,

a book of pre(Turcarum nomine Scy:

thas oi'ientales intelligimt Syri Nestoriani.

—Assem.,^ and
''

a treatise called

Genath Busomee, or the
N.,

Garden of
of certaio

Delights."

Sergius,

monk,

600

:

A

Memorial

246

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Christians, with the title of ''the Subverter of

humble

the Mighty.'*

Sahadas, C'the Witness,") bishop of Garmsea
N.
:

in 628,

orations.
:

Jesujabus of Gadala, bishop of Balada, 629, N. commentary on the Psalms and Epistles, with various orations and narratives. Cyriac, bishop of Amida, ob. 623 canons. Phocas of Edessa, seventh century commentary on the (so called) works of Dionysius the Areopagite.
: :

John

of Hormisda,

bom

630, founder of a monastery

at Nineveh,

N.

:

orations.

Jesuphanah, ("Jesus answered
N.
:

her,") of Catara, 630,

Parsenetic homilies,

a book of mental philosophy,
expositions^
epistles,

(Da-philosuphia da-ruch,)
orations,

funeral

and

acrostic elegies.

Cyriac, bishop of

Njsebis, 630, N.

:

on the Nicene

Creed and the sacraments, a commentary on the Epistles
of St. Paul, and occasional pieces.

the doctrine of Nice

Constantius, bishop of Harran, 630 exposition of and Chalcedon. Leo, bishop of Harran, 640 an Epistle to Elias, a
:

:

Monophysite bishop on that doctrine.

Annajesu, ("the Grace
ings,"
says,

of Jesus,") of

Mount

Izla,

645,

N.: a work called "The A'ariety and Distinction of Read-

which Thomas of Marag, in his Monastic History, was an explanation of difficult words in the fathers but Asseman thinks it was more probably an exposition
of peculiar readings in the Gospels.

John, bishop

of Bassora, 6.50

:

a liturgy.
:

John Saba
learners
doh\-i,
;

of Garmaea,
;

monk, N. 650
places
;)

chapters or

heads of science

(common
;

an institution for

a short chronicle

and a history of Mar Ku-

an Assyrian monk.
:

Sabarjesu, 650

polemics, and monastical biography.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
He

24/

Jacob, or James, of Edessa, bishop, 651, surnamed
*Ulie Interpreter"

on two accounts:
;

1.

illustrated

the holy scriptures

and, 2. Translated several valuable

works

froni

Greek into Syriac.

Among

these were

some

of the writings of Basil, Athanasius, Nazianzen, Nyssen,

and Chrysostom, with some books of
also the author of a

Aristotle.

He was

grammar

of the Syriac language,

which he greatly contributed to improve. of James of Edessa now extant, are, 1
.

The writings

A

Chronicon

;

2.

A

Liturgy (Renaudot)

;

3.

An

Office for
6.

Baptism

;

4.

Ecclesiastical
tles;
7.

Canons;
on
the

5.

A Grammar;

Various Epis8.

A

Treatise

on Things Mystical;
Pentateuch,
Job,

Hymns;
Joshua,

9.

Commentaries

and

Judges; 10. Schoha on
of
Aristotle

many
1 2.

parts of the Old Testa;

ment, and on the Gospels of Luke and John
Dialectics
;

11.

The
Por-

On

the Isagoge

of

phyry

;

and, 13.

The Homilies of Severus, patriarch of
In the King's Library at

Antioch, rendered into Syriac.

Paris, there is a ms. of Jacob of Edessa, in the

hand-

writing of Gabriel Sionita, on the

work of the

six days.

In the

first

discourse he treats of creatures purely intel-

lectual; in the second,

on the creation of the heavenly
;

bodies and the four elements

in the third, of the earth,

ocean, and most celebrated mountains and rivers.

Jesujabus of Adiabena,
entitled

patriarch, N.

655

:

a

work
the

I^^q^

.j^oai^ Da-huphok chusobee,

"On

conversion or change of opinions," probably on the controversy respecting the person of Christ
tion to certain disciples
; ;

an exhorta-

a Ritual.
:

Daniel bar Mariam, 655 An ecclesiastical history. George, 660, patriarch, N. Sermons, Prayers, Canons.
:

Shubcholmorun*
tical

of Beth Seluk, 661, N.

:

an asce-

work. Epistles.
* Shubcho, " the glory," Lemaran, " of our Lord.'*

248

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
of

Barchadbeshabo*
660
:

Beth Arbaja, near Nisebin,
;

A
;

Thesaurus in three parts

Theological Disputa-

tions

an

ecclesiastical history
St.

;

a

Commentary on the

Psalms and on
tion.

Mark.
of Beth Chola, 670, N.; a disputa<

Abraham, monk

Solomon bar Garaph, 689, monk: a monastic history. John, bishop of Hirta, 690, N.: a book of exhortations, a Directory, and two hundred and eighty Epistles. John Dilumoia, monk, 690 Eight Orations. Isaac of Mneveh, bishop, end of seventh century
:

:

seven books on spiritual discipline
ries
;

;

the Sacred MystePolity

Judicial Decisions

;

On (Mapharnosnutho)
:

or Government.

Nathanael, monk
tion of the Psalms
;

of Bethaven, 690, N.

An

Exposi-

a Disputation against the Manichees

and other
Discipline,

heretics.

Simon Taibutho, ("the
George, monk
Obedience.

benefactor,") 690

:

Monastic

and a work on medicine.
of Bethaven, 690, N.:

A

Treatise on

Annajesu, surnamed Chagira,
patriarch,
:

or "the

Lame," N.

690 Interpretations, Epistles, Paracletic SerChurch Documents, a Biography, and an Explanamons,
tion of the Analytics.

Jesudenach, (" Jesu has
:

risen,") bishop
;

of Kostra,

700, N. three volumes of Ecclesiastical History

a book on
;

Logic

;

Paracletic
;

Homihes

Sermons and Interpretations a collection of monkish Biography.
J.,

Metrical

Elias, patriarch,

beginning of eighth century

:

A
An

Defence of the Doctrine of the Monophysites, extant.

Daniel, bishop

of Salach, in Mesopotamia, 700

:

Exposition of the Psalms, extant.
*

" The son of a sabbath."

So the Greeks have Cyriacus, and

the Latins, Dominic.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

249

Jacob, bishop of Edessa, 710, N.: Annals. John Maro, patriarch of Antioch, 700 A Liturgy
:

;

a Treatise on the Faith of the Church, another against
the Monophysites, a third against the Nestorians
Epistle on .the Trisagion
; ;

an

a Treatise (metul Kohunotha)

on the Priesthood
James.

;

a

Commentary on the Liturgy
:

of St.

Orations, Epistles, Babi bar Nisibone, 720, N. Hymns, Pieces of Church History, Exhortations, Moral
Institutes.

Gabriel Rakoda, bishop of Garmsea, 720: a poem. Abraham, a native of Bethsaida, 720 a book of
:

Exhortations, a Disputation against the Jews, Orations

on Penitence,
Melcho, or
'*

Epistles,

and a work

entitled

Ba-urcho
in 740,

the Royal

Way."

Paulos, bishop of Anbara, or Pheroz-Sapor,

N.: Epistles, Sermons, Expositions, and a Disputation.

Jacob, bishop of Chalatia, in Armenia, 740, N.: A Commentary on the Proverbs, Hymns, and a Treatise on
the Faith of the Church.

Ihiba, ("the Gift,") 740, N.:

An

Explanation of the

Psalms

;

Sermons

;

a Treatise on Ecclesiastical

Laws

;

and

Commentaries on some of the writings of Gregory Nazianzen, and on the Dialectics of Aristotle.

Shalita, ('*the Ruler,") bishop of Rashana, 740, N.
Pieces

:

Interpretations, Paracletical Sermons, Prayers, Occasional

and Hymns for the Bar Soheda, bishop of
;

close of divine service.
:

cal History,

Karka, 735 An Ecclesiastiand a Treatise against the followers of Zara(" His will be blessed,") NesTreatise D' astratigcee,
;

dost, or Zoroaster.

Aba bar Briksebioneh,
torian patriarch in 742
:

A

which

Abr. Ecchellensis translates, I>e Magistratibus

but Asse-

manni, perhaps more correctly.
Prcefectis Rei bellicce.

Be

Militice Bucibus seu

He was

the author, also, of cer-

M

5

250
tain expositions
ditione.'*

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
and interpretations, '*varia
refertis eru-

David of Beth Raban, bishop, eighth century A poem on Astronomy. See Assemanni Biblioth. Orient.
:

ii.

419.

Shaodosth,
N.:

or

Shadosth, bishop
Oration,
Epistles,

of Tirhau, 747,

A

Synodical

Canons,

Sermons,

and Interpretations. SuRiN, patriarch N. in 754 a refutation of heretical opinions a work on (the structure of) the Greek lan:

;

guage, "with demonstrations or examples.

Simeon bar Tabache,
Cyprian, bishop

754, N.

:

ecclesiastical history.
'.

of Nisebin, 7^7

an exposition of the
7Qd,

theology of Gregory the Great, and a ritual for ordination.

Solomon, bishop
pieces,

of

Hadatha,
institute.

N.

:

historical

and on the monastic
heresy

Gregory
against

of Shushtre,^ in Persia,
;

770, N.

:

a work

demonstrations
;

of

nature

;

paracletic

sermons, with interpretations

pieces on church history

and economy.

Theophilus, native of Edessa, 770, Maronite an He is considered as the inventor of the modern Syriac vowel points, and is said to have translated
:

astronomer.

the Iliad into his native tongue.

Annajesu
cletic

II.,
;

patriarch N. in 774

:

epistles

;

para-

sermons

five

volumes of expository homilies, and
patriarch in 778
a treatise on
;

several orations

and questions.
:

TiMOTHEUS, Nestorian
the stars
siastical
;

a disputation with the khalif Mohadia
;

eccle;

judgments

about

two hundred

epistles

com778

mon places, and a history. Ephrem, bishop of Gratidisapor,
on the history of the
faith,

in Elam, cir.

:

and an

ordinal.
:

Babi, bishop of Rivardshir, in Persia, 778, N.
tions of various questions.

solu-

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Behjesu,* monk of
pline.

251
monastic
disci-

Karaula,

778

:

Saliba, presbyter of Mesopotamia, 781

:

three

poems

on penitence, and another on the Greek Doctors, extant. Shemun^ native of Cardlibad, and founder of a monastery, ob. 790,

N.

:

orations
J.,

and interpretations.
:

Cyriac, patriarch
an Arabic version
;

790
;

synodic epistles, extant in

canons

a Liturgy.
:

C HAS IB,
monastic

a Nestorian
;

life

monk, 800 poems and hymns.

two works on the
annals.
:

Simon, bishop of Charca, 800, N.
Jeshtjbocht, metropohtan of

:

Persia, 800, N.

besides

a collection of ecclesiastical decisions, he wrote a treatise
(d'al hono hut) on the universe
signs of the
air,
;

and another on the

or meteorology.

Philoxenus, bishop
century
:

of Bagdad, beginning of ninth
;

a liturgy, extant

also a treatise

on

ecclesiasti-

cal offices, not extant.

Abunuch,
N.
:

a disciple of
the

Abraham the Lame,
;

cir.

810,

a refutation of

Koran

a disputation against

various heresies.

Jesu

bar Nun,
a
village

Nestorian

patriarch,

a

native

of

Bethabara,
auditor of
disciple
1.

between

Nineveh and Mosul,
:

an

Abraham
with the

the

Lame
of

he succeeded his fellow-

Timothy

in the patriarchate in 820.
title

He
;

wrote,

A work
;

"Theology;"
two parts

2.

Questions
3. Judicial
;

on the whole of the sacred
decisions

text, in

4. Consolations, or paracletic
;

sermons

5.

On

the distinction of offices

6.

Interpretations and
in

hymns.

Sabarjesu, patriarch N.
tions.

834

:

scholastic constitu-

John, bishop

of Dara,

near Nisebin, 840

:

wrote,
;

I

Four books on the resurrection of the body, extant
* Contraction of Brichjesu, " Blessed be Jesus."

2.

252

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
the celestial and ecclesiastical hierarchies
;
;

Two books on
3.

Four books on the priesthood

4.

A

Liturgy.
;

Michael, probably bishop

of Huliza, about 852

three

volumes of questions on the text of scripture.

Theodosius, patriarch J. 852 epistles. Jesudadus, bishop of Hadatha, N. 852 an elucidation of the New Testament, and a manual on church
: :

service.

DiONYSius II., John Moses,

patriarch,

853

:

synodic epistles.
:

native

of Chusa, 854

translations of

the works of Aristotle and Galen.

Israel, bishop of Cascar, 860
the faith.

:

on the foundations of

a

Sapores Saheli, 864 a medical pharmacopoeia, book of compound medicaments in twenty- two chapters.
:

Abzud Eskuloia,
870
:

rector of the

school of Bagdad,

demonstrations of various subjects arranged in the

order of the alphabet.

— Query, an encyclopaedia?
in

Gabriel, of Bassora, bishop
and questions.

884

:

synodical canons

Jesu bar Ali,
Lexicon,
libraries.

a physician, 885
in

:

a Syriac and Arabic

copies

extant

the Vatican

and

Medicaean

Enosh, bishop
paracletic

of

Pheroz Sapor, or Ambara, 890

:

and other

orations.

century:

Moses bar Cepha, bishop of 1. On the work of the

Mosul, end of ninth
six

days;

2.

A
;

com;

mentary on the Paradise (translated by Masius in 1569) 4. A 3. An exposition of the Old and New Testaments
Liturgy (Renaudot)
;

5.

Tracts on the Liturgy, the soul,

on various sects, and the mysteries contained in the tonsure of

monks

;

6.

HomiUes on the

principal solemnities

in the year.

Theodore Barkuni,
scholastic instructions
;

bishop of Lasciuma, 893, N.

:

funereal and ascetical sermons.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Elijah, metropolitan of Damascus, 893
canon, in two parts
;
:

253
a

Nomo-

part

1

.

Lives of the apostles and
;

disciples, the apostolical canons, a catalogue of heresies

part

2.

Ecclesiastical

canons and other church
faith,

tracts.
is

A

treatise

on agreement in

extant

:

this

an

attempt, accomplished in a Christian and laudable

spirit,

to harmonize the great theological parties of those times,

by showing in how few respects they really
in

differed,

and

how many they were in concord. John of Nineveh, bishop of Mosul,
Eb'n Canda, 893, N.
:

in

893

:

a volume

of disputations. a

confession

of faith^

and
on

disputations.

Annajesu, bishop
Basil, patriarch

of Hirta, 900, N.

:

questions

the text of Scripture, and a Syriac vocabulary.
J. in

900

:

synodic epistles.
:

Joseph Saher, presbyter, 907 a medical writer. John Bar Abgora, patriarch N. in 900 canons
:

church' questions

and

decisions.
:

Elijah
orations
;

of Anbara, bishop, 920, N.

poems

;

funereal

expositions and epistles.

DiONYSius TIL,
extant.

patriarch J. in 933

:

synodic epistles,

Matthew Jonah,

930

:

translations
:

from

Aristotle.
;

Ebed Jesu,* monk, 940
sermons; commonplaces.;

interpretations

funereal

allegories.

Cyriac, 950
Maccabees.

:

polemical writings, and a

poem on

the

expositions, instructions,

Gabriel, bishop of Shabochost, in Persia, 960, N. and disputations.
patriarch N. in 963
:

:

Ebedjesu bar Akree,

inter-

pretations and occasional pieces.

Arabic.

Bar Bahlul, cir. 963, N. a A copy of this work once
:

lexicon,

Syriac and

belonged to Thomas

*

" Servant of Jesus."

254

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

Erpenius, and was afterwards deposited in the University
library
at

Cambridge

:

there

is

another

copy in the
it

Medicaean library at Florence. The greater part of incorporated in Castel's " Heptaglot Lexicon."

is

Emanuel, malphona,
Gabriel, at Mosul, N.
six

or doctor of the school of
:

Mar

963
;

a

poem on
several

the

work of the

days

;

instructions

commentaries.
:

Ebedjesu Shiari, 963
John, patriarch
tation.
J.

poems.

969

:

synodic epistles, and a dispu-

Athanasius VL, patriarch J. 9/6 synodic epistles. EyAS, bishop of Cascar,- 987, N. benedictions;*
:

:

orations

;

tracts

;

on the use of the Psalms, and on the
a

sacraments.

Abusahelus, 988

:

work on medicine.
:

John Saba, bishop, 990 a liturgy, Abraham, mitreen^ or metropolitan,
N.
:

not extant.
of Bassora, 990,

epistles

and expositions.

Job

of Katara, 990,

N

:

a

commentary on the Penta-

teuch, Judges, the Prophets, and the

New
Tib,

Testament.
or

Abulpharagius,

Abdella,

Ebn

Benattibo,
:

monk and
a

presbyter, N. beginning of eleventh century
;

commentary on the Old and New Testaments
an exposition of
;

a parascrip-

dise, or collection of questions

on various parts of
;

ture

;

St.

Matthew

a

collection

of

canons
cal,

treatises,

— on

polemical,

ecclesiastical,

and

practi-

penitence, heirship, on " the
;

Mother of God,"
Aristotle.

on the Holy Trinity

commentaries upon

John Abdon,

patriarch,

1012

:

a synodical epistle.
judicial

Elijah, patriarch

N. in
;

1028:

decisions;

a grammar. ecclesiastical questions DiONYSius v., patriarch J. 1035

:

a synodical epistle.
ii.

* In the Chaldee ritual [see Biblioth. Orient,

p.

583] there are
children, the

various forms of benediction on the months,
infirm, &c.

vines,

THE SYRIAN CHtFRCHES.

255
:

annals

Elijah Bar Shinoia, bishop of Edessa, 1049, N. ecclesiastical decisions orations a grammar
;

;

;

;

epistles.

John Bar Susan,
tise

patriarch

J.

1060
;

:

a

Liturgy,

extant in ms., and in the Missale Chald.

* and a trea-

on the

salt

and

oil

used by the Jacobites in the
three synodic epistles. of Themanan, 1100: a

eucharistic bread.

John XL, patriarch J. 10/8 John Bar Karnis, bishop
grammar.

:

Machicha,
epistle,

patriarch N.

in

and a commonitory,

all

1092 a discourse, an on the Nestorian contro:

versy.

Bar Kainiee,
metre for the

bishop of Mosul,

1111

:

orations in

afflicted.

Hebatolla ebn Talmid,
and poet.

about 1112

:

a

physician

Sabarjesu, bishop of Cascar, 1134
(AssEM. B. O.
i.,

:

a Syriac prayer.

581.)
:

in

John, bishop of Marda, 1125 a Liturgy. John, patriarch M. 1151 a Liturgy, extant in ms., the library at Kanubin, Mount Lebanon. interpretations, Elijah IIL, patriarch N. 1176
:
:

epistles, prayers.

twelfth century

DiONYSius Bar-Salib, bishop of 1 A commentary on
:
.

Amida,
2.

end of

the scriptures, of
;

"which that on the four Gospels

is

extant

Theology

;

a

work on the incarnation and the sacraments, not
;

extant

3.

Against certain heresies, not extant

;

4.

An

oration and tracts, on ordination, chrism, and confession,
extant.

Michel,
faith
;

bishop
iii.

of Amida,
;)

1180: a confession of

(Assem.

558

a disputation between a heretic

and a Christian.
• Fol.

f la

256

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
:

John, patriarch J. 1208 a Liturgy. Jesujahab bar Malkun, bishop of
N.
:

Nisebin, 1222,

grammatical inquiries, orations,
1

epistles,

and hymns.

Jacob, bishop of Tagrit,
tled

2.'30

:

a Theologicon, enti-

Kothobo dasimutho, or

'-'The

Book

of Treasures,'*

extant.

John Bar Zuhbi, monk and
thirteenth century, N.
orations.
:

presbyter, beginning of

a treatise

on grammar, metrical
primate of the

John bar Maadan,
East, 1249,

J. inaphrian,
:

or

and patriarch in 1252

a Liturgy; a

poem
;

on the
extant.

soul, its excellence

and depravation, extant

and

certain homilies in Arabic, written in the Syrian letter,

Daniel,

presbyter, 1250: a nomocanon.

Solomon, bishop
prayers.

of Bassora, 1222

:

an ethical work
;

;

a treatise on the figure of the heaven and earth

three

thence called

Gregory, son of Aaron, a Jewish physician, and Bar-Hebr^us, and surnamed Abulphaat Malatia, in 1226,

RAGius, maphrian, or Jacobite primate of the East, was
born
1.

and died
St.

in 1286.
2.

He

wrote,

A

symbol of the Christian

faith.

A

Liturgy, and

an abridgment of that of

James.

3.

Autsar Rozee,

4. Menorath-KudTreasury of Mysteries," extant. shee, '' The Lamp of the Saints ; " a body of theology

"A

extant in

Arabic, written in the
''

Syrian character.
;

5.

Kothobo dazelgee,
of Directions
7.

The Book of Rays

" a compendium

of theology, extant.
;

6. Kothobo da-Midoyee, "The Book " an epitome of ecclesiastical and civil law. Kothobo da-duboree, "The Book of Morals " a com;

pendium of
ascetical

ethics, chiefly

deduced from the fathers and
;

writers. 8. Kothobo da-tunoyee maphregonee, " The Book of pleasant Narratives " a collection of

anecdotes, stories, and sentiments, from Persian, Indian,

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

257

Hebrew, Mahometan, and Christian writers, in twentychapters
Syriac
;

extant.
;

9.
title,

A
as

Lunarium, or calendar.
^^

10.

A

Grammar

Kothobo da-tsemchee,

of Splendours,"

(or,

Germs,") in four parts,
cles,


;

The Book the word may be taken, " of
extant.
1 1

of the noun, the verb, the parti.

and the participles
extant.

A

short

Grammar
13.

in

metre,

12. Various
:

poems, extant.

A

Chronicon, in Arabic

this has

been rendered into Latin

by Pococke.
to

14.

A
;

Syriac Chronicle: (1.)
(2.)

From Adam
the

Nabuchodonosor
priests,

A

chronicle

of

Hebrew
;

high
(3.)

and of the Christian patriarchs of Antioch
and Nestorian
extant.

A

chronicle of the primates and patriarchs of the
;

East, both orthodox

Bar Hebr^us was
of the oriental church.

one of the brightest ornaments
In the language of Gibbon, he In his

was " truly eminent both in his Hfe and death.
life

he was an elegant writer of the Syriac and Arabic
In his death, his funeral
patriarch, with
their dis-

tongues, a poet, physician, and historian, a subtle philosopherj and a moderate divine.

was attended by
a train of Greeks
putes,

his rival the Nestorian

and Armenians, who forgot
tears over

and mingled their

the

grave

of

an

enemy." *
* ''Decline," &c., chap. 47.

A

similar instance has recently oc-

curred

at the funeral

of the Greek patriarch of Egypt, at Cairo.

" Then," says an
the procession:

eye-witness,

" came the most remarkable part of
city,

the patriarchs, bishops, and dignified ecclesiastics

belonging

to the

orthodox and heterodox churches of this

with

their array of priests

and monks, each carrying a cross or some other
the Syriac biblical

emblem."
It

that

may be interesting to M. Tullberg of Upsal

student just to note

has edited two specimens of the exposias follow
:

tory labours of

Bar Hebrseus,

Psalmos Scholioriim Specimen, ed. O. F. Tullberg, Upsalae, 1842. Twenty-seven pages. Greg, bar Hebr.ei in Jesiam Scholia, ed. O. F. Tullberg,
in

Gregorii bar Hebr^ei

Upsalse, 1842.

Fifty-eight pages.

258

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
patriarch, 1270, N.
:

Denha,

A

Confession of Faith.
:

Gabriel, metropolitan of Mosul, 1282 Poems on the Creation, the Incarnation, and the Preaching of the
Apostles.

DioscoRUS,
extant.

bishop of

Gozarta,

1285

:

A

Liturgy,

Ignatius,
Valub.

patriarch

J.

1293

:

A

Liturgy,

extant.

The personal name of

this prelate

was

Joseph

bar

Simeon, presbyter and monk,
Treatise

thirteenth century

:

A

on Baptism and the Eucharist.
:

Chamisius BAR Kardachi

a

Nestorian

hymno-

grapher at the end of the thirteenth century.

Timothy
tise

II.

patriarch N. in 1317:

canons, a trea-

on the Sacraments.
Jesu,
metropolitan
of Soba,
ob.

Ebed
1.

1318,

N.
;

:

commentary on the Old and New Testaments 2. A Book on the Incarnation 3. Poems, entitled, " The Pa' radise of Eden;" 4. A manual of synodic Canons; 5. Margonithoy or, "A treatise on the Truth of Religion ;"
;

A

6.

The Arcana of the Greek Philosophy
;

;

7.

A
10.

scholastic

Refutation of several Heresies
siastical

8.

A

collection of eccle;

Decisions

;

9.

Twelve Orations

Various
;

Expositions,

paracletic

Sermons, and Homilies
to

11.

An

Explanation of the Epistle of Aristotle
12. Epistles; 13.

Alexander

A

metrical Catalogue of the canonical

Books of Scripture, and of the principal Nestorian Authors
;

14.

A

Solution of various

difficult

Questions,

Enigmas, and Parables.

Amrus barMatthai,
of a

about 1340

:

the reputed author

work

called

'*

Magdal, or the Tower," a system of
patriarch,

ecclesiastical polity.

Ignatius Behenam,

J.,

1412: a Liturgy

and Poems, not extant. George Varda, 1538

:

Hymns.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

259
:

John Ananias Xenajas,
extant.

patriarch, 1484

a Liturgy,

Ebdoca, 1488
Paris,

:

a Syriac

Grammar
Poems.

;

Biblioth,

Roy ale,

No. 169.
patriarch, 1494
:

Noah,

Thomas Jaballaha, Jacob, and Denha,
the Syrian Christians in Malabar,
1

bishops of

504

:

an Epistle to
See the

EHjah, Nestorian patriarch, respecting the transactions
of the Portuguese Romanists in that country.
Epistle in

Assem. Bib. Orient, iii. 590. Elijah, patriarch, 1584 a Confession of Faith. Moses, a presbyter of Mardeen, in Mesopotamia, was sent to Rome in 1552, from Ignatius, patriarch of the Jahe may be said cobites, on a legation to pope Julius III.
:

:

to have been one of the editors of the Peschito.

(See

Horce Aramaicce, p. 77.)

He

wrote,

1.

A

Profession of

Faith, which was translated into Latin by Masius, who pubhshed also, under the name of Moses of Mardeen, 2. A theological Contemplation on the Holy Trinity
chiefly

compiled from various Syrian divines.
patriarch
in

John Sulaka,
Ebedjesu,
fession.

1553

:

a

Confession,

edited by Masius in Syriac
patriarch,

and Latin, 1569.
:

1554

four Poems, and a Con-

Moses, patriarch of the Maronites, 156/
tles.

:

four Epis-

Elija, patriarch of Babylon
to Paul V.
;

:

a Confession addressed

Epistles to the same.

Adam,

archimandrite,* and in 1615 bishop of

Amida

:

at first a Nestorian, but subsequently submitted to

Rome

:

Three Discourses, one written in the former part of his
*

A monastery was
title

sometimes called Mandra, that

hence the

of Archimandritay

is, " a fold ; " the chief father or governor of

a

monastery."

260
life

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
in

the
it.

defence

of

Nestorianism

;

the

two

latter

against

Elijah, patriarch, 1615

:

an Epistle.
:

Simeon, bishop of Amida, 1616 Hymns. Gabriel Hesna, 1616 Hymns. Gabriel, a Chaldee archbishop, 1616 Two eulogistic Poems addressed to Paul V. John Baslukita, M. a Poem on Man, composed at Rome, in 1627. George Amira, M., studied at Rome, and was elected
:
:

:

Maronite patriarch in 1633
tin,)

:

a Sjiriac

Grammar,

(in La-

with prolegomena on the antiquity, dignity,

excel-

lence,

and utihty of the language.
1629, educated at

Isaac, bishop of Sciadra,
1.

Rome:
metrical

A

Syriac

Grammar

in that language; 2.

A

Eulogy on Urban VIII.

Joseph Acuriensis,
riac

patriarch, M., ob.

1647: a Sy-

Grammar, printed

at

Rome

in 1645.
:

Thomas, bishop of Marga, 1663 Joseph II., patriarch, ob. 1714

a monastic History.
a

:

Work on

the Nes-

torian Controversy on the person of Christ.

second class.

AUTHORS OF UNCERTAIN DATES.
:

John bar Isaac a treatise on the fear of God a Syriac Grammar and a small Lexicon. Elisha, Commentaries on Job, and the Epistles to the OraCorinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, and Philippians
or
;
;

Chun AN,

tions

and Prayers.
:

comprising treatises on
Sects
tract
;

John bar Phinyokee, monk, N. Grammar against
;

seven volumes,
certain heretical

on the seven eyes of the Lord

;

and a non-extant
is

on Bonds,

(U Aseree,)
:

but in what sense

uncertain.

Mochimus, presbyter against Eutyches. a Disputation Aitken, monk of Mount Izla, N.
:

;

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
Epistles
;

261

a treatise on Discipline

;

an Ecclesiastical His-

tory

;

and a Life of the abbot Joseph.
:

a

Elisha bar Saphanin, monk of Mount Izla, N. Commentary on the Psalms Sentences Enigmas.
; ;

Abraham Katina,
DoMNius
Susi
:

N.

:

Sentences

;

Questions.

:

Orations.
of Thanksgivings.

Ara
sanes
;

:

A Book A work
:

against Magic

;

another against Barde-

and a third against Pacorus or Pacor. Zaki of Sura A Cosmogony.

