Telecommunications and Networks
I. CHAPTER OVERVIEW
This chapter presents an overview of the Internet and other telecommunications networks, business applications, and trends, and reviews technical telecommunications alternatives. Section I: Section II: The Networked Enterprise Telecommunications Network Alternatives
Section I: The Networked Enterprise
Networking the Enterprise
Businesses have become networked enterprises. The Internet, the Web, and intranets and extranets are networking business processes and employees together, and connecting them to their customers, suppliers, and other business stakeholders. Through telecommunications, companies and workgroups can: • Collaborate more creatively • Manage their business operations and organizational resources more effectively • Compete successfully in today’s fast-changing global economy Many organizations today could not survive without a variety of interconnected computer networks to service their information processing and communications needs.
Trends in Telecommunication: [Figure 6.2]
Major trends occurring in the field of telecommunications have a significant impact on management decisions in this area. Informed managerial end users should thus be aware of major trends in telecommunications industries, technologies, and applications that significantly increase the decision alternatives confronting their organizations. Industry Trends: • The telecommunications industry has changes from government-regulated monopolies to a deregulated market with fiercely competitive suppliers of telecommunications service. • Explosive growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web has created a host of new telecommunications products, services and providers. • Business firms have dramatically increased their use of the Internet and the Web for electronic commerce and collaboration. Technology Trends: • Open systems with unrestricted connectivity, using Internet networking technologies as their technology platform, are becoming the primary telecommunications technology drivers.
Increased industry and technical moves towards building client/server networks based on open system architecture. Open systems are information systems that use common standards for hardware, software, applications, and networking. Any open system provides greater connectivity, that is, the ability of network computers and other devices to easily access and communicate with each other and share
O’Brien, Management Information Systems, 7/e IM - Chapter 6 pg. 1
information. Open systems architecture also provides a high degree of network interoperability. That is, open systems enable the many different applications of end users to be accomplished using the different varieties of computer systems, software packages, and databases provided by a variety of interconnected networks.
a. c. d. e. •
Change from analog to digital network technologies. Local and global telecommunications networks are rapidly converting to digital transmission technologies that transmit information in the form of discrete pulses, rather than waves. Digital transmission offers: Higher transmission speeds (transmits with pulses) b. Movement of greater amounts of information Greater economy Much lower error rates than analog systems Telecommunications networks to carry multiple types of communications (data, voice, and video) on the same circuits. (Integrated Services Digital Network technology) Change in communications media. Many telecommunications networks are changing from copper wirebased media and land-based microwave relay systems to fiber optic lines and communications satellite transmissions. Fiber optic transmission, which uses pulses of a laser-generated light, offer significant advantages in terms of: Reduced size and installation effort Greater communication capacity c. Faster transmission speeds d. Freedom from electrical interference
Business Application Trends: • The trend toward more vendors, services, Internet technologies, and open systems, and the rapid growth of the Internet, the World Wide Web, and corporate intranets and extranets, dramatically increases the number of feasible telecommunications applications. • Telecommunications networks are playing a vital and pervasive role in electronic commerce, enterprise collaboration, and internal business applications that support the operations, management, and strategic objectives of both large and small companies. Internet2 • Internet2 is a high-performance network that uses an entirely different infrastructure than the public Internet we know today. • There are over 200 universities and scientific institutions and over 60 communications corporations in the Internet2 network. • Internet2 is never intended to replace the internet, rather its purpose is to build a road map that can be followed when the next stage of innovation to the current Internet takes place. • Most institutions and commercial partners are connected via Abilene, a network backbone that will soon support throughput of 10 gigabits per second. • In short, Internet2 is all about high-speed telecommunications and infinite bandwidth.
The Business Value of Telecommunications: [Figure 6.4]
Information technology, especially in telecommunications-based business applications, helps a company overcome barriers to business success. Four strategic capabilities of telecommunications and other information technologies include: • Overcome geographic barriers • Overcome time barriers • Overcome cost barriers • Overcome structural barriers
O’Brien, Management Information Systems, 7/e IM - Chapter 6 pg. 2
operate. and other organizations. • Other applications include downloading software and information files and accessing databases provided by thousands of businesses. Distinguishing features of the Internet include: • The Net does not have a central computer system or telecommunications center. Management Information Systems. • The Internet provides electronic discussion forums and bulletin board systems formed and managed by thousands of special-interest newsgroups. • Hold realtime conversations with other Internet users. and participating in newsgroups and chat rooms. • The Net is constantly expanding Internet Applications: [Figure 6.
Business Use of the Internet
Business use of the Internet has expanded from an electronic information exchange to a broad platform for strategic business applications.The Internet Revolution
The Internet has become the largest and most important network of networks today. government. • The Net does not have a headquarters or governing body. human resources.5] • The most popular Internet applications are e-mail. instant messaging.7]
Question: What business value do companies derive from their business applications on the Internet? Answers: • Substantial cost savings can arise because applications that use the Internet and Internet-based technologies (like intranets and extranets) are typically less expensive to develop. browsing the sites on the World Wide Web. manufacturing.
