BOUGHT WITH THE INCOME FROM THE

SAGE

ENDOWMENT FUND
THE GIFT OF

Hcnrg M. Sage
1891

A-m^im

%°iijUi^.0
..

Cornell University Library

GR65
Tom
Tit

.C64
Tot

an essay on savage philosop

3
olin

1924 029 897 778

The
tine

original of

tliis

book

is in

Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright

restrictions in
text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924029897778

TOM TIT TOT .

I will articles. —Montaiohb. upon the conhere huddle up a gallymafry of diverse be in herbs. Flokio.' What diversitie soever there together under the name of a saUade.' all are shuffled up Even so. . sideration of names. Of Na/mes. tr.

1898 K .' etc.C. LONDON DUCKWORTH AND 3 CO. etc. W. HENRIETTA STREET.' TOM TIT TOT AN ESSAY ON SAVAGE PHILOSOPHY IN FOLK-TALE BY EDWARD CLODD Sometime President of the Folk-Lore Society Author of The Childhood of the World ' ' The Story of Creation.' Pioneers ' of Evolution.

Constable. Printers to . Edinburgh : Her Majesty T.A> H+btM-ui. and A.

TO MY 'DITH .

.

in the course of which a large number of examples of curious beliefs and customs bearing on the main incident in certain groups have been collected. whose vivacity and it humour secure first place among the ' Rumpelstiltskin variants with which it is classed. indicates its scope and purpose. Those who have had experience ing of materials illustrative in the gather- of the several departments of barbaric culture the difficulty which has been selections will appreciate felt in making that suffice to interpret the central .' PREFACE The sentence from Montaigne. Some of these are now the 'shuffled up together' round an old Suffolk tale. which faces the title-page of this little book. It is based upon studies in the philosophy of folk-tales.

the virtue of being less tedious. Tufnell Park. which designed mainly for popular reading. If the book.. C. therefore pretence to exhaustiveness. 19 Carleton Road. Rosemont. . April 1898. N.viii PREFACE without obscuring it idea by a multiplicity is of examples. it makes no may perhaps have E.

— .. Gullible Devil. Incidental Features of the Stories. 6. 2. Portrait. . Name. 5. . The Story of Tom Tit Tot... Magic through Intangible Things Reflection.. PAOE 1 . — Shadow. Tyrolese.. . 79 . 57 7.. .. . Refuse..... On the Diffusion of Stories.CONTENTS InTKODUCTIONj 1. . 27 32 4.. Saliva.. 17 3. . (a) Superstitions about Iron. Nails.. . 8 Scotch. Welsh. Magic through Tangible Things and . Variants of Tom Tit Tot Basque.. 33 36 47 53 (6) (e) Woman The as Spinster and Farmer. — Hair . Barbaric Ideas about Names. .. .. Indian.. "> .

(d) Spells and Amulets. The Name and the 231 Appendix —Bibliography op the Tom Tit Tot 239 Group op Folk-tales.. Passwords. 9. (e) Cure Charms. . Euphemisms and Name Changes.. Priests..CONTENTS PAGE 8. 10.. 192 194 198 (a) Creative Words. 205 208 216 Soul. . 243 .. Index. Taboo. (a) 114 115 125 Taboo between Relatives. of Power. (6) (c) Taboo on Names of Kings and Taboo on Names of the Dead.. 147 164 173 (d) Taboo on Names of Gods. (6) (c) Mantrams. Words ..

and to their hearers. real dwellers in a real They were whose earth. they cease to fascinate' him.' Mr. limits are only those of the broad.INTRODUCTION In commenting on the prominent example of the conversion of the old epics into allegories which is supplied by Tennyson's Idylls of the King. these 'in- habitants of Fairyland' were no buckram-clad personifications of Moralities like the characters in the Mystery Plays of four centuries ago. Leslie Stephen remarks that ' as soon as the genuine inhabitants of Fairyland can be interpreted as three virtues or three graces. And to . deep and of the heavens above it. ' whereby the legends without lose their ' dream reality gaining the reality of ordinary life. alike to those who told the story. With For that confession most people will agree. Wonderland.