John Estunoia, or the Stylite Jesu bar Ali A Lexicon.
:

:

A

Syriac

Grammar.

Gabriel (under Haroun Alraschid) A Lexicon. John bar Kaldon, monk of Beth Sajare, N.
:

:

Po-

lemic and ascetical Treatises, and a collection of moral

Epigrams, with the

title

of "

The Beauty of Beauties,"

extant in the Vatican.

George, bishop
Barita, monk
:

of Nisebin

:

A

theological

Poem, preii.

served In the history of

Thomas

of Marga, Ub.

cap. 12.

A

Monastic History.

Abraham

:

Church-Constitutions.
:

Sabarjesu, presbyter of Mosul A Poem on Fasting, and a Disputation between a Christian and a Jew.

Madusus, physician
the Messiah.

:

A Poem

on the Epiphany of
of St.

leucia at Cansarin

John bar Aphtonius, abbot a Poem on the
:

Thoma

of Se-

Nativity, extant.

Theodosius,

Jacobite
:

:

Epistles.

IsAiA, of Arzunita

A

Martyrology.
:

Cosma, presbyter

of Phanir in Ccelo-Syria
Epistle.
:

A

hfe of

Simeon the Styhte, and an

John

of

Apamea
Life.

in Coelo-Syria

Tracts and Epistles

on the spiritual

George, bishop

of the Arab Christians

:

A

Chronicle

or Calendar in Metre.

262

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
of Edessa
:

Phocas

A

Commentary on the Works of
:

Dionysius the Areopagite.

Abucora, bishop
before
Paris,

of Harran, J.

A

history of a Dis-

putation held between

him and a the KhaUf Almamon, extant

certain

Mahometan,

in the Bib.

Roy ale,
on

Codd.

Sp:

126.
J.
:

the

Moses Severus, or Bar Cepha, Work of the six Days.

A

Treatise

Omar
tion.

of Bassora,

N

:

Theological Questions.
:

John, surnamed the Scholar

A

Treatise

on the Crea-

Abraham ben Noah
Jahia bar Harriri
:

:

Against the Jews.
Treatise on the Priesthood.

A

Andrew
Disciple.

of Edessa

:

Dialogues between a Master and

Elija, bishop of Edessa
of the Gospels.

:

Explanations of some parts

Abraham

of Bassora

:

A
:

Dialogue.

Abulezztus, presbyter

Prayers and Offices.
art. 193,
;

Ebedjesu in his bibhographical poem,

speaks

of an anonymous work on the Incarnation a " Book of Elucidations " and two volumes of Historical Narratives.
;

There are several anonymous
homiletic,

treatises, controversial

and

among

the Syriac

mss. in the British

Mu-

seum.

third class.

—translations.
Syrian church was
materially

The
religion
this

hterature of the

enriched by the introduction of

many

precious works in

and philosophy * from the Greek language.

In

department we find such labourers as Rabbula, and
Sergius of Rhesina,

Phocas of Edessa, Ihiba, Surin, Hippolytus, Cyprian of
Nisebin,

Paul of Cyprus, Matthew

Jona, Jacob of Edessa, Simeon of Garmaea, and others.

Some

of these translations exist at the present day, and
*

Of the

latter, are

the works of Aristotle and Galen.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
are of

263

no

slight value,

whether considered in relation to

the fact that several of

them were made nigh upon the

times of the original authors, or that others, of which
there are exemplars in the British

Museum,* were
means

writ-

ten long before the oldest manuscript of the originals

now
first

extant

;

or,

finally,

that by this

treatises

at

written in Greek, but which, from having perished

in

that language, were

known
Such

in

Europe only by

their

titles,

or a few fragments in ancient authors, have been
are the Paschal Letters of

preserved to the world.

Athanasius, and the Theophany of Eusebius of Cesarea.

But many of the translations enumerated in the following
list

are probably irrecoverably lost.f

Ignatius,
Fire :"

whom

the Syrians
Ignatius
:]

call

Nurana, " Light

or

[q. d, ^^7^e^^5=

Epistles to Polycarp, the

Ephesians, and Romans.

Clement. The
nons.
(?)

Recognitions

;

(?)

the Apostolical Ca-

DioNYSius.
Tatian.

The

Celestial Hierarchy.

a

Diatessaron.

This arrangement of the

four Gospels was accompanied, according to Bar-Salib,

with a Commentary by Ephrem.

Melito, bishop
Eusebius, H. E.
iv.

of
26.

Sardis.

An

Oration.

Compare

Africanus.
HipPOLYTus.

Commentaries and Chronicon.
Tracts.

Gregory Thaumaturgus.
Commentaries
;

on St. John's Gospel and part of the Apocrypha a treatise on the Incarnation a book " against Gains ;" and a defence of the
;

Apocalypse.

St.

Athanasius. Epistles, Orations, Apology, Anthony, and a tract, inscribed to Epictetus.
Egypt by
the Rev.

Life

of

* Obtained from a monastery in

Henry Tat-

tam.
•j-

I have inserted them on the authority of Ebed-Jesu*s

Mimra,

art.

3—48.

264

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.

Methodius.

A work
and

''

on the Succession of Genera-

tions," (Ebed-Jesu,)

Epistles.

Zenobius, against Marcion and Pamphylium. EusEBius of Cesarea Ecclesiastical History Theo(translated into English by professor Lee, from phania the copy brought from Egypt by the Rev. Mr. Tattam ;) Chronicon, Harmony of the Gospels and Canons Topography of the Holy Land, Life of Constantine, Apology for Origen, the Martyrs of Palestine, and two Orations. Ammonius, a disciple of St. Anthony Epistles. EusEBius of Emesa against the Jews Questions on the Old Testament, and a Homily.
:

;

;

;

:

:

;

Titus, bishop of Bostra

:

against the Manicheans

;

im-

perfect in the Greek, but complete in the Syriac translation.

Macarius. The Ascetical Treatise. Marcus. Ethical sentences or common-places.
John, an Egyptian monk a small IsAiA, monk Ten HomiUes.
: :

ascetical Treatise.

Ammonius, monk Epistles. Diodorus of Tarsus On the
: :

Incarnation

;

on Astro-

logy.

Basil the Great
tions,

:

on the Work of the Six Days, Oraon the Holy
Spirit,

Epistles,

Treatise

and the

larger Rule.

Gregory Nyssen.

Exposition of the Lord's Prayer
;

;

on the Evangelic Beatitudes

Homilies.

Gregory Nazianzen.
EvAGRius
of Pontus
Life.
:

Many

of his works in prose
five

and iambic verse were translated in

volumes.
active

A

celebrated

work on the
entitled,

and contemplative

Palladius.
dise
;

The Lausiac History,

" Para-

" an account of the Acts and Discourses of the
in three parts, to

most eminent Egyptian Monks,

which

a fourth was subsequently added by St. Jerome.

THE SYRIAN CHrRCHES.
Epiphanius, on "the Divine Manifestation,"
V.cn!£
IIj^

265

^^

" Oil Heresies."
:

Chrysostom
apostoHcal

Homilies on Matthew, John, and the
;

Epistles

Treatises

on the Priesthood and

Baptism
the

;

Discourses against the Jews, on Penitence, on
of Egypt,

Monks

and on Consolation.
to

Proclus, successor
various Tracts.

Chrysostom
of

at Constantinople

:

NiLUS,
Tracts.

monk,

disciple

Chrysostom

:

Ascetical

Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia, surnamed Maphashkona, or the " Commentator '* voluminous Expo:

sitions of the

Holy Scriptures

;

fifteen

books on the InSpirit,

carnation

;

Treatises

on the

I'aith,

on the Holy
;

the Sacraments, the Creation, and on Sin
mius,
against

against Eunoagainst

Magic,

against

the

Allegorists,

Apollinarius, with various smaller tracts.

Xystus.

a

Discourse on the Love of God.
:

HomiHes, Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople Orations, and Epistles. Cyril of Alexandria. The greater number of his

works were translated into
Nestorian controversy.

Syriac

at

the time of the

Among

these,

the

Commentary

on

St.

Luke,

lost

in the Greek, excepting a few fragis still

ments in the Catenae,

extant.

Theodoret,
Philotheus,
or

bishop of
the

Cyrus, on the Incarnation
Life
;

;

Monastic

a

Treatise
;

against

Origen

;

a Solution of the Chapters of St. Cyril
Ecclesiastical History, a

a

Com-

mentary on Daniel, an

Defence

of Diodorus and Theodore, Epistles on various subjects.

iRENiEUS, count of the empire, commissary of the

emperor

at

the council of Ephesus

:

Historical Details

on the Nestorian Controversy.

Conf.

Dupin,

Biblioth.

tome

iii.

part. 2, p. 119.

N

266
S0CRA.TES.

THE SYRIAN CHURCHES.
The
Ecclesiastical History,

and a His-

tory of the Emperors Constantine and Jovian.

EuTHERius.

A

disputation against the Theopaschitee

;

Homilies, and an Exposition of the Gospel.

Theophilus Persa.
St. Cyril,

An Answer

to the Chapters of

and a book against Dositheus.
a disciple of Theodore of Mopsuestia,
Isaiah,

Theodulos,
Commentaries on

and a work on the Psalms.

Basilius Cilex. Interpretations, [" Turgomee,"] and
" various documents.''

Isidore of Pelusium

:

Epistles.

John

of

Apamea

:

Epistles.
:

Jacob, a

disciple of the foregoing

a

Commentary on
:

Jeremiah, Matthew, and the apostolical Epistles.

TiMOTHEUs,

patriarch of Alexandria

an History of

the Council of Chalcedon.

expositors

AauELiNus. A Commentary, selected from the older on Matthew and John. Philotheus. a Commentary on Ezekiel, and a
on Medicine.

treatise

Eranistes.

"A Disputation."
of Ephesus
:

Ebed

Jesu.

John, bishop

an Ecclesiastical History.
Ephesus,
Antioch,

Canons
Gangra,

of the Councils of Nice, Ancyra, Neocaesarea,

Laodicea,

Constantinople,

Chalcedon, and the second of Ephesus.

Liturgies 186—236. Statutes
Theodosius.

:

several

from the Greek.
emperors

— See

ante, pages

of

the

Constantine,

Leo,

and

END OF THE CONSPECTUS.

THE FOUR GOSPELS

THE PESCHITO SYRIAC,

VeRITATI PRORSUS est CONSENTANEr.W, INTRA IPSA ECCLESfJi: Christi initia, vel ab apostolis ipsis, vel ab eordm DisciPULis, Versionem Syriacam PROFECTAM. Em. Tremellius.

n2

*^* This translation of the Four Gospels has been directly from the Syriac. The text chiefly followed is that of Gutbir, 1664, compared with the editions of Paris, G. F. Boderiani, 1584, Walton in the London Polyglot, and Schaaf's of 1709. The rubrics for the lessons are from Walton. The object of the translator having been to offer in Enghsh an accurate representation of

made

these

venerable

eastern

scriptures,

the

version

is

as

hteral as the structure of the two

languages seems to

a desire to preserve the air and manner, as meaning, of the original, he has retained the Syrian orthography of the proper names, and has left some of the pecuhar denominatives of the gospel narra-

admit.
well

From

as

tive untranslated.

Such

are the titles of Pharishee, the

Pharisees, Zadnkoyee, the Sadducees, Sophree, the Scribes,

Malphona, Doctor, &c.

Aloha,

(the rr^N of the

unaltered.

The name of the Divine Being, Hebrew revelation,) is also left In the expression of these names the method

of the Nestorians has been followed rather than that used by the Western Syrians, because in the former the pronunciation more fully accords with the orthography.

THE HOLY GOSPEL:
THE PREACHING

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.

'

X
O
V

tfxV

p

>r.

\7

T^

^

7-^T

BY THE

STRENGTH OF OUR LORD AND OUR ALOHA

JESHU MESHICHA,
WE
AND
BEGIN TO WRITE THE BOOK OF THE HOLY GOSPEL
FIRST,
;

THE GOSPEL, THE PREACHING OF MATHAI.

For the first Day

in the

Week

before the Nativity.

The record

of the generation of Jeshu the Meslii-

cha, the son of David, son of

Abraham.

Abraham begat

Ishok, Ishok begat Jakub, Jakub begat Jehuda and his
brethren, Jehuda begat Pharets and Zoroch from Tho-

mar.

Pharets

begat

Hetsron,

Hetsron

begat

Arom,

Arom

begat Aminodob, Aminodob begat Nachshun, Naeh-

shun begat Salmun, Salmun begat Booz from Rochab, Booz begat Ubid from Ruth, Ubid begat Ishai, Ishai
begat David the king
;

David begat Shelemun from [her
;

who had

been] the wife of Uria

Shelemun begat Rehe-

baam, Rehebaam begat Abia, Abia begat Asa, Asa begat
Johashaphat,

Jurom, Jurom begat Juthom begat Ahaz, Ahaz begat Hezakia, Hezakia begat Menasha, Menasha begat Amun,

Johushaphat begat

Uzia, Uzia begat Juthom,

Amun

begat Jushia, Jushia begat Jukania and his bre-

272

THE PREACHING OF

thren at the exile of Bobel.

And

after the exile of Bobel

Jukania begat Shalathiel, Shalathiel begat Zurbobel, Zurbobel begat Abiud, Abiud begat Aliakim, Aliakim begat
Ozur, Ozur begat Zoduk,

Aliud, Aliud begat Aliozar, Aliozar begat Mathan,

Zoduk begat Akin, Akin begat Mathan
is

begat Jakub, Jakub begat Jauseph, husband of Mariam, of

whom was

born Jeshu who

called the

Meshicha.*

Thus aU the generations from Abraham to David and from David to the (were) fourteen generations
;

exile of Bobel, fourteen generations

;

and from the

exile

of Bobel to the Meshicha, fourteen generations.
II.

Revelation of Jauseph.

Now

the nativity of Jeshu the Meshicha was thus
to

While Mariam his mother was betrothed
with child from the Spirit of Holiness.

Jauseph,

before they could be consociated, she was found to be

But Jauseph her
these

husband was
tated

just, and,

not willing to defame her, mediher.

privately to

release

But while (on)

(things) he reflected, an angel of the

Lord appeared to
which
conshall
;

him

in a dream,

and said
from the

to him, Jauseph, son of David,
;

fear not to take

Mariam thy wife
and thou

for that

is

ceived in her

is

Spirit of Holiness.

She

give birth to a son,
for he shall
this

shalt call his

name Jeshu

save his people from their sins.

Now

all

was done, that what was spoken from the Lord by f
:

the prophet might be fulfilled

Behold, a virgin shall be

with child, and shall bring forth the son, and they shall

name Amanuel which is interpreted. With us Then Jauseph, when he had arisen from his sleep, did as the angel of the Lord commanded him, and took unto him his wife and knew her not until she
call
(is)

his

;

our Aloha.

;

had given birth
his

to her son, the first-born

;

and she

called

name Jeshu.
Pronounced Meshee'ha.

f By

the

hand of the prophet.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.

273

III.

Evening of the Nativity.

Now when
Jehuda, in

Jeshu

was

the days of

born in Beth-lechem of Herodes the king, there came

Magians* from the East to Urishlem: and they said, Where is the king of the Jews f who is born ? for we have seen his star in the east, and have come to worship
him.

and

But Herodes the king heard, and was troubled, And he assembled all the Urishlem with him. chief priests and scribes of the people, and anxiously
all

inquired of them where the Meshicha should be born.

But they
written

said.

In Beth-lechem of Jehuda

;

for so

it is

in

the

prophet

:

Also

thou,

Beth-lechem

of
;

Jehuda, wast not the least
for

among

the kings of Jehuda

from thee

shall

come forth the king who
privately
at

shall be as a

shepherd to

my

people Isroel.
called

Then them

Herodes

the

Magians,

and

learned from
:

them

what time the
to

star

appeared to

and he sent them

Beth-lechem, and said to
;

them. Go and inquire diligently concerning the child

and

when you have found him, come, show me, and I also will go and will worship him. But they, when they had
heard the king, went forth
;

and,

lo,

the

star,

which they
it

had seen in the

east,

proceeded before them, until

came and stood over against where the child was. Now when they saw the star, they rejoiced with very great joy.

And
him.

they entered the house, and beheld the child with
his

Mariam
him
it

mother

;

and they

fell

down, and worshipped

And

they opened their treasures, and offered unto
;

oblations

gold,
to

was shown

and myrrh, and frankincense. And them in a dream, that they should not
;

return unto Herodes

so,

by another way, they went

unto their place.
*

Magushee.

f

Jihudoyee,

N

5

274

THE PREACHING OF
IV. Morning of the Slaughter of the Infants.

And when
Arise,

they were gone, the angel of the Lord

appeared in a dream unto Jauseph, and said to him.
take
the
child

and

his
I

mother, and
tell

flee
it

into

Metsreen, and there be until
that Herodes will

thee

;

for

will be

seek the child, that he

may

destroy

him.

Then Jauseph arose, took up the child and his mother, and fled by night into Metsreen, and was there
That
it

until the death of Herodes.

might be

fulfilled

which was spoken from the Lord by the prophet, saying. Out of Metsreen have I called my son.

Then Herodes, when he saw that he had been deluded
by the Magians, was greatly wroth, and sent (and)
all

killed

the children of Beth-lechem, and

all its limits,

from

two years and under,* according
inquired from the

to the time

which he had
fulfilled

Magians.

Then was

what

was spoken by Eramio the prophet, who
heard in

said,

A

cry was

Rometha

;

weeping and great lamentation

Rochel weeping for her children, and not willing to be
comforted, because they are not.

V. Oblation of the Slaughter of the Infants.

But when

Herodes, the king, was dead, the angel of

the Lord appeared in a dream to Jauseph in Metsreen,

and said to him.
sought the

Arise, take the child
Isroel
;

and his mother,

and go into the land of
life

for they are dead

who

of the child.

And Jauseph

arose, (and)

took the child and his mother, and came into the land of
Isroel.

Bnt when he heard that Arkelaos was the king
he was afraid to

in Jehud, instead of Herodes his father,

go thither

:

and

it

was shown

to

him

in a dream, that he

should go into the region of Galila.
dwelt in a city which
*
is

And he came and
So would be

called Natsrath.

A

son of two years.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
fulfilled

275

that which was spoken by the prophet, that a Nazarene * he should be called.

VI. Feast of the Epiphany.

Now
the of

in

those

days came

Juchanon f the Baptizer
nigh.

preaching in the desert of Jehud, and saying, Repent

kingdom

of heaven hath

drawn

For

this is
:

he

whom

it

was spoken by Eshaia thp prophet
desert.
his paths plain.

voice

which crieth in the

the Lord,

make

The Prepare ye the way of But this Juchanon, his
food was locusts and

clothing was of the hair of camels, with a loins-belt of
leather

upon

his

loins

;

and

his

wilderness-honey.

Then went him

forth to

him

Urishlem,:j:
;

the whole country about Jurdan
in Jurdan,

and all Jehud, and and were baptized of

the

river,

while they were confessing

their sins.

But when he saw many of the Pharishee and Zodukoyee coming to be baptized, he said to them. Generation
of vipers,

who hath showed you
?

to escape

from the wrath

that Cometh

Work,

therefore, fruits

which are suitable
for I say to

to repentance.
selves,

Neither ruminate and say within youris

that

Abraham
is

father to us

;

that Aloha

able

from these stones

to raise

you up sons unto
fruit

Abraham.
trees
is
;

But, behold, the axe Heth at the root of the

every tree, therefore, which

maketh not good
I,

cut

down and

falleth into the fire.
;

indeed, baptize

you with water unto repentance
after

but

He who cometh
I

me

is

mightier than

I

;

worthy

to bear,

—he

he,

whose sandals
is)

am

not
of

baptizeth you with the

Spirit
is

HoHness and with
into

fire.

He

(it

whose fan

in his

hand, and, purifying his

floors,

the wheat he gathereth

his garner, but the chaflf he burneth with the fire
is

that

not quenched.

* Natsrcio.

f

Or, Yu'hanan.

X Pron. Oorishlem.

276

THE PREACHING OF
Galila unto Jurdan to

Then came Jeshu from
to be baptized of him.

Juchanan

But Juchanon prohibited him, and said, I need from thee to be baptized, and hast thou come unto me ? But Jeshu answered and said unto him. Permit [this] now ; for thus it becometh us to accom-

pHsh

all

righteousness.

And

then he permitted him.

But when Jeshu was baptized, he immediately ascended from the waters and the heaven was opened unto him
;

;

and he saw the
dove,

Spirit of Aloha,

who

descended, hke the
lo,

and came upon him.
said.

And,

the voice

from

heaven, which

This

(is)

my

Son, the Beloved, in

whom

I

have delighted.

VII. Fo?' the first

Day

in the

Week commencing

the Fast,

and

the Oblation of Lent.

Then

Jeshu was led by the Spirit of Holiness into the
he should be tempted by the Accuser.
;

desert, that

And
said.

he fasted forty days anJ forty nights
hungered.
If the

but afterward he

And he who tempteth approached and
But he answered and
liveth the

Son thou

art of Aloha, say that these stones shall
said. It is written

become bread.
that not

by bread alone

Son of man, but by

mouth of Aloha. Then the Accuser taketh him to the holy city, and caused him to stand on the pinnacle of the temple and said to him, If the Son thou art of Aloha, throw thyself down
eveiy word which proceedeth from the
;

;

for

it is

written that his angels he shall

command

concern-

ing thee, and upon their hands they shall bear thee, that

thou strike not against a stone thy
him. Again
it is

foot.

Jeshu said to

written,

Thou

shalt not

tempt the Lord
to a
all

thy Aloha.

Again the Accuser took him

mountain
the king-

which

is

exceeding high, and showed him
;

doms
These

of the world and their glory
all to

and said to him.
fall

thee will

I give, if

thou wilt

and worship

me.

Then

said Jeshu to him,

Away

with thee, Satana!

MATHAl THE APOSTLE.
for it is written that the

277

ship,
left

and him only thou shalt

Lord thy Aloha thou shalt worThen the Accuser serve.

him, and, behold, the angels drew nigh and ministered

unto him.
VIII. For the first

Day

in the

Week

after the Manifesta-

tion (Epiphany).

he removed into Galila.

But when Jeshu heard that Juchanan was perfected, And he left Natsrath, and came
sea-side ^

and dwelt in Kaphar-Nachum by the
borders of Zabolon and of Naptholi.

on the

That the thing

might be
Eshaia,

fulfilled

which was spoken by the prophet

who said. The land of Zabolon, the land of Naptholi, the way of the sea beyond Jurdan, Galila of the peoples. The people who sat in darkness the great hght hath seen and they who have sat in the region and shadow of death, the light has arisen upon them. From that time began Jeshu to preach, and to say,
;

Repent!' for the kingdom of heaven hath drawn nigh.

And

while he walked by the sea of Galila, he saw two

brethren,

Shemun who was called Kipha, and Andreas who were casting their nets into the sea, for they were fishers. And Jeshu said to them. Come after me, and I will make you to become fishers of men. And
his brother,

they immediately forsook their nets and went after him.

And when he had

passed thence,

he saw two other

brethren, Jakub-bar-Zabdai and Juchanan his brother, in
a vessel with Zabdai their father, repairing their nets

and Jeshu
sel

called

them

;

and they forthwith
after

left

the ves-

and

their father,

and went

him.

And Jeshu perambulated
kingdom, and healed
people.
*

all Galila,

and taught in their

synagogues,! and preached
all

announcement of the disease and affliction in the
the
all

And
the

his

fame was heard in
tlie sea.

Suria

j

and they

By

hand of

f Or

assemblies, congregations.

278
brought to him

THE PREACHING OF
all

those

who were

grievously affected

with various diseases, and those who were pressed down

by strong
paralysed
;

pains,

and demoniacs, and

lunatics,

and the
cities,

and he healed them.

And

there went after

him

great gatherings from Galila, and from the ten

and from Urishlem, and from Jehud, and from beyond
Jurdan.
IX. The Apostles and Patriarchs.

But when
mountain
saying
;

Jeshu saw the multitudes, he ascended a
sat

and when he had
;

down, his

disciples

drew

near to him

and he opened

his

mouth and taught them,

Blessed (are) the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed the mourners, for they
shall

be comforted.

Blessed the meek, for they shall
Blessed they

inherit the earth.

who hunger and
satisfied.

thirst

unto righteousness, for they shall be
the merciftd, for upon

Blessed
Blessed

them

shall

be mercy.
for

they

who

are pure in their

hearts,

they shall see

Aloha.

Blessed the makers of peace, for the children of
shall they be called.

Aloha

Blessed they

who
is

are perse-

cuted because of righteousness, for theirs
of heaven.
reviling,
evil

the

kingdom
you with

Blessed are you

when they

treat

and persecute you, and say concerning you every

word, for

my

sake, in falsity.
is

Then be glad and
;

exult, for

your reward

great in heaven

for so perse-

cuted they the prophets

who were
:

before you.
if it
it

You
become

are the salt of the earth
tasteless,

but

happen that

salt

with what shall

be seasoned?

It

goeth for nothing but to be thrown without and trodden

down by men.
possible that

You

are the light of the world
is

;

It is

not

a city which

built

upon a
it

hill
it

can be

hidden.

Nor do they kindle a lamp and
the house.

place

beneath
all

a measure, but on a candlestick, and
•v^ho are in

enlighteneth

So

let

your light shine before the

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
sons of men, that they
glorify your Father

279

may
is

see

your good works, and

who
I

in heaven.
to loose the law or the pro-

Think not that
phets
For,
shall
:

came

not that
I say

I

might

loose,

but that I might

fulfil.

Amen

unto you, that until heaven and earth
be done.

pass away, one yod, or one point,* shall not pass
till all

from the law,

Every one, therefore, who

shall set loose

one from these least commandments, and

shall so teach the children of

men, the
:

least shall

he be

called
shall

in the

kingdom

of heaven

but every one
shall

who

do and teach [them], this [one]

be called

great in the

kingdom

of heaven.

For

I

say to you, that

unless your righteousness shall

abound more than that of

the scribes f and the Pharishee, you shall not enter into the

kingdom

of heaven.

X. Third Morning of the first

Week of the

Fast.

You
before,

have heard that

Thou
is

shalt

was said unto them who were and whosoever shall kill is not kill
it
;

obnoxious to the judgment.

But

I

say unto you, that
is

he who
to

angry against his brother rashly,
;

obnoxious

the judgment
!

and he who
fool

shall say to his brother.
;

who
If

Thou empty one is shall say. Thou
it

liable to the council
!

and every one
fire.

is liable

to the gihano of

occur, therefore, that thou bring thy oblation to the

altar,

and there rememberest that thy brother retaineth
;

some enmity against thee
the altar, and go,
first

leave

there thy oblation at

be reconciled with thy brother,

and then come and

offer

thy oblation.

Be

at

one with
in the

thine adversary^ quickly, while thou art with
*

him

Codex Vienniensis. This order of public teachers (the preaching and writing clergy of the Jews) does not seem sufficiently indicated by Luther well renders the word " scribes " in the English version.
line."
-f

" One

Sophree.

the corresponding Greek term

by Schriftgelehrten.

X Beel-dino, "lord of strife."

280

THE PREACHING OF
;

way

lest

thy adversary deliver thee to the judge, and
fall

the judge deliver thee to the exactor, and thou
the house of the bound.
that thou shalt not

into

And,

Amen

I

say unto thee,
till

come forth from thence
that
it

thou hast

rendered the last shamuna.*

You have heard
commit adultery.
beholdeth a

hath been

said.

Thou

shalt not

But

I

say to you, that every one

who

woman

so as that he shall desire her, already

committeth adultery in his heart.
cause thee to offend, root
is
it

But

if
it

thy right eye

out and cast

from thee

:

it

better to thee that one of thy

members should
fall

perish,

than that thy whole body should
if
it

into gihano.
it

And
cast

thy right hand cause thee to offend, cut

off

and

from thee

;

for

it

is

better to thee that one from thy

members should
It

perish,

rather

than

thy whole

body

should faU into gihano.

hath been

said, that

he who looseth his wife should

give her a writing of divorcement.

But

I

say unto you,

that whosoever looseth his wife, except
fornication,

on account of
;

maketh her

to

commit adultery
was
I

and whoso-

ever taketh her
x-Vgain,

who
lie

is

sent away, committeth adultery.
it

you have heard
shalt

said

to those beforetime,

Thou
all

not

in thine

oaths, but shalt fulfil thine

oaths unto the Lord.
:

But
it is

say unto you. Swear not at

not by heaven, for
it is

the throne of Aloha
;

;

nor by
Neither

earth, for

the foot-stool beneath his feet
it

neither by

Urishlem, for
shalt

is

the city of the great king.

thou swear by thy head, for thou canst not make a
it

single hair in

either black or white.
;

But

let

your

dis-

course be. Yea, yea

Nay, nay
evil.
it

;

for whatsoever is

more

than these

is

from the

You have heard
eye,

that

hath been

said.

An

eye for an

and a tooth

for a tooth.

But

I

say unto you, that

* A minute coin, in value the one-eighth of the asor, or assarius from the Plebrew shemoneh, " eight."

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
you
shall not rise

281
if

up

against evil

:

but

any one

strike

thee on the right cheek, turn to

him

the other also.

will contend with thee to take away thy him thy mantle also and if a man compel Give to him who thee one mile, go with him twain. asketh from thee, and him who would borrow from thee

And

if

any one

tunic, leave

;

refuse not.

You have heard

that

it

hath been

said.

Thou
But
I

shalt love

thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy.*
you. Love your enemies
;

say unto

bless

them who
chain,

execrate
;

you

do that which
for

is

good

to

him who hateth you

and pray
in

them who lead you with a

and persecute you.
is

That you may be the children of your Father who
heaven,
the
evil,

who
For

causeth his sun to arise on the good and on

and who sendeth showers on the just and on the
if

unjust.

you love those (only) who love you, what
?

reward have you

do not even the tribute-gatherers this
to your brethren only,

?