. 7/e IM . Instead each message sent on the Internet has a unique address code so any Internet server in the network can forward it to its destination. • Internet browser software enables millions of users to surf the World Wide Web by clicking their way to the multimedia information resources stored on the hyperlinked pages of businesses. governments. and maintain than traditional systems.Chapter 6 pg. and other websites. and has evolved into a global information superhighway. Major business uses of the Internet includes: • Collaboration among business partners • Providing customer and vendor support • Electronic commerce • Marketing and sales • Customer relationship management applications • Cross-functional business applications • Applications in engineering. • Websites are the launch sites for electronic commerce transactions between businesses and their suppliers and customers. and accounting • Buying and selling products and services • Enterprise communications and collaboration • Strategic business alliances
The Business Value of the Internet: [Figure 6. • Gathering information through online services using Web browsers and search engines.
and as part of in-house business applications. Web Publishing: The advantages of developing and publishing hyperlinked multimedia documents to hypermedia databases accessible on World Wide Web servers has moved to corporate intranets. servers. paging. Since intranets are Internet-like networks within organizations. attractiveness. communications. • Using intranet groupware features to improve team and project collaboration with services such as discussion groups. and audio and videoconferencing. • Attract new customers via Web marketing and advertising and online sales. suppliers.Chapter 6 pg. and lower cost of publishing and accessing multimedia business information internally via intranet websites has been one of the primary reasons for the explosive growth in the use of intranets in business. An intranet is protected by security measures such as passwords. • Intranet software browsers. collaboration. and fire walls. Many corporate intranet users and consultants to the global business community have suggested that companies should get going fast on pilot intranet projects. encryption. • Increase the loyalty of existing customers via improved Web customer service and support.
Most companies are building commercial sites on the World Wide Web to achieve six major business values: • Generate new revenue from online sales. they depend on all of the information technologies that make the Internet possible.
The Role of Intranets
• • • • An intranet is a network inside an organization that uses Internet technologies to provide an Internet-like environment within the enterprise for information sharing. or quickly expand any current intranet initiatives. and faxes to communicate with others within your organization. • Develop new information-based products accessible on the Web. chat rooms. voicemail. 7/e IM . and the support of business processes. E-mail. and thus can only be accessed by authorized users through the Internet.
O’Brien. Communications and Collaboration Intranets can significantly improve communications and collaboration within an enterprise. and other business partners via extranet links.• • •
Attracting new customers with innovative marketing and product offerings. Examples include: • Using an intranet browser and PC or NC workstation to send and receive E-mail. and product catalogs can be published in a variety of ways including hypermedia and Web pages. Retaining present customers with improved customer service and support. The comparative ease. • Reduce costs through online sales and customer support. and externally through the Internet and extranets. Management Information Systems. Examples include: • Company newsletters. 4
. Generating revenue through electronic commerce applications. A company’s intranet can also be accessed through the intranets of customers. These include: • TCP/IP client/server networks • Hardware and software such as Web browsers and server suites • HTML Web publishing software • Network management and security programs • Hypermedia databases
The Business Value of Intranets Studies have shown that early adopters of intranets have been provided with impressive returns and high paybacks at low costs. and search engines can help you easily navigate and locate the business information you need. technical drawings. net broadcasting. • Develop new web-based markets and distribution channels for existing products.
or external business partners can access and run such applications using Web browsers from anywhere on the network whenever needed.Chapter 6 pg. and executive information systems that can be implemented on intranets. 5
. Figure 6.Business Operations and Management: Intranets are being used as the platform for developing and deploying critical business applications to support business operations and managerial decision making across the internetworked enterprise. marketing. and customer-focused process that can bring better designed products to market faster. 7/e IM . suppliers. Employees within the company. • Extranets facilitate an online. or other business partners. they need a basic understanding and appreciation for some of the important characteristics of the basic components of telecommunications networks.
Section II: Telecommunications Network Alternatives
Telecommunications Alternatives Telecommunications is a highly technical. • Many applications are designed to interface with. which shows that it consists of five basic categories of components: • Terminals Terminals are any input/output devices that use telecommunications networks to transmit or receive data. extranets are another way that a business can build and strengthen strategic relationships with its customers and suppliers. • Extranets enable and improve collaboration by a business with its customers and other business partners. Thus. • Employees within a company. They include:
O’Brien. and access. but rely on encryption of sensitive data and its own firewall systems to provide adequate security.12 illustrates a simple conceptual model of a telecommunications network. Management Information Systems. interactive product development.12]
Generally. extranets. Business Value of Extranets: The business value of extranets is derived from several factors: • The Web browser technology of extranets makes customer and supplier access of intranet resources a lot easier and faster than previous business methods • Extranets enable a company to offer new kinds of interactive Web-enabled services to their business partners. The software for such business uses (sometimes-called applets or crossware) is then installed on intranet Web servers. or external business partners. Examples include: • Many companies are developing customer applications like order processing.
The Role of Extranets
Extranets are network links that use Internet technologies to interconnect the intranet of a business with the intranets of its customers.
A Telecommunications Network Model: [Figure 6. and the Internet. inventory control. existing company databases and legacy systems. rapidly changing field of information systems technology. Most end users do not need a detailed knowledge of its technical characteristics. can access and run applications using Web browsers from anywhere on the network whenever needed. However. or create private secure Internet links between them called virtual private networks. a communications network is any arrangement where a sender transmits a message to a receiver over a channel consisting of some type of medium. sales management. • Use the unsecured Internet as the extranet link between its intranet and consumers and others. Companies can: • Establish direct private network links between themselves.