i no sharp troll lines severed fairy were part of the vagaries which seemed to make up the sum of things at whose core it entered not -the mind of man to conceive that unbroken order might be found. but to make vain the attempt to under- stand the conditions which gave birth and long renown to saga and past fireside tale. nature from super-nature . handing on the tradi- tional cosmogony of the tribe. In the dim. listens without question to the stories of the Giant who hid his heart in a duck's egg on an island out of harm's way. The healthy- who in many things represents the savage stage of thinking. were no fables to the ancient Greeks slowly rising above the barbaric level of ancestors on a plane with the Gold Coast savage his who believes medicine-man when. full of crude and coarse detail.2 INTRODUCTION them into vehicles of edification is convert not merely to empty them of their primitive significance. Their old mythologies. he tells how the world was made by a big spider. as he vainly hoped . natured child. when and these were woven out of old traditions. and of Beauty and the Beast. where the princess's curiosity led to the retrans- .

their tin dolls soldiers. For. and trumpets. folk-tale Hence the and the game are alike pressed into the service of study of the human mind.INTRODUCTION of loathly monster. to his way of looking at things. 3 formation of the enchanted prince to the shape To the secular arm. and all the gear of didactic exposition. catering youngsters. Turn wherei we may. and the . be delivered for the any and every book which. and notes. and heaps on their maimed corpses the dead weight of bibliographical appendices. guns. throttles the life of the old folk- tales vs^ith coils of explanatory notes. to effect this to make approach to man's thoughts and conceptions of himself and his surroundings. the pastimes of children are seen to mimic the serious pursuits of men. Nevertheless. the and other apparatus of the nursery. Their dances and romps. and to explanation of his conduct both in work and play. appendices. therefore. anxious is to reach the seed of fact which covered by the is pulp of fiction. have their place elsewhere in helping the student. that which delighted our childhood may instruct our manhood.

4 strategic INTRODUCTION combats of the playground. is use among Yakut and ' Aino children. ' ' and ' Jenny Jones are funeral games of divination . ' Green Gravel . Forfeits ' are relics and ' Cat's Cradle belongs to the string puzzles which are played all the world over by savage and civilised.' or ' The ancient Greek ostra- game of the shell. that effort has been well justified in suspected. Whether game and story embody serious ele- ments. The players of All Round the Mulberry Tree' probably represent a dance of old round a sacred bush ' ' . Hot depicted on Egyptian wall-paintings. or are the outcome of lighter moods. and a wooden toy-bird with wheels under its wings. notably in the analysis of tales. it is this trivial or earnest purpose that we strive to reach. have a high antiquity. found in the identical with specimens in Fayum cemetery. near some guesses . fingers The game I of ' ' Buck. how many in the streets ' do hold up ? was played of Imperial Rome. bringing us. often when least near some deposit of early thought. And. kinda.' has its counterpart of in one played ' among cockles ' the is Navajoes New Mexico. buck.

A superficial acquaintance with folk-tales re- veals the fact that many of them are capable of division into a series of well-marked groups united by a common motif. referred to above. Several groups answer to this requirement. One of them centres round the tale. and in rites and ceremonies which are the 'outward and visible signs' of the beliefs.' And the interest in this cardinal feaif it ture is the greater can be shown to contain hasj some primitive philosophy of things which expressed itself in beliefs that have ruled man's conduct. and from the Arctic seaboard to Africa. 'truth' being thus 'embodied in a tale. and in putting us into touch with instinctive feelings of the un- mind whose validity has been proved by reason and experience. or whatever^ . of ' the Giant who had no Heart in his Body. is The fundamental idea in this group the widespread barbaric belief in the separate- ness of the soul or heart or strength. round which imagi- nation has played.j INTRODUCTION at a philosophy which 5 life embraces all in a common cultured origin and destiny.' variants of which have been found from India to the Highlands.

whose fate nevertheless bound up with that of the soul. the lover gets the egg. which she straightway repeats to her true love stolen into the castle to rescue her. - Delilah like fashion. as he squeezes it the giant bursts to pieces. a common and feature of folk-tales. who has With the aid of a number of helpful animals. a in in wooed by a giant wheedles him. although it at death to return no fitfully visiting its old haunts to .INTRODUCTION else is denominated the seat of is life. Obviously that belief lies at the base of the argument by which Herbert Spencer. He her that in an egg in a duck swimming all in a well in a church on an island. princess In the Norse example. from the body. Tylor. into making known is what tells secret place it is his heart hidden. it is Fantastic as all this only the accre- tion of varying detail round a serious belief of which living examples are found throughout the world. seems. leaving more. and others of their school show how theories of the soul and future life were elaborated from barbaric conceptions of the 'other self which quitted the body for a time in sleep and dreams and swoons.