And

if

you wish peace
?

what more
?

do you than they

do not also the tribute-gatherers this

Be ye
is

therefore perfect, as your Father

who

is

in heaven

perfect

XL
See
reward

Fourth Morning

in the first

Week of the
it

Fast.

that in your almsgiving you do

not before men,
;

so as that
is

you may be observed by them
for

otherwise no
is

you with your Father who
thou
art

in heaven.

When,
blies

therefore,

doing alms, sound not a trum-

pet before thee, as do the assumers of faces in the assem-

and

streets, so that
I

they

may be

praised from

men
But
left

and.
thou,

Amen

say to you, they receive their reward.
let

when thou art doing thy alms, hand know what thy right hand doeth, may be in secret and thy Father, who
;

not thy

that thine alms

seeth in secret,

shall

recompense thee in openness.
* Master of enmity.

282

THE PREACHING OF
prayest, be not as the face-takers,

And when thou

who
and
But

love to stand in the assemblies
streets to pray, that they

and

at the corners of the

may be

seen of

men

;

*

truly I say to

you that they receive

their reward.

thou,

when thou
;

prayest, enter into thy secret chamber,

and shut thy door, and pray to thy Father who is in and thy Father, who seeth in secret, shall reward secret
thee in openness.

And when thou
;

art

praying, be not
that in

wordy, like the profane
speaking they are heard.
Father knoweth what
ask him.
vens
!

for they think

much

is
:

Be you not Hke them, for your needful for you before that you
art

Thus pray
sanctified

Our Father who

in the hea-

be

thy Name.

Come thy kingdom.
Give to us

Be done thy
as also

will, as in

heaven, also in earth.
;

the bread of our need to-day

and forgive us our debts,
;

we

forgive

our debtors

and lead us not into
evil.

temptation, but deliver us from the

For thine

is

kingdom and the power and the glory to the age of ages. For if you forgive men their trespasses, your Father
the

who

is

in heaven will forgive

you

also.

But

if

you

will

not forgive men, your Father also forgiveth not your
trespasses unto you.

XII. Second

Day
you

in the second
fast,

Week of the

Fast.
the

When,
assumers of
that they

too,

be not morosely sad as

faces, for

they defile their countenances so as
to fast
:

may appear unto men
fasting,

and,

Amen

I

say

unto you, they receive their reward.

But thou, when

thou
that
to

art
it

wash thy
in

face

and anoint thine head, and thy Father who

may

not appear to

men

that thou art fasting, but
;

thy Father

who

is

secret

seeth in secret, he shall reward thee.

place where

Lay not up for yourselves treasures 'in the earth, a moth and rust corrupt, and where thieves dig through and steal but lay up for yourselves trea:

*

The

sons of men.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
sures in heaven, where no

283
and

moth and no

rust corrupt,

where thieves do not dig through and steal. your treasure is, there also your hearts are.
of the body
is

For where

The lamp
thine eye be

the eye

:

if

thine eye therefore be perfect,
;

thy whole body will be illuminated
evil,

but

if

thy whole body will be dark.
is

If therefore the light
will

that

in thee be darkness,
serve

what
;

thy darkness be

?

No man can

two lords
will

for the one

he

will hate,

and the other he

love, or the
:

one he will honour,

and the other he
riches.

will neglect

you cannot serve Aloha and

XIII. Third

Bay
I

in the first

Week of

the Fast.

Wherefore
for your bodies

say unto you. Let not your souls be

anxious what you shall eat and what you shall drink, and

what you

shall wear.

Is not the hfe
?

more

excellent than food,

and the body than raiment
;

Behold

the fowls of the heaven

they sow not, neither do they
;

reap, nor collect into granaries

yet your Father

who

is

them are you not far more considerable than they ? But who among you by being anxious can add to his stature one cubit ? and concerning raiment why are you anxious 1 Look upon the lilies of the
in heaven nourisheth
:

wilderness

how
Yet

they increase
I

;

they

toil

not, neither do
all

they spin.
his glory
if

say to you. Not even Shelemun in
like

was covered

one from among these.

But
to-

the herb of the

field,

which to-day

exists,

and

morrow falleth into the oven. Aloha thus clotheth, how much more you, Httle of faith 1 Be not anxious, therefore,

nor say.

What
shall

shall

we

eat,
?

or.

What
:

shall
all

we

drink, or.

How
is

we be

covered

For after
inquire
also

these

things do the people of the world

but your

Father

who

in heaven
all.

knoweth that
first

by you are

required these

But seek
and

the

kingdom of Aloha

and

his righteousness,

all

these shall be added unto

284
you.

THE PREACHING OF
Be not
therefore anxions for to-morrow
;

the moris

row
for

shall care for its
it.

own

:

the evil of to-day

enough

XIV. Third Bay

in the second

Week of

the Fast.

Judge

not, that

you be not judged.
shall

For with the
;

judgment that you judge, you shaE be judged
the measure that you mete,
it

and with

be measured to you.
is

But why dost thou look
eye, while the

at the

rod that

in thy brother's

rafter that is in thine

own

eye thou dost

not consider

?

Or how

sayest thou to thy brother. Pereye, and, behold,

mit that
there
forth
is

I

draw forth the rod from thine

a rafter in thine

own

eye

?

Hypocrite
eye,

!

draw

first

the rafter from thine

own

and then thou
eye.

wilt see to

draw forth the rod from thy brother's

Give not the holy unto dogs, and throw not your precious stones before swine, lest they trample
their feet,

them imder
shall

and turn again and rend you. Ask, and it shall be given to you seek, and you find knock, and it shall be opened unto you.
;
;

For

every one

who

asketh receiveth

;

and he who seeketh
it

him who knocketh what man from among you, who if
findeth; and to
bread, will reach forth a stone to
shall ask of him, a serp'ent will
If,

is

opened.

Or

his

son shall ask

him ?

Or

if

a fish he
?

he reach forth to him

therefore,

you who are

evil

know

to give
shall

good

gifts

unto your children,

how much more
will that
:

your Father

who

is

in heaven give

good things to those who ask him ?

AU

therefore that

you

men

shall

do unto you,

so also do

you unto them

for

tliis is

the law and the

prophets.

XV. Friday Morning

in the first
:

Week of

the Fast.

Enter in at the narrow gate for wide is the gate, and spacious the way, that conducteth to destruction
;

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
and they are many who go
gate,

285
small
is

therein.

How

the

and narrow the way, that leadeth unto salvation;
it

and they are few who find Beware of
their fruits
-false

prophets,

who come

to

you

in

the

clothing of sheep, but within are ravening wolves.

By

you

shall

know them.
figs ?

Do

they gather from

thorns grapes, or from briers
;

So every good tree

maketh good fruits but an evil tree maketh evil fruits. A good tree cannot make evil fruits, nor an evil tree make good fruits. Every tree that maketh not good Wherefore fruits is cut down, and falleth into the fire. by their fruits you shall know them. Not every one that
saith to

me.

My
;

Lord,

my

Lord, entereth into the kingthe will of

dom
who

of heaven
is

but he

who doeth

my

Father

in heaven.

Multitudes will say to

me

in that day.

My
and

Lord,

my

Lord, in thy
ejected

name have we not
devils,
?

prophesied,

in thy

name

and in thy name perwill I confess to

formed many mighty works
them,
I

And then
far

never

knew you

;

go

from me, ye workers of

iniquity.

Every one therefore who heareth these
his house

my

words, and

doeth them, shall be likened to a wise man,

who

built

upon a

rock.

And

the rain descended, and the

torrents came,

and the winds blew, and rushed against
it fell

that house, but

not, for its foundations

were placed

upon the rock. And every one who heareth these my words, and doeth them not, shall be likened to a man who built his house upon sand. And the rain descended, and the torrents came, and the winds blew, and rushed against that house, and it fell, and the ruin of it was
great.

And when Jeshu had

finished these words, the multi-

tudes wondered at his doctrine.

For he taught them as
their
scribes

one having power, and not as
Pharishee.

and the

286

THE PREACHING OF
(Bay)

XVI. Lesson for the Evening of the
second

first

in the

Week of the

Fa^t.

When

he had descended from the mountain, great
to

multitudes clave

him.

And, behold, a certain leper
said.

came (and) worshipped him, and
art willing,

My
I

Lord,

if

thou
be

thou canst cleanse me.

And Jeshu extended

his hand,

and touched him, and

said,

am

willing

:

clean

;

and in that very hour
to the priests,

his leprosy

was cleansed.
no man, but

And Jeshu
go,

said to him. See that thou tell

show thyself

and

offer the oblation that

Musha required for their testimony. Then when Jeshu had entered into Kapharnachum, a
certain centurion approached him,

and besought of him,
Jeshu saith to him, I

saying,

My

Lord,

my

child

is

lying in the house, para-

lysed and grievously tormented.
will

come and heal him.

The centurion answered and
only speak in a word, and

saith.

My
shall

Lord,

I

am
;

not worthy that thou shouldst
"^

come beneath
child
authority,

my

roof

my
say

be healed.

For

I

also

am

a

man under
I

and under

my hand
;

there are soldiers.

Come, and he cometh and to my servant. Do this, and he doeth. When Jeshu heard this, he was moved with admiration, and said to those with him. Truly I say to
to this one. Go,

and he goeth

and

to the other,

;

you, that in Isroel
I tell you.

I

have not found faith like
shall

That many

the west, and shall

this. But come from the east, and from recline with Abraham, and Is'hok,
;

and Jakub, in the kingdom of the heavens
children of the

but the

kingdom

shall

go forth into outer dark-

nesses

;

there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
said

And Jeshu
believed,
it

unto the centurion. Go

;

as

thou hast
in

shall be to thee.

And

his child

was healed

that very hour.
* Shadow.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.

287

XVII. Lesson for the Ohlation of the
the Fast.

first i^abhath

of

And

Jeshu came to the house of Shemun, and saw his

mother-in-law lying, a fever having seized her.

And he
her
;

touched her with his hand, and the fever
she arose and ministered to them.

left

and

And when it was evening, they brought before him many demoniacs, and he cast out their devils by a word and all those who were heavily afflicted he healed. So
was
fulfilled

Eshaia,

who

said.

what had been spoken by the prophet That he should take our griefs, and

bear our infirmities.

Now when Jeshu saw the great multitudes which encompassed him, he commanded that they should go to
the opposite
shore.

And

a certain scribe

approached

him, and

said, Rabi, I will

come

after thee to the place

Jeshu saith to him. The foxes have and the fowls of heaven a bower, but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head. And another from his disciples said to him. My Lord, permit me first
whither thou goest.
their dens,
to

go and bury
after

my

father.

But Jeshu said

to

him,

Come
dead.

me, and leave the dead ones burying their

XVIII. For the Evening of the first Week of the Fast.

Day

in the third

And when
tion

Jeshu had ascended into the ship, his

disci-

ples ascended with him.

And, behold, a great commo-

was made on the

sea,
;

insomuch that the

vessel

was

covered by the waves

but Jeshu himself was asleep.

And
ing
!

the disciples approached him, that they might awake

him, saying to him, Our Lord, dehver us, we are perish-

And Jeshu
?

said to them.
arose,

httle in faith

Then he

Why are you fearful, you and forbade the wind and

288

THE PREACHING OF
But the men were
(being)
?

the sea, and there was a great calm.

struck with wonder, saying.

What

is

this,

to

whom

the winds and the sea are obedient

And when Jeshu came
came forth from
way.
thee,

to the other side, to the region

of the Godroyee, there met

him two demoniacs, who

the place of sepulchres, exceedingly

malignant, insomuch that no

man

could pass by that

And
Jeshu,

they shouted,

saying.

What

to us,

and

to

son of Aloha?

Hast thou come hither

before the time, to torment us?
distance

Now

there was at a

from them a herd of many swine feeding. Those demons, therefore, supphcated from him, saying.
If thou cast

us

out,

suffer

us to go into the herd of
:

swine.

Jeshu saith to them, Go

went

forth,

and entered into the swine

and immediately they and the whole
;

herd rushed directly over the rock, and, plunging into
the sea, perished in the waters.

And
city,

they

who tended
these demo-

them,

fled,

and went into the

and showed every

thing that was done, and what concerned
niacs.

And
;

himself

Jeshu the whole city came and when they beheld him, they besought from
forth to meet

him

that he

would remove from

their coasts.

And he
came
the

ascended (into) the ship, and went over, and

to his city.
;

And

they brought to

him

a paralytic

lying on a bed
paralytic.

and Jeshu saw

their faith,

and said

to

Be comforted, my son, thy sins are forgiven thee. But men from among the scribes said within themselves. This blasphemeth. But Jeshu knew
their reasonings,

and

said to them.
is

Why

reason ye

evil in

your hearts?
thy

For which

easier, to say.

Forgiven are

sins, or to say. Arise,

walk ?

But that ye may know
in the earth to remit

that authority hath the
sins,

he saith to him

Son of man

the paralytic,
:

Arise,

lift

up thy
to

bed, and go to thy house
his

and he arose (and) went
this,

house.

When

the

assembly saw

they feared.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
and
glorified

289
this

Aloha who had given such power as

unto men.

XIX. Fifik Day

in the

Week of

the Candidates.

And when

Jeshu had passed thence, he saw a
the tribute-takers,
to him.

man

who was sitting at the place of name was Mathai and he said
;

whose

Come

after

me

and he arose and went

after

him.

And while he rechned in the house, there came to him many tribute-gatherers and sinners, and reclined with Jeshu and with his disciples. And when the Pharishee
saw
(it),

they say to his disciples.

Why

doth your master

eat with tribute-takers

and sinners?

But Jeshu, when
diseased.*

he heard
for the

(it),

said to them,

The

healthful have no need
are

physician, but
is
:

learn
fice
;

what that
"
for I
-

—"

they
I

who
call

Go,

require mercy, and not sacri-

am

not come to

the righteous, but the

sinners.

said.

Then drew nigh to him the disciples of Juchanon, and Why do we and the Pharishee fast much, and thy
?

disciples fast not

Jeshu said to them. Neither can the

sons of the marriage-chamber fast while the bridegroom
is

with them
shall

:

but the days are coming when the bride-

groom
fast.

be taken up from them, and then shall they
inserteth a piece of

No man
lest

new
its

cloth

garment,

he should take away

fulness

upon an old from that-

garment, and the rent be greater.

Neither do they pour

new wine

into old bottles,t that the bottles

may

not be

broken, and the wine be spilled, and the bottles perish.

But they pour new wine into new
preserved.

bottles,

and both

are

XX. For

the

Commemoration of the Bead.

While

he spake these words with them, a certain
* Grievously affected.
-|-

Sacks.

290
chief

THE PREACHING OF
came, drew near, worshipped him, and said,
is

My

daughter

now dead
!

;

but come, lay thy hand upon her,
arose,, with his disciples,

and she

shall live

And Jeshu
years,

and went

after

him.

And, behold, a

woman whose

blood

had flowed twelve
herself,

came behind him, and touched
For she was saying within
his garment, I shall be healed.

the edge of his vestment.
If I touch but

But Jeshu turned and seeth her, and
comforted,

said

to

her.

Be

my

daughter, thy faith

hath

saved

thee.*

And

the

woman was

healed from that very hour.

And

Jeshu came to the

ruler's house,

and saw the minstrels

and the crowds which were making a tumult.
said to them. Retire;
asleep.

And he

for the

damsel

is

not dead, but

And

they laughed at him.

And when he had
the rumour of this

put forth the crowds, he entered, and took her by the

hand; and the damsel
went forth through

arose.

And

all'that land.

XXI. Friday of

the fifth

Week

in the Fast.

And when
clave to him,

Jeshu had passed thence, two blind

men

and besought him, and
!

said.

Have compas-

sion on us,

Son of David

the house, these blind

And when he had come into men were brought to him. Jeshu
!

saith to them, Beheve you that I am able to do this ? Then he touched their They say to him. Yes, our Lord And immeeyes, and said, As you believe be it to you. And Jeshu forbad them diately their eyes were opened. and said. Beware lest any man know. But they went

forth and spread the report of

it

through

all

that land.

And when Jeshu went forth, they brought to him a dumb person in whom was a demon. And when the demon had gone out, the dumb spake and the multi;

tudes were astonished, and said. Never was
in Isroel.
devils

it

thus seen

But the Pharishee
devils.
*

said.

By

the chief of the

he qasteth out

Given thee

life.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.

291

And Jeshu itinerated
kingdom, and healed
all

in

all

their cities

and

villages,

and

taught in their assemblies, and preached the gospel of the
diseases

and aU pains.

XXII. For the Cotnmemoratiou of the holy Apostles.

But when Jeshu saw
as sheep
ciples.

the multitudes, he

had compas-

sion upon them, because they fainted and were dispersed

and said to his disthat had no shepherd The harvest is great, and the labourers few. Ask, therefore, from the Lord of the harvest, that he would
;

thrust forth labourers into his harvest.

And he called his twelve disciples, and gave them power over unclean spirits to cast them out, and to Now, of the twelve cure every disease and infirmity.
apostles the

names

are these

:

the

first

of them,
his

Shemun
and

who
pos,

is

called

Kipha,

and Andreas

brother,

Jakub-bar-Zabdai, and Juchanon his brother, and Phili-

and

-

Bar-Tholmai,

and Thoma, and

Mathai the

tribute-gatherer,

and Jakubbar-Chalphai, and Labi who and Shemun the zealous,* and
betrayed him.

was surnamed Thadai,
Jihuda S'carjuta, he

who

These twelve Jeshu

sent,

and commanded them and

said.

In the way of the heathens go not, and into the city of the

Shomroyee do not enter
go, proclaim

;

but go rather unto the sheep

which have perished from the house of Isroel. And

as you and say that the kingdom of heaven hath drawn near. The diseased heal, the lepers cleanse, the dead raise, and the demons cast forth. Freely you have
freely
give.

received,

Provide neither gold, nor
a wallet for
staff":

silver,

nor brass in your purses, nor

the

road
is

neither two tunics, nor sandals, nor

for

worthy

the

workman

of his meat.

And

into whatsoever city or

town you
till

enter, inquire

you depart.

who is worthy in it, and there be And when you enter into the house,
* Kenanaia.

o 2

292

THE PREACHING OF
;

invoke peace for the house

and
it
;

if

the house be worthy,
if it

your peace shall come upon

but

be not worthy,

your peace upon yourselves shall revert.

But whosoever
the dust from
that
for

doth not receive you or hear your words, when you depart

from that house, or that town,
your
feet.

set free

And,

Amen,
of

I

say

unto you,
it

the land

of

Sadum and

Amura

will

be more tolercity.

able, in the

day of the judgment, than for that
the

XXTII.
Lo,
I

-Fa?'

Commemoration of the holy Martyrs.
:

send you forth as sheep among wolves

be you,

therefore, wise as serpeiits

and
;

guileless as doves.

But
to the
will

beware of the sons of
house
of

men
in

for, delivering

you

judgments,

their

synagogues

they

scourge you, and before governors and kings bring you,

on
the

my

account, for the testimony concerning

them and
it

gentiles.

But wJien they
or

deliver

you up, be not
;

solicitous

how

what you

shall speak

for

is

given

you

in that

hour what you

shall speak.

For

it is

not you

speaking, but the Spirit of your Father speaking in you.

But the brother
and the father
be abhorred by

shall

dehver his brother unto death,
;

his

son

and the sons
account of

shall

rise

up

against their fathers, and shall slay them.
all

men on

And you shall my name but he
:

who
other

shall persevere

until the end, he

shall

be saved.*
to the

When
;

they persecute you in this
for.

city,

escape

Amen
all

I

say unto you, that you shall not have
till

completed
of

the cities of the house of Isroel,

the

Son

man

shall

come.

The

disciple is not greater than his
It

master, nor the servant than his lord.
disciple that
lord.

sufficeth the

he be as his master, and the servant as his
master
of the

If

the

house

they
!

have

called

Beelzebub,
fear,

how much more therefore, from them

his house-sons
;

You shall not

for there is nothing covered

* Shall live.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
which
shall not

293

be revealed, nor secret which shall not be
I say to you in darkness, declare and whatsoever you have heard in your

known. you
ears,

Whatsoever
;

in the hght

proclaim upon the [house-] roofs.
kill,

And

fear

not

them who
fear rather

the body, but the soul cannot kill; but
soul

One who the

and the body can destroy in

gihano.

Are not two sparrows sold for an asor?'^ yet
fall

one of them, without your Father, doth not
earth.

upon the

But of you, also, the hairs of your head are all than many sparrows numbered. Fear not, therefore
;

more precious
confess

are you.

Every man, therefore, who

shall

me

before the sons of men, I myself will confess

him

also before

my

Father

who

is

in heaven.

But whoI also will

soever shall deny

me

before the sons of men,

deny him,

I,

before

my

Father

who
the

is

in heaven.

XXIV. Lesson for

Bead.

Expect
the earth
;

not that
I

I

have come to send forth peace on

have not come to send forth peace, but the
I

sword.

For

have come to cause a

man

to separate

from f his
a

father,

and a daughter from her mother, and
from
her

daughter-in-law

mother-in-law

;

and

the

adversaries of a

man
;

(to be)

his

own

house-sons.

Whois

soever

loveth
(of)

father

or mother

more than me

not

worthy

more than

me and whosoever loveth me is not worthy (of) me.
Whosoever

son or daughter

And

every one
is

who

taketh not his cross and cometh after me,

not'
it,

worthy of me.

will find his life shall lose

and whosoever
it.

shall lose his life for

my

sake shaU find
;

Whosoever receiveth you, receiveth me
receiveth

and whosoreceiveth.

ever

me.

Him who

sent

me he
the

Whosoever entertaineth a prophet

in

name

of

a

prophet, the reward of a prophet receiveth.
*

Whosoever

The

assarius, value three farthings.

f To

divide against.

294

THE PREACHING OF

entertaineth a just

reward of the just

man in the name of a just man, the man he receiveth. And whosoever
of a disciple,

only giveth one of these httle ones a cup of cold (waters)
to drink in the
lie shall

name

Amen;

I

say unto you,

not lose his reward.
Oblation for the Beheading of Juchanon.

XXV.

And

it

was that when Jeshu had finished instructing
he removed from thence to teach and

his twelve disciples,

preach in their

cities.

in the house of the
sent

But Juchanon, when he heard bound the works of the Meshicha,
and
said to him. Art
?

by

his disciples,

thou

He

that

Cometh, or another are we to expect

Jeshu answered

and

said to them, Go, recount to
see
;

Juchanon these things
lame

which you hear and
dead
arise,

(that) the blind see, the

are walking, the lepers are

made

clean, the deaf hear, the
;

and the poor

are evangehzed

and blessed
to

is

he who shall not be ofiended with me.

But when they were gone, Jeshu began
assembly concerning Juchanon
the waste to see
?
:

speak to the

Wliat went you forth into
?

a reed that by the wind was shaken
to see
?

And
soft

if not,

what went you forth
1

a

man

clothed in

vestments

Behold, they

who

are softly clothed are

in the house of kings.
to see
?

And
I tell

if not,

what went you forth
;

a prophet

?

you. Yes

and more than a
it is

prophet.

For
I

this is

he concerning

whom

written.

Behold,

send

my

angel before thy face, to prepare the

way

before thee.

Amen

I

say to you, there hath not

arisen

among them born
is

of

women
:

[one]

who

[is]

greater

than Juchanon the Baptizer

yet, the least in the

king-

dom

of heaven

greater than he.
until

But from the days of

Juchanon the Baptizer
heavens by violence
it.

now, the kingdom of the

is

taken, and the violent ones seize

For

all

the prophets and the law prophesied* until
*

Or, were piophetic.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
Juclianon;
Elia wlio

295
tliat

and
to

if

you

are

willing, receive,

he

is

was

come.

Whoever hath

ears to hear, he

shall hear.

XXVI. Sedond Bay

iii

the third

Week of

the Fast.
?

But

to

what

shall I
sit

compare

this generation

It is

like children

who

in the public place,

and cry

to their

companions, and say,
not danced
;

We

have sung to you, and you have

we have
say,

wailed unto you, and you have not

mourned.
ing,

For Juchanon came neither eating nor drink-

and they

He hath

a devil.

The Son of man
say. See a

came eating and drinking, and they
sinners.

man

a

devourer, a wine-drinker, a friend of tribute-takers and of

But

justified is

wisdom by her

servants.
cities in

Then began Jeshu
were
repent, saying.
tsaida
!

to reproach those

which

done many of his miracles, and which

did not

Woe

to thee, Korazin

!

w oe

to thee, Beth-

for if in

Tsur and in Tsaidon those

miracles

had been done which have been performed in you, they

would a while ago
But
I

in sackcloth

and ashes have repented.
it

say to you, that for Tsur and Tsaidon
in

shall

be

more tolerable*

the day of

judgment than
for if in

for you.

And

thou, Kapher-nachum,

who unto heaven
;

art exalted,

unto Shiul shalt be brought down

Sadum had
you that

been done those miracles which have been done in thee,
it

would have stood

until this day.
it

But

I tell

for the land of

Sadum

shall be

more

tolerable * in the

day of judgment than for thee.

XXVII. Evening of

the

Sunday

after the Manifestation.
said, I praise thee,

In that time Jeshu answered and

my

Father, the Lord of the heavens and of the earth,

that thou hast concealed these (things) from the wise and

prudent [ones], but hast revealed them unto
* Or, tranquil

little

child-

296
ren.

THE PREACHING OF
Yes,
!

my

Father,

for thus

was

it

pleasing before

thee

All things are dehvered to

me from my
;

Father

and no man knoweth the Son but the Father also the Father no man knoweth, except the Son, and he (to)

whom
all

the Son pleaseth to reveal (him).

Come unto me,
I will

you (who) are wearied and bearing burdens, and

give

you

rest.

Bear

my

yoke upon you, and learn of
souls.

me
and

;

for I

am

peaceful and lowly in

shall find repose for

your

For

my my

heart,

and you
kindly,

yoke

is

my

burden
*

is light.

At that time Jeshu was walking on the sabbath among
the grain
;

and

his disciples hungered,
eat.

and began to

pluck the ears and to

But when the Pharishee saw

them, they say to him. Look, thy disciples do something

which

But he Have you not read what David did when he hungered, and they who were with him ? how he went to the house of Aloha, and the bread of the table of the Lord did he eat, that which was not lawful for him to
is

not lawful to be done on the sabbath.

said to them.

eat,

nor for them
?

who were with him, but
it,

for the priests

only

Or have you not read
?

in the law that the priests

in the temple profane the sabbath in

and are without

blame

But
is

I

say to you, that (one) greater than the

temple
eth),
''

here.

Moreover,

if

you knew what that (meansacrifice,"

I desire

mercy and not a

you would not
For the Lord

have condemned them who are not of the sabbath is the Son of man.

faulty.

XXVIIL Sabbath of

the third

Week

in the Fast.

And
gogue.

Jeshu passed thence, and came into their syna-

withered.

And a And

certain

man was

there whose

hand was
it

they questioned him, saying. Is
to

lawful

on the sabbath
But he

heal? that they might accuse him.

said to them, ^^^lat

man

is

there

among you

that

* Or, in the place of seeds.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
hath one sheep, (who),
if it fall into
lift it

297

a pit on the sab-

bath-day, doth not take and

up

?

How much more
!

precious
is

is

a child of

man

than a sheep

Wherefore
is

it

lawful on the sabbath-day to do that which
saith

good.
!

Then
other

he to the man. Stretch forth thine hand
it

and

he stretched forth his hand, and
its fellow.

was restored

like the

counsel against him,

And the Pharishee went forth and took how they might destroy him. But
;

Jeshu knew, and passed from thence

and great crowds

went

after him,

and he healed them

all.

And he

forbad

that they should

That what was make him known. spoken by the prophet Eshaia might be fulfilled, who
Behold

said,

my

servant, in

My My

beloved, in

whom is my pleasure whom my soul delighteth.
upon him.

Spirit will I put

And judgment to the peoples shall he preach. He shall not contend nor cry. And no man shall hear his voice in the street.

A

bruised reed he will not break.
a flickering lamp he will not extinguish.

And

Until he bring forth judgment unto victory.

And

in his

name

shall the gentiles hope.

XXIX. Evening of

the first

Day

in the

Week

before the

Fast.

Then

they brought to him a certain demoniac
;

who

was dumb and bhnd

and he healed him,

so that the
all

dumb and
David
1

blind could speak and see.

And

the mul-

titude were amazed,

and

said.

Is

not this the Son of

(man) doth not

But the Pharishee, when they heard, said. This cast forth demons unless by Beelzebub,
But Jeshu knew
their reasonis

the prince of the devils.
ings,

and

said to them. Every
is

kingdom

that
city

divided
is

against

itself

destroyed

;

and every

which

o 5

298

THE PREACHING OF
And
;

divided against itself shall not stand.
cast out Satan,

if

Satan*

he

is

divided against himself

how then

if I by Beelzebub cast by v^rhom de they cast them forth ? On this account they shall be your judges. But if I by the Spirit of Aloha cast forth demons, the kingdom

standeth his kingdom?

And

forth demons, your sons,

of Aloha hath

come nigh upon you.
and
?

Or,

how

can one

enter the strong one's house,

spoil his goods, unless
spoil his
;

he

first

bind the strong one

and then can he

house.

He who
I

is

not with

me
:

is

against

me

and he

who

gathereth

not with me,
say to you

in

scattering
sins

scattereth.

Wherefore, this

That aU

and blasphe;

mies shall be forgiven unto the sons of

men

but the

blasphemy which
given
to the

is

against the Spirit shall not be for-

sons of men.