Modems 2. intranets. Communications Packages (microcomputers)
Types of Telecommunications Networks
There are many different types of telecommunications networks. Communications Satellites • Computers Telecommunications networks interconnect computers of all sizes and types. These networks cover areas such as: • Large city or metropolitan area • Whole country • Many countries and continents Local Area Network (LAN): [Figure 6. such as: • Wide area networks • Local area networks • Interconnected networks like the Internet. They include the physical equipment used to connect one location to another for the purpose of transmitting and receiving information. Host Computers (mainframes) 2. Management Information Systems. Front-End Processors (minicomputers) 3. Switches 3. 6
. from an end user point of view. Microwave Systems 5. They include: 1. and extranets • Client/server and inter-organizational networks Wide Area Network (WAN): [Figure 6. Routers • Telecommunications Channels and Media Telecommunications channels are the part of a telecommunications network that connects the message source with the message receiver. Telecommunications Monitors (mainframe host computers) 2.
Video Terminals Microcomputers Telephones Office Equipment Transaction Terminals
• Telecommunications Processors Support data transmission and reception between terminals and computers. They include: 1.1. Network Operating Systems (microcomputer network servers) 3. which use a variety of telecommunications media.14]
O’Brien. 2.13] Wide area networks are telecommunications networks that cover large geographic areas.Chapter 6 pg. Media include: 1. Coaxial Cables 3. Network Servers (microcomputers) • Telecommunications Control Software Consists of programs that control telecommunications activities and manage the functions of telecommunications networks. 7/e IM . Data are transmitted and received over channels. 4. Copper Wires 2. 5. They include: 1. there are only a few basic types. However. 3. Fiber Optic Cables 4.
and pool their efforts when working on group projects. traditional mainframe-based business information systems. coaxial cable. a client/server network of several interconnected local area networks may replace a large mainframe-based network with many end user terminals. but relies on the fire walls and other security features of its Internet and intranet connections and those of participating organizations. 7/e IM . software.16] Client/server networks have become the predominate information architecture of enterprise computing. • To communicate over the network. such as ordinary telephone wiring. Computing power has rapidly become distributed and interconnected throughout many organizations by networked computer systems that take the form of client/server networks. This typically involves a complex and costly effort to install new application software that replaces the software of older. manage work group collaboration.. and data resources. • LAN servers can share application processing.Local area networks are telecommunications networks that connect information-processing devices within a limited physical area.g. and business unit needs. and control common hardware. Novell NetWare) that controls telecommunications and the use of network resources. workgroup. • LANs allow end users in a workgroup to communicate electronically. For example. Continuing Trend: Downsizing of larger computer systems by replacing them with client/server networks. • Computer processing is more tailored to the needs of the end users. Benefits of client/server computing include: • Clients (end users) can perform some or most of the processing of their business applications. software.Chapter 6 pg. • LANs may be interconnected to other LANs and wide area networks of client workstations and servers.15] Many organizations use virtual private networks (VPNs) to establish secure intranets and extranets. 7
. share hardware. Characteristics of a client/server network: • End user PC or NC workstations are the clients. These networks cover areas such as: • Offices • Classrooms • Buildings • Manufacturing plant Some of the characteristics of LANs include the following: • LANs use a variety of telecommunications media. • Clients are interconnected by local area networks and share application processing with network servers. which also manage the networks. These networks enable a company to: • Use the Internet to establish secure intranets between its distant branch offices and manufacturing plants • Secure extranets between itself and its customers and suppliers. Client/server networks are seen as more economical and flexible than legacy systems in meeting end user. where most input and output must be handled. • Data can be completely processed locally. Client/Server Networks: [Figure 6. Management Information Systems.
O’Brien. • Most LANs use a powerful microcomputer with a large disk capacity as a file server or network server that contains a network operating system program (e. a PC usually has a circuit board called a network interface card. or wireless radio systems to interconnect microcomputer workstations and computer peripherals. and databases. A virtual private network is a secure network that uses the Internet as its main backbone network. and more adaptable in adjusting to a diverse range of computing workloads. Virtual Private Networks (VPN): [Figure 6. now called legacy systems. • Provides access to the workstations and servers in other networks.
Telecommunications media are the physical media used by telecommunications channels. intranets. In this way. communications network security and control. a cable. the software searches the directory for any other users who have that file and are online at that moment. Then an active link to your user name is transmitted from peer to peer to all the online users in the network that the first user (and the other online users) encountered in previous sessions. They include: • Twisted-pair Wire • Coaxial Cable • Fiber Optic Cable • Terrestrial Microwave • Communications Satellites • Cellular Phone Systems • Packet and LAN Radio
To get from here to there.such as high-volume transaction processing. data must move through something. It then sends you a list of user names that are active links to all such users. Management Information Systems. A pure peer-to-peer network is where there is no central directory or server. and maintenance and control of large corporate databases. When you request a file.• •
Increases information processing efficiency and effectiveness. the software searches every online user and sends your list of active file names related to your request. and data resources of the Internet. as users are more responsible for their own application systems.