INTRODUCTION help or 7 harm the living. lies is But more than bare beyond the purpose of hint on these matters this reference. the masterpiece among which gives its title to this volume. . which designed to make easier the passage to the significance of the central idea of another group of folk-tales.

the editor of the column. by an old West lies in their Much of their value being almost certainly derived from oral transmission through uncultured peasants. The story of 'Tom Tit . Among these was the story of story.' which. Hindes ' Groome.' TOM The writer's TIT TOT in interest that group was awakened some years ago when looking over a bundle of old numbers of the Ipswich Journal. in which some odds and ends of local ' notes and queries' were collected. with another 'Cap Rushes' (in this the King Lear incident of testing the love of the three daughters is the motif) had been sent to Mr. by a lady to in her girlhood notes and queries whom they had been told Suffolk nurse. 'Tom o' Tit Tot.

the crust 'ud ' But the gal. 1878. the crust were too hard to eat.' is rendered 'Maur. . I a red-faced chubby boy. s.' In Ben JonSon's Alchymist. 1866).v. urreis. And if they '11 she set to work local pronunciation of 'mawther. a bowe for a boy. ' put you them there pies on the shelf an' leave 'em there a little.— TOM is — — — TIT TOT 9 Tot. Restive says to Dame Pliant (Act iv. they was that overbaked. maid and cognate words. editn. Richard Brome makes a playful use of the word ' ! ' * I am a mother that do want a service. Luke arise. Qu. 54. 37) speaks of 'a sling for a moether. ' In the Gothic translation of the Gospels.' Maid. she baked And when Maw'r/ 1 says she. I'll ate and ate 'em 'The 'em now. Nail gives examples of the use of mawther by Tusser and other writers.' And in Blomfield's Suffolk Ballad ' we read When And once a giggling mawther you. thou'rt a Norfolk woman (cry thee mercy).' given in the racy dialect of East Anglia.' which. Where maids are mothers and mothers are maids.' ' ' is of East Anglia the most curious word in the East Anglian and Provincialisms and her mawther mean a woman and The word is derived from the same root as her daughter. Tusser (English Dialect Soc. come agin. you talk like a foolish m/iwther In the English Moor (Act iii. meant. remarks Nail in his Glossary of the Dialect (Longmans. P. you know. as follows : Wellj once upon a time there were a woman and they come out of the oven. ' —she all. 1). O. 7) Away. upon which see Skeat's Etymological ' A woman DictioTUxry. So she says to her darter five pies. vocabulary. an' they'll ' come agin get soft.' first and last.' viii. Well. she says to herself. p.

'stids ' o' that ' My darter ha' spun five. she were ashamed to let him hare what her darter had been a doin'. and as she span she sang ' My darter ha' ate My darter ha' ate five. ' ' and there warn't So back she come and says Noo.' says she.' says the gal.' But you can't. so she sang.' 'em all. But I ca.' ' Best or worst. and you can't ha' one that 's come Well.' ' Tlie gal she went an' she looked. I dare say they've came agin now. five pies five.' The king he were a comin' down the street an he hard her sing.' says she. maw'r ? The woman. Goo you and git one o' them there pies.' ' ' S'ars o' said the king. I '11 ha' one for supper. and she took her spinnin' to the door to spin.' Not none on 'em ? says the mother. she.' . five to-day pies to-day. till ' I 've ate agin. the woman she were wholly bate. or not come agin. they ain't come agin. mine ! ' five skeins to-day five skeins to-day. but what she sang he couldn't hare. Not none on 'em. I never heerd tell of any on as could do that.n.' says the woman.' says the gal. Well.— — — TOM TIT TOT —— ' 10 Well. come supper time the woman she said. nothin' but the dishes. so he stopped and said What were that you was a singun of. if they ain't come. ' Goo you and bring the ' ' ' ' ' ' best of 'em. My darter ha' spun five. come agin.