And

every one
it

who

shall

speak a word against the Son of man,

shall be forgiven

him
this

;

but every one

who

against the Spirit of Hohness
to him, neither in

shall speak, it shall

nof be forgiven

world nor in the world to come.

Or make the

tree

good, and the fruits (will be) good; or
evU,

make

the tree

and the

fruits (will be) evil

:

for

by the

fruits the

tree is

known. Brood of

vipers

!

how can you speak good
the good treaevil

who
the

are evil?

For from the abundancies of the heart

mouth speaketh.

A

good

man from

suries bringeth forth

good things, and an

man

out of

the evil treasuries bringeth forth evil (things).
tell

But

I

you, that for every useless
speak, they

word which the sons of
it

men shaU
fied,

must

give the answer for

in the
justi-

day of judgment.

For by thy words thou shalt be
shalt be

and by thy words thou
the

condemned.

XXX. Evening of

Commemoration of the Mothei- of
the Lord.

Then
shee,

answered certain from the scribes and Pharito him. Teacher,
* Satana.

and said

we would wish

to see a

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
sign from thee.

299
said,
;

But he answered them and

A

generation deprayed and adulterous requireth a sign

but

a sign shall not be given to
the prophet
;

it,

but the sign of Jaunon
in the belly of the fish

for as

Jaunon was

three days and three nights, so the

Son of man

shall be in

the heart of the earth three days and three nights.

The
this

men

of Ninevoe shall rise

generation, and shall

up condemn
;

in the
it
;

judgment with

for they repented at

the preaching of Jaunon

and, behold, a greater than
shall arise in

Jaunon

(is)

here.

The queen of the south

the judgment with this generation, and shall
it
;

condemn

came from the confines of the earth that she but one more might hear the wisdom of Shelemun
for she
;

excellent than
spirit shall

Shelemun

is

here.

When

the unclean

have gone forth from a child of man, he wan-

dereth through places that have no waters in them, and

seeketh repose, but findeth
will return

(it)

not.

unto the house from whence
it

Then he saith, I I came forth
;

and coming, he findeth
decorated.

untenanted,

cleansed,

and

other

spirits,

Then he goeth and taketh with him seven than himself more wicked, and they enter

and dwell in him.
than his beginning.
race
his
!

And

the end of that
shall
it

man

is

worse

So

be with this wicked

While he spake to the assembly, his mother and
came, standing without,

brethren

and

seeking

to

speak with him.

And

a

man

said to him.

Thy mother

and thy brethren

are standing without,

and are request-

ing to speak with thee.

But he answered and said to

him who spake

to him.

Who

is

my

mother, and

who

are

my

brethren

?

his disciples,

my
and

brethren

!

hand towards and said. Behold my mother, and behold For every one who doeth the wiU of my
stretched forth his
in heaven, he
is

And he

Father

who

is

my

brother,

and

my

sister,

my

mother.

300

THE PREACHING OF
the Second

XXXI. Fourth Bay of

Week of

the Fast.

In that day Jeshu went forth from the house and sat

by the sea-side;* and great multitudes gathered near
him, so that he went up and sat in a vessel
;

and aU the

multitude were standing on the shore of the sea.

And
:

he discoursed largely to them in parables, and said
Behold, there went forth a sower to sow
;

and

as

he

sowed, some

fell

by the

road-side,

and the fowl came and
fell

devoured

it.

Another (portion)
soil
;

upon the rock,
it

where there was not much

and immediately f

sprung up, because there was no depth of earth.

But

when
no

the sun was risen,
it

it

burned, and, because

it

had
the

root,

withered away.

And

another

fell

among
it.

thorns,

and the thorns sprang up and choked
fell

And
hun-

another

into

good

earth,

and gave

fruits, this a

dred, another sixty,
ears to hear, let

and another
hear.

thirty.

He who hath

him

And

his

disciples

approached,

saying to him.
?

Why

dost thou speak to

them

in parables

said to them, Because unto

you

it

is

He repHed and given to know the
it is it

mystery of the kingdom of heaven, but unto them
not given.

For unto him who hath,
be increased to him
:

shall

be given,

and
him.

it

shall

but [as] to

him who

hath not, that also which he hath shall be taken from

On

this
see,

account

I

speak to them in parables.
see not
; ;

Hence they

and

(yet)

and they hear, and
said,

(yet) hear not, neither

understand

and accomplished in
that hearing

them

is

the prophecy of Eshaia,

who

they should hear, but not understand, and seeing they

should
is

see,

but not know.
gross,

For the heart of this people
their
ears

become

and with

they have heard

heavily,

and

their eyes they have shut, that they

may not

*
-j-

By

the

Bar-shoteh,

hand of the sea. " the son of

its

hour."

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.

301

see with their eyes, nor hear with their ears, nor under-

stand with their hearts, and be converted, and

I

heal

them.
ears

But blessed are your eyes which
:

see,

and your

which hear

for.

Amen

I

say unto you, that

many
and

prophets and just ones have desired to behold what you
see,

and have not beheld, and

to hear

what you

hear,

have not heard.
the seed
the
:

You, then, attend to the comparison of

(When) any one who heareth the doctrine of kingdom doth not understand it, there cometh the evil (one), and snatcheth away the doctrine that was sown in his heart this is what by the road-side was sown. But that which was sown upon the rock is he
:

who
eth

heareth the word, and at once with joy apprehend-

it.
;

Yet hath he no root in him, but

is

(only) for

a time

and when

affliction

or persecution
is

occurs on

account of the doctrine, he

quickly offended.
is

That

sown

[in]

the place of thorns,

he

who

heareth the
illu-

word, but the anxious thought of this world and the
sions of riches
stifle

word in him, and he is without fruits. But that which upon good ground was sown is he who heareth my doctrine, and understandeth (it), and
the
giveth fruits, and produceth, whether a hundred, or sixty,
or thirty fold.

XXXII. Oblation for

the Sabbath of the Priests.

comparison he allegorized unto them, and The kingdom of heaven is hke unto a man who sowed good seed in his field And while men slept, came
said
:

Another

his adversary,

and sowed zizania among the wheat, and
the plant

went.
fruit,

And when

sprang up and

produced
lord, didst

then appeared the zizania.

And

the labourers of

the house-lord drew near and said to him,

Our

thou not sow good seed in thy
is

field ?

From whence then

the zizania in it?
this.

But he

said to them,
to him.

A foeman
Art thou

hath done

The labourers say

302
willing that

THE PREACHING OF
we go and gather them ? But he said to when ye gather the zizania, you root out

them, (Xo,)

lest,

with them the wheat also. Leave (them), that both may grow together till the harvest and in the season of har;

vest

I will

say to the reapers, Gather

first

the zizania,

and bind them (together

in) bundles, that

they

may burn

;

but the wheat collect into

my

barns.
:

Another comparison allegorized he to them, and said The kingdom of heaven is like a grain of mustard, which
a

man took and sowed
;

in his field.
it

This
it is

is less

than

all
all

other seeds
herbs,

but

when

has grown,
tree,

greater than

and becometh a
he spake
to

so

that the fowl

of the

heavens
parable

come (and) build

in
:

its

branches.

Another
hid in

them

The kingdom of heaven

resembles that leaven which a

woman took and

three satas * of meal, until the whole was leavened.
All these spake Jeshu in parables to the multitude and without a parable he did not speak with them That
.

there should be fulfilled what was spoken by the prophet,

who

said,

I

will

open

my mouth

in

comparisons, and

pour forth things hidden from before the foundation of
the world.

Then Jeshu dismissed the multitudes, and came into and his disciples drew near him, and said to him, Expound to us the comparison of the zizania of the
the house
;

field.

He answered and
is

said to them.

He who sowed
field is

the

good seed

the Son of man.

The

the world.

Now, the good seed
sowed them
of the world
is
;

are the sons of the

zizania are the sons of the evil one.

kingdom, but the The adversary who
the

Satana

;

the harvest

is

consummation
As, therefore,
fire,

the reapers are the angels.

the zizania are gathered and burned in the
be in the completion of this world.
shall send forth his angels,

so shall

it

The Son of man
shall collect

and they

from

The

sea, or sata,

was the third of an ephah.

MATHAl THE APOSTLE.
his

303

kingdom all those who cause offence, and all (who) work iniquity, and shall throw them into a furnace of
fire
;

there

shall

be weeping

and gnashing of

teeth.

Then the

just shall shine forth as the sun in the king-

dom
hear.

of their Father,

He who hath

ears to hear, let

him

Again, the kingdom of heaven

is like

a treasure which

was hidden in a
cealed,

field,

(and) which a

man found and
all

con-

and from joy went and sold
field.

that he had,

and

bought that
merchant,

Again, the

kingdom of heaven

is
;

Hke unto a man a
but who,

who sought goodly
and bought
it.

pearls

when he
all

had found one pearl of exceeding
that he had,

price,

went, sold

Again,

the

kingdom of
sea,
full,
;

heaven

is

like

unto a net, which was thrown into the
collected.

and from every kind

And when
vessels,

it

was

they drew to the shore, and sat down, and selected

and the good they threw into
cast without.

and the bad they

Thus

shall

it

be at the consummation of

the world.
evil

The angels

shall

go forth, and separate the
cast

from among the
;

just,

and

them

into the furnace

of

fire

there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth
all

Jeshu said to them. Have you understood

these

?

They say

to him, Yes, our Lord.

He

saith to them.

On

this account every scribe

of heaven,

is

hke

to a

who is learned in the kingdom man a house-lord, who bringeth
new and
the old.

forth fi'om his treasuries the

XXXIII. Evening of the Beheading of Juchanon.

And when

Jeshu had

finished

these
city,

parables,

he

passed from thence, and came to his

and taught

them in their synagogues, so that they were astounded and said. Whence hath he (Whence to him) this wisdom
and these powers
Is
?

Is

not this the son of the carpenter

?

not his mother called Mariam, and his brothers, Jakub,

304

THE PREACHING OF
Josi,

and

and Shemun, and Jehuda

?

and
this

his sisters,

all,

are they not with us?

Whence

to

one

all

these?
said to
city,

And
them.

they were offended with him.

But Jeshu

No prophet is contemned and in his own house. And he
In
that

except in his

own

did not .many miracles

there on account of their unbelief.

time

Herodes
;

Tetrarka heard

the

rumour
is

concerning Jeshu

and he said to
:

his servants, This

Juchanon the Baptizer

he hath risen from the house of

the dead, therefore powerful works are wrought by him.

For he, Herodes, had seized Juchanon, and bound him,

and

cast

him

(into) the

house of the chained, because of

Herodia the wife of Philip his brother.

For Juchanon
him, but he

had

said to him, It

is

not lawful that she should be to
killed

thee a wife.

And he would have

feared the people, because as a prophet they held him.

But

at the birth-day of Herodes, the

daughter of Herodia

danced

before
;

those

who

rechned,

and

she

pleased

Herodes

wherefore with an oath he sware to her to give

her whatever she should
instructed

demand.
said.

Then

she,

because

by her mother,

Give

the head of Juchanon the Baptizer.
ened,
yet,

me here in a dish And the king sickAnd he
dish,

on account of the oath and the guests, he
that
it

commanded
chained.

should be given to her.

sent

[and] cut off the head of Juchanon in the house of the

And
girl,

his

head was brought in a
it

and

given to the

and she carried

herself to her mother.

And
(it),

up his corpse, buried Then Jeshu, when he heard, removed from thence by ship to a desert place by himself; and when the multitude heard it, they came after him on dry land from the cities. And Jeshu came
his disciples

came

near, took

and came and showed Jeshu.

forth,

and saw great multitudes, and

felt

compassion for

them, and healed their diseases.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
XXXIV. For

305

the daily Oblation,
his
disciples

But when
passed over
they
;

it

was eventide,

approached

him, and said to him, The place

is desert,

and the time

send away these multitudes of men, that
to the villages, and buy for themselves food.
to them. It is not needful that they should

may go
give

But he said
go
;

you them

to eat.

They
to

said to him,

We

have

nothing here but
to them. Bring

five

cakes and two fishes.

Jeshu said

them hither
fishes,

me.

And
;

he directed the

multitudes to recline upon the ground
five loaves

and he took the
and the

and two

and looked up to heaven, and
to his disciples,

blessed,
disciples

and brake, and gave
themselves
placed

(it)

before the multitudes.
;

And
full.

all

did eat, and were satisfied

and they took up, of

the abundance of the fragments, twelve baskets

when

Now those men who had eaten were five thousand, besides women and children. And immediately he constrained
his
disciples

to

ascend

into

the

bark,

and
the

proceed - before him to the other shore, while he was
dismissing
the

crowds.

And when he had

sent

multitudes away, he went up to a mountain by himself,
to pray.

XXXV. Evening of

the second

Sunday

after

the

Resurrection.

And when
vessel

it

was dark, he alone was

there.

But the
being

was distant from the land many

stadia,

greatly beaten with the waves, for the

them.
to

But

in

wind was against the fourth watch of the night, Jeshu came

them, walking upon the waters.

And
;

the disciples

beheld

him walking

on the waters,
it

and

they were
fear

troubled, saying. That

was a spectre * and from
at

they cried out.

But Jeshu
*

once spoke to them, and

Or, a false vision.

306
said,

THE PREACHING OF
Take
courage,
said
to
I

am,
him,

fear

not
Lord,

!

And
if
it

Kiplia

answered, and

to

My

be thou,

command me
said
ship,
to him.

come to thee upon the waters. Jeshu Come. And Kipha descended from the
to

and walked on the waters and he

go- to Jeshu.

But
Lord,

when he saw
sink
;

the furious wind, he feared, and began to
lifted

up

his Toice,

and

said,

My

deliver

me

!

And immediately
seized him,

our Lord reached forth
said to him.
?

his hand,
faith,

and

and

Little

of

-why art thou divided (in mind)
into the ship, the
in the ship,

And when
tranquil.

they

had ascended
they
said.

wind was

And

who were

came and adored him, and

Truly the Son thou art of Aloha.
to the land of

And

they rowed,

and came

Genesar

;

and the men of that
all

country recognised him, and sent to

the villages that
all

were about them, and they brought to him

those

who
and

were grievously

afflicted,

and besought from him that

they might touch only the border of his mantle;
those

who touched w ere

healed. after Pentecost.

XXXVI. Sunday

Then came

to

Jeshu Pharishee and Sophree,* who

were from Urishlem, sapng.
gress the tradition of

Why

do thy disciples trans-

the elders, and

wash not

their

hands when they
to them,

eat

bread?

Jeshu answered, and said

Why

also

do ye transgress the commandment of
?

Aloha for the sake of your tradition
said.

For Aloha hath

Honour thy

father

and thy mother;
shall

and whoso
:

curseth his father or his mother, to die he shall die

but

ye say. Every one

who

say to a father, or to a

mother,
profited

(It

is)

my

oblation w^hatever thou wouldst
shall not

be

by me, and
(shall

honour

his father or his

mother

be guiltless).

Thus you have abolished the
your tradition.

word of Aloha

for the sake of

Ye hypo-

• Scribes.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
crites
I

30/

rightly

prophesied

concerning

you Eshaia the
But in vain they

prophet, and

said,

This people with the Hps honour me,
very far from me.

but their heart

(is)

reverence me, while they teach the doctrines of the com-

mandments
and

of

men.*

And he

called to the multitudes,
:

said to them. Hear,

and understand

It is

not that
;

which, entering the mouth, contaminates a

man

but that

come from the mouth, that contaminates a man. Then drew near his disciples, saying to him, Knowest thou that the Pharishee who heard this word were
which
shall

offended?

But he answered, and said to them, Every

plantation which

my
;

Father

who
a

is

in heaven hath not
:

planted shall be rooted up.
leaders of the

Leave them
if

they are blind
shall

blind

but
fall

bhnd man

lead a

blind man, both shall

into the ditch.

And Shemun

Kipha answered and
parable.

said.

My

Lord, expound to us this
also not yet under-

But he

said to them,

Do you

stand?

Know you
cast without
forth,
?

not that whatsoever entereth the
belly,

mouth, goeth into the
tion
shall
[it is
it IS

and from thence in

purifica-

But whatsoever from the mouth
forth,

come

from the heart cometh

and

this

that] contaminates a child of

man.

For from the
These are they

heart proceed evil thoughts, adultery, murder, fornication, robbery, false witness,

blasphemy.

which

defile a

man

;

but

if

any one eat when his hands

are not washed, he

is

not defiled.

XXXVIL

Evening of the first

Bay

in the fourth

Week -of

the Fast.

And

Jeshu went forth from thence, and came to the

borders of Tsur and Tsaidon.

And, behold, a Canaanite
Lord,

woman from
daughter
is

those coasts came forth crying, and saying.

Have mercy upon me,

my

son

of

David
!

!

my
But

grievously possessed with the
*

demon

Sons of men.

308

THE PREACHING OF And
the disciples ap-

he did not return her an answer.
for she

proached and requested from him, saying, Dismiss her,
crieth after us.

But he answered and

said to

them,

I

am

not sent but to the sheep which have wan-

dered from the house of Israel.

Then* she came, wor-

shipped him, and
to her. It
is

said.

My

Lord, help

me

!

Jeshu said

not proper to take the children's bread and

throw
tables
her,

it

to the dogs.

But she
and

said.

Even

so,

my Lord

yet the dogs eat from the

crumbs that faU from the
live.
!

of their masters,

Then
be
it

said Jeshu to
to thee as

woman,
!

great

is

thy faith

thou

wilt

And
;

healed

was her daughter from that hour.
sat

And Jeshu
GaHla

passed from thence, and came near the sea of
there.

and he ascended the mountain and

And

there drew near to

him

great gatherings (of people),

and with them there were the lame, and the bhnd, and
the dumb,

and the mutilated, and many others

;

and

they cast them at the feet of Jeshu, and he healed them.

So that those multitudes were astounded
the

as they beheld

dumb

speaking, and the mutilated
;

made whole, and
and they
glori-

the lame walking, and the blind seeing
fied the

Aloha of

Isroel.

XXXVIII. For

the daily Oblation.
disciples,

But Jeshu
them,
I

himself called his

and

said

to

have pity for this multitude, who, behold, for
is

three days have continued with me, but there
for

nothing

them

to eat

;

and

to send

them away

fasting, 1

am
dis-

unwilling, lest they should faint in the way.
ciples say to him,

The

WTience can we have bread in the wil-

derness,

that

we

may

satisfy

this

whole

multitude?

Jeshu saith to them,

How many

loaves have

you

?

They

say to him. Seven, and a few small fishes.
directed that the

And he
upon the
and
the

multitudes

should
seven

recline

ground.

And he

took

those

loaves

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
fishes,

309
to his dis-

and offered

praise,

and brake, and gave

ciples,

and the

disciples

gave to the multitudes;
:

and

they

all

did eat and were satisfied

and they took up of

And baskets full. who had eaten, were four thousand men, besides women and children. And when he had dismissed the
the abundance of fragments seven

they

multitudes,

he ascended into a ship, and came to the

coasts of Magodu. And there came Pharishee and Zadukoyee, tempting him, and demanding that he would show them a sign

from heaven.
it is

But he answered and

said to them,

"When

evening, you say. It will be serene weather, for the

heaven hath reddened.
say.

And

in the

early

morning you

To-day

will

be tempestuous, for the heaven hath
Hypocrites
!

reddened gloomily.
time you

the aspect of the hea-

ven you are skilful to discriminate, (but) the signs of this

know

not

how

to distinguish.

A

depraved and

adulterous race requireth a sign, but a sign shall not be

given to
left

it,

save the sign of Jaunon the prophet

;

and he

them, and went away.

And when

his disciples

had

come

to the opposite [shore], they

had forgotten

to take

bread with them.

But he said

to them.

Take heed and
(It
is)

beware of the leaven of the Pharishee and Zadukoyee.

But they thought within themselves, saying,
cause bread

be-

we have not

taken.

But Jeshu knew, and
little

said to them.
faith,

Why
?

reason you within yourselves,
?

in

because bread you have not brought

Have you not
five loaves

yet understood

Do you

not remember those

for the five thousand,

and how many panniers you took

Or those seven loaves and the four thousand, and baskets you took up ? Why do you not understand that it was not concerning bread I spoke to you, up
?

how many

but that you should beware of the leaven of the Pharishee

and of the Zadukoyee

?

Then they understood that he
leaven of

did not say that they should beware of the

310
bread, but of the

THE PREACHING OF
doctrine of the

Pharishee and of the

Zadukoyee.

XXXIX. Co7nmemoration of

the holy Apostles.

Now
men
tizer,

when Jeshu had come
he questioned his

to the place of Cesarea of

Philipos,

disciples,

saying.

say concerning

me who am

the Son of

What do man ? They

said to him.

Some

say that thou art Juchanon the Bap-

but others Eha, and others Eramia, or one from

the prophets.
that I

am ?

He saith to them. But you, whom say you Shemuu Kipha answered and said, Thou art
Son of Aloha the Living.
art thou,

the

Meshicha,

Jeshu

re-

sponded and said to him. Blessed
Jona
to
;

Shemun-barAlso
say
will

because flesh and blood have not revealed (this)

thee,

but

my

Father

who

is

in heaven.

I

unto thee, that thou art Kipha, and upon this rock
I build

my

church, and the gates of Sheul shall not pre-

To thee will I give the keys of the her. kingdom of heaven and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven. Then he commanded his disciples that no man they should tell
vail against
; ;

that he

was the Meshicha.

XL. Second Sunday after Pentecost.

And
ciples

from that time began Jeshu
it

to

show

to his dis-

that

was

to be that

he should go to Urishlem,

and

suffer
scribes,

much from
and be

the elders and the chief priests

and the third day arise again. Then Kipha took him (apart ?) and began to expostulate with him, and said. Far be it from thee, my Lord, that But he turned and said to Kithis should be to thee and
slain,
!

pha, Get thee behind me, Satana

!

thou art a stumbling-

block to me, because thou thinkest not from Aloha, but

from the sons of men

!

Then

said Jeshu to his disciples,

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
Whosoever wiileth
self,

311

to come after me, let him deny himhim take up his cross and follow me. For whosoever wiileth to save his life, shall lose it and who-

and

let

;

soever will lose his

life

for

my
if

sake, shall

find

it.

For

what
shall

shall a

man
give
shall

be profited,

the whole world he shall

acquire,

and. his soul shall perish? or what equivalent

a

man

for his soul

?

For

it is

to be, that the

Son of man

his holy angels,

come in the glory of his Father with and then shall he render unto every man

according to his works.

XLI. Evening of the Feast of Tabernacles.

Amen, I say unto you. There are men standing here who shall not taste death, until they shall have seen the And after six Son of man coming in his kingdom.
days, Jeshu

took Kipha, and Jakub, and Juchanon his
to a

brother,

and led them

high mountain by themselves.

And Jeshu was changed
dent
as

before

them

;

and

his counte-

nance shone like the sun, and his vestments were resplenthe
light.

And

there

were seen with them

Musha and
here

Elia talking with him.

Then answered Kiis

pha, and said to Jeshu,
;

My

Lord,

it

good for us to be

and

if
;

thou art willing, we

will

make

here three

tabernacles

one for thee, and one for Musha, and one for

Eha.

But while he spake, behold, a bright cloud over-

spread them, and the voice was from the cloud, saying.
This
to
is

my

Son, the Beloved, in

whom

I

have delighted

him attend. And when the disciples heard, they fell upon their faces and feared greatly. And Jeshu approached them and touched them, and said, Arise, fear not. And they lifted up their eyes and saw no man, except Jeshu by himself. And while they were descending from the mountain, Jeshu charged them, and said to

them. Before no
*

man

declare this vision,* until the

Son

To

the eye of

man

tell

not this vision.

312
of

THE PREACHING OF

man

be risen from the dead.*

And

the disciples

asked and said to him,
that

Why

therefore

say the scribes

EHa must come
I

first ? first

Jeshu answered and said to

them, EHa cometh but

that he

may
to

fulfil

every thing

say to you, that, behold, Elia hath come, but they
not,

knew him
So
also is

and have done

him

as

they would.

the

Son of man

to suffer

from them.

Then

understood the disciples that concerning Juchanon the
Baptizer he spake to them.

XLII. Second

Bay

in the third

Week of

the Fast.

And when
him.

they came to the multitude, a

man

ap-

proached him and kneeled upon his knees, and said to

My

Lord, have mercy on
;

me my
!

son

is

lunatic

and

grievously afflicted

for often he falleth into the fire

and

often into the water.
ples,
said,

And

I

brought him to thy

disci-

but they could not heal him.

Jeshu answered and
!

unbelieving and perverse generation

shall I be

with you,

Bring him hither to
the

how long how long shall I bear with you? me. And Jeshu rebuked him, and
from him, and the youth was

demon went

forth

healed

from that hour.

Then came the

disciples to

Jeshu by himself, and said to him.
to

Why
if

were we not able
Because of

heal

him
;

?

Jeshu saith to them.
assuredly
I tell

your

unbeHef

for

you,

there were in
to this
;

faith as a grain of mustard,
tain.

you should say
this

you moun-

Pass hence, and

it

would pass away

and nothing

should overcome you.

But

kind goeth not forth but

by fasting and by prayer.

XLII I. Third Day

in the third

Week of

the Fast.

When
them,
It

they had returned into Gahla, Jeshu said to
is

coming that the Son of man

shall be delikill

vered into the hands of men, and they shall
*

him

;

From (among)

the dead

:

plural.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
and
they
in the third

313
it

day he shall

arise.

And

grieved

them

exceedingly.

And when
said to him.
?

they came to Kapher-nachum,

who took

the two zuzis, the head-silver, approached

Kipha and
his

Your master, doth he not
saith to them, Yes.

give

two zuzeen

*

He
it

And when
said
?

Kipha entered the house, Jeshu anticipated him, and
to him.

How
from

doth

appear to thee,

Shemun
aliens

the kings

of the earth, from
silver,

whom
aliens

do they take custom and heador

their

children,
:

from

?

Shemun

saith to him,

From

Jeshu saith to him, Then the

children are free.f
to

But that we may not offend them, go
first

the sea, and cast the hook; and the fish that
his

Cometh up, open

mouth

;

and thou
thee.

shalt find a stater,

that take and present for

me and

XLIV. Third Sunday
In that hour the
is

after Pentecost.

Who

came near to Jeshu, saying. kingdom of heaven ? And Jeshu called a child, and made him stand in the midst of them, and said, Amen I say to you, unless you be converted and become as children, you shall not enter the kingdom of heaven. Whosoever therefore humbleth himself as this child, he shall be greatest in the kingdom of heaven.
disciples

greatest in the

And whosoever
child in
shall

shall receive

[such]

as

[are]

like

this

my

name, he receiveth me.
little

offend one of these

ones

And who

every one that
believe in me,

to

him it had been better that the mill-stone of an ass % were hung to his neck, and himself plunged into the
depths of the
offence
!

sea.
is

Woe

to the

world from causes of

for

it

unavoidable that causes of offence will

come
*
-j-

;

but woe to the

man by whom

§ the causes

of

The zuz,
is,

or zuza, was a silver coin, value one drachm.
free.

Sons of the

% That
§

the stone of a mill

worked by an

ass or mule.

By whose

hand.

314
offence shall
shall

THE PREACHING OF
come
!

If,

then, thine

hand or thy
it off,

foot
it

be a cause of offence to thee, cut
;

and

cast

from thee
life

for

it is

good
;

for thee that thou enter into

* lame or mutilated
fall

and not

that,

having two hands

or two feet, thou

into the fire of eternity.
it

And
out,

if

thine eye be a cause of offence to thee, dig
cast
it

and

from thee

;

good
;

(it

is)

for thee that with one eye
that,

thou enter into
fall

life

*

and not
fire.
:

having two eyes, thou

into the gihana of
little

See that you contemn not

one of these
angels in
all

ones

for I say unto

you that

their

time are beholding the face of

my

Father
to

who
if

is

in heaven.

For the Son of man

is

come

save
?

that which had perished:

How

doth

it

appear to you

a

man

have an hundred sheep, and one of them shall

wander from them, doth he not leave the ninety and nine on the mountain, and, going, seek that which had wandered
?

And

if

he
it

shall find

it,

assuredly I

tell

you that

he rejoiceth in
Father

more than
So
it

(in)
is

the ninety and nine

which wandered not.

not

goodf

before your

who

is

in heaven,

that one of these httle ones

should perish.

XLV. For

the first

Bay

in the fourth
tecost.

Week

after Pen-

Now

if

thy brother offend against thee, go, and argue

(the matter) between thyself

hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother.

and him alone and if he But if he hear
;

thee not, take with thee one or two, that

upon the mouth
the church

of two or three witnesses

may

be established every word.
tell
;

And
if

if,

also,

he will not hear them,

but

he will neither hear the church,

let

him be
I

to thee as a

publican and as a heathen.
that whatsoever

And,

Amen

say unto you,

you

shall

bind on earth shall be bound in
shall loose
^^^-y

heaven

;

and whatsoever you
* Lives.

on earth

shall be

t ^d

" The will."

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
loosed in heaven.

315
that if two of

Again

I

say to you,

you

shall

consent on earth concerning every thing that
it

they shall ask,

shall

be done for them by

my

Father

who
in

is

in heaven.

For where two or three are assembled

my

name,, there

am

I

in the midst of them.

Then

Kipha came near

to him,

and said

to him.

My

Lord,

how
him
;

many

times, if

my
?

brother offend me, shall

I forgive

until seven times

Jeshu said to him,

I

say not to thee,

Until seven, but. Until seventy times seven and seven.*

XLVI.