Network Computing: [Figure 6. or network-centric. • Network computers are microcomputers without floppy or hard disk drives that are designed as low-cost networked computing devices.Chapter 6 pg. Allows large central-site computers to handle the jobs they do best . applets. Features of network computing include: • Network computers provide a browser-based user interface for processing small application programs called applets. and database management software needed by the end users in the network. P2P file-sharing software connects your PC to a central server that contains a directory of all of the other users (peers) in the network. Peer-to-Peer Networks: The emergence of peer-to-peer (P2P) networking technologies and applications is being hailed as a development that will revolutionize e-business and e-commerce and the Internet itself. extranets. Clicking on one of these user names prompts the software to connect your PC to their PC (making a peer-to-peer connection) and automatically transfers the file you want from their hard drive to yours.17] The growing reliance on the computer hardware. or channels. and other networks has emphasized that for many users “the network is the computer”. It appears to be the architecture that will take computing into the next century. This network computing. databases. software. • In the Napster architecture. active links to more and more peers spread throughout the network the more it is used. or the atmospheres are all forms of transmission media. Clicking on one of these automatically transfers the file from their hard drive to yours. • Servers provide the operating system. 8
. the file-sharing software in a Gnutella-style P2P network connects your PC with one of the online users in the network. When you request a file. concept views networks as the central computing resource of any computing environment. 7/e IM . First. A telephone line. Telecommunications channels (communication lines or links) are the means by which data and other forms of communications are transmitted between the sending and receiving devices in a telecommunications network.
• Specialized communications equipment is expensive. making tapping them difficult.about 100 million bits per second (1800 to 3600 voice calls at once). • Can carry digital signals. A 2" diameter coaxial cable can carry up to 5. • Allows for high-speed data transmission used in high-service metropolitan areas for cable TV systems. A 2" diameter fiber optic cable can carry up to 50. • Used in established communications throughout the world. taps can be easily detected. • Relatively low cost • Offers high transmission volume. Coaxial Cable: Coaxial cable consists of copper or aluminium wire wrapped with spacers to insulate and protect it. however. • Used extensively in home and office telephone systems and many LANs and WANs. Insulation minimizes interference and distortion of the signals the cable carries. • Message security of fiber optic communications is very resistant to illegal data theft.
O’Brien. Management Information Systems. 7/e IM . as well as analog thus increases communications and capability. Fiber Optic Cable: Fiber optic cable consists of one or more hair-thin filaments of glass fiber wrapped in a protective jacket. • Most widely used media for telecommunications. • Signals must be “refreshed” every one to two miles through the use of repeaters. • Speed of communications is 10. this disadvantage also offers an advantage. • Provides increased speed and greater carrying capacity than coaxial cable and twisted-pair lines. which limits the practical distances that data. • Does not offer security. Is not affected by and does not generate electromagnetic radiation. • Provides substantial size and weight reductions. as the lines are more secure. • Used for both voice and data transmissions. as splicing the cable to make connections is not easy. • Can be used undersea for transatlantic use. can be transmitted without being garbled. consisting of copper wire twisted into pairs (twisted pair wire). and for short-distance connection of computers and peripheral devices.•
Twisted-Pair Wire: Is ordinary telephone wire. Biggest disadvantages of using fiber optic cable are: • Installation can be difficult.000 channels. 9
. • Can be placed underground and laid on the floors of lakes and oceans.500 channels. Disadvantages: • Susceptible to a variety of types of electrical interference (noise). • Can carry a large volume of data . Signals are converted to light form and fired by laser in bursts.000 times faster than that of microwave and satellite systems. • Costly to purchase.Chapter 6 pg. • Used extensively in office buildings and other work sites for local area networks. Disadvantages: • More expensive than twisted pair. • Is not susceptible to electronic noise and so has much lower error rates than twisted-pair and coaxial cable. • Coaxial cables can be bundled together into a much larger cable for ease of installation. which are very expensive.
• Saturation of the airwaves with microwave transmissions has reached its maximum. placed approximately 30 miles apart. the satellite acts as a relay station between satellite transmission stations on the ground (earth stations). • Important communications medium for mobile voice and data communications. Communications Satellites Communications satellites use the atmosphere as the medium through which to transmit signals.Chapter 6 pg.10 years. • Used extensively for high-volume as well as long-distance communication of both data and voice. transmission by operating at the same frequency. • Depending on the satellite’s transmission frequency. Wireless technologies include: • Terrestrial microwave • Communications satellites • Cellular and PCS telephone and pager systems • Mobile data radio • Wireless LANs • Various wireless Internet technologies Note: Each technology utilizes specific ranges (in megahertz) of electromagnetic frequencies that are specified by national regulatory agencies to minimize interference and encourage efficient telecommunications. • Signals weaken over long distances. Terrestrial Microwave Terrestrial microwave involves earthbound microwave systems. • Anyone can listen in on satellite signals. microwave.Wireless Technologies:
Wireless telecommunications technologies rely on radio wave. Three satellites placed in orbit can cover the entire surface of the earth. Cellular and PCS Systems Cellular and PCS telephone and pager systems use several radio communications technologies that divide a geographic area into small areas or cells typically from one to several square miles. or relay stations. microwave stations on earth can “jam. 7/e IM . • Uses the atmosphere as the medium through which to transmit signals. instead they must be relayed from point to point by microwave towers. (The surface of the earth typically curves about 8 inches every mile).” or prevent. • A satellite is useful for only 7 . • Signal transmission may be slow if the signals must travel over very long distances. and visible light pulses to transport digital communications without wires between communications devices. Management Information Systems. amplifies. 10
. infrared. weather conditions and solar activity can cause noise interference. Each cell has its own lowpower transmitter or radio relay antenna device to relay calls from one cell to another. • A popular medium for both long-distance and metropolitan area networks. and retransmits signals. which transmit high-speed radio signals in a lineof-sight path between relay stations spaced approximately 30 miles apart. A satellite is some solar-powered electronic device that receives. and mobile voice and data communications. Disadvantages: • Microwave signals cannot bend around the curvature of the earth. or encrypted. Disadvantages:
O’Brien. so sensitive data must be sent in a secret. Disadvantages: • Satellites are very expensive to develop and place in orbit. form. • Cost-effective method for moving large quantities of data over long distances. with some overlap. This technology is used to support mobile phone service.
