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**Concrete International, Jun 2007 by Hurd, M K
**

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A review of the formulas to determine the pressure of fresh concrete (ProQuest-CSA LLC: ... denotes formulae omitted.) Fresh concrete exerts pressure on vertical form surfaces, and an assessment of that pressure is needed for designing forms. In the simplest theory, fresh concrete acts as a fluid exerting pressure equally in all directions at whatever point the measurement is made-essentially assuming a hydrostatic pressure effect. This is reasonable because the fresh concrete behaves much like a fluid at least briefly during vibration, or for a longer time if flowability of the mixture has been enhanced through use of admixtures or special proportioning and materials selection.

MoreArticles of Interest

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Determining form pressures Use updated wall pressure formulas Wall formwork design Formwork for self-consolidating concrete: there are many good reasons to use... Slab formwork design

But concrete is not a true fluid, and some method of evaluating the concrete's actual pressure is needed. Evaluating pressure has been a significant part of the work of ACI Committee 347, Formwork for Concrete. As early as 1958, Committee 347 (then Committee 622) studied available field measurements of lateral pressure on formwork and used the data to develop pressure formulas that could be safely used for form design. A report was published in 1958,1 and the formulas, with some modifications, were included in ACI's first formwork standard, ACI 347-63.2 In the days before the advent of the personal computer, the committee considered it important to keep the equations simple, reasoning that this would encourage their use and minimize mathematical errors. These formulas were carried forward through successive ACI standards until 2001, when accumulating data3 on lateral pressures enabled the committee to introduce new coefficients for unit weight and chemistry of the mixture, expanding coverage of the formulas to mixtures with cement replacements, admixtures, or both. I wrote about those changes for CI readers in October 2002.4 Further modifications were issued in ACI 347-04,5 however, and clarification of the present status may be needed. To avoid possible confusion, the formulas presented here are given the same identifying numbers as in ACI 347-04. BASIC FORMULA Although the pressure at any given point within the form varies over time, the designer usually doesn't need to know the variation in detail. Hence, the equations for lateral formwork pressure provide only the maximum to be used for design. The basic formula is: p = wh (2.1a), in.-lb units p = ρgh (2.1b), SI units For the equation in in.-lb units, p is the lateral pressure, in lb/ft^sup 2^; w is unit weight of the fresh concrete, in lb/ft^sup 3^; and h is the depth in feet of fluid or plastic concrete from the top of a placement to the point under consideration in the form. For the equation in SI units, p is the lateral pressure, in kPa; ρ is the concrete density, in kg/m^sup 3^; g is the gravitational constant of 9.81 N/kg; and h is the depth of fluid or plastic concrete in meters from the top of a placement to the point under consideration in the form. If a form is filled rapidly before any stiffening of the concrete takes place, h should be taken as the full height of the freshly placed concrete. If multiple placements are to be made, h should be taken as the distance between construction joints. This formula is applicable for all conditions other than those specifically defined for the use of Eq. (2.2), (2.3), and (2.4). COLUMN FORM PRESSURE For the purpose of pressure determination, Committee 347 defines columns as elements with no plan dimension exceeding 6.5 ft (2 m). For concrete with a slump of 7 in. (175 mm) or less and placed in column forms with normal internal vibration to a depth of 4 ft (1.2 m) or less, ACI 347-04 recommends the following equation for calculating the maximum pressure p^sub max^ in lb/ft^sup 2^ (kPa) to be used for column form design: p^sub max^= C^sub w^C^sub c^ [150 9000R/T] (2.2), in.-lb units ... (2.2), SI units with a minimum of 600Cw lb/ft^sup 2^ (30C^sub w^ kPa), but in no case greater than Eq. (2.1). C^sub w^ and C^sub c^ are the unit weight and chemistry coefficients shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively; R is the rate of placement, in ft/h (m/h); and T is the temperature of the concrete during placement, in °F (°C). With rapid placement and intensive vibration or with self-consolidating concrete, it is possible to have concrete remaining in a fluid condition for the full duration of the placement, in which case the only theoretical pressure limit will be as in Eq. (2.1). Committee 347 didn't have sufficient test data to develop separate provisions for self-consolidating concrete. A number of studies have been or are being conducted -for example, Reference 6- but definitive results have yet to be found. WALL FORM PRESSURE For purposes of pressure determination, ACI 347-04 defines a wall as a vertical structural element with at least one plan dimension greater than 6.5 ft (2 m). ACI 347-04 gives two equations for wall form pressure. As in the case of the column formula, both are applicable to concrete with a slump of 7 in. (175 mm) or less and vibration to a depth of 4 ft (1.2 m) or less. The first, Eq. (2.3), applies to walls with a rate of placement less than 7 ft/h (2.1 m/h) and a placement height of 14 ft (4.2 m) or less: p^sub max^ = C^sub w^C^sub c^[150 9000 R/T] (2.3), in.-lb units ... (2.3), SI units The second equation, Eq. (2.4), applies to all walls with a placement rate of 7 to 15 ft/h (2.1 to 4.5 m/h), and to walls placed at less than 7 ft/h (2.2 m/h), but having a placement height greater than 14 ft (4.2 m). p^sub max^ = C^sub w^C^sub c^[150 43,400/T 2800 R/T] (2.4), in.-lb units ... (2.4), SI units