Friday of the second Week
is

in the Fast. to

Therefore

the

kingdom of the heavens likened

who would take the account from his servants. And when he began to receive, they brought And when he to him one who owed a myriad talents. had nothing to pay, his lord commanded that they should
a royal personf
sell

(both)

himself, his wife,

and

his

children,

and

all

that he had,

and

to

pay.

And
lord,

that servant feR

and
the

worshipped him, saying.
toward me, and
all

My

be patient of

spirit

things I (will) pay thee.

And

lord of that servant

had mercy, and absolved him, and

forgave

him

his

debt.

Then went

forth that servant,

and found one of his fellows who owed him a hundred and he seized him, stranghng, and saying to pence him, Give me what thou owest to me. His fellow;

servant
patient

fell

at his feet, beseeching
spirit

him, and saying, Be
I

of

towards me, and

(will)

pay

thee.

But he would

not,

but went and threw him into the

house of the chained until he should have rendered him

what he owed him.

When their fellow-servants saw what was done, they were greatly grieved, and went and declared to their lord
all

that was done.
:

Then

his lord

* Septuaginta vices septem, et septem vices
et septies;

vel septuagies septies
Firfe

id

est,

quatuordecim vicibus septuagies,
-f

Tremel-

LTUM,

in

loc.

A man a king.
p 2

316

THE PREACHING OF
said to him.

summoned him and
debt did
I

Evil servant! all that

forgive thee, because thou didst entreat me.

Oughtest thou not to have been as gracious to thy fellowservant as I was gracious unto thee
?

And

his lord

was

indignant, and dehvered

him

to the tormentors, until

should have paid
will

all

whatsoever he owed to him.

he Thus
for-

your heavenly Father deal with you unless you

give each his brother

from your heart
first

his trespasses.

XL VI I. Morning

of the

Bay

in the

Week

after the

Festival of the Cross,

And

it

was that when Jeshu had

finished these words,

he removed from Gahla and came into the confines of

Jehud beyond Jurdan.

And

great multitudes

came

after

him, and he healed them there.

And
to send

the

Pharishee

approached him, and, tempting him, propounded to him

whether
for

it

was lawful

for a

man

away

his wife

every cause.

But he answered and said

to them.

ning, male

Have you not read that He who created from the beginand female hath made them? And he said.
this

On

account a

man

shall

leave his father

and his

mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they two shall

be one

flesh.

Wherefore they were not

[constituted]

two, but one body.
conjoined,

That, therefore, which Aloha hath
separate.

man

shall not

They

said to him.

Why

then did Musha direct that he should give a writing

of dismissal

and send her away

?

He
;

said

to

them,

Musha, on account of the hardness of your
mitted you to send away your wives

heart, per-

but from the begin-

ning
shall

it

was not

so.

forsake his wife

And who

I
is

say to you that whosoever

not adulterous, and take
;

another, committeth adultery

and whosoever taketh the
His disciples say to

deserted one, committeth adultery.

him. If thus be the case between the
it is

man and

the

woman,

not expedient to take a wife.

But he said

to them.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
Not every man
is

31/

sufficient for tliis doctrine,

but he to

whom
from

it

is

given.

For there are some eunuchs who

their

mother's

womb

are are

born so

;

and there are
;

some eunuchs who by men
are eunuchs

made eunuchs

and there
capable

who have made
(this),
let

themselves eunuchs on ac-

count of the kingdom of heaven.
of receiving

Whosoever
(it).

is

him

receive

brought to him children, that

Then they he should put his hand

upon them and pray. And his disciples forbad them. But Jeshu himself said. Suffer children to come unto me, and forbid them not for of those who are as these, is And he put his hand upon the kingdom of heaven.
;

them, and went thence.

XLVIII. Commemoration of Antunios and
panions,

his holy

Com-

And
teacher,

one came and approached and said to him. Good

what of good
?

shall I do, that I

may have
But
if

the hfe

of eternity

But he
is

said to him.

Why

dost thou call

me

good

?

none

good but one. Aloha.

thou wilt
said to
kill,

enter into

life, ?

keep the commandments.
adultery, nor steal,
;

He

him, Which
neither

Jeshu answered him. Thou shalt not
neither shalt

commit

thou

witness false testimony

mother, and love thy neighbour as thyself.

and honour thy father and thy The young
from

man
hood
wilt

saith to him. These all have I kept
:

my

child-

how am

I deficient ?

Jeshu saith to him. If thou
thy possession and give to
:

become

perfect, go, sell

the poor, and there shall be for thee a treasure in heaven

and come
this

after

me.

But

word, and went

young man, heard away with sadness, for he had
he,

the

great property.

But Jeshu
it

said to his disciples.

Amen

I

say unto you, that

is difficult

for the rich to enter the
it is

kingdom of heaven.

Again

I

say to you, that

easier

for a camel to enter through the aperture of a needle,

318

THE PREACHING OF
But

than the rich to enter into the kingdom of Aloha.
the disciples

when they heard were
?

greatly hurt, saying.

Who

then can be saved
of

Jeshu, beholding them, said.

With the sons
every thing
is

men

it is

not possible

;

but with Aloha

possible.

XLIX. Morning of

the Festival of Petros the Apostle.
liim.

Then
what then

answered Kipha and said to
shall there be for us

Behold,

we
:

have abandoned every thing, and have come after thee
1

Jeshu saith to them.

Amen
the

I

say to you, that you
world,

new

when

the Son of

who have come after me, in man shall sit upon the
sit

throne of his glory, you also shall

upon twelve
Isroel.

seats,

and

shall

judge the twelve tribes of

And

every
sis-

man who hath reUnquished
ters, or father, or

houses, or brethren, or

mother, or wife, or children, or lands,

on account of my name, shall receive a hundred-fold, and shall inherit the life of eternity. Many however are first who shall be last, and the last first.
L. Lesson for Paidos the Apostle.

For
lord,

the

kingdom

of heaven

is

hke a man, a houseto hire labourers

who went
vinery.

forth in the early

morn

for his
for

And he

bargained with the labourers
his vinery.

a

denarius a day,

and sent them into

And he went

forth in three hours,

and saw others who

were standing in the public place and unemployed.
suitable I will give you.
six

And

he said to them. Go also you in the vinery, and what
is

went forth again in

Then went they. And he and nine hours, and did the same. And about eleven hours he went out, and found others who were standing and unemployed and he said
;

to

them, Wliy are you standing
to

all

the day unemployed hired us.

?

They say
saith to

him. Because no

man hath

He

them. Go also you into the vinery, and what-

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
ever
is

319
it

suitable

you

shall receive.

But when
give to

was
their

evening, the lord of the vinery said to the chief of his

household,

Call the

workmen and
last

them
first.

they came

And who (had wrought) from eleven hours and But when the first came, they received each a denarius.
wages
;

and begin from the

unto the

;

they expected to take more
a denarius.

;

but they also received each
received, they

And when

they had

mur-

mured

against the house-lord, and said. These last have

wrought one hour, and thou hast made them equal with us, who have borne the burden of the day and its heat.

But he answered and

said to one of them,
:

My

friend, I

am
with
will

not unjust towards thee

didst thou
is

not bargain
:

me

for a denarius

?

Take what

thine and go
Is it

I

unto these

last to give as

unto thee.
wilUng, I

not law-

ful for

me
?

that whatsoever I
Is thine eye evil
first,

am

mine own

because I
first

the last shall be

and the

may do with am good ? Thus last for many are
;

the called, but few the chosen.

LI. For the first

Day

in the fifth

Week

after Pentecost.

Now Jeshu was about to go up to Urishlem, and he took his twelve disciples by themselves * in the way, and
said to them, Behold,

we go up

to Urishlem,

and the Son

of

man

is

betrayed to the chief priests and to the scribes,
shall

and they

shall consign

condemn him to the death him to the Gentiles, and they
Then came
to

;

and they
shall

mock

him, and scourge him, and shall crucify him, and on the
third day he shall arise.

him

the mother

of the sons of Zabdai, she and her sons, and worshipped

him, and supphcated a certain thing of him.
said to her,

What
thy

wilt

thou

?

But he She said to him, Declare
one at thy right hand,

that these

my

two sons
left,

shall

sit,

and one

at

in thy

kingdom.

Jeshu answered

* Between

him and themselves.

320

THE PREACHING OF
said,

and

You know not what you ask
I

:

are

you

able to

drink the cup of which

am

about to drink, or with the
?

baptism with which

I

am

baptized will you be baptized
!

They say unto him,
cup you

We

are able

He
:

saith to them.

My
I
sit

shall drink,

and with the baptism with which
but that you
is

am
at

baptized you shall be baptized

may

my

right hand,

and

at

my
it

left,

not mine to give,

unless to

them

for

whom

is

prepared by

my
and

Father.

And when
them. You
lords,

the ten heard

it,

they were indignant against
called them,
said to

those two brothers.

And Jeshu

know
their

that the princes of the Gentiles are their
great ones exercise
;

but

power over them among you but whoever among you willeth to be great, let him be minister to you. And whoever among you willeth to be first, let him be to you
it

and

shall not be so

the servant.

So, the

Son of man came not to be served,
his

but to serve, and to give

Ufe the redemption for

many.
LII. Oblation for the fifth Sabbath in the Fast.

And when
men were
saying.

Jeshu went forth from Jirichu, a great
him.

multitude cometh after
sitting

And, behold, two bUnd

by the

side * of the

way

;

and when
voice,

they heard

that

Jeshu was passing, they gave

Be merciful upon us, my Lord, Son of David! the crowds rebuked them that they should be silent But but they Hfted up their voice the more, saying, Our Lord, Son of David And Jeshu stood be merciful upon us,
!

and

called them,
?

and

said,

Wliat will you that

I

should

do for you

They say

to him.

Our Lord,

that our eyes

may be

opened.

And he had compassion on them, and
were

touched their eyes, and immediately their eyes
opened, and they went after him.
*

By the hand

of the way.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.

321

LIII. Evening of the

Sunday of Hosannas.
Jeshu sent two of

And when
his disciples,
is

he drew nigh to Urishlem, and had come

to Beth-phage, at the

mount of
to them.

Olives,

and said
with her

Go

to this village

which
to

over against you, and you shall at once find an ass tied,
colt
;

and her

loose

and bring (them)

me.
it

And
them

if

any one say ought to you, say to him that

is

requested for our Lord, and immediately he will send

fulfilled

But all this was done that there should be what was spoken by the prophet, who said. Tell you the daughter of Tsheum, Behold, thy king cometh to
hither.

ass, and on a colt the foal Then the disciples went, and did as Jeshu had commanded them; and brought the ass and the colt, and laid upon the colt their clothes, and Jeshu rode upon him. And many of the crowds spread their vestments in the way and others cut down branches from

thee, lowly,

and riding on an

of an ass.

;

the

But the and strewed them in the way. throngs who went before him, and came after him, cried out and said, Ushana to the son of David blessed be He
trees,
! !

who cometh in the name of the Lord Ushana in the And when he had entered Urishlem, the whole heights
!

city

was commoved, and
Galila.

said.
is

Who

is

this?

But the

multitude answered. This

Jeshu, the prophet

who

is

from Natsrath of
out

And Jeshu went into the temple all those who sold and bought
who
sold doves
;

of Aloha, and east
in the temple,

and
It is

overthrew the tables of the
seats of those

money-changers, and the

and said

to

them.

written,
called,

that

my

house shall the house of prayer be
it

but ye have made

a den of thieves.

And

there

came

to

him

in the temple the

bhnd and

the lame, and

he healed them.

But when the chief
p 5

priests

and Phari-

shee saw the wondrous things which he did, and the

322
children

THE PREACHING OF
who were
crying in the temple, and
saying,

Ushana

to the son of David, they

were displeased with

them, saying to

him,

Hearest
:

thou what these say?

Jeshu saith to them. Yes
the

have ye not read, that from

mouth
?

of children and of babes thou hast prepared

praise

LIV. Lesson for the fifth

Bay

in

the fourth

Week of

the Fast.

And
city to

he abandoned them, and went forth without the

Bethania, and lodged there. But in the early morn, as he returned to the city, he hungered and he saw a certain fig-tree in the way, and came to it, but found nothing thereon but leaves only and he said.
:
.

;

Let there be no immediately that

fruit

upon thee again
withered.

for ever.

And
is

fig-tree

And

the disciples

saw, and were astonished, saying,

How

in a

moment

the fig-tree withered

!

Jeshu answered and
if faith

said to them.

Amen

I

say to you, that

were in you, and you did
fig-tree,

not hesitate,* you should not only do (as) to this

but also were you to say to this mountain. Be thou

lifted

up and
obtain.
priests

fall

into the sea,

it

should be done.

And

whatsoshall

ever you shall ask in prayer

and

shall believe,

you

And when Jeshu came
and
elders of the people

to the temple, the chief

approached him, while
authority doest thou
?

he taught, saying to him.
these things, and

By what

who gave
tell

thee this authority
I will also

Jeshu

answered and said to them,

ask you one word

and

if

you
I
is

will

me,

I

will also tell

you by what
But they
say,

authority

do these (things).
it,

The baptism of Juchanon,
?

whence

from heaven or from men

thought within themselves, saying, If we shall
heaven, he saith- to us.

Why
;

did ye not believe
fear
in

From him ?

And

if

we

shall say.

From men, we
that

from the crowd
mind.

Were

not divided

is,

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
for all have regarded Juclianon as a prophet.

323

And
I

they

answered, saying to him,

We know

not

:

Jeshu saith to
do these

them. Also
(things)

I tell

not you by what authority

LV. Second Station of the second Night of

the Passion.

But how
two sons
;

doth

[it]

appear to

you

?

a certain

man had

and he came to the

elder,

and

said to him.

My
and

son, go to-day
said, I

work

in the vinery.
:

But he answered and said
likewise.

am

not willing
to
I

yet afterwards he relented,

and went.

He came He answered and said,
him. The elder.

the other,
(will),

my

lord

;

yet
1

went not.

Which
to

of these two did the will of his father

They say
I tell

Jeshu saith to them.

Amen

you, the tribute-takers and harlots go before you into the

kingdom of Aloha. For Juchanon came to you in the way of righteousness and you believed him not. But the tribute-takers and harlots beheved him but you neither when you saw (him, nor) afterwards, repented, that you
; :

might believe him.

Hear another comparison

:

A

certain

man was
and

a house-lord;
it

and he planted a vinery, and
it,

surrounded

with an hedge, and dug a wine-press in
it

built in

a tower, and had

it

taken by labourers,

and journeyed.
send him of the

And when

the time of fruits drew near,

he sent his servants to the husbandmen, that they might
fruits of his vinery.

And

the husband-

men
and
wise

took his servants, and beat some, and stoned some,
killed others.
first,

And

again he sent other servants'
like-

more than the
:

and they acted towards them

last,

he sent to them his son, saying.

Now

will

they be ashamed from

my

son.

But the husbandmen,
themselves, This
is

when they saw
the heir
;

the son, said
let

among

come,

us

kill

him, and take the inheritance.

And

they seized and cast

him without

the vinery, and
therefore.

killed

him.

When

the

lord of the vinery,

324

THE PREACHING OF
They

cometh, what will he do to these husbandmen?

say to him, Most miserably will he destroy them, and the vinery will he cause to be held by other labourers, (even)

such as will give him the fruits in their seasons.

Jeshu

Have you not read in the the stone which the builders rejected, this
saith to them.

sciipture, that
is

become the
it

head of the comer ?
is

By

the Lord was this done, and

wondrous

in oar eyes.

On
is

this account I tell

you,,

that the

kingdom of Aloha

taken from you, and shall

be given to a people
ever shall
fall

who

will yield fruits.

And whoso;

upon
it

this stone shall be

broken

but every

one upon

whom

shall fall, it will scatter (him).

And

when
sons,

the chief priests and Pharishee heard his compari-

they

spoken.

knew that concerning themselves he had And they sought to apprehend him, but feared

the people, because as a prophet they regarded him.

LVI. First Service

in the second

Night of the Passion.

And Jeshu answered- again by comparisons, and said. The kingdom of heaven resembles a royal person who made a feast to his son and he sent his servants to call
;

the invited ones to the feast, but they were not willing to

come.

And

again he sent other servants, and said, Tell

the invited ones, Behold,

my

dinner
all

is

prepared,

my
;

oxen

and

my

fathngs are killed, and

things are ready
(it),

come
rest

to the feast.

But they despised and another to

and went, one to But the
killed

his domain,

his business.

took

his

servants

and shamefully treated and
destroyed
those

(them).
sent
his

But when the king heard, he was wroth; and
forces

and

murderers,

and

burned their

city.

Then

said he to his servants,

The

feast is prepared,

and those who were invited were not
find call to the

worthy.

Go

therefore into the outlets of the highways,

and every one

whom you

feast.

And

those servants went forth into the highways, and assem-

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
bled
all

325
;

whom

they found, the bad and the good
filled

and
the

the place of feasting was

with guests.*

And

king entered

to see the guests,*

and he saw there a man
festival.

who was

not dressed in the garments of a

And

he said to him,

My

friend,

how

didst thou enter here,

when thou
was
his
silent.

But he ? Then said the king unto the servitors. Bind hands and his feet, and cast him forth into the darkhast not the vestments of the feast
:

nesses without
teeth.

there shall be weeping and gnashing of
called,

For many are the

but few the chosen.
in Passion

LVII. Evening of the third

Bay

Week.

Then

went the Pharishee and took counsel how they

might ensnare him in discourse.
saying to him. Doctor,
true,

And

they sent to him

their disciples with (certain) of the household of Herodes,

and

(that) the

we know way of Aloha
Tell us

that thou art resolutely
in truth thou teachest

neither carriest thou fear for man, for thou acceptest not

the person of
to thee
?

men.f

then,

how doth
and
said.

it

appear

is it

lawful to give head-money J unto Cesar or
their malice,
1

not

?

But Jeshu knew

Why

do

you tempt me, you hypocrites
the head-silver.

Show me

the denarius of

And
to

they presented to

him
this

a denarius.

And Jeshu
inscription
?

said

them, Whose are
say,

image and
to

They

Cesar's.

He

saith

them.

Give then

(the things)

of Cesar unto

Cesar,

and (the

things) of Aloha unto Aloha.

And when

they heard,

they wondered, and

left

him, and went.

LVIII. Lesson for the Bead.

In that (same) day came the Zadukoyee, affirming to
him,
(that)

there

is

no

life

for the

dead.

questioned him, saying to him. Doctor,
to us that if a

And they Musha has said

man

die having

no children, his brother
t Head-silver.

Recliners.

^

Faces of men.

326

THE PREACHING OP

shall take his wife and raise up seed unto his brother. But there were with us seven brethren the eldest (of
:

whom) took
he

a wife, and died.

And

because he had no

children, he left his wife unto his brother.

So also did

who was
dead.

second, and he

who was

the third, and unto

the seventh of them.
is

But the

last of all the

woman

also

In the resurrection, therefore, of
?

whom

from

these seven shall she be the wife

for all

had taken her.
err,

Jeshu answered and said to them. You do

because you

understand not the scriptures nor the power of Aloha.

For in the resurrection of the dead, they take not wives,
neither are wives [united] to husbands
;

but as the angels
resur-

of Aloha in heaven are they.
rection of the dead, have

But concerning the
said,
I

you not read that which has been

spoken to you by Aloha, who
Aloha
ahve.

am

the

God
?

of

Abraham, the God of Is'hok, the God of Jakub
is

But
are

not of those

who

are dead, but of those

who

And when

the multitudes heard, they were won-

der-struck at his doctriffe.

LIX. Third Morning

in Passion

Week.

But when
them,

the Pharishee heard that he had silenced

the Zadukoyee, they gathered together.

And one from
questioned
is

who was
?

skilful

in

the

law,

liim,

tempting him. Doctor, which commandment
in the law

greatest

Jeshu said to him. Thou shalt love the
all

Lord thy Aloha with *

thy heart, and with
all

all

thy soul,
This

and with
is

all

thy strength, and with

thy mind.

commandment, the great and the first. And the second is Hke unto it, That thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two commandments hang the law
the

and the prophets.
While the Pharishee were gathered together, Jeshu
questioned them, and said, WTiiat say you concerning the
*

Or, from

all,

&c.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
Meshicha,
of David.
spirit
call

327
to him.

—whose
my

son

[is

he]?

They say

Son
in

Saith he to them,

And how doth David
For he
said, that the

him the Lord

?

Lord
I

said unto

Lord, Sit thou at

my

right

hand
If,

until

put thine adversaries beneath thy
calleth

feet.

then, David

could give to

him the Lord, how is he his son ? And no man him the answer nor did any man dare
;

again from that day to question him.

Then Jeshu discoursed with the multitudes and with and said to them, Upon the chair of Musha sit the scribes and the Pharishee. Every thing, therefore, which they tell you to observe, observe and do but
his disciples,
;

after their practices

do not act

;

for they say,

and do not.

And

they bind heavy burdens, and

lay

them on the
works they

shoulders of men, but they [themselves] with their fingers
are not willing to touch them.

do that they

may

be seen of

And all men for
;

their

they widen their

tephiUin,* and lengthen the fringes of their waving vest-

ments,f and love the chief reclining-places at evening
feasts,

and the highest
called "Rabi

seats

in

synagogues, and the

shaloma in pubhc places, and to be called of

men
to

Rabi.|
;

But be you not
all

:

for

One
is

is

your Master

but

ye are brethren.
:

And
:

call

no

man Aba§

you upon
Neither

earth

for

One

is

your Father, who
1|

in heaven.

be ye called Medabronee
Meshicha.

But he who

is

One is your Guide, the great among you, let him be
for
will exalt himself shall

your

servitor.
;

For whosoever

be
be

humbled
exalted.

and whosoever

will

abase

himself shall

*
^'

Phylakteries

;

called

as

above,

prayer."
-f-

For
;

their formation

from the Chaldee tephilla, and uses, see the commentators,

Martuto

vestis

tremida

:

from the Chaldee rethath, tremuit.
Il

X

My Master.

§ Father.

Guides.

328

THE PREACHING OF

LX. First Service

in the third

Night

in Passion

Week.

Woe

to

you,

scribes

and Pharishee,

hypocrites

because you devour the houses of widows, with the pretext of prolonging your prayers
shall receive the greater
;

on account of which you

judgment.
!

Woe

to you, scribes

and Pharishee, hypocrites

because you hold the kingdom

of heaven closed before the children of

men

;

for

you

will

not enter in yourselves, and them
will

who

are entering

you

not permit to enter.
!

Woe

to you, scribes

and Phari-

shee, hypocrites
to

because you go over sea and dry (land)
;

make one proselyte and when you have done it, you make him doubly more a son of gihana than yourselves. Woe to you, ye blind guides, who say. That [to him] who sweareth by the temple, it is nothing but if he
;

swear by the gold which

is

in the temple, he

is

liable

!

You senseless and
ever sweareth

blind

!

for

which

is

greater, the gold, or
?

the temple that sanctifieth the gold

And
;

(that)

whohe

by the

altar,

it

is

nothing

but

[if]

swear by the oblation which
foolish

and

sightless

!

for

upon it, he is liable. You which is greater, the oblation,
is
?

or the altar that sanctifieth the oblation

He
it,

therefore
all

who

sweareth by the

altar,
it.

sweareth by

and by

things that are upon
temple, sweareth by

And he who

sweareth by the
it.

it,

and by whatever abideth in
sweareth

And whosoever

sweareth by heaven,

by the

throne of Aloha, and by

Him who

sitteth thereon.
!

Woe
[re-

to you, scribes, Pharishee, hypocrites

because you tithe

mint,

dill,

and cummin, and omit the more grave

quirements] of the law,
ness.

justice, benignity,

and

faithful-

For these you should have done, and those not

omitted.

You

blind guides,

who
you,

strain
scribes

out gnats

and

swallow camels.
hypocrites
!

Woe
full

to

and Pharishee,
Sightless

who

cleanse the outside of the cup and dish

(which) within are

of rapine and injustice.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
Pharishee
!

329

cleanse first the inside of the cup

and the

dish,

that their outside also

may
!

be clean.
for

"Woe to you, scribes

and Pharishee, hypocrites
chres,

you

are like whited sepul-

which without appear

beautiful, but within are full
all

of the bones of the dead and

impurity.

So you also

from without appear to the sons of
within you are
full of

men

as righteous, but

unrighteousness and hypocrisy.
in Passion

LXI. Second Service of the third Night

Week^

Woe

to you, scribes

and Pharishee, hypocrites

!

because

you rebuild the tombs of the prophets and beautify the and say. If we had been in the sepulchres of the just days of our fathers, we would not have been with them
;

partakers in the blood of the prophets

:

thus bearing

witness against yourselves, that you are the sons of

them
the

who
will

killed the prophets.

And you

also,

— complete
!

measure of your fathers.

Serpents, birth of vipers
?

how
this

you escape from the judgment of gihana
scribes

On

account, behold, I send to you prophets, and wise men,

and

;

(some) of these you shall kiU and crucify

;

and (some) of these you shaR scourge in your synagogues,

and persecute them from city to city. shall come upon you all the blood of the
been shed upon the earth
;

So that there
just

which hath

from the blood of Habil the

righteous, unto the blood of Zakaria-bar-Barakia,

whom
I

you slew between the temple and the
unto you, that
Urishlem,
stonest
all

altar.

Amen

say

these shall
!

come upon
killest

this generation.

Urishlem

who

the

prophets,

and
I

them who

are sent unto her,

what times would

have gathered thy children, as gathereth the hen her
Lo, young ones beneath her wings, and you would not For I say unto is left unto you desolate.
!

your house

you, That you shall not see

me from

henceforth, until you

* Also for St. Stephen.

330
shall say, Blessed

THE PREACHING OF
is

he who cometh in the name of the

Lord.

LXII. Evening of the Festival of the Cross.

And

Jeshu went forth from the temple to depart

:

and

his disciples approached him,

showing him the building
to them,

of the temple.
these
?

But he said
I

See you not

all

Amen

say to you. There shall not be left here

while Jeshu sat upon the

upon a stone which shall not be destroyed. And mount of Olives, his disciples drew near and said between themselves and him. Tell us
a stone
these things shall be
;

when

and what

is

the sign of thy

coming and of the consummation of the world.
answered and said to them. Beware that no

Jeshu
cause

man

you
I

to err

am
;

the

many will come Meshicha and many
;

for

in

my name

and

will say,

;

will

be deceived.

But

it

will
tles

be for you to hear [of] wars and the noise of bat(yet) see that

you be not perturbed
is

;

for all these

will take place,

but not yet

the end.

For people will
;

rise against people,

and kingdom against kingdom

and

there

shall be famines,

and plagues, and earthquakes in

But these are all the beginning of sorThen shall they deliver you to affliction, and shall kiU you and you shall be hated of aU peoples on account of my name. Then shall many be offended, and shall hate one another, and betray one another. And
various places.

rows.

;

many

lying prophets shall stand up, and shall delude the

multitudes.

the love of
vere

And because of the abounding of iniquity, many wiU languish. But he who shall perseunto the end, he shall live. And this annunciation

of the
as a

kingdom

shall be proclaimed in the
all

whole world

testimony for

nations

;

and then

will

come the

end.

But when you

see the unclean sign of desolation

which was spoken of by Daniel the prophet, that it standeth in the holy place he who readeth let him
;

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
understand
!

331
escape to the roof

—then

let

those
let

the mountain.

And

not

who are in Jehnd him who is on
;

descend to take what

[is in]

his house

nor he

who

is

in

the field turn back to take his vestment.

But woe to

those

who

are.
!

with child, and to those
flight

those days

But pray that your

who give suck in may not be in the
shall be the great

winter, nor on the shabath.
affliction,

For then

such as hath not been from the beginning of

the world until

now, neither

shall

be

(again).

And
all

unless those days be cut short, none could live of
flesh
:

but on account of the chosen those days shall be

cut short.

Then

if

any one
;

shall say to you, Lo, here is

the Meshicha,
shall arise false

or there

beheve them not.

For there
;

Meshichas and prophets of untruth

and

they shall give forth magnificent signs, so as to seduce,
if

possible, the chosen also.
!

If therefore they shall say
is

to you, (observe

I

have told you befpre,) Behold, he
:

in the

desert

;

go not forth

or.

Behold, he

is

in the

inner chamber; believe not.
forth from the east,

As the lightning cometh
seen unto the west, so shall

and

is

be the advent of the Son of man.
shall be, there will be

But where the body But immeand the

assembled the eagles.

diately after the affliction

of those days, the sun will
light,

become dark, and the moon show not her
stars shall fall

from heaven, and the powers of heaven be
then shall be seen the standard of the

commoved. Son of man

And

in heaven,

and then

all

the generations of

the earth* shall wail, and they shall see the Son of

man

coming upon the clouds of heaven, with great power and
glory.

And he

shall

send his angels

with the great

trumpet, and they shall gather the chosen

who

are his

from the four winds and from the ends of heaven. f from the
fig-tree learn

But

a parable

:

As soon

as her branches

* Or, tribes of the land.
•f

From

the extremity of the heavens to their extremity.

332

THE PREACHING OF

are soft, and they put forth her leaves, you know that summer draweth nigh. So also, when all these are seen, you know that it cometh to the door. Amen I say to

you, that this race * shall not have passed away until
these
shall
;

all

take place.

Heaven and earth
away.

shall

pass

away

but

my

words

shall not pass

LXIII. Lesson for the Bead.

But concerning that day and concerning that man knoweth neither the angels of heaven,
;

hour, no

but the

Father only.

But

as the days of

Nuch, so shall be the

coming of the Son of man.
to husbands, until the

For as before the deluge

they were eating and drinking, taking wives and giving

day that Nuch went into the ark

and knew not

till

the deluge came, and carried

away
two
left.