This technology is growing rapidly as new high-speed technologies are implemented. Wi-Fi is faster and less expensive than Standard Ethernet and other common wire-based LAN technologies. Multiplexers
O’Brien. multiplexers. pagers. PDSs. • Smart telephones.•
Not secured lines
Wireless LANs Wireless LANs use several wire-less technologies. 7/e IM . Disadvantages: • Distance limitations The Wireless Web Wireless access to the Internet. intranets. • Agreement on a standard wireless application protocol (WAP) has encouraged the development of many wireless Web applications and services. 11b) is a new open-standard wireless radio-wave technology. 11
. Examples include a high-frequency radio technology similar to digital cellular. The word "modem" is a contraction of modulate and demodulate. Management Information Systems.Chapter 6 pg. and are probably the most widely used data communications hardware in business. Functions of modems include: • Convert digital computer signals to analog signals for transmission over telephone lines. • WAP standard specifies how Web pages in HTML or XML are translated into a wireless markup language (WML) by filter software and pre-processed by proxy software to prepare the Web pages for wireless transmission from a Web server to a Web-enabled wireless device. and other portable communications devices have become very thin clients in wireless networks. and routers perform a variety of support functions between the computers and other devices in a telecommunications network. A telecommunications processor includes: • Modems • Multiplexers • Internetworked Processors Modems Modems are the most common type of communications processor. then to receive these signals and convert them back to digital signals. and extranets is growing as more Web-enabled information appliances proliferate. • Telecommunications industry continues to work on third generation (3G) wireless technologies whose goal is to raise wireless transmission speeds to enable streaming video and multimedia applications on mobile devices. Disadvantages: • Distance limitations
Telecommunications processors such as modems. • W-Fi (IEEE 802. The other wireless LAN technology is called infrared because it uses beams of infrared light to establish network links between LAN components. and a low-frequency radio technology called spread spectrum. This process is known as modulation and demodulation. switches.
.A multiplexer is a communications processor that allows a single communications channel to carry simultaneous data transmissions from many terminals. Management Information Systems.
• • •
Router . and enforce security policies. and gateways. A variety of communications software packages are available for microcomputers. • Switch . routers. Many software vendors also offer telecommunications software as middleware. and terminals in the network • Form waiting lines (queues) of transmission requests • Detect and correct transmission errors • Log statistics of network activity • Protect network resources from unauthorized access. a multiplexer merges the transmissions of several terminals at one end of a communications channel. servers. Network Management Network management packages such as LAN network operating systems and WAN telecommunications monitors: • Determine transmission priorities • Route (switch) messages. mainframes. so a telecommunications message can be routed to its destination. while a similar unit separates the individual transmissions at the receiving end. and communications processors like multiplexers and routers. and direction.is a communications processor that makes connections between telecommunications circuits in a network so a telecommunications message can reach its intended destination. Telecommunications and network management software may reside in PCs. Typically. LAN workstations. Examples of network management functions include: • Traffic management – manage network resources and traffic to avoid congestion and optimize telecommunications service levels to users. Gateway .
O’Brien. Telecommunications software packages provide a variety of communications support services. hubs.is a post switching communications processor. For example. and auditing functions. encryption. they work with a communications processor to connect and disconnect communications links and establish communications parameters such as transmission speed.is a communications processor that interconnects networks based on different rules or protocols.
Security – provide authentication. Telecommunications software packages for mainframe-based WANs frequently use telecommunications monitors or teleprocessing monitors. printers. etc. Hub . mode.g. Servers in LANs rely on network management software called network operating systems (E.is a communications processor that connects networks that use different communications architectures.
Software is a vital component of all telecommunications networks.. especially Internet web browsers like Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Explorer. Novell NetWare or Microsoft Windows NT Server). This allows for the sharing of the network resources such as servers. which can help diverse networks communicate with each other.Chapter 6 pg. 7/e IM . Internetwork Processors Telecommunications networks are interconnected by special-purpose communications processors called internetwork processors such as switches. polls.