' An' awa' he went about his business. Howsivir. and all the gownds she likes to git.' says he. and if you hain't spun five skeins by the night. o' ways of gettin' out of and likeliest. there 'd be plenty it. I want a wife. that she didn't se much as know how to spin. There it but a spinnin' wheel and a stool. and all the cumpny she likes to hev but the last month o' the year she '11 ' and . hare yow '11 be shut in to-morrow with some vittles and some flax. so cumpny she liked to hev. But when the time was gettin' oover. an' what were she to dew to- . She 'd alius been such a gatless mawther. an' she whoolly thowt he 'd forgot 'em.TOM Then he I 'II : TIT TOT 11 said Look you here. he takes worn't nothin' in her to a room she 'd niver set eyes on afore. and all the gownds she liked to git. when te come tew. she began to think about them there skeins an' to wonder if he had 'em in mind. shall kill her. yar hid '11 goo off. they was married. she were that frightened. an' if she doon't. he 'd ha' forgot about it. And as for them five : skeins. But not one word did he say about 'em.' says the woman for she thowt what a grand marriage that was. An' for 'leven months the gal had all the vittles she liked to ate.' I ' All right. Well. an' all the Well. An' says he. ha' to spin five skeins iv'ry day. ' Now. me dear. ''leven months out o' the year she shall have all the vittles she likes to eat. marry your darter. the last day o' the last month. But look you here.

' says she.' that said.' says she. and lork ! howshe did Howsivir.' says she. ! how that twirled that's Well.' Well.' that says.' ' All right. name.'' ? Wha 's ' that to yew yew mind/ that ' says she. the next day. an' lork tail.' dew no harm.! — ' 12 TOM TIT TOT come nigh her to help her. an' what should she see but a small little black thing with a long tail. an' that said ' ' What Niver are yew a cryin' for . my the month 's yew shall ' I agree. if that and she upped and told about says the little black thing: iv'ry the pies an' the skeins an' everything. sat morrer. 'Well. har husband he took her .' come to yar winder mornin' an' take the flax an' ' bring What 's : spun at night. That looked up at her down on the right kewrious. knockin' low on a sudden she hard a sort of a door. your pay it . said. 'that oon't doon't ' dew no good.'' ' That looked out that said to guess ' o' the corners o' that's eyes an' I '11 give you three guesses every night an' if you hain't guessed it afore be mine. she thowt she 'd be sure to guess that's name afore the month was up. This 'I'll is what I '11 dew. She upped and oped it. ' All right. with no one to She down on cry all a stool in the kitchen. 'but tell me what you 're a cryin' for. Yew doon't know that.' 'That oon't dew me noo good ' if I dew.' says she. up. an' twirled that's tail round.

Now.' says he.' says he. says he. an' there the day's Now. What. ivery day the flax an' the vittles. He 'd hardly goon. ' ' ' Noo. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' Is that Ned ? ' says she. And she gonned it to him. is ain't. I see I shorn't hev : for to kill you to-night. there 's the flax.' says he.' An' then he a knockin' went out an' locked the door. they was browt. Where's the flax ? says he. when there was agin the winder. ' an' if that ain't spun up this night off goo yar hid. an' awa' he flew. what 's my name ? says he. with five skeins of flax on his arm. . that ain't. is that Bill ? says she. to the winder. that ain't. She upped and she oped it. An' he twirled his tail harder. and there sure enough was the little oo'd thing a settin' on the ledge. She upped oped and there were the little oo'd thing. ' ' ' Well. that Well.' says he.' says he. that Mark ? says she. an' away he goes. when the five skeins there was har husban' he come in ' riddy for him.' says she. me dare. ' Noo. an' ivery day that there little black impet An' all used for to come mornin's and evenin's. Well. come the evenin'.TOM vittles. a knockin' an' she come agin it.' says he. ' TIT TOT was the flax an' 13 inter the room. ' Yew '11 hev yar vittles and yar flax in the mornin'.' An' he twirled his tail. an' he gonned it to her. Here te be. An' he twirled his tail. Well. Noo. Here te be.