;

so shall be the advent of the

Son of man.
one

them all Then
taken,

shall

be in the

field

;

one shall be taken, and one be
;

Two
is

shall be grinding in the mill
left.

is

and one
not in
that if
thief

Be wakeful therefore, because ye know what hour cometh your Lord. But this know the master of the house knew in what watch the
;

would come, he would have been watching, and not
Wliere-

have suffered his house to be broken through.
fore be ye also

prepared, because in the hour that ye

expect not shall

come the Son of man.
the

LXIV. Oblation on

Sunday of the

Priests.

Who

is

the servant faithful and wise

whom

his lord

shall appoint over the children of his house, to give every

one his meat in his time

?

Blessed

is

that servant, who,
so.
all

when cometh
hath.

his lord, shall be

found doing

Amen
that

I

say to you, that he will establish

him over

he

But

if

that evil servant shall say in his heart,

My

lord withholdeth to

come

;

and

shall

begin to beat his

* Sharebtha, "tribe, people, nation."

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
fellow-servants,

333

and

shall be eating

and drinking with

drunkards

;

the lord of that servant shall come in a day

that he computeth not,

and in an hour which he doth

not know, and shall sunder him, and set his lot with the
hypocrites.
teeth.

There shall be weeping and gnashing of

LXV. Third

Service in the second Night in Passion

Week^

Then

shall be likened

the

kingdom
bride.

of heaven unto
to

ten virgins,

who took
five

their lamps,

and went forth

meet the bridegroom and the
were wise, and
foolish.

But

five

of

them
oil

And

those fooUsh (ones)

took their lamps, but did not take with them the but those were wise
lamps.

who took

oil in vessels

with their
all

But while the bridegroom withheld, they
slept.

dozed and

And

in the dividing of the night there
;

was the

cry. Behold, the

to his meeting. their lamps.

bridegroom cometh go forth Then all the virgins arose, and prepared But those foolish ones said to the wise.
;

Give to us from your

gone out.
Lest
it

oil for, behold, our lamps are But the wise ones answered them, saying.

should not
sell,

suffice for

us and for you

;

but go to

those

who

and buy

for you.

And

while they were

gone to buy, the bridegroom came, and those who were
prepared entered with him into the house of festivity,f

and the gate was shut.
virgins, saying.

At last came also those other Our Lord, our Lord, open to us But he answered and said to them. Assuredly I teU you, I know you not. Be wakeful therefore, for you know not
!

that day nor the hour.
*
-f-

Also

for the

[commemoration

of] holy

women.

Beth-chelulOf domus chori, sen domus nuptiarum.

334

THE PREACHING OF
LXVI. Sunday of

the Priests.

For
talents,

as a

man who

journeyed called his servants, and
:

dehvered to them his property

To one he gave
to

five

and

to another two,
;

and

another one, each

man

according to his faculty

and forthwith went away.
talents

But he who had received
with them, and gained

five

went and traded
Likewise he

five

others.

who
But

(had received) two by trading gained two others.

he who had received one went, dug in the earth, and hid
the

money

of his lord.

After a long time the lord of

them the account. Then he drew near who had received the five talents, and brought five others, and said. My lord, five talents thou gavest me behold, five others I have gained by them.
those servants came, and received from
:

His lord
servant
I
;

said

to

him,

It

is

well,

good and

faitliful

over a Httle thou hast been faithful, over
:

much
lord,

will

estabhsh thee

enter into the

joy of thy lord.

And he
two

of the two talents approached, and said.

My
I

talents

thou gavest

me
;

:

behold, two others

have

gained by them.

His lord saith to him,
over a
little

It is well, ser-

vant good and faithful
faithful, over

thou hast been
:

much wiQ
But he

I establish thee

enter into the

joy of thy lord.

also

drew near who had received
lord, I

the one talent, and said,

My

knew

thee, that thou

wast a hard man, reaping where thou hadst not sowed,

and gathering together from whence thou hadst not
persed.

dis-

And
:

I

feared,

and went and hid thy
own.
slothful

talent in

the

earth

behold,

thou hast thine

His lord

answered.

Thou
I

evil

and

servant,

thou didst

know me

that I reap where I have not sowed, and collect

from whence
thee to cast
I

have not dispersed.

Did

it

not behove
I

my money upon
him the

the table, that
its

when

came Take

might require mine own with
talent,

increase?
it

therefore from

and give

unto him who

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
hath ten talents.

335

For unto him who hath shall be given,
;

and
also

it

shall be

added to him
shall

but he who hath not, that

which he hath

be taken from him.

And

the

indolent servant cast forth into the darknesses without
there shall be w^eeping and gnashing of teeth.

LXVII. Lesson for

the

Commemoration of the Just, and

for the sixth

Bay

of the Candidates.
in his glory,
sit

When
his

the Son of

man cometh
And
before

holy angels with him, then shall he

and all upon the
from

throne of his glory.
all

him

shall be gathered

nations

:

and

he

shall

separate

them one

another, as the shepherd separateth the sheep from the
goats.

And he
to

shall cause the sheep to stand

right hand,

and the goats on

his left.

King say

them on

his right

upon his Then shall the hand. Come, blessed of
to be for

my

Father, inherit the

kingdom which was
For
I
I thirsted,

from the foundation of the world.

you was hungry,

and you gave me
drink
;

to eat

;

and you made

me
I

to

I

was a stranger, and you received

me

;

was

naked, and you covered

me

;

I

was

sick,

me
we
see

;

and

I

was in prison, and you came

and you cared for to me. Then
!

shall say

unto him those righteous. Our Lord

when

did

see that

thou wast hungry, and fed thee, or that thou

didst thirst,

and we gave thee drink ? and when did we and when did we
to thee
?

thee a stranger, and received thee, or naked, and thee
?

covered
prison,

see thee

sick,

or in

and came
to them.

And

the King shall answer

and say
it
it.

Amen I

say to you. Inasmuch as you did
least brethren,

unto one of these

my

unto

me you
left

did

Then

shall

he say also unto them on his
fire

hand.

Go from me,
was prepared
but you made

accursed, into the
for the accuser

of eternity, which

and

for his angels.

For

I

was hungry, and you gave me not

to eat
I

;

and

I thirsted,

me

not to drink

;

and

was a stranger, and

336

THE PREACHING OF
;

you received me not and naked, and you clothed me not and I was sick, and in prison, and you visited me not. Then shall they also answer and say, Our Lord! when saw we thee hungry, or
thirsty, or a stranger, or naked,

or sick, or in prison, and did not minister unto thee?

Then

shall

he answer and say to them.
it

Amen

I

say unto

you, that inasmuch as you did
Uttle ones,

not unto one of these

you did

it

not to me.

And

these shall go

away

into the torment
life

which

is eternal,

and the just into the

which

is eternal.

hXNlll. Fifth Bay of the Mysteries.

And when

Jeshu had finished

all

these discourses, he
is

said to his disciples.

You know not

that after two days
is

the Petzcha,* and the Son of
crucified.
scribes,

man

delivered

Then assembled the

chief priests,

up to be and the

and the

elders of the people, in the hall of the

chief of the priests,

who was
kill

called Kaiapha.

And
artifice

they they
it

held counsel concerning Jeshu,

might apprehend and
not be on the
people.

how that by him. And they

said.

Let

festival, lest there

be a tumult among the

And when Jeshu was at Bethania, in the house Shemun the leper, there drew near to him a woman who carried a vase of aromatic balsam, great of price,
of

and she poured it upon the head of Jeshu as he reclined. But his disciples saw and were displeased, and said. For what is this destruction ? For this could have been sold
for

much, and given

to the poor.

But Jeshu knew, and
?

said to them.

Why

grieve

you the woman
all

a

good work

hath she wrought upon me. For in
have with you, but

time the poor you

For

this

me you have not in all time with you. (woman) who hath poured this balsam upon my

body, as unto

my

funeral hath done

[it].

And Amen

I

say unto you. Wheresoever this

my

Gospel shall be pro-

Passover.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
claimed, in
all

33/

the world, this also which she hath done

shall be told for her memorial.

Then went one from the
to give

twelve,

named
him

Jihiida S'carjuta, unto the chief priests,

and
of

said to them,

What
you

are
?

you willing

me, and

I

will deliver
silver.

to

But they

settled to

And from

that time * he sought to

him thirty him oppor-

tunity to betray him.

LXIX. Fifth Bay

in the

Week of the

Mysteries.

But
Where
over?

in the

first

day of the (Phatiree) unleavened-

bread days, the disciples came to Jeshu, and said to him.
wilt thou that

But he

said to them,
to

man, and say

we prepare for thee to eat the passGo into the city to a certain him. Our master saith. My time hath
I

come

!

with thee will

perform the passover with
did
as Jeshu

my
was

disciples.

And

the

disciples

had comit

manded, and prepared the passover.
evening,

And when
disciples.
I

he reclined with his

twelve

And

while they were eating, he said.
that one from
sad,

Amen
And

say unto you,

you betrayeth me.
to say to

they were very

and began
Lord,
is it I ?

him, one by

one of them,
said.

My
me.
ing

dippeth his hand with

And
him
if
;

the

but
is

One who me in the dish, he shall betray Son of man goeth as it is written concernwoe to him, to that man by whom f the
But he answered and
betrayed!
Better had
it

Son of man

been for that
traitor

man

he had not been born.
said.

Then Jihuda the
Rabi
?

answered and
to him.

Am

not
!

I (he),

Jeshu replieth
eating,

Thou

hast said

But while they were

Jeshu took the bread, and blessed, and brake, and gave to his disciples, and said. Take, eat, this (is) my body.

And

he took the cup, and offered thanks, and gave to
said.

them, and

Take, drink of this

all

of you

:

this (is)
is

my

blood of the new covenant, which for multitudes
*

From

then.

-f-

By whose

hand.

338

THE PREACHING OF
sins.

shed for the remission of
will

But
I shall

I

say to you, that I

not drink from henceforth of this product of the

vines, until the

day in which
of Aloha.

drink

it

with you

new

in the

kingdom

And

they sang praises,

and went forth unto the mount of OHves.

LXX. Night of

the Preparation for the Crucifixion.

Then
in

said Jeshu unto them.
;

You

all shall

be offended

me

this night

for

it is

written, I will strike the shep-

herd,

and scattered

shall be the

sheep of his flock.

But

after that I

am

risen I

am

before you in Galila,

Kipha
Jeshu

answered and said to him. Though every
him.

man

should be

offended in thee, I never will be offended in thee.
saith to

Amen

I

say to thee, that in this night,

before the cock shall crow, three times thou wilt deny

me.

Kipha

saith to him. If I

am

to die with thee, I will
all

not deny thee.

The same

also

the disciples said.

Then cometh Jeshu with them unto the place which is caUed Gedsiman and he said to his disciples. Sit here while I go and pray. And he took Kipha and the two sons of Zabdai and he began to be sorrowful, and to be
; ;

vehemently agonized.
afflicted

And he
wait for
a
little,

said to them,

My

soul is

unto death

;

me

here,
fell

and watch with

me.

And he removed

and
it

upon

his face,
let this

praying, and saying.

My

Father, if

be possible,

cup pass from
he came
with

me

;

yet not as I will, but as thou.

to his disciples,

and found them sleeping

;

Then and

he said to Kipha, How, could you not for one hour watch

me

1

temptation.

Be watchful and pray, that you enter not into The spirit is ready, but the body is infirm.
said.

Again he went the second time, and prayed, and

My

Father, if
I

it
it,

be not possible for this cup to pass,

unless

drink

be done thy will
;

!

And he came

again,

and found them asleep

for their eyes

had become heavy.

And he

left

them, and went again, and prayed the third

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
time, and
disciples,

339
to the

said

the same word.
to

Then he came

and said
the

them, Sleep on now, and be at

rest

;

lo,

hour cometh, and the

Son of man
Arise, let us

is
:

betrayed into the hands of sinners.
behold, he

go

cpmeth who betrayeth me.
traitor,

And

while he

was speaking,, behold, Jihuda the
twelve,

one from the

came, and

a

great

multitude

with him, with

swords and clubs, from the chief priests and elders of the
people.
sign,

And Jihuda
said.

the traitor had given to
I shall kiss,

them a
he
:

and

Whomsoever

that

is

take

him.
Peace,

And immediately he approached

Jeshu, and said.

my

master! and kissed him.
it)

But he, Jeshu, said

to him, (Is

for that

thou hast come,

my

companion

?

Then they came on, and laid their hands upon Jeshu, and took him. And, behold, one from those who were
with Jeshu stretched forth his hand, and unsheathed a
sword, and struck a servant of the high priest, and took
off his ear.

Then
;

said Jeshu to him.

Return thy sword
cannot request

to his place

for every one of
die.

them who take swords, by
I

swords shall

Or thinkest thou that

from

my

Father, and he shall appoint to
?

me now more
ought to be
?

than twelve legions of angels

(But) how, then, would
it

the scripture be accomplished, that thus

In that hour Jeshu said to the multitudes. As against a
robber are you come out, with swords, and with clubs, to
seize

me

?

Every day with you in the temple

I sat

and

taught, and you did not apprehend me.

But

this was.

done that what
filled.

is

written in the prophets might be fuldisciples all deserted

Then the

him, and

fled.

And

they

who apprehended Jeshu

led

him unto Kaiapha,
and
after

chief of the priests, where the jurists

elders were

assembled.

But Shemun Kipha went
of the
chief
sat

him from
and
he
that

afar unto the court

of the

priests,

entered

and

within with

the

attendants,
priests,

might see the end.

But the chief
QL

and the

2

340
elders,

THE PREACHING OF
and the whole assembly, sought against Jeshu
might put him
to

witnesses, that they

death

;

but they

found not
came.
But,

(any).
last,

And many

witnesses

of falsehood
said, I

two came near, declaring. This
temple of Aloha, and in

can destroy the
rebuild
to
it.

three

days

And

the chief of the priests arose, and said
?

him. Dost thou return no word

WTiat are these
silent.

witnessing against thee?

But Jeshu was

And

the chief of the priests answered and said to him, I

swear thee, by Aloha the Living, that thou declare to us

whether thou be the
That hereafter ye
at the right

Meshicha,

the
:

Son of Aloha
I

?

Jeshu saith to him, Thou hast said

but

say to you.

shall see him, the Son of man, sitting hand of Power, and coming on the clouds of

heaven.

Then the

chief of the priests tore his robes,

and

said.

Behold, he hath
?

blasphemed
Behold,

!

what further

need have we of witnesses
his blasphemy.

now we have heard

"WTiat will

He
us,

deserves death.
;

you ? They answered saying. Then did they spit in his face, and
he
that

smote him

and others struck him, saying. Prophesy to
!

Meshicha

Who

is

smiteth

thee

?

But

Kipha was

sitting

without, in the hall, and a certain

female domestic approached him, saying to him.
also wast with

Thou
all,

Jeshu Natsroia.

But he denied before

and

said, I

know

not what thou sayest.
vestibule, another

And when he
saw him, and

had gone out into the
said to them. This also

was there with Jeshu Natsroia.
with
oaths,
I

And
man.
ing

again
But,

he

denied
a

after

little

while, they
to

know not the who were standAssuredly

drew

near,
;

and

said

Kipha,

thou

art of

them

for thy speech also to imprecate
in

makes thee known.
I

Then began he
the

and to swear,

know

not

man

!

And

that hour the cock

crowed.

And
said

Kipha remembered the word of Jeshu, who had
to

him, That before the cock shall crow, three times

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
wilt thou have denied

341
without, and

me.

And he went

wept

bitterly.

LXXI. Morning of

the Friday of the Passion.
priests

But when
of the

it

was morning, the chief
took
counsel
against

and

elders

people

Jeshu,

how they

And they bound him, and led him away, and delivered him to Pilatos the governor. Then Jihuda the traitor, when he saw that Jeshu was
should put him to death.

condemned, repented him, and went

hastily,

and returned

those thirty of silver unto the chief priests and elders,

and

said, I

have sinned, for
said
!

I

have betrayed the innocent

blood.

But they

to

him. To us?
cast

what

to

us?

Thou knowest,
himself.
said. It is

— thou
it is

And he
priests

down

the silver in

the temple, and passed away, and went and strangled

But the chief
because

took up the
it

silver,

and

not lawful that

we throw
it

into the place of

offering,

the price of blood.

And

they took

counsel,

and bought with

the field of the potter, for

the burial-place of strangers.

Wherefore that

field

has

The field of blood, until this day. Then was fulfilled what had been spoken by the prophet, who said. And I took the thirty (pieces) of silver, the price of him who was precious, whom the sons of Isroel bargained for and gave them for the field of the potter, as the Lord commanded me. But Jeshu himself stood before And the governor questioned him, and the governor. Jeshu said to him. Thou art the king of the Jihudoyee ? And while the chief said to him. Thou hast said.
been
called.
;

priests

and

elders were accusing him,

he returned not a
not

word.

Then

said Pilatos unto him, Hearest thou

what they witness against thee? But he gave him no and upon this (Pilate) answer, no, not in one word
;

marvelled greatly.

Now

at every festival the

governor

was accustomed

to

release one

of the

bound unto the

342

THE PREACHING OF
But there was (then)
called

people, -whomsoever they would.

bound

a

notorious

prisoner

who was

Bar-aba.

And when

they were assembled, Pilatos said to them,

Whom will
who
is

you that
the

I release

unto you. Bar-aba, or Jeshu
?

called

Meshicha

For Pilatos knew that
him.

from malice they had

delivered

But while the

governor sat upon his tribunal, his wife sent to him,
saying, Let there be nothing

between thee and that Just

One

;

for

much

have

I

suffered in a
priests

account.

But the chief

dream to-day on his and elders persuaded the
the governor answered
I shall release to

multitude that he should release to them Bar-aba, that
they might destroy Jeshu.

And

and

said to them,

Whom

will

you that

Then they said. Bar-aba. Pilatos saith to them. And to Jeshu who is called the Meshicha, what shaR I do with him? They all said. Let him be crucified. Pilatos saith to them. Why, what evil hath he done ? But they clamoured the more, and said. Let him be crucified Then Pilatos, when he saw that nothing availed, but that the tumult became greater, took waters (and) washed his hands before * the assembly, and said, I am expiated from the blood of this Just One. You shall know. And all the people answered and said. His blood upon us, and upon our children
you of these two?
!

!

LXXII. Lesson for

the third

Hour.
;

Then
Then the

he released to them Bar-aba

and scourged

Jeshu with thongs, and delivered him to be crucified.
soldiers

of

the

governor took Jeshu to the

Prsetorium, and the whole cohort gathered against him.

And
it

they stripped him, and invested him with a cloak of

crimson.

And

they interwove a crown

'of

thorns, and set
:

upon

his head,

and a cane in

his right

hand

and they

kneeled upon their knees before him, and mocked hira,
* In the eye of the assembly.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
saying, Hail, king of the Jihudoyee
his face,
!

343
they did spit in

And

and took the cane, and struck him upon his head. And when they had derided him, they stripped him of the cloak, and clothed him with his own garments, and
led

him away
this

to be crucified.

forth,

they found a Kurinean

mun

:

(man) they

And when they had gone man whose name was Shecompel to carry his cross. And
is

they came to a place which

called Gogultho,

which
to

is

expounded, The
drink.

skull.

And
:

they gave

him

drink

vinegar mingled with gall
willing to

and he
lot

tasted,

but was not
him,

And when

they had crucified
:

they divided his garments by

that

what was spoken

by the prophet might be
cast lots.

fulfilled.

They parted

my

garments among them, and upon

my

vesture did they
there.

And

they sat
over

down and watched him
his
(is)

And

they placed

head the occasion of his
Jeshu, the King of the

death, in the writing. This

Jihudoyee.

LXXIII. For the sixth Hour.

And
by

they crucified with him two thieves, one on his

right hand,

and one on

his left.

But they who passed
and saying.
it

railed against him,

moving

their heads,

Destroyer of the temple, and builder of

in three days

deHver thyself,

if

thou art the Son of Aloha, and come
Likewise also the chief priests
scribes
;

down from
saying.

the cross.

mocking him, with the

and

elders

and Pharishee,
If

He

saved others

himself he cannot save.

he

be the King of

Isroel, let

him now descend from the

cross, that we may see and beheve in him. He trusted upon Aloha let him Hberate him now, if he delighteth in* him for he said, I am the Son of Aloha. Likewise also the robbers who were crucified with him
;
;

reviled him.
* Willethhim.

344

THE PREACHING OF
LXXIV. For
the ninth Hour.
ali

But from

the sixth hour* there was darkness upon

the land until the ninth hour.

And about
voice.

the ninth
!

hour Jeshu cried with a high

Aloha

Aloha

I

why
Ilio.

hast thou forsaken

me ?f

But

certain of

them who

stood there,

when they
filled it

heard, said. This hath cried unto

And

forthwith ran one from them,

and took a

sponge, and

with vinegar, and

set it

upon a cane,

and gave him to drink. But the rest said. Let alone, we will see whether Ilio (will) come to dehver him. But he,
Jeshu, again cried with a high voice, and dismissed his
spirit.

And

at

once the

veil;^
;

of the temple was rent in

twain from above to beneath

and the earth was shaken,
the house of the buried
saints

and the rocks were
was opened
;

riven.

And

and the bodies of many of the
and came
forth,

who

had been
many.

asleep arose,

and

after his

resurrection went into the holy city,

and were seen by

But the centurion and those with him, who
which took
place,

guarded Jeshu, when they saw the commotion and those
(portents)

feared greatly,

and

said.

Assuredly this

was the

Son of Aloha.
from afar
;

(And)
those

women were
come
him.
after

there, beholding
Galila,

many who had

Jeshu from
of

and had ministered "unto

One

them was Mariam Magdohtha, and Mariam

the mother of Jakub and of Josi, and the mother of the

sons of Zabdai.

LXXV. Eve of the Sabbath of the
But when
it

Aimunciation,

was evening, there came a rich man from
also

Rometha, whose name was Jauseph, who himself
a disciple of Jeshu.

was
the
the
/

This went unto Pilatos, and begged

the body of Jeshu.

And

Pilatos

body should be given to him.
* Six hours, &c.
-j-

commanded that And Jauseph took
!

IL

!

IL

lamono shabakthoni

X The

faces of the gate.

MATHAI THE APOSTLE.
body, and
laid
it

345

in a

hewn
went.
the

out

wound it round in a cloth of pure linen, and new house of burial of his own, which was in the rock. And they rolled a great stone,
it

and heaved

against the

door of the sepulchre, and

Now

there were there

Mariam Magdolitha and
sitting

other Mariam,

who were

over

against

the

sepulchre.

LXXVI. Morning of

the Sabbath of Jthe Annunciation,

But
the

the day which was next after the preparation,
priests

chief

and Pharishee came together unto
him. Our lord, we remember that that
alive,

Pilatos, saying to

impostor said while
arise.
till

That
days

after

three

days

I will

Command

therefore that they watch the sepulchre
;

(after) the third of the

lest his disciples
tell

come,

and

steal

him away by

night,

and

the people that

from the house of the dead he has
delusion be worse than the
first.

risen,

and the

last

Pilatos saith to them.

Ye have guards

;

go,

watch

diligently, as

ye

know how.

So they went, and

set a

watch (about) the sepulchre, and

sealed the stone along with the guards.

LXXVII. Evening of

the

Sunday of

the Resurrection.

From

the evening (end) of the sabbath,

when

the

first

week was hghtening, Mariam Magdohtha and the other Mariam came to see the sepulchre. And,
(day) in the

behold, there was a great earthquake

;

for the angel of

the Lord descended from heaven and drew near, rolled

the stone from the door, and sat upon

it.

His aspect

was hke lightning, and
snow.

his

raiment was white as the

And with
said

fear of

him they who were watching
But the angel
;

were shaken, and became as the dead.

answered and

to

the

women. Fear not ye
crucified

for I

know He is

that for Jeshu

who was

you are seeking.

not here

:

for he

is risen,

even as he said.
:

Come,

see the

place in which our Lord was laid

and go with

Q

5

346
speed,

THE PREACHING OF MATHAI,
and
tell

his
;

disciples

that he

is

risen

from the

house of the dead
Galila.

and, behold, he goeth before you into

There shall you see him.

Lo, I have told you.

And

they went quickly from the sepulchre, with fear and
tell his disciples.

with great joy, and ran that they might

And, behold, Jeshu met them, and said to them. Peace to you And they approached [him], held him by the feet,
!

and adored him.
but go
there
tell

Then

said Jeshu to them. Fear not
I will

my

brethren, that

go into Gahla, and

they shall see me.
certain

But while they went, there
city,

came

from those guards into the

and told

the chief priests every thing that had been done.

And
;

they assembled with the elders, and took counsel

and

they gave

money not

a

little

to the guards, telling them.

Say you that his
the night, while
the governor,

disciples came (and) stole him away in we slept. And if this be heard before we will persuade him, and make you with-

out care.

did as they had instructed
forth

But they, whjen they had received the money, them and that saying went
;

among

the Jihudoyee until to-day.
Galila,

But the eleven
mountain where

disciples

went into

unto

the

Jeshu had appointed them.
they worshipped

And when they saw him,

him

;

but from them some had doubted.

And Jeshu drew
said to them.

near,
is

and discoursed with them, and

There

given unto

me

all

power

in heaven

and

in earth.

As the Father sent me, so

also I send you.

Go therefore, disciple all nations, and baptize them in the name (of) the Father, and (of) the Son, and (of) the Spirit of Holiness. And teach them to observe all things And, behold, I am whatsoever I have commanded you.
with you
world.
all

the days, until the consummation of the

Amen.
is

Finished

the Holy Gospel of the Preaching of Mathai
in

which he preached
Palestine.

Hebrew

in

the

land

of

THE HOLY GOSPEL:
THE PREACHING OF MARKOS THE
EVANGELIST.

I.

Lesson for the Feast of the Manifestation.

The
phet
:

beginning of the Gospel of Jeshu Meshicha, the

Son of Aloha.

As

it

is

written

in

Eshaia

the

pro-

Behold, I send

my

angel before thy face.

Who
The

shall

make

straight * thy way.

voice which crieth in the desert.

Prepare the way of the Lord,

Make

level his paths.

Juchanon was in the

desert, baptizing,

and proclaim-

ing the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins.

And
river,

all

the region of Jehud and aU the sons of Urishlem
;

went out to him

while they were confessing their sins.

and he baptized them in Jurdan the But Juchaof
his
belt

non himself was clothed with a garment of the hair
camels,
loins
;

and engirded with a

of leather

upon

and

his food

was locusts and wilderness-honey.

And he proclaimed and said. Behold, (One) cometh after me, who is mightier than I he, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to bow myself to unloose. I have
;

baptized you with waters
the Spirit of Hohness.

;

but he shall baptize you with

And

it

was in those days that Jeshu came from Nats-

rath of Gahla, and was baptized in Jurdan by Juchanon,
* Or, prepare.

348

THE PRKACHING OF
as soon as he

And

had ascended from the waters, he saw
the
Spirit,

the heavens part asunder, and

as

a dove,

descend upon him.
vens.

And

the voice was from the hea:

Thou

art

my

Son, the Beloved

in thee I have

dehghted.
into the

And immediately the Spiiit led him desert. And he was there in the desert
by Satana
:

forth
forty

days, being tempted

and he was with the
to him.

wild beasts
II.

;

and the angels ministered
first

For the Evening of the

(Bay)

in the

Week

after

the Manifestation.

But
Galila,

after

Juchanon was delivered
said.
:

up,"^

Jeshu came to

and proclaimed the annunciation of the kingdom

of Aloha.

And he

The time

is

complete

;

the king-

dom And

of Aloha Cometh

repent, and believe the gospel.

while he walked about the sea of GaUla, he saw She-

mun and
the sea
:

Andreas his brother, who were casting nets into
for

they were fishers.

And Jeshu

said

to

them.

Come
after

after

me, and

I

wiU make you

fishers of the

sons of men.

went

him.

And at once they forsook theii' nets, and And when he had passed on a httle, he
his brother
;

saw Jakub bar Zabdai and Juchanon
called

and

they also were in a vessel, preparing their nets.

And he

them

;

and forthwith they

left

Zabdai their father

with the hirelings, and went after him.

And when

they were come to Kapher-nachum, he forth-

with taught on the sabbaths in their assembhes.
they wondered at his doctrine
;

And
as

for he taught

them

having power, and not as their Sophree.
in their assembly a

And

there was
:

man who had an

unclean

spirit

and

he cried and
roya
?

said,

\Miat to us and to thee, Jeshu

IS'ats-

Art thou come to destroy us
art,

thou

the Holy
said.

One

of Aloha.

? I know thee who And Jeshu restrained

him, and

Close thy mouth, and come forth from
-f-

* Or, perfected.

Or, the annunciation.

MARKOS THE EVANGEI.IST.
him.

349
cried
all
?

And

the impure spirit threw

him down, and

with a high voice, and went forth from him.

And
is

wondered, and questioned one with another,

Who

this

and what

is

this

new

doctrine

?

because with authority

he commandeth the impure

spirits,

and they obey him.
all

And

his

fame soon went out through

the region of

And he proceeded from the assembly, and came to the house of Shemun and Andreas with Jacub .and Juchanon. And the mother-in-law of Shemun was hing in a fever and they told him concerning her. And he
Galila.
;

approached, took her by her hand
once the fever
left her,

;

and she

arose,

and

at

and she served them.

Then
all

in

the evening at sun-setting they brought to

him

those

who were
whole
city

grievously affected and demoniacs.

And

the

was assembled
cast out

at

the gate

:

and he healed

multitudes
eases,

the
III.

who were grievously affected with various dismany demons, and would not permit demons to speak for they knew him.
and
;

»

Morning of

the first

(Bay)

in

the second

Week of
and

the Fast.

And
went

in the

morning he arose long before
and there prayed.