There are several basic types of network topologies. which acts as the file server. Fault Tolerance becomes very important.Chapter 6 pg. • When one computer needs data from another computer. it does not necessarily affect the processing or communications capabilities of the other computers in the ring. • Each computer connected to the network can communicate directly with the other computers in the network by using the common communications channels. • Considered more reliable and less costly than star networks because if one computer fails. and each computer does its own independent applications processing. since the other computers in the star are heavily dependent on the central host computer. Management Information Systems. Ring Network A ring network is much like a bus network. Many star networks take the form of hierarchical networks with a centralized approach. involves a central unit that has a number of terminals tied into it. • The central unit in the star network acts as the traffic controller among all the other computers tied to it. Disadvantages of the star network: • The whole network is affected if the main unit “goes down. there is no backup processing and communications capability and the local computers will be cut off from the corporate headquarters and from each other. the other computers in the ring can continue to process their own work and communicate with each other. If it fails. • Local computer processors are tied together sequentially in a ring with each device being connected to two other devices. because when one computer in the ring fails. cable. The ring network is not as susceptible to breakdowns as the star network. the data is passed along the ring. except the length of wire. or optical fiber connects to form a loop. 7/e IM . Advantages: • Ring networks do not require a central computer to control activity nor does it need a file server. • A ring network has a decentralized approach. • Ties end user computers to a central computer. Capacity planning – survey network resources and traffic patterns and users’ needs to determine how best to accommodate the needs of the network as it grows and changes. The central computer is usually a mainframe (host). • Considered less reliable than a ring network. in telecommunications networks.” and all communications stop. informing network administrators of potential problems before they occur. or structures. Three basic topologies used in wide area and local area telecommunications networks are the: • Star network • Ring network • Bus network Star Network The star network.• •
Network monitoring – troubleshoot and watch over the network. a popular network configuration. • A star network is well suited to companies with one large data processing facility shared by a number of smaller departments.
O’Brien. Advantages of the star network: • Several users can use the central unit at the same time. • A ring network is often used to link mainframes over wide distances. • Cost of cabling the central system and the points of the star together are very high.
Network Topologies: [Figure 6.
operation. or optical fiber connects a number of computers. and efficient telecommunications environment. there was a lack of sufficient standards for the interfaces between the hardware. the type of electrical connection used by the communications devices. including rules for timing of message exchanges. This situation has: • Hampered the use of data communications • Increased data communications costs • Reduced data communications efficiency and effectiveness.Chapter 6 pg.
Protocols: A protocol is the formal set of rules for communicating. • Bus networks have a decentralized approach. and communications channels of data communications networks.25]
The OSI Model: [Figure 6. Advantages: • There is no host computer or file server. • All communications travel along this cable.25] The International Standards Organization (ISO) has developed a seven-layer Open Systems Interconnections (OSI() model to serve as a standard model for network architectures. software. a single length of wire. • Not as expensive as the star network. • Often used to hook up a small group of microcomputers that share data. and maintenance of complex telecommunications networks. error detection techniques. means of gaining access to communications channels. Seven layers of OSI include: • Application layer • Presentation layer • Session layer • Transport layer • Network layer • Data link layer • Physical layer The Internet’s TCP/IP [Figure 6.
Network Architectures and Protocols
Until recently. flexible.Bus Network In a bus network. For this reason there is often a lack of compatibility between the data communications hardware and software of different manufacturers. 7/e IM . 14
. cable. it will not affect the entire network. which is called a bus. Network architectures: The goal of network architectures is to promote an open. simple. and so on. Management Information Systems. which assists the development. Industry Response: Computer manufacturers and national and international organizations have developed standards called protocols and master plans called network architectures to support the development of advanced data communications networks. The goal of communications network architectures is to create more standardization and compatibility among communications protocols. This is accomplished by the use of: • Standard protocols • Standard communications hardware and software interfaces • Standard multilevel interface between end users and computer systems. and if one of the microcomputers fails. Dividing data communications functions into seven distinct layers promotes the development of modular network architectures.
. Value-added carriers who use computers and other communications processors to control the packet switching process and transmit the packets of various users over their networks frequently operate packet switching networks. They typically use microwave.g.a message is transmitted a block at a time from one switching device to another. Typically.Are high-speed digital channels. it determines the channel’s maximum transmission rate. This is the frequency range of a telecommunications channel. one or more bits can be transmitted . Medium-Band .
O’Brien.The number of times per second that a data communications signal changes. fixed cells. Five levels of TCP/IP include: • Application or process layer • Host-to-host transport layer • Internet protocol (IP) • Network interface • Physical layer
The form or method of communications affects the maximum rate at which data can be moved through the channel and the level of noise that will exist.bits per second (BPS). Management Information Systems. TCP/IP consists of five levels of protocols that can be related to the seven layers of the OSI architecture. Broadband . Baud Rate . 7/e IM . Voiceband .Communications speed and capacity of telecommunications networks can be classified by bandwidth. Many companies and other organizations are also converting their client/server networks to TCP/IP. fiber optics. and routes them to their next destination in the network.Are specially conditioned leased lines that can handle faster transmission. while they are of variable length in the frame relay technology. but can also be used for data communications by microcomputers.a link is established between the sender and the receiver. Message Switching . or satellite transmission. Packet Switching . that remains in effect until the communications session is completed (e. telephone). there are various switching alternatives:
• • •
Circuit Switching .ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) switch. video terminals. TCP/IP is used by the Internet and by all Intranets and extranets. which allow transmission rates at specific intervals. video. The Internet’s protocol suite is called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol and is known as TCP/IP. packets are 128 characters long.
Cell Switching .Chapter 6 pg. with each change.The Internet use a system of telecommunications protocols that has become so widely used that it is equivalent to network architecture. and fax machines. which are normally used for voice communications. which breaks voice.