me yew '11 ha' tew they sat. The impet that come at night along o' the five skeins^ an' that said ' What.' supper. '11 there's only ! ' to-morrer night. an' as I reckon I shorn't ha' to kill you. t'ain't that norther. the irapet that began for to tail faster look soo mahceful. an' when he see the five skeins. she felt that horrud. 'Noo. yet ? ' Nicodemus ' ' Noo. an' then yar be mine An' away te flew. he hadn't eat but a mouthful he stops and begins to laugh. 'Woman. that Methusalem . an' that twirled that's an' faster each time she gave a guess. Howsomediver. Then cool o' that looks at her with that's eyes like a fire.— — TOM TIT TOT ' 14 the day the mawther she set a tryin' fur to think of names to say to it when te come at night. or so. ' I don't see but what your skeins ready to-morrer night as well. the ind o' An' as that got to-warts the month. Is that hain't yew got . hard the king a coming along the passage. says he dare. he says. an' that says. Noo. and down the ' Well.' he says. In he came. ' t'ain't. t'ain't.' that says. Well. 'A-well. ? ' ' Is that Sammle is says she. she Well. when .' says he. an' another stool for him. But she niver hot on the right one.' that says. I '11 So they brought ha' supper in here to-night. At last te come to the last day but one.' ' says she.'' my name says she.

an' I looked down. says she agin. Next day. I ' wood I 'd never seen afore. an' Oo tha's tail were twirlin' round so fast. what should there be but the funniest little black thing yew iver set eyes on. pretendin' to be afeai'd. an' that were a spinnin' wonnerful a twirlin' that's tail. 'Well. that there maliceful thing looked soo when he come for the flax. An' as that span. That were grinnin' from are to are. An' when night came. Noo. that sang ' Nimmy nimmy not. an' little spinnin' wheel. she fared as jumped outer her skin for joy. An' I heerd a sort of a hummin'. but little she di'n't say a word. is that Zebedee ' . but that had a fast.— TOM ' TIT TOT ' 15 What is it ? ' says she. So I got off my hobby. Well. she heerd that a knockin' agin the She oped the winder. an' A-why/ says he^ I got away to a was out a-huntin to-day.'' ' she says.' ' . an' I went right quiet to the pit. an' that winder panes.' that says. An' there was an old chalk pit. as that gonned ! her the skeins. place in the An' what was that a dewin' on. t' ain't. come right in on the ledge. My name 's Tom Tit Tot' Well. kind o'. 'What's my name?' that says. an' that come fudder inter the room. ' Is that Solomon . if she could ha' when the mawther heerd this.

that shruck awful an' awa' that flew into the dark. . An' then that laughed an' twirled that's tail till yew cou'n't hardly see ' says ' next guess. . she backed a step or two. Nimmy nimmy not. Well. and then she laughed out. a pointin' of her finger at it ' Take time. woman/ that Yar name's Well. 16 'Noo. Tom Tit Tot. an' she niver saw it noo more.' An' that stretched out that's black hands at her. an' she looked at it. t'ain't/ says the impet. an' says she.— TOMTITTOT it.' when that hard her. an' you 're mine.

Tyrol. B . of the nuj'. 239.II VARIANTS OF TOM TIT TOT There would be printing the only profitless monotony in or even in giving abstracts. full texts. with such comment class of as may perchance be useful to a special is readers.ierous variants of this story which have been collected. '^ Here it suffices to remark that in all of the the plot centres round the discovery of the of the maleficent nam actor in the little drama] and to give a summary of a few of the most widely spread stories in which. supplied in the Appendix. and the Far East. the Basque variants provinces. as might be expected. the from this last containing 1 the funda- P. a certain variety of inc ident occ urs^ These are chosen from Scotland. A list of these.