(day),

into a solitude,

And Shemun
;

and and (they) who (were) with him sought for him when they had found him, they said to him, All men are
seeking thee.

He

said

to

them, Proceed you to the neighbouring
;

towns and
for this

cities

for there also I will preach, because

am

I

come.

And he preached
cast out devils.

in all their assem-

blies in all Galila,

and

And

a leper

came to him, and

fell

at

his

feet,

and

besought him, and said to him. If thou
cleanse me.

wilt,

thou canst

And Jeshu had compassion on him, and
in that very

stretched forth his hand, touched him, and said, I will,

be clean.

And

hour his leprosy went from

350

THE PREACHING OF And he
restrained him,

him, and he was cleansed.
led

and
any

him
;

forth,

and

said to him. See lest

thou

tell

one

hut go, show thyself to the priests, and offer the

oblation for thy purification as
their testimony. to

But

he,

Musha commanded for when he was gone forth, began
so divulged the matter as that
city,

announce

it

much, and

Jesliu could not

go openly in the
:

but was without

in a place.

solitary part

and they came

to

him from every

IV. Ohlation of the first

Day

in the third

Week of

the

Fast.

And

Jeshu

entered

again

into

Kapher-nachum
so that
it

for

some days.
the house,

And when they had heard many were gathered together,

that he was in

could
;

not contain them, nor yet (the space) before the gate

and he spake with them the word.

And

they came to

him, and brought him a paralytic borne between four.

And when

they could not approach him for the crowd,

they ascended to the roof, and took the covering from
the place where Jeshu was, and let

down

the couch on
faith,

which the paralytic
thy
sins.

lay.

When

Jeshu saw their

he

said to the paralytic himself.

My son,

forgiven to thee are

But some of the Sophree and Pharishee were
sat

there,

who
1

and reasoned in
?

their heart,

Who

is

this

uttering blasphemy

Who

can forgive sins

but One,

Aloha

But Jeshu knew

in his spirit that they so rea-

soned within themselves, and said to them, WTiy reason

you these things in your heart

?

Which

is easier,

to say

to the paralytic. Forgiven are thy sins, or to say. Arise,
lift

up thy couch, and walk ? But, that you may know Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, he said to the paralytic. To thee I say. Arise, take up thy couch, and go to thy house. And he arose at once, and so took up his couch, and went forth before them all
that the
;

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.
that
all

351

wondered, and glorified Aloha, saying. Never saw

we

thus.

V. Morning of the first

Bay

in the third

Week

after

the Resurrection.

And

he went forth again to the sea

;

and the whole

multitude came to him, and he taught them.

And when

he had passed, he saw Levi bar Chalphai sitting among
the publicans
arising,
:

and he said

to him.

Come

after

me

;

and,

he went after him.

And

while he reclined in the

house,

many

publicans and sinners reclined with Jeshu
;

and with
saw him
disciples.

his disciples

for they

were many, and they

fol-

lowed him.

And

the Sophree and Pharishee,

when they

eat with publicans

and with

sinners, said to his

Why

with publicans and with sinners doth he

and drink ? But when Jeshu heard, he said to them. The healthy have no need of the physician, but they who are sorely affected I have not come to call the righteous,
eat
:

but the sinners.

Now
fasted.

the disciples of Juchanon and of the Pharishee

And

they came and said to him,

(While) the
fast,

disciples of

Juchanon and of the Pharishee
?

why do
is

not thy disciples fast

Jeshu said to them. Can the sons

of the marriage-chamber fast, while the bridegroom

with them

?

No
shall

;

but the days shall come when the
:

bridegroom

be taken up from them

then shall

they fast in those days.

new piece, upon an old vestment lest that new should take away its fulness from the old, and make the And no man putteth new wine into old rent the greater.
inserteth a
;

No man

and seweth

it

bottles perish,

;

* lest the wine rend the bottles,
spilled
:

and the bottles

and the wine be
bottles.

but they put new wine

into

new

* Or, sacks.

352

THE PREACHING OF
VI. Fourth

Week of the

Fast.

And
disciples

it

was

that, as

Jeshu went among the grain, his
ears..

walked and plucked the

And

the Phari-

shee said to him, See
is

how on

the shabath they do what

not lawful.

Jeshu saith to them. Have you never read

what David

did,

when he needed and was hungry,

he,

and they (who were) with him ? how he entered the house of Aloha, when Abiathar was high priest, and did
eat the bread of the table of the Lord, that

which

it

is

not lawful except for the priests to
those

eat,

and gave

also to

who were with him

?

And he

said to them, that

the shabath on account of the Son of

man was made, and
The Son

not the Son of

man on
is

account of the shabath.

of man, therefore,

the Lord also of the shabath.
:

And Jeshu again entered the congregation and a cerman was there whose hand was withered and they watched him whether he would cure him on the shabath, And he said to him, the that they might accuse him. man with the withered hand. Stand up in the midst. He said also to them. Is it lawful on the shabath to do
tain
;

good, or (that) which
it ?

(is) evil ? to

save hfe, or to destroy

But they were
it

silent.

And he

beheld them with
of the hard-

indignation, while

grieved

him on account
said to the
;

ness of their hearts.

And he

man. Stretch

out thy hand.
straightened.

And he stretched (it) and his hand And the Pharishee went out immediately, and took counsel against him, how they might destroy him. And Jeshu with his disciples went towards the and many people joined him from Galila, and from sea Jehud, and from Urishlem, and from Edum, and from
:

beyond Jurdan, and from Tsur, and from Tsaidon
multitudes, who, having heard
to him.
all

;

great

that he had done,

came
for

And he spoke

to his disciples to bring a vessel

for him, that the crowds

might not oppress him

;

he

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.
had healed multitudes,
to touch him.
spirits,

353

until they were falling *

upon him

And

they

who were
fell

troubled with impure
cried, saying.

when they saw him,
Son of Aloha.

down, and

Thou them

art the to

And he

strongly prohibited

make him known.

VII. First

Bay

in the sixth fVeek after Pentecost.

And

he ascended a mountain, and called those
;

whom

he willed

and they came
and

to him.

And he

chose twelve

to be with him,

to send

them

to preach, and to have

authority to heal diseases and to cast out devils.

And he

named
the

to

Shemun

the

name

of Kipha

;

and upon Jacub

bar Zabdai, and Juchanou the brother of Jacub, he set

name

of B'nai-regesh, which

is,

(B'nai-ramo,) Sons

of thunder.

And

Andreas, and Philipos, and Bar-Thul-

mai, and Mathai, and Thoma, and Jacub bar Chalphai,

juta,

and Thadai, and Shemun the Zealous, and Jihuda S'carAnd they came to the he who betrayed him.


:

house

could not eat bread.
forth to take
himself.

and the assemblies gathered again, so that they And his relatives heard, and came

him

;

for they said.

And

the Sophree, they
is

He hath gone out of who had come down from
and by the prince of
called them,

Urishlem, said, Belzebub
devils

in him,

he casteth out
said

devils.

And Jeshu

and

by

similitudes

to them.

How

can Satan cast out

For if a kingdom against itself be divided, that Satan ? kingdom cannot stand and if a house against itself be
;

divided,

that

house cannot

stand

;

and

if

Satan rise

against Satan,

and be

divided, he cannot stand, but his

end

is.

No one can
his
sin

enter into the house of the strong,

and
That

spoil his goods, unless first the strong

one he bind
I

;

and then
all

house he

may

destroy.

Amen

say to you.
blas-

and blasphemy which the sons of men
;

pheme may be remitted them

but whosoever shall bias-

* Or, rushing.

354

THE PREACHING OF
against the Spirit of Holiness hath no remission

pheme
nal.

for ever, but is

condemned

to the

judgment that

is eter-

Because they had said that an unclean

spirit

was

in him.

VIII. Morning of the Commemoration of Marimn Toldath

Aloho.

And

there

came
sat

his

mother and
call

his brethren, standing to them.

without; and they sent to
congregation

him

But the
him.

about

him.

And

they say to

Behold, thy mother and thy brethren without inquire for
thee.

mother, and
those

And he answered, and said to them. Who is my who are my brethren 1 And looking upon who sat with him, he said, Behold my mother, and

behold

my

brethren

:

for whosoever shall do the will of

Aloha, he

is

my

brother,

and

my

sister,

and

my

mother.
:

And he began
ing,

again to teach by the sea-side * and

great assemblies were gathered to

him

;

so that, ascend-

he

sat in a

bark on the

sea,

and the whole multitude

stood on the land, by the edge of the water.*
instructed
ing. Listen

And he
;

them by many
:

parables,

and

said in his teach-

Behold, a sower went forth to sow
fell

and

as

he sowed, some

and devoured
it

it.

by the way-side,f and the fowl came And other feU upon the rock, so that
;

had not much earth and it soon came up, because it had not depth of earth but when the sun arose, it became
:

hot

;

and inasmuch as
fell

it

had no
;

root,

it

dried up.

And

other

in a place of thorns

and the thorns sprang

up, and choked

it, and it gave no fruits. But other fell upon good ground and it came up, and grew, and gave fruits, some thirty, some sixty, and some a hundred. And he said. Whoever hath ears to hear, let him hear. And when he was alone, they who were with him along with his twelve inquired of him [concerning] that
;

*

Hand

of the sea.

-|-

Upon

the

hand of the way.

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.
parable.

355
it is
;

And

Jeshii said to them,

To you

given to

know the mystery of the kingdom of Aloha
without every thing
they
hear,
is

but to those
seeing

in parables
see
;
;

:

that while

may

see,

and not

and while hearing they may
lest

and not understand
not
?

they shoidd be converted,

and

their sins- be forgiven

them.
?

Do you
parables

know

this parable

And he said to them. how will you know all
the

The

sower who

sowed,

word

sowed.

These which were by the way-side, these are they in

whom

the

word

is

sown

;

and when they have heard,
and taketh up the word

immediately cometh

Satana,

which was sowed in

their heart.

And

the rock are sowed, these are they who,

these who upon when they have
it
:

heard the word, at once with joy receive
have no

but they
;

root in themselves, but are (only) for a time
is affliction

and when there

or persecution on account of

the word, they are soon offended.

And

these

place of thorns are sown, these are they

who in who hear

the

the

word

;

and the care of

this world,

and the deceptiveness
fruits.

of wealth, and the remainder of other lusts, entering,

choke the word, and
in

it is

without

And

these

who

good ground are sowed, these are they who hear the word, and receive, and give fruits, thirty, and sixty, and
a hundred.

And he
dlestick
?

said to them,

A

lamp never cometh
:

to be put

under a measure, or under a bed
For nothing
any
is

is it

not set upon a can-

hid which shall not be revealed
is

nor

is

there any thing in secret which
If

not to be mani-

fested.

man hath

ears to hear, let

him

hear.

IX. For the Sabbath of the Candidates,

And
to

he said to them. Consider what you hear.

With

that measure which

you mete, you

shall

have measured

you

;

and there

shall be

added to you those which you
shall be

hear.

For whosoever hath, unto him

given

;

356

THE PREACHING OF
not, that also

and whosoever hath
taken from him.

which he hath

shall

be

God, as a

And he said, So is the kingdom of man who shall east seed into the earth and
;

up by night and day, and the seed shall increase, and become long, while he knoweth not. For the earth yieldeth him fruit and first is there the
shall sleep,
rise
;

and

plant,

and

after

it

the ear, but lastly the completed
fruit
is

com

in the ear.

But when the
sickle,

mature, immediately
is

Cometh the
said.

because the harvest

come.

And he

To what may we compare the kingdom of Aloha ? and with what comparison shall we compare it ? It is like a grain of mustard, which, when sown in the earth, and is smaller than all seeds w^hich are in the earth
:

when
than

it is

sown,

it

springeth up, and becometh greater
;

all

herbs,

and maketh great branches
dwell.

so that in its

shadow the fowl can
hear.

In parables such as these

spake Jeshu with them, in parables such as they could

And

without parable did he not speak with them

but to his disciples, between him and them, he explained
all.

X. Fifth

Bay

in the fifth

Week of

the Fast.

And

he

said to

them that

day, in the evening, Let us

pass to the

opposite shore.

And

they sent away the
;

assembhes,
vessels

and took him

into

the vessel

and other

were with him.

And

there was a great

commo-

and wind, and the waves fell upon the vessel, which was nigh being filled. But Jeshu upon a pillow slept in
tion

the after-part of the vessel,

and they came and raised

him, saying to him, Raban,* hast thou no care that
are perishing
?

we

And he
sea.

arose,

and restrained the wind,

and

said

to

the

Peace, be silent.
stillness.

ceased, and there

was a great
1

them,

W hy
*

feared ye

they feared with great

And the wind And he said to how is it ye have no faith ? And fear, and said among themselves,f
-|-

Our

master.

One

to one.

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.
"Who
dient
is
?

357

this, to

whom

the winds and the sea are obe-

XI. Fifth Morning in the fifth

Week of the

Fast.

And

they 'came to the other side of the sea, to the

region of the Gadroyee.
the vessel, there met

him from
spirit,

And when he had come from the place of tombs a man
and he dwelt
in the place of
:

who had an unclean
tombs
;

and with chains no man could bind him

for, so

often as with shackles and chains he

had been bound,

the chains he had broken, and the shackles he had burst

and no man could subdue him. And at all by night and by day, he was in the place of tombs, and in the mountains, crying out, and bruising himself But when he saw Jeshu from afar, he ran, with stones.
asunder
time,
;

worshipped him, and cried with a high

What
High
not
!

to
?

me and
I

to thee, Jeshu,

voice, and said. Son of Aloha the Most

adjure thee by Aloha, that thou torment
said to

him, Come —For he had unclean —And he questioned
spirit
!

me
thy

forth from the man,

him.

How

is

name? And he said to him. Legion is our name, beAnd he besought him much that cause we are many. Now at the he would not send him out of the region. mountain there was a great herd of swine feeding. And
the devils besought him,
swine, that into
saying.

Send us into those

them we may

enter.

And he

suifered

them.

And

those unclean spirits went forth and entered
;

into the

swine
into

and that herd ran to the rock, and
sea,

plunged

the

as

two
they

thousand,

and

were
fled,

drowned
and

in the waters.

And

who kept them
;

told in the city,
to

and

also in the hamlets

and they
sitting,

came forth
clothed,

see

what was done.

And

they came to

Jeshu, and saw

him who (had had) the devils, and sane him, who had had in him the
;

legion

;

358

THE PREACHING OF

and they were afraid. And they who had seen, related to them what had been done to him. who had had the devils, and also concerning those swine. And they began to beg
of

him

to

go from their coast.

And when he had

ascended

the vessel, he in

whom had

been the devils besought him

that he might be with him.

But he permitted him not

but said to him, Go to thy house, to thy men, and show

them what

the Lord hath done for thee, and (how he) hath
thee.

had mercy on
marvelled.

And he

went, and began to preach

in the ten cities what Jeshu

had done

for

him

:

and

all

XII. For the 3Iarti/rs and the Dead.

And when
site side,

Jeshu had passed in the vessel to the oppo-

there were again congregated unto

him

great
sea.

gatherings,

while

he was upon the shore of the

And

there

came one whose name was Jorosh, one
;

of the
fell

masters of the synagogue
at his feet,

and when he saw him, he

and besought him much, sayiug to him,
greatly afflicted
will
;

My

daughter
her,

is

come, lay thy hand upon
live.

and she
;

be healed, and

And Jeshu went

with him
oppressed

and a great multitude adhered
him.

But

a

certain

defluxion of blood twelve years,

to him, and woman, who had a who much had suffered
all

from many physicians, and had expended
she had, and was nothing helped,
afflicted,

whatever

but also the more

having heard of Jeshu, came in the press of the
his vestment.
I

crowd behind him, and touched
said.

For she

If I

but touch his vestment,

shall

Hve.
;

And
and
that

immediately the fountain of her blood was dried
she
felt in

her body that she had been healed from her
at

plague.

But Jeshu

once

knew within himself

power had gone forth from him, and he turned to the crowd, and said. Who touched my garments ? His disciples say to him.

Thou

seest the

crowds that oppress thee.

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.

359

around
self,

and sayest thou, \Yho touched me ? And he looked But the woman herto see who this had done.
fearing and trembling, because she
fell

been done for her, came,
the truth.

before him, and told

knew what had him all

But he said
th-ee
;

to her.

My

daughter, thy faith

hath saved
plague.

go in peace, and be healed from thy

And
is

while he was speaking, there came some of

the house of the master of the synagogue, saying,

Thy

daughter

dead

:

for

what then

art

thou wearying the

Teacher

?

*

But Jeshu heard the word whicli they spake,

and

said to the master of the synagogue. Fear not, only

And he did not permit any one to go with him, Shemun Kipha, and Jacub, and Juchanon, brother And they came to the house of that master of of Jacub. the synagogue, and he saw how they made a tumult, and wept and bewailed. And he entered, and said to them. Why make you a tumult, and weep ? the damsel is not And they derided him. But Jeshu dead, but asleep. put them aU forth, and took the father of tlie damsel, and her mother, and those who were with her, and went And he took the hand in where the damsel was lying. of the damsel, and said to her. Damsel, arise. And
believe.

except

forthwith the damsel arose, and walked

;

for she

was a
with

daughter

of twelve

years.

And

they wondered

great admiration.

And he
this,
eat.

charged them greatly that no

one should

know

and spake that they should give

her (somewhat) to

XIII. Oblation of the first

Bay

in the sixth

Week

after

the Manifestation.

And
city
;

Jeshu went forth from thence, and came to his
his
disciples

and

adhered to him.

And when

it

was shabath, he began
gregation
:

to teach in the house of the consaid,

and many who heard wondered, and
* Malphona.

360
"Whence
to

THE PREACHING OF
him
are

these

?

and what

is

this

wisdom

which hath been given him, that miracles such as these by his hands should be done ? Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mariam, and the brother of Jacub, and of
Josi,

and of Jehuda, and of Shemun? and are not
?

his

sisters here with us

And Jeshu said own city, And he house.
in his

And they were offended with him. to them. No prophet is despised, unless and among his kinsfolk, and in his own
could not do there any miracle, except

upon a few sick he laid his hands, and healed them. And he wondered at the defectiveness of their faith.
that

XIV. First Bay

in the seventh

Week
the

after Pentecost.

And
And he
and two
cast

he itinerated

through

villages,

teaching.

called his twelve,
;

and began

to

send them two
spirits to

and gave them power over unclean
out.

them

And

he instructed them to take nothing
;

for

the journey, except a staff only
;

not a wallet, nor

bread, nor brass in their purses
dals,

but be shod with san-

and not

to be clothed with

two tunics.

And he

said

to them, Into whatsoever house

you

enter, there be until

you go forth from thence.
receive you, nor hear you,

And every one wno will not when you are going out from
is

thence, beat off the dust that
their testimony.

beneath your feet for

And Amen I say to you, That it shall be more tolerable for Sadum and for Amura in the day And they went of the judgment, than for that city. preached that they should repent. And many forth, and
devils they cast out,

and anointed with

oil

the sick, and

healed many.

XV. Morning of

the Beheading of Juchanon the Baptist.

And

Herodes the king heard concerning Jeshu, for his
;

name had become known

and he

said,

Juchanon the

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.
Baptizer hath risen from

361
;

among

the

dead

*

therefore

He is works of power f are wrought by him. others, A prophet as one from the prophets. EUa and But when Herodes heard, he said. It is Juchanon whom For he hath risen from "^ among the dead. I beheaded
Others said,
;
;

Herodes had sent and had taken Juchanon, and had cast

him

into the house of the bound,

on account of Herodia,
he had taken. For
not lawful to thee to

wife of Philipos his brother,

whom
is

Juchanon had

said to Herodes, It

take the wife of thy brother.

But Herodia herself was

adverse to him, and wished to kill him, but she could not.

For Herodes feared Juchanon, because he knew that he

was a man righteous and holy, and he protected him,
favourably.

and.

was many (times) hearing him, doing, and hearing him

And

there was a notable day

in the house of his nativity, {b'beth yaldeh,)
to his chiefs

when Herodes, made a feast
;

the daughter of Herodia came in (and) danced

and kiliarchs % and the heads of GaHla and and she
;

pleased Herodes and

the king said to the damsel.
wilt,

them who reclined with him. And Ask of me whatever thou
to

and

I will

give

thee.

And he

sware to her,

Whatever thou
the dividing of

shalt ask (of) me, I will give thee, unto

said to her mother. to her.

Then went she out and him ? She saith The head of Juchanon the Baptizer. And immekingdom.

my

What

shall I ask of

diately she

entered with solicitude unto the king, and

saith to him, I will this dish, the

hour that thou give me, upon a

head of Juchanon the Baptizer.
;

And

greatly

grieved was the king
the

but, for the sake of the oath,
||

and
her.

sake of the guests, § he could not deprive
at once

But the king despatched

a sentinel, and com-

manded that he should bring the head of Juchanon. And he went and cut off the head of Juchanon in the
*

The house

of the dead.

-f-

Powers.
||

X Kiliarkee, Gr.

xt^tapxo'^.

§ Recliners.

Or, defraud.

R

362

THE PREACHING OF
(it)

house of the bound, and brought
to the damsel,

in a dish

and gave

and the damsel herself gave

to her mother. his corpse,

And
and

his disciples heard

and went, took up

laid it in the place of the huried.

XVI. For the Daily Oblation.

And the disciples gathered
i\.nd

unto Jeshu, and told him

all

whatever they had done, and whatever they had taught,

he said to them. Come and

let

us go into the desert

alone,

and

rest a httle while

;

for there were multitudes

going and coming, (so that) they had not space even to
eat
;

and they went to a wilderness

district in a vessel

by

themselves.

And many saw them

as they went,

and knew

them

;

were there before him.

and into the waste ran they from all the cities, and And Jeshu coming forth beheld
and he began

the great assemblies, and had compassion upon them, they

being like sheep which had no shepherd
to teach

;

them many things. And when much time had passed, the disciples came to him and said to him. This place is waste, and the time is great send them away to go to the farms around us and into the villages, and buy But for themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat. They said to he said to them. Give you them to eat. him, Shall we go and buy bread for two hundred dinoBut he said. Go see how reen, and give them to eat? many loaves you have here and when they had seen, they And he directed said to him. Five loaves and two fishes. that they should make them all recline in companies upon the herbage and they reclined in companies, by And he took the five loaves hundreds and by fifties. and the two fishes, and looked up to heaven, and blessed, and brake the bread, and gave to his disciples to set and those two fishes they divided among before them
;
; ;
:

them

all,

and they

all

did eat and were satisfied.
full,

And
and

they took up the broken pieces, twelve baskets

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.
from the
live

363

fishes.

Now

they

who had

eaten bread were

thousand men.
constrained his disciples to ascend

And immediately he
into the bark,

and

to go before

him
;

across to Beth-tsaida,

while he dismissed the assemblies

and when he had sent

them away, he went

to a

mountain to pray.
in

XVII. Daily Lesson

Ordinary.

But when

it

was eventide, the bark was in the midst

upon the land. And he saw them that they were distressed with rowing for the wind was against them. And in the fourth watch of the night Jeshu came to them walking upon the waters, (as
of the sea, and himself alone
;

though) he willed to pass by them

:

but they beheld him
it

walking upon the waters, and thought

was a
said

spectre,
afraid.

and they

cried out

;

for all

saw him and were

But he immediately spoke

to

them and
still

to them,

Take

heart, I

am, fear not.

And he ascended
:

to

them
For

into the ship,
greatly,

and the wind was

and they wondered

and were astonished among themselves.

they understood not from that bread, because their heart

was gross.

And when

they had crossed over, they came

to the laud of Genesar,

And when
all

they had gone forth
at

from the bark, the men of the place
him.
to

once recognised

And

they ran throughout

that land, and began

bring those

who were

greatly afflicted, bearing

them

on couchettes, to where they heard that he was.
wherever he entered, into villages and
cities,

And

they placed
that they
all

the sick in the streets, and besought from

him

might touch only the edge of

his

mantle; and

they

who touched him were
XVIII.

healed.
the

For

Middle of the Fast.

And

there gathered to himPharishee and Sophree,
;

who

had come from Urishlem

and they saw some of

his dis-

R

2

364
cipies

THE PREACHING OF
eating bread with their hands not washed
;

and
eat,

they complained.
unless

For

all

the Jihudoyee and Pharishee,
their

they

carefully

wash

hands,

do
;

not

because they hold the tradition of the elders
ing) from

and (com-

the market, unless they lave,* they eat not.
other of those (things) there are which they
(as) the

And many

have received to observe,
of measures,

baptisms of cups, and

and of brasen

utensils,

and of beds.

And
do not

the Sophree and Pharishee questioned him.

Why

your disciples walk according to the tradition of the
elders
;

but, while their
said
to them.

hands are not washed, eat bread
as

?

But he

Well prophesied concerning you
;

Eshaia the prophet, you hypocrites
very far from me.

f

it

is

written.
is

This people with their Hps honour me, but their heart

But in vain do they reverence

me

while they teach the teachings of the
men.;];

commandments of

For you have abandoned the commandment of
the tradition of men, as the baptisms of

God and hold
to

cups and measures, and

many

things hke these.

He

said

them (moreover). You decently

§ suppress the com-

mandment of God, that you may establish your tradition. For Mush a hath said. Honour thy father and thy mother

;

and whosoever curseth father and mother, the death he shall die. But you say. If a man shall say to his father,
or to his mother.

My

oblation, (be that) whatever
;

from
to

me

thou mayest profit
for his

any thing

and you permit him not father and his mother. But you

da

reject

the word of Aloha for the sake of the tradition which

you have
to

delivered

:

and many similar (observances)

these

you

practise.

And Jeshu

called
all

the whole

multitude, and said to them. Hear me,

of you, and

* Baptize.
7

-f

Assumers of

faces.

J Sons of man.

§

^g^ ^.

Decenter, ScHArr. Gr. koAws, " speciously."

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.
understand
:

365

It

is

not that which

is

without the man,

and which entereth

into him, that can defile

him

:

but

that which proceedeth from him, that defileth a

man.

He who hath ears to hear, let him hear. But when Jeshu had gone into the house (apart) from the multitude, his disciples asked him concerning that He said to them. How dull are even you parable. Know you not, that nothing from without that entereth a man can defile him, because it entereth not into his
!

heart, but into his belly,

and

is

cast out in the purgation

which

all

food

purgeth?

But that which proceedeth
For from within,
sons
of

from a man, that poUuteth a man.
from the
heart

of

the

men,
evil

go forth

evil

thoughts, adultery, fornication,
city,

robbery, murder, rapa-

malice, fraud,
;

obscenity,

an

eye,

blasphemy,

vain-glory, folly

all

these evils

come from within, and

they

defile

a man.

XIX. Morning of the first Day of the fourth Week of
the Fast.

From

thence Jeshu arose and went to the confine of

Tsur and of Tsaidon, and entered into a certain house

and he was unwilling that any man should know of him,
but he could not
certain
conceal.

For immediately heard a
before his feet.
Suria,

woman
spirit
;

concerning him, whose daughter had an

unclean

and she came, (and)

fell

But that woman was a Gentile of Phuniki of But Jeshu said
for
cast
it it

and she

prayed of him to cast out the demon from her daughter.
to her. Let the children first be filled

is

not well to take the bread of the children and

to the dogs.

But she answering said

to him. Yes,

my

Lord, yet the dogs also from beneath the table eat

the crumbs of the children.

Jeshu saith to her.

Go

;

on

account of that word, the demon hath gone forth from

thy daughter.

And

she went to her house, and found

oG6

THE PREACHING OF

her daughter lying on the couch, and [that] the demoD

had gone out from

her.

Jeshu again departed from the confine of Tsur and of
Tsaidon, and came to the sea of Gahla,.on the confine of
the

Ten

Cities

;

and they brought to him a bhnd man, a
aside

stammerer, and besought him to lay upon him the hand.

And he took him

from the crowd by himself, and
ears,

put his fingers in his

and

spat,

and touched his

looked up to heaven, and sighed, and tongue. said to him. Be opened * and in that hour his ears were
:

And he

opened, and the bond of his tongue was loosed, and he

spake plainly. f
should
the
tell this.

And he charged them that to no man they But so much as he charged them, they
;

and they were exceedingly more proclaimed it and said. He doeth eveiy thing well; the deaf he maketh to hear, and them who spoke not, to
astonished,

speak.

XX. Jbr

the daily Oblation,

But

in those days

when
them

the multitude was great and
to eat,

there was nothing for

he called his

disciples,
;

and said
there
I is

to them, I have

compassion on

this multitude

for behold three days have they continued with

me, and
be that

nothing which they

may

eat.

And

if it

send them away

fasting to their houses, they will faint
afar.

in the

way

;

for

some of them come from

His

disci-

ples say to him.

derness satisfy

Whence can any one here in the wilAnd he asked with bread all these?
loaves have

them,

How many
;

you?

They say

to him.

Seven

and he directed the multitudes

to recline

upon

the ground, and he took those seven loaves, and blessed

and brake and gave to his

disciples that they should set,

and they
fishes,

set
:

before

the assembhes.

And

there were

a few

and

also over

them he
t

blessed,

and said

* Ethphdtach,

^^3 easily.

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.
that tliey should set them.
satisfied,

36/

And

they

all ate

and were

and took up the abundancies of the fragNow the men who had eaten ments, seven panniers. were about four thousand and he dismissed them, and
:

immediately ascended into a vessel with his disciples, and

came

to the region of

Dalmanutha.
in the

XXI. Third Bay

Week of the

Candidates.

And

there

tion with him,

came forth Pharishee, and began to quesand they demanded of him the sign from

heaven, tempting him.

And he groaned

in his spirit,
?

and
I

said.