To transmit data in a network.Are low-speed analog channels.involves subdividing communications messages into fixed or variable groups called packets. and other data into. 15
. Transmission Speed:
• • • • •
fiber-optic cables. ● The Internet Revolution.Chapter 6 pg. There are several basic types of telecommunications networks. peer-to-peer. including enterprise collaboration. ● Network Alternatives. and other business partners. processors. communications satellites. data. ● The Role of Intranets. Open systems with unrestricted connectivity using Internet technologies are the primary telecommunication technology drivers in e-business systems.11 for telecommunications media. ● The Business Value of the Internet.DEFINED
O’Brien. suppliers. wireless LANs. enterprise intranets. and (3) develop and deploy critical applications to support business operations and decision making. communicate and trade interactively with customized information and services for individual customers. Most WANs and LANs are interconnected using client/server. 7/e IM . including wide area networks (WANs) and local area networks (LANs).
V. Businesses are installing and extending intranets throughout their organizations to: (1) improve communications and collaboration among individuals and teams within the enterprise. Telecommunications processors include modems. video. The primary role of extranets is to link the intranet resources of a company to the intranets of its customers. like intranets and extranets. and Internet networking technologies. terrestrial microwave. Key telecommunications network alternatives and components are summarized in Figure 6. Management Information Systems. carriers. The major generic components of any telecommunications network are (1) terminals. (2) publish and share valuable business information easily. revenue increases from electronic commerce.Summary
● Telecommunications Trends. and with their customers. ● Telecommunications Networks. such as network operating systems and telecommunications monitors. A basic understanding of these major alternatives will help business end users participate effectively in decisions involving telecommunications issues. and other e-business systems. Thus. Telecommunications has entered a deregulated and fiercely competitive environment with many vendors. network computing. A major trend is the pervasive use of the Internet and its technologies to build interconnected enterprise and global networks. and various devices to help interconnect and enhance the capacity and efficiency of telecommunications channels. The Internet has become the key platform for a rapidly expanding list of information and entertainment services and business applications. Companies are deriving strategic business value from the Internet. internetworked digital networks for voice. and network architectures. and enabling the development of new kinds of Web-based services for its customers. intranets. and inter-organizational extranets. internetwork processors. coaxial cables. and other e-business applications. electronic commerce. These capabilities allow them to generate cost savings from using Internet technologies. and other business partners. and better customer service and relationships through better supply chain management and customer relationship management. multiplexers. controls and manages the communications activity in a telecommunications network. suppliers. (3) communications channels. Telecommunication software. and effectively via enterprise information portals and intranet websites and other intranet services. improving collaboration with its business partners. inexpensively. Their primary goal is to promote easy and secure access by business professionals and consumers to the resources of the Internet. which enables them to disseminate information globally. to support enterprise collaboration. extranets provide significant business value by facilitating and strengthening the business relationships of a company with customers and suppliers. Telecommunications networks use such media as twisted-pair wire. ● The Role of Extranets. Organizations are becoming networked enterprises that use the Internet. and others. and other wireless technologies. Extranets can also provide access to operational company databases and legacy systems to business partners. and foster collaboration of people and integration of business processes within the enterprise and with business partners. The explosive growth of the Internet and the use of its enabling technologies have revolutionized computing and telecommunications. Telecommunications technology is moving toward open. cellular and PCS systems. 16
. (4) computers. channels. electronic commerce. suppliers. and multimedia. and (5) telecommunications software. and other telecommunications networks to support business operations and collaboration within the enterprise. (2) telecommunications processors. software. and services. KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS .
Bandwidth Alternatives (204): The communications speed and capacity of telecommunications networks can be classified by bandwidth. and accounting. and enterprise communications and collaboration. and broadband). Groups of coaxial cables may be bundled together in a bigger cable for ease of installation. helps a company overcome barriers to business success. time barriers. electronic commerce. it determines the channel’s maximum transmission rate (voiceband. Management Information Systems. using the Internet or private networks to link the organizations’ intranets. and structural barriers. Four strategic capabilities of telecommunications and other information technologies include overcoming geographic barriers. buying and selling products and services. Business Value of the Internet (180): Strategic capabilities which enable businesses to disseminate information globally. and is evolving into the information superhighway of tomorrow. Internet Technologies (175): The Internet and its technologies are being used to build interconnected enterprises and global networks. human resources. 7/e IM . electronic
O’Brien. Cellular Phone System (195): A radio communications technology that divides a metropolitan area into a honeycomb of cells to greatly increase the number of frequencies and thus the users that can take advantage of mobile phone service. Internet Revolution (177): The explosive growth of the Internet is the revolutionary technology phenomenon of the 1990s. cost barriers. This is the frequency range of a telecommunications channel. communicate interactively with customized information and services for individual customers. suppliers. medium-band. providing customer and vendor support. and other business partners.Chapter 6 pg. Coaxial Cable (193): A sturdy copper or aluminium wire wrapped with spacers to insulate and protect it. Client/Server Networks (190): A computing environment where end user workstations (clients) are connected to micro or mini LAN (servers) or possibly to a mainframe (superserver). especially in telecommunications-based business applications. marketing and sales. applications in engineering. Fiber Optics (194): The technology that uses cables consisting of very thin filaments of glass fibers that can conduct the light generated by laser at frequencies that approach the speed of light. manufacturing. 17
. customer relationship management applications. Communications Satellites (1914: Earth satellites placed in stationary orbits above the equator that serve as relay stations for communications signals transmitted from earth stations. Business Applications of the Internet (179): Major business uses of the Internet include: collaboration among business partners. and foster collaboration of people and integration of business processes within the enterprise and with business partners. Business Value of Telecommunications Networks (176): Information technology. The Internet has become the largest and most important network of networks today. Downsizing (191): Moving to smaller computing platforms. like intranets and extranets that form information superhighways to support enterprise collaboration. crossfunctional business applications. Extranets (183): A network that links selected resources of the intranet of a company with its customers. such as from mainframe systems to networks of personal computers and servers.