18 VARIANTS OF TOM TIT TOT idea in mental an entirely different plot. to her the sow ready sat ' distress. the third day after this day tell and no' then.' and as she down with her bairn and o' 'grat sairer than ever she did for the loss her ain goodman. I canna till by the law we leeve on take your bairn . His widow was left ' with a 'sookin' farra. Then they 'watted thooms' on the bar- by which the woman promised to give the green fairy anything she liked. is changed into sorrow for The Scotch Whuppity ' Stoorie ' tells of a man more who gaed ' to a fair ae~day. and the sow was thereupon made well. who asked what she would give her for curing the sow.' said she.' and was never heard of. to gi'e up the ghost.' lad bairn. if ye can me my right name.' For two days the poor . To '11 the mother's dismay the fairy then said that she would have the bairn. gain. she saw.' and a sow that was soon to Going to the sty one day. ATo these follow a Welsh variant in which our joy at the defeat of the demon or witch in jmost of the stories Ithe fairy. ' But.' there came an old woman dressed in green. ' this I let ye to wut.

making ' a curchie down to the ground. ' ' The deil 's in the daft wha in a' the earthly o' warld wad the ever meddle wi' the likes thee ? ' Then and. ' 19 cuddlin' her bairn.— VARIANTS OF TOM TIT TOT woman wandered. she ran . 'singing like ony precentor' ' Little kens our guid dame at hame That Whuppity Stoorie is my name. being a 'jokus woman.' pulled a long face. woman threw off her mask of grief. and a voice lilting a song. she. she awaited the fairy's coming. and. begging that the bairn might be spared and the sow taken. dump on her shoeheels.' quo' ' I might hae had the wit to keii that the likes o' me is na fit to tie the warst shoe-strings o' the heich and mighty princess.'' and then saw the green fairy at her wheel.' quo' the fairy. couldna hae gart the fairy loup heicher nor she did.' when.' Speeding home glad-hearted. syne doun she came again. and. offering herself. and when this was spurned. as she came near an old quarry-hole. whurlin' round. jad. she heard the 'burring of a lint-wheel.' o' Gin a fluff o' it gunpouder had come out the grund. ' Whuppity Stoorie.

who rolls his eyes in fury. like a houlet ^ down the chased wi' the witches. escorting the count to the forest bounds where stood an ancient fir-tree.20 VARIANTS OF TOM TIT TOT brae.' In the Tyrolese story.' The dwarf failure. she to be his. pp. nine in The month expires. the count that he must pay for trespassing on the life mannikin's territory either with his surrender of his wife. ." and ' Fohre. who all. Janne. it is bargained that the dwarf will there await the countess. > But the next Chambers's Popular Rhymes of Scotland. shrieks with merriment over her and when she returns to the castle she enters the chapel and offers earnest prayers for help in guessing the right name. or the The count pleads for his pardon. 72-75.' Fichte. while hunting in a forest. is suddenly confronted by a dwarf with fiery red eyes and a beard down to and tells his knees. ' round of guesses. a count. and the dwarf so far modifies as to agree that if within a terms month the countess is cannot find out his name. and she then first ' repairs to the rendezvous to make her giving the names. shall have three guesses three times. scraichin' for rage. Then.

and is told that the girl's beauty makes her saucy and indolent. and peeping his in at the window heard the hopped dwarf singing name in a verse as he gaily on the hearth. 21 when ' she gives the names ' Hafer. Purzinigele. 225-232. Tirolo Kinder- wnd Hausmdrchen. pp.' repeats the the dwarfs unholy glee.' then he bounds in the derisively.' and Turken. and. and calls forth When is till she comes to the tree on the third day.^ In Basquefolkjalfiy ar-mother lazy girl. eyes in rage. went on tiptoe.' she and the dwarf chortles air . The countess hurries back to the tree in high spirits. ' ' Pur. asks what the pother about. he she wandered from the spot not there.' she shouts his red and then the dwarf. failure. ' Ziege. till the last chance is hers. So she reached a lovely valley. .' ' Pleuten. 1 Then follow the usual Innsbruck. and when the dwarf appears she artfully withholds the secret she has learned guesses. . who all passing at the time. doubles his and disappears for ever in the darkness. seeing a tiny house.VARIANTS OF TOM TIT TOT day. 1852. rolling fist. is is is beating her when the lord of a castle hard by.