" Concrete International...4). To use the spreadsheets. V. Hurd is the first female recipient of the Marston Medal. Barnes. Billberg." ACI JOURNAL. Formwork for Concrete (SP-4). 2002. American Concrete Institute. T. Oct. Farmington Hills. North Carolina State University. 35-42.3) and (2. 7. NC. and Johnston. 2. Formwork for Concrete. Formwork for Concrete. Concrete Aesthetics. Farmington Hills. visit the Concrete Knowledge Center atwww. Hurd is a member of ACI Committees 124..For both Eq. 7th Edition." American Concrete Institute. and Österberg. pp. No. and 347. Eq." Concrete International.. 10.K. No. 1958. Slab formwork design ADDITIONAL INFORMATION For examples showing how to apply these formulas. The author of seven editions of ACI SP-4. Oct. refer to the 7th Edition of ACI SP-4.. p^sub max^ should be a minimum of 600C^sub w^ lb/ft^sup 2^ (30C^sub w^ kPa). 2004.1). 173-190. 1999. Bloem Award for distinguished Service (1990 and 2006). Aug. 516 pp. the delmar L.. "Pressures on Formwork. 2005.org. "Guide to Formwork for Concrete (ACI 347-04). "Form Pressures Generated by Self-Consolidating Concrete. P. Turner Medal (1995). Proceedings V. pp. Farmington Hills.W.K. 5. 27. 32 pp. Epstein. 1963.. Department of Civil Engineering. ACI Committee 347. and click on the "Form Design Spreadsheet" button. J. Copyright American Concrete Institute Jun 2007 Provided by ProQuest Information and Learning Company. San Luis Obispo. Selected for reader interest by the editors. Then go down to the bottom of the page and select "Walls. 2005. ACI Honorary Member M.7 Lateral pressure calculations are also presented in the interactive spreadsheet program made available to ACI by William C.5 m/h). 6. ACI Committee 347.." Institute of Construction. V. MI. She has received numerous awards for her service and contributions to ACI. Silfwerbrand. MI. pp. Hurd. (2. 4. J. 3. MoreArticles of Interest • • • • • Determining form pressures Use updated wall pressure formulas Wall formwork design Formwork for self-consolidating concrete: there are many good reasons to use. 55. but not greater than Eq. Formwork for Concrete. "Putting the Pressure on Formwork.4) does not apply for rates of placement greater than 15 ft/h (4. click on the "Construction" button. 10. D. formerly a Professor of Construction Management at California State Polytechnic University. "ACI Standard Recommended Practice for Concrete Formwork (ACI 347-63). ACI Committee 622.." References 1.concrete. Raleigh. 52 pp. 49-55. CA. All rights Reserved . (2. M. 24. MI.K. M. Because Committee 347 has insufficient data on observed pressure at higher rates. (2. the highest award bestowed by the College of engineering at Iowa State university. including the ACI Construction Award (1982 and 1988). and the Henry C. Oct.M. 90 pp. "Modification Factors for Improved Prediction of Fresh Concrete Lateral Pressures on Formwork. Hurd." American Concrete Institute.

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