Why

seeketh this generation the sign

Amen

say to you. There shall not be given the sign unto this

generation.
ship,

And he
them

left

them, and ascended into the

and went

to that overland.

And

they had forgotten cake was with

to

take with

bread, and but one

them

in the ship.

And he

counselled them, and said to

them. Look and beware of the leaven of the Pharishee,

and

of the leaven of Herodes.

And

they reasoned one

with another,* saying. Because we have no bread.
have no bread? do you not yet
?

But

Jeshu knew, and said to them, V/hy reason you because
3'ou

know nor under-

stand

is

your heart

still

hard

?

and eyes have you,
brake to

and not see? and

ears have you,

and not hear? neither
I

remember you
thousand,
take up
?

?

When

those five loaves
full

five

how many
They

baskets

of fragments did you

said to him. Twelve.

And when

seven to four thousand,

He saith how many

to

them.

panniers

when filled took you up ? They say. Seven. He saith to them. How do you not yet understand ? And he came to Beth-tsaida and they brought to him And he a blind man, and prayed of him to touch him.
of fragments
;

took the hand of the blind man, and led him forth with-

out from the village

;

and spat
*

in his eyes,

and

laid (on

One

with one.

368

THE PREACHING OF
saw."^

them) his hand, and inquired whether he
looked, and said, I
see

And he

the sons of

man

as the trees,

walking.

Again he

was
sent

restored,

him

to

laid his hand upon his eyes, and he and he saw every thing clearly. And he his house, and told him to go not into the

village,

nor to inform any
forth

man

in the village.
disciples into the vil-

And Jeshu went
lages of
disciples

and his

Kesarea of Philipos, and

he interrogated his
AVhat say

hy the way, saying

to them,

men

concerning

me
and

that

I

am

?

But they answered. That
;

(thou art) Juchanon the Baptizer
art)

and

others, that (thou

Eha

;

others, one

from the prophets.
said to him.

Jeshu

said to them.
I

But you, what say you concerning

me

that

am ?

Shemun Kipha answered and

Thou
con-

art the

Meshicha, the Son of Aloha the Living.

And he
tell

charged them that to any one they should not
cerning him.
to be that the

And he began to teach them, that it was Son of man should suffer much, and be
elders,

rejected

by the

and by the chief

priests,

and by

the Sophree, and be killed, and that the third day he

should arise

And he spake the word with them fully. And Kipha took him, and began to chide him. But he
!

turned, and, beholding his disciples, reprehended

Shemun,

and
of

said,

Get thee behind me, Satana, for thou thinkest
is

not that which

of Aloha, but that which

is

of the sons

men.
XXII. Lesson for the Martyrs.

And
and

Jeshu called to the assemblies with his disciples, them. Whoever will come after me,
cross,
let

said to

him
me.

deny himself, and take up his

and come
life

after

For every one who willeth to save his

shall lose it

and every one who
and on account of
*

shall

lose

his life

on account of me,
it.

my

gospel, shall save

For what

is

Or, what he saw.

+ Or,

with uncovered eye,

—openly.

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.
a

3G9

man

profited, if tlie

whole world he gain, and his soul

be lost?

Or what
of

shall a son of
?

man

give (as) the

com-

pensation for his soul

For whoever shall be ashamed
this

of

me and

my

words in

generation, sinful

and

adulterous, the

Son of man

will also be

ashamed of him,

when he cometh
angels.

in the glory of his Father with the holy

are

And he said to them. Amen I say to you, There some who are standing here, who shall not taste
kingdom of Aloha

death, until they shall have seen the

nome with power.

And
selves.

after six days

Jeshu took Kipha, and Jacub, and
altered before their eyes

Juchanon, and led them up to a high mountain by them-

And he was

:

and

his
;

raiment shone, and became exceeding white as the snow
as the sons of

man on

earth could not

make

white.

And
good
;

there were seen with

them Musha and
said to

Elia discoursing
it

with Jeshu.

And Kipha
:

him, Rabi,

is

for us here to be for thee one,

* and let us
for

make
and

three tabernacles
for Elia one.

and

Musha
it

one,

But

he knew not what he
voice

said, for

they were in fear.
:

And

there was the cloud, and

shadow-ed over them
is

and the
Son, the

was from the cloud, saying, This

my

Beloved,

him hear.f

And

instantly, while the disciples

looked) they saw no man, but Jeshu alone with them.

And

while they were descending from the mountain,
tell no man what they had seen, Son of man should have arisen from the dead.

he charged them to
until the

And

they held discourse
this

among

themselves, and inquired

what was

word, when he should have arisen from

among
said

the

dead.

And

they asked him, saying.
?

How
He
;|:

then say the Sophree that Elia must come before
to them,
;

Elia doth
it

come

before,

to

restore

all

things
*

and how

is
be,

written concerning the Son
-f

of

Or, that here we

may

Hono Beri

chahiha leh

shamaii.

^ Or,

to prepare.

R

5

370

THE PREACHING OF
suffer,

man, that mucli he should
I
tell

and be

rejected.

But

you, Elia hath also come, and they have done to
as
it

him whatever they would,
him.

is

written concerning

XXIII. First

Day

in the fourth

Week of

the Fast,

-

And when

he came to his

disciples,

he saw with them

a great crowd, and the Sophree questioning with them.

And immediately
and ran

all

the

crowd saw him, and wondered,

to salute him.

And he
them
?

inquired of the Sophree,

What

dispute you with

And one from
I

the com-

pany answered and
not

said,

Malphona,*

had brought

my

son to thee, because he hath a
;

spirit

which speaketh

and when he

seizeth him,

he dasheth him, and
dry.

teareth and grindeth his teeth, and he becometh

And
him,

I

spake to thy disciples that they should cast him

out, but they could not.

Jeshu answered, and said to
!

generation that believeth not
?

how long
you
?
:

shall I

be

with you

how

long shall

I tolerate

bring him to

me.
spirit

And

they brought him unto him

and when the

saw him, he immediately dashed him, and he fell upon the ground and was convulsed, and was torn.
;

And Jeshu asked
time from which
it

the father.

How

long

is

it

from the

was thus

from his childhood.
into the
fire,

He saith to him, Behold, And many times he casteth him
?

and into the waters,

to destroy

him

:

but

whatever thou canst, help me, and have mercy upon me.

Jeshu saith to him. If thou canst beheve, every thing can
be to him

who

believeth.

And

in a

moment

the father
I

of the youth cried put, weeping and saying,
lieving
;

am

be-

help the defect f of

my

faith.

But when Jeshu

saw the people running together, and assembling to him, he rebuked the unclean spirit, and said to him, Spirit,
deaf and unspeaking
* Teacher, Doctor.
!

I

command
-f

thee,

come

forth from

Poverty, imperfection, defect.

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.
him, and enter not into him again
greatly,
!

371

And

that devil cried

and crushed him, and went
as

forth.

became
dead.

the dead

;

as that

many would

say.

And he He is

But Jeshu took him by the hand, and raised him.
disciples

But when .Jeshu had gone into the house, his
inquired of

him by themselves.

Why

could not

we

cast

him out

?

Jeshu said to them. This kind with nothing

can be cast out, but by fasting and prayer.

And when
:

he had gone forth from thence, they passed into Galila

and he was not
him.
the Son of

willing that any

man

should

know

of

And he taught his disciples, and told them, That man would be delivered into the hands of
kill

men, and they would
slain,

him

;

on the third day he should

arise.

and that when he was But they under-

stood not* his word, and feared to ask him.

XXIV.

First

Bay

in the fifth

Week

after Pentecost.
:

And they came to Kapher-nachum and when they had entered the house, he asked them of what they had But they were argued in the way among themselves.
silent
:

for

they had contended
be

in

another,

who should
and he

greatest

the way one with among them. And

Jeshu

sat,

called

the

twelve,

and said to them,
all,

Whoever

wills to be the first, shall be the last of
all.

and
his

the servant of

And he
:

took a certain child, and

made him stand

in the midst

and he took him upon
receiveth

arms, and said to them. Every one

who

is)

as this child in

who my name, me he

receiveth (one
:

and

whoever
sent me.

me

receiveth, not

me
to

he receiveth, but
him, Habi,
;

Juchanon said
out devils in thy

Him who we saw a man

casting

name

and we forbad him,
Jeshu saith to them.
doeth powerful works
that which
is

because he did not adhere to us.

Forbid him not
in

;

for

no

man who

my

name, can soon speak of

me

is

evil.

He

therefore

who

is

not against you
-|-

for you.

For

Knew

not,

Powers,

3/2
every one

THE PREACHING OF

who shall give you only a cup of waters to name that you are of the Meshicha, Amen I say to you. He shall not lose his reward. And every one who shall offend one of these httle ones who believe in me, it had been better* for him that an ass-millstone had
drink in the

been set to his neck, and he had been cast forth into the
sea.

But

if

thy hand offend thee,f cut

it

off: better^

for thee mutilated to to go into gihana
fire is
it
;

go into

life,

than having two hands
not,

where their w^orm dieth

and their

not quenched.

And

if

thy foot offend thee,f cut

off

:

better for thee to go into hfe lame, than having
to fall

two
not,

feet

into gihana
is

:

where their worm dieth

and

their fire
it

not quenched.
:

And

if

thine eye

offend thee,t root

out

better for thee that with one

eye thou
eyes to

enter the

kingdom
fire
is

of Aloha, than having two of
fire
:

fall

into the gihana

where their worm
For every
salt shall

dieth not, and their
(thing) with

not quenched.

fire is salted,

and every victim with
:

be salted.
insipid,
.salt,

Good
shall

is
it

salt

but

if
?

the salt shall (become)

how

be salted

Let there be in you

and

in peace be one with another.

XXV. For

the Benediction of the Brideyroom

and

the

Bride.

And

he arose from thence, and came
:

to the borders of

.lehud on the other side of the Jardan

and great multi-

tudes went thither to

him

;

and he taught them again as
the

he

was

accustomed.

And

Pharishee
it

drew nigh,
were lawful

tempting him, and demanding whether
for a

hath

man to Musha

dismiss his wife.

He

saith to them.
say,

What
per-

prescribed

?

But they

Musha

mitted us to write a writing of dismissal, and to send

away.

Jeshu answered and said to them,

On

account of

the hardness of your heart he wrote for you this com-

mandment.
* Or,

But from the beginning the male and the
tolerable.
-f-

more

Or, canseth offence to thee.

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.
female Aloha

3/3

made them.
and

For

this

cause a

man

shall

leave his father

his mother,
shall be

and

shall cleave
:

unto his

wife

;

and they two

one flesh

henceforth they

are not two, but one flesh.

conjoined,

man may

not

What Aloha therefore hath separate. And his disciples

asked him again in the house concerning this (matter).

And he
wife,

said to them,

Every one who shall send away his

and take another, adulterizeth.

And

if

the wife

shall leave her

husband, and shall become another's, she

adulterizeth.

And

they presented unto him children, that he should
:

touch them

but his disciples rebuked those

who

pre-

sented them.

But Jeshu, when he saw, was displeased,
them. Permit the children to come to me,
:

and said
the

to

and forbid them not

for of those

who

are as these

is

kingdom

of Aloha.

Amen

I

say to you, That who-

ever shall

not receive the kingdom of Aloha as a child,
it. And he took them on his arms, hand upon them, and blessed them.

shall not enter into

and

laid his

XXVI. Evening of

the first

Bay

in the fourth

Week

after the Manifestation,

And
his
shall I

as

he journeyed in the way, one ran,

knees, and asked him, saying,

fell upon Good Teacher, what
?

do that

I

may

inherit eternal life

Jeshu said to

him.

Why

callest

thou

me good

?

none

is

good but one.

Thou knowest the commandments. Thou shalt steal. Thou shalt not kill. Thou shalt not witness false testimony. Thou shalt not injure. Honour thy father and thy mother.
Aloha.

not commit adultery. Thou shalt not

But he answered and
have
I

said to him,

Malphona, these
wanting

all

kept from

my

childhood.

And Jeshu
One thing
is

beheld him
to

and loved him, and
thee
:

said to him.

go, sell

all

whatever thou hast, and give to the
:

poor, and thou shalt have a treasure in heaven

and take

3/4

THE PREACHING OF
and come
after

up

tliy cross

me.

But he was grieved
:

at

that word, and went
riches.

away sorrowful
beheld
his

for

he had great

And Jeshu

disciples,

and

said

to

them,

How

hard to those who have riches to enter the
!

kingdom of Aloha
his

But

his disciples

were astonished
said
trust
!

at

And Jeshu answered again, and them. My sons, how hard (is it) for those who
words.
their riches to enter into the
easier for a

to

on

kingdom of Aloha

It is

camel to go through the hole of a needle,

than for a rich to enter into the kingdom of Aloha.

And

they were the more

astonished,
?

and said among

themselves.

Who
:

can be saved
solis

Jeshu beheld them and

said to them,

With the

of

men
is

this is not possible,

but with Aloha

for every thing

possible with Aloha.

XXVII. For Petros

the Apostle.

Then
and
said.

began Kipha to

say. Behold,

we have forsaken
Jeshu responded

every thing, and have ckaved to thee.

Amen

I

say to you. There
brethren,
or

is

no

man who
or
father,

for-

saketh

houses,

or

sisters,

or

mother, or wife, or children, or

fields,

on account of me,
receive a

and on account of
hundred-fold
sisters,

my

gospel,

who shaU not
and
fields,

now

in this time, houses,
children,

and brethren, and
with perselife

and mothers, and
;

cution

and in the world which cometh the

that

is

eternal.

But many

(are) first

who

will be last,

and

last

(who
lem,

will be) first.

Now when
Jeshu

they were going up in the way to Urishhimself

preceded

them

;

and they were

amazed, and came after him, fearing.
twelve, and began to tell

And he

took his

happen
and

to

him.

them what it was which was to Behold, we go up to Urishlem and
;

the Son of
to the

man

(will be)
;

betrayed to the chief priests,
shall

Sophree

and they

condemn him
;

to the
shall

death, and shall

deliver

him

to the Gentiles

and

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.
mock him, and
kill

375

scourge him, and spit in his face, and
shall arise.

him

:

and the third day he

XXVIII. Oblation for the first Bay
of the Fast.

in the sixth

Week

And

Jacub and Juchanon, sons of Zabdai, approached
do for us.

him, saying to him, Malphona, we would that whatever

we ask thou
will

wilt
I

He

saith to them.
?

What

They say to him. Give us that one may sit at thy right hand, and one at thy left, in thy glory. But he said to them. You know not what you ask can you drink the cup that I drink ? and (with) the baptism that I am baptized (with) can you They say to him, We can. Jeshu saith to be baptized ?
you that
should do for you
:

them. The cup that
the baptism that I
tized
is
:

I

drink you shall drink

;

and (with)

am
sit

baptized (with) you shall be bap-

but that you

on

my right hand

and on

my
is

left,

not mine to give, except for those for

whom

it

pre-

pared.

And

against Jacub

and

said to

murmur And Jeshu called them them. You know that they who are consivfhen the ten heard, they began to

and Juchanon.

dered the princes of the Gentiles are lords of them
their great ones exercise
shall
it

;

and

power over them But
to
if

:

but not thus

be

among
be
great,

you.
let

any one among you
to

willeth to

him be

you the servant
first,

and whoever of you willeth
the labourer for
all.

be the

he shall be
not

For even the Son of

man came

to be served, but to serve, for

and

to give his life the

ransom

many.
as Jeshu went and a great mulTimai bar Timai, the blind man, was sitting by

And
titude,

they came unto Jirichu.

And

forth from Jirichu, he and his disciples

the side of the

way begging.
;

And he
!

heard that

it

was

Jeshu Natsroia

and he began

to cry out,

and

to say,

Son of David, have mercy on me

And many rebuked

3/6

THE PREACHING OF
:

him, that he should be silent
saying,

but he cried out the more,
!

And Jeshu Son of David, have mercy on me stood, and commanded that they should bring him. And they called the blind man, saying to him, Be of heart,
rise,

he calleth thee.

But

he, the blind, loosed his gar-

ment, and rose up, (and) came to Jeshu.
Jeshu,
"V\^iat wilt

Saith to
?

him

thou that

I

do for thee

blind, said to him, Rabi, that I

may

see.

said

to

him.

See

:

thy faith hath saved

And he, the And Jeshu And thee.

instantly he saw,

and he went in the way.

XXIX. Morning of the Sabbath of Palms.

And when
from
which

they drew nigh to Urishlem, against Bethat the

phage and Beth-ania,
his disciples,
is

mount

of Olives, he sent two

and

said
;

to them.

Go

to that village
it,
;

over against you

and forthwith as you enter

you

will find

a colt tied, which no

man hath
shall

ridden

loose, bring

him.

And.

if

any man

say to

you,
it is

Why

do you

this ? say to

him. Because for our Lord

requested, and at once

he will send him hither.

And

they went, and found the colt tied at the gate without in
the street.

And
?
;

as they were loosing,

some of those who
you doing that you

were standing said to them.
loosen the colt
instructed

What

are
to

But they said
to

them

as Jeshu

had
they
their

them

and they permitted them.
Jeshu, and threw upon

And
him

brought the

colt

garments

;

and Jeshu rode upon him.
spread them in the

But many spread
and these who

their vestments in the way,

and others cut branches from

the trees and

way

;

went before him, and these who came
saying. Save

after him, cried,

now

!

and blessed be the coming kingdom *

of our father David: Save now, in the heights If

And

Jeshu entered Urishlem, into the temple, and surveyed
every thing.
* Or, the

And when

it

was the time of the evening,
-f-

kingdom which cometh.

Ushana bamraumee.

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.
he went forth to Beth-ania with the twelve.

377

And

the

day

after,

when he went from
a certain fig-tree
to
it, if

Beth-ania, he hungered.

And he saw
on
it,
;

from afar which had leaves
it

and he came

he might find upon
it

some-

what

but wlien he came, he found on

only the leaves,

for the time

was not
it,

for figs (to have been ingathered).

man from And his disciples heard. And they came to Urishiem. And Jeshu went into the temple of Aloha, and began to cast forth those who sold and
said to

And he

Henceforth and for ever

thee fruit shall not eat.

bought

in the temple,

and he overthrew the

tables of the

money-changers, and the seats of them

who

sold doves

:

and he would not
the temple.
written,

suff"er

any man to carry goods through
it

And he

taught, and said to them. Is

not

That

my

house the house of prayer shall be
?

called of all nations

but you have made

it

a den of
it,

thieves.

inquired

And how

the chief priests and Sophree heard

and

they might destroy him
all

;

for they feared

from him, because

the people admired his doctrine.
in the Fast.

XXX. Second Sabbath

And when
city.

it

was evening, they went without from the
that

And

in the morning, while they passed by, they
it

saw that

fig-tree

was dry from

its

root.

And

Shemun remembered and
fig-tree

said to him, Rabi, behold, that
dried.

which thou didst curse hath
to
I

And Jeshu

answered and said
of Aloha.

them. Let there be in you the faith

Amen

say to you. That whosoever shall say
lifted up,

to this mountain.

Be

and

fall

into the sea,

and

shall not be divided in his heart, but shall

believe that

that thing which he speaketh that

is,

he shall have the thing
I
tell

he

saith.

On

this

account

you, that every

thing whatever you supplicate and ask, believe that you
receive,

and

it

shall

be

unto

you.

And when you

stand

to

pray,

forgive whatever

you have against any

378

THE PREACHING OF
;

and your Father who is in heaven will also forgive you your transgressions. But if you do not forgive, your Father who is in heaven will also not forgive you

man

your transgressions.

And

they came again to Urishlem

:

and

as he

walked in the temple, the chief priests and the

Sophree and the elders came to him, and said to him. By what authority these things doest thou ? and who gave
thee the authority to do
I also will
I tell

them?
I

But Jeshu

said to them,
tell

ask you one word, that you

may
it ?

me, and

you by what authority

these things

do.

The

baptism of Juchanon, from whence was
or from the sons of

from heaven,

And they reasoned we say to him, that (it was) from heaven, he saith to us. And why did you not believe him ? And if we should say, From the sons of
Tell

man?

me.

among

themselves, and said. If

man, there

is

fear

from the people

;

for all have held

Juchanon that
them,
also

he was truly a

prophet.
not.

answered, saying to Jeshu,
I

We know

And they He saith to
I these

do not

tell

you by what authority

things do.

certain

And he began to man planted
and dug
it

discourse with

them

in parables.
it

A
it

a vinery, and surrounded
in
it

with an
a

enclosure,

a wine-press, and built in

tower, and gave

to be held

by husbandmen, and jourBut they

neyed.

And

he sent to the husbandmen his servant in

the time to receive the fruits of the vinery.
beat him, and sent

him away empty.
;

He

sent to

them

again another servant

and

also

that

one they stoned,

and bruised him, and sent him away with dishonour. And he sent again another, and him they killed and
;

many

other servants he sent, and of them they beat,

(and) of

them they

killed.

But

at last
;

having one son,

him to them for he said. Now will But those husbandmen they be confounded by my son. said among themselves, This is the heir come let us kill
the beloved, he sent
;

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.
hira,

379

and

tlie

inheritance will be ours.

And

they took

and
will

killed

him, and cast him without from the vinery.
shall

What

therefore

the Lord of the vinery do

?

He
the

come, destroy those labourers, and will

give

vinery to others.
read,

And
?

also that scripture

have you not
is

The stone which the
wondrous
in our eyes.

builders rejected
is tliis

become

the head of the corner
it

from the Lord

done, and

is

And

they sought to appre:

hend him, but feared from the people
that concerning themselves he

for they

knew

had spoken

this parable.

And he left them, and went. And they sent to him men from
discourse.

the Sophree and from

the house of Herodes, that they should ensnare

him
:

in

And they came and questioned him Malphona, we know that thou art true, and that thou bearest not care for man for thou regardest not the person of
:

the

sons of man, but in truth the
:

way
?

of Aloha thou

teachest

Is

it

lawful to give head-money to Caesar, or

not

?

shall

we

give, or shall

we not
I

give

But he knew

their deceit,

and said to them.
him.
?

Why
may

do you tempt
see
it.

me ?
they

bring

me
it

the dinara, (that)
to

And

brought

image and writing
said to them.

He said to them, Of whom (is) this And they said, Of Caesar. Jeshu
give to
Csesar,

Of Csesar

and of Aloha

to

Aloha.

And

they were astonished at him.
the Oblation for the

XXXL At
And
(there
is)

Bead.

the Zadukoyee came to him, those

who

say that

no resurrection

;

and they questioned him,
written for us. That
wife,
if

saying, Malphona,

Musha has
die,

the

brother of a

man

and leave a

and leave not
raise

children, his brother shall take his wife

and

unto his brother.

Seven brethren there were.
left

up seed The first
and the

took a wife, and died, and

not seed.
left

And

the second
:

took her, and died, and he also

not seed

380
third likewise.

THE PREACHING OF
And
:

them took her, and voman. In the resurrection therefore, whose from them shall she be the wife ? for the seven of them had hei\ Jeshu saith to them, Do you not on this account err, because you know not the scripture, nor the power of Aloha ? For when they rise from the dead, they take not wives, neither are
the seven of did not leave seed
last of all died also that

wives (given) unto husbands
in heaven are they.
rise
:

;

but as the angels that are

But concerning the dead, that they

have you not read in the book of Musha,
I

how from
?

the bush Aloha said to him,

am

the

God

of Abraham,

and the God of Ishok, and the God of Jacub
Aloha
is

And
there-

not of the dead, but of the living.

You

fore do greatly err.

And one from
to

the Sophree approached and heard

how
first

they disputed, and, perceiving that he had well rendered

them the answer, inquired of him. Which
'Jeshu saith to him.
(is).

is

the

commandment of all ? all the commandments
Aloha
is

Hear, Israel,
shalt love
all

The first of The Lord our

one Lord
all

:

and thou

the Lord thy

God with*
all

thy heart, and with
all

thy soul, and with
:

thy mind, and with

thy strength

this is the first
is

commandment.

And

the second,

which
there

like

it,

(is)

that thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.

Another
That

commandment
spoken
that a
:

greater than these

is

not.

Sophra said to him. Well, Rabi, and truly hast thou
for

One

there

is

and no other than He
all

:

and
the
the
is

man

love

Him

with *

the heart, and with

all all

understanding, and with aU the soul, and with
strength, and
better than

that he love his neighbour as himself,
burnt-oiFerings

all

and

sacrifices.

Jeshu,

seeing that he had wisely returned the word, answered

and

said

Aloha.

to him. Thou art And no man dared
*

not far from the kingdom of
again to question him.

And

Ad

Uteram,

From

all,

&c.

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.
Jesliu

381

answered and

said,

while he taught in the temple,
is

How

say the Sophree that the Meshicha
saith

son of David

?

For David himself

by the

Spirit of

Hohness, The

Lord said
I set

to

my

Lord, Sit thou at

my
Lord

right hand, until
feet.

thy adversaries a footstool beneath thy

David
is

therefore himself calleth

him

My

;

and how

he

then his son

?

And

all

the multitude heard

him

gladly.

And

in

his

doctrine he said to
will to

them. Beware of the

Sophree,

who

walk in long robes, and love the
chiefi seats in

shaloma in public places, and the
gregations,

the con-

and the head couches

at suppers

:

they

who

devour the houses of widows, and for the occasion prolong
their prayers
:

they shall receive the greater judgment.

XXXIL Morning

of the Festival of the Cross.

And
beheld
treasure

as

Jeshu sat before the house of treasure, he
the multitude cast
rich

how
;

money

into the

place of

and many

threw in much.

And

there

came a
which
ples,

certain poor widow,

and threw in two menin,

are a

shemona.*

and

said to them,
all

widow more than
(super) abundant

And Jeshu called to his disciAmen I tell you. That this poor the men who throw hath thrown

into the house of treasure.
to

from her deficiency in her whole possession.

For all they from what is them have thrown (in), but this all whatever she had she hath thrown
;

And

as

Jeshu went forth from the temple, one of his

disciples said to him,

Malphona, behold, see those stones

and those buildings
stone

!

But Jeshu said
?

to him, Seest
left

thou

these great buildings

There will not be
(will)

here a

upon

a stone

which

not be destroyed.

And

while Jeshu sat on the

Mount

of Olives before the temple,

Kipha and Jacub and Juchanon and Andreas asked him by themselves, Tell us when (these events) shall be, and
*

One

eighth of a denarius.

382
v/hat
is

THE PREACHING OF
the sign

when

these

all

draw nigh
to say to
will

to be

accom-

plished.

But

he, Jeshu,

began

them. See that
in

no man deceive you.

For many
(He)
;

come
will

my

name,

and

will

say, I

am

and many

be deceived.

But when you hear of
fear not
:

battles

and the rumour of wars,
;

for

it is

that they are to be

but not yet

is

the

end.
against
places

For people

shall rise against people,
;

and kingdom

kingdom and earthquakes will be in various and there will be famines and convulsions. These are the beginning of sorrows. But look (to) yourselves for they will deliver you to the judgments, and
; ;

in

their

assemblies will they scourge you, and

before

kings and governors you shall stand on account of their
testimony.
all

But

first will

be preached
lead

my
you

gospel

among
you

the nations.

But when they
that,

to deliver

up, be not previously anxious what you shall say, nor

premeditate

;

but

whatever

is

given you in that

hour, that say.
rit

For

it is

not you speaking, but the Spiwill betray his brother
;

of Holiness.

But the brother

to the death,
rise

and children will up against their fathers, and shall put them to death and you will be hated by all men on account of my name but he who shall persevere to the end, he
his son
;
:

and the father

shall be saved.

But when you

see the unclean sign of desolation, that

which
where
stand
I

is
it

spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing
ought not,
let

— then

mountain.

who readeth, let him underwho are in Jehud flee to the And he who is upon the roof, let him not
those
is

—he

descend nor enter in to carry any thing from his house

and he who

in the field, let

him not turn back

to take

up his garments. But woe to those who are with cliild, and to those who give suck, in those days But pray
!

that your flight

may

not be in the winter

:

for in those

days shall be affliction such as hath not been from the

MARKOS THE EVANGELIST.

383

beginning of the creation which Aloha created, and until

now, nor

shall be.

And

unless the Lord cut short those
;

days, no flesh

would

live

but on account of the

elect

whom
Then,

he hath chosen, those days he hath cut short.
if

any!

man

shall say to you. Behold, here is the
is)

Meshicha

and. Behold, (he

there

!

believe not.
lie,

For

there will arise false Meshichas and prophets of a
will give forth signs

and

and wonders, to deceive,
Behold,

if possible, I

the elect also.

But you, beware.

have told

you every thing before.

But

in those days after that affliction the sun will be

darkened, and the

moon

will

not give forth her light,

and the
of

stars will fall

from heaven, and the powers of the

heavens will be moved.

And then

will

they see the Son

Man coming

in the cloud with great
will he

power and with

glory.

And then

send his angels, and will assem-

ble his chosen ones

from the four winds, from the extrelearn a
parable.

mity of the earth to the extremity of the heavens.

But from the

fig-tree

When

her

branches are tender, and she shoots forth her leaves, you

know
you
near,

that the

summer draws nigh

:

so also you,

when
it

see that these things are done,

understand that
I
tell

is

(even) at the door.

Amen

you. That this

race shall not pass until these

all shall

be.

Heaven and
not, nor

earth shall pass away, but

my

words

shall

not pass away.

But of that day and of that hour man knoweth

the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but only the Father.

Look

:

be watchful and pray
is.

;

for

you know not when
journeyed, and
to his servants,
left

the time

For as a

man who hath

his house, to

and hath given authority
his
(so)

and

every

man

work, and the door-keeper he hath
;

instructed to be watchful

because you
house,

know

not

when cometh

watch you, therefore, the Lord of the
lest

in the evening, or in the dividing of the