will ' Houpa. comes to aid the girl. So the servant bids her come in. her name. and then she tells she how the had seen an old witch leaping and bounding all from one ditch to another. with the exception that a witch. a year and the witch's bargain being that the girl must re- member a day hence. houpa. nobody remember my name. sadness bride. to the lord then offers marriage certain if she can get a amount of work done within a given time. in- stead of a demon. For she had forgotten the witch's name. the beldame the lady had seen what she had seen. and singing time. her laughter would run free enough. and woman knocks at the all when a servant tells her that the high jinks are kept up to make her says that if mistress cheerful. and as falls the year end draws near. The wedding takes place. old At one of the feastings an door.22 VARIANTS OF TOM TIT TOT whom incidents. rewarded the old woman. despite the holding of on the grand festivals to gladden her spirits. . and told the enraged witch her name when she came for fulfilment of the bargain. Marie Kirikitoun. Marie Kirikitoun.' Whereupon the bride became merry-hearted.

friend hath enticed bosom me into a thick grove. Abaraschika. who.' tells When the murderer reaches the palace. on their return journey. said the bird. within seven days. since the Khan would ' slay a thousand men on the morrow because they could not find out the meaning of Abaraschika.' . as his favourite companion. ing beneath a tree. a king sends his may gain all kinds of knowledge. As the prince dies. and hath taken away my life. entices him into a forest kills ' him. he utters the word. The prince takes. while sleep- he had heard a bird telling his yoiuig ones not to cry for food.VARIANTS OF TOM TIT TOT son on travel that he 23 In Sagas Jrom the Far East.'' this : was — My ' And the meaning. the son of the prime minister. he ing king the sorrow- how the prince fell sick unto death. and threatened them with death if they did not. burning with envy at the superior wisdom of and his royal comrade. for.' That time had well- nigh expired when a student came beckoning to them. Thereupon the king summoned his seers and magicians. and that he had time to speak only the above word. interpret the ' meaning of Abaraschika. bidding them not despair.

and carried her off in his arms to Ystrad. upon a time the youth- on adventure bent. sprang like a lion into the middle of the circle 'just when the fairies were most enjoying the swing of the dance.* 24 VARIANTS OF TOM TIT TOT seers So the and magicians hastened to report what they had heard to the king. Busk. revels. p. the hotter till. making resolve to seize her. Among his these was one for who straightway kindled graceful seeri. As night fell he hid him' by a bush near the spot where the Tylwyth Teg. wandered issues by the banks of the Gwyrfai stream that from Quellyn's self lake. The moon shone and the youth had not long to 'little wait before he saw the people' troop forth to the dance. The Welsh sto ry (one of several closely allied in 3etail) tells that once ful heir of Ystrad. translated by R. H. 157. held their cloudless sky. love.' or 'Fair Family' (the 'Folk of the Red in a Coat '). ' Her companions vanished like a breath in July as they heard the 1 shrill voice of Sagas from the Far East. . never more maiden or light-footed dancer had he longer he watched her. who thereupon put the murderer to death. The grew he ' his desire.

whereupon grief clouded her face.' —Letter from Professor Rhys to the .' and vain were it. and she served him well in return. till to discover one evening. he came again to the spot where he had captured the fairy.-^ carried off their sister Glad-hearted. ever he struck her with iron she should be free to 1 ' leave him. as he was driving two of his cows to the meadow. he heard them saying to one another that when they last came thither a mortal had Penelope. He hid himself. Her beauty and distress moved him the more to urge that she who had been his faithful serving-maid would become his wife . as before.' 25 When the youth art in his reached home he strove by every gentle power to make the fairy happy.VARIANTS OF TOM TIT TOT their sister crying for help. being obdurate only in one thing. the story. tell 'He could in nowise prevail on her to all his efforts him her name. and although she long refused him. I For years he kept his word. in the thicket. cannot satisfactorily account for the introduction of this into name author. and when the troop of the Red-coated appeared. the youth hurried home and called the fairy by her name. she at but only on his promising that if last consented.