Modems (MOdulation . flexible. Legacy Systems (191): The older. Local Area Network (LAN) (188): A communications network that typically connects computers. or gateways to other LANs or wide area networks interconnect many LANs. Network Architectures – OSI (202): The International Standards Organization (ISO) has developed a seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) to serve as a standard model for network architectures in order to promote an open. terminals. and efficient telecommunications environment. log statistics of network activity. In point-to-point lines.Chapter 6 pg. polls. or other work site. each terminal is connected by its own line to a computer system. Network Computing (191): A network-centric view of computing in which “the network is the computer. manufacturing plant. Network Management (200): Network management packages such as LAN operating systems and WAN telecommunications monitors: determine transmission priorities. building. routers. Network Operating System (189): A network operating system is a program that is used to control telecommunications and the use of and sharing of network resources. Management Information Systems. Network Server (189): LANs use a powerful microcomputer with a large disk capacity as a file server or network server.” that is. hubs. or structures. from waiting lines (queues) of transmission requests. traditional mainframe-based business information systems of an organization. 18
. Internetwork Processors (199): Internetwork processors such as bridges. Intranets (181): Open.TCP/IP (203): The Internet’s protocol suite is called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). and internal business applications. TCP/IP is used by the Internet and all intranets and extranets. simple. in telecommunications networks include point-to-point lines and multidrop lines. Open Systems (175):
O’Brien. In multidrop lines.DEModulation) (197): Devices that converts the digital signals from input/output devices into appropriate frequencies at a transmission terminal and converts them back into digital signals at a receiving terminal. several terminals share each data communications line to a computer. the view that computer networks are the central computing resource of any computing environment. and other computerized devices within a limited physical area such as an office. The server handles resource sharing and telecommunications.commerce. Network Topologies (200): Two basic types of network topologies. TCP/IP consists of five levels of protocols that can be related to the seven layers of the OSI architecture. detect and correct transmission errors. Multiplexer (198): An electronic device that allows a single communications channel to carry simultaneous data transmissions from many terminals. 7/e IM . secure Internet-like networks within organisations. and terminals in the network. route (switch) messages. Network Architectures . and protect network resources from unauthorized access.
digital. communications satellite. web browsers. telecommunications monitors. Telecommunications Processors (185): Multiplexers. and strategic advantage in global markets. They include. data coding and decoding. These include: circuit switching. 7/e IM .Chapter 6 pg. Wireless LAN (196): Using radio or infrared transmissions to link devices in a local area network. with heavy use of fiber optic lines and satellite channels. toward integrated. communicate. Telecommunications Channels (187): Telecommunications channels are the part of a telecommunications network that connects the message source with the message receiver. Telecommunications Software (187): Telecommunications software. packet switching. cellular. They may also perform error monitoring. coaxial cables. message switching. regardless of the manufacturer. Protocol (201): A set of rules and procedures for the control of communications in a communications network. and infrared systems. message switching. telecommunications channels and media. communications controllers. port contention. telecommunications processors. control and support the communications activity in a telecommunications network. Switching Alternatives (205): In telecommunications transmission. Wireless Technologies (194): Using radio or infrared transmissions to link devices in a local area network. terrestrial microwave. carriers. fiber optic cables. managerial decision making. global networks for voice. or other business partners. and collaborate directly with each other via the Internet or other telecommunications network links. suppliers. modulation-demodulation. concentrators. Virtual Private Network (189): A secure network that uses the Internet as its main backbone network to connect the intranets of a company’s different locations or to establish extranet links between a company and its customers. Telecommunications Network Components (185): Telecommunications components include terminals. Management Information Systems. Peer-to-Peer Networks (192): A computing environment where end user computers connect. toward the pervasive use of telecommunications networks in support of business operations. It includes the physical equipment used to connect one location to another for the purpose of transmitting and receiving information. and video. and telecommunications control software. and middleware. Telecommunications Media (197): Telecommunications media are the physical media used by telecommunications channels. and cell switching.Model of network protocols enabling any computer connected to a network to communicate with any other computer on the same network or a different network.
. diagnostics and correction. Trends in Telecommunications (172): Toward a greater number of competitive vendors. twistedpair wire. computers. including network operating systems. a variety of switching alternatives exists. and cluster controllers that allow a communications channel to carry simultaneous data transmissions from many terminals. and services. Wide Area Network (WAN) (188): A data communications network covering a large geographic area. and buffer storage. data. data compression.
Management Information Systems.O’Brien. 20
. 7/e IM .Chapter 6 pg.