189. one day.26 VARIANTS OF TOM TIT TOT field. but. . with the iron vanished. as they went together to catch a wild horse in the at him. iv. 1 whereupon she straightway ' CymnuxLor. and he threw the bridle his fairy wife by mischance struck bit.

her name.' A farmer's wife at Llaniestin often lent her gradell and padell (the flat iron on which the dough is put for baking. on returning the always brought a loaf of bread in acknowledgment.— Ill ON THE DIFFUSION OF STORIES Here we may alliterative interpose a brief example from the Welsh group. and the pan which it) is put over articles. who. or spinning-wheel. as bearing on the origin of the name Tom Tit ' Tot. One day she begged the loan of a troell-bach.' . which the fairy refused to So she was tracked and watched at her spinning. to a fairy. when she was heard singing : to the whirr of the wheel ' Little does she know That Trwtyn-Tratyn Is my name. whereupon the woman asked tell.

would enable us to trace the parent ' type to its original home. In some quarters high hopes were indulged that the ingathering of the variants of one group of stories. 81.' ' As Trwtyn-Tratyn is not Welsh. the fairy sings ' Little does That ' my lady wot my name is Trit a Trot. See Note to Gonzenbach's Sicilianische Marchen. . That question is obviously bound up with the general subject of the origin and migration of stories. there remains for the curious the search after the original source and mode of transmission of the Suffolk tale. a question to which no answer is likely to be forthcoming in the absence of documents.— ' 28 ON THE DIFFUSION In an Irish variant. Cinderella ' was chosen. many of versions of that familiar adding tables of areas in which they are found. and the framing of charts of its geographical distribution. and by the application of great labour. to which reference occurs Taylor's translation in of Grimm's Rumpel- stiltsMn. Miss Roalfe Cox prepared three hundred and forty-five abstracts of as tale. illumined by scholarship. * The result all the toil and talent p.

Margaret Hunt's Grimm's Kinder. 29 thus employed was to leave the question exactly In Mr.'^ There is Mr. had to be chosen from an weight. intercourse ' goes without saying. ' Folk-tales might well be scattered abroad in the same manner by merchantmen gossiping over their Khan fires. or Babylonia. in alien clan. by Sidonian mariners chatting in the sounding loggia of an Homeric house. according to primitive law. as well as of its material. by his the slave dragged from home and passed from owner to owner across Africa or Europe.und Hausmarchen. not a mark to show that she came from India. or Egypt. or any other old cradle of civilisation. Andrew Lang's words : ' There is not a sign of her birth-country on Cinderella. also. 1 Introduction translation of by Andrew Lang to Mrs.' That a large number of stories have originated in definite centres.' Racial later was already active in the Neolithic age. Hindes Groome's arguments on behalf of those ubiquitous nomads. the gypsies.OF STORIES where we found it. and have been carried from place to place. and East gave to West of its intellectual. by the wife who. products. . p. xiv.

' . have given to myths and folk-tales ' from China to Peru. had every for diifusing their stories among all conditions of men. much the same way. especially in past times. that where coincidences in stories extend to minute detail. a common origin may be assumed. independent origin is probable. and of a sky-piercing tree rise whereby heaven can be reached. the fundamental idea is at the core of certain stories explained by the fact that at corresponding levels of culture the human mind accounts for the same things in Ideas are universal .' All that we can say by way of approach to the solution of a question whose settlement would is throw light on intercourse between peoples. without correspondences in incidental details. the conceptions of a united heaven and earth forced asunder by some defiant hero so that light may be given to the children of men. is but that where only a like idea present as the chief motif.^ On the other hand. ' Gypsy Folk-Tales : Link. Strabo a Missing ' National Review. dents are local. inci- For example. July 1888.30 ON THE DIFFUSION facility who.

J I.OF STORIES says that ' 31 in the childhood of the world men. and. 2. their invention the monopoly of no one race. had to be taught by is tales'. . 8. ^ certainly. like children.

as where. there are points of interest which call for notice before we advance to the central idea of the story. all living things Of the remainder. has to be guessed Others. Some are of little moment. as in the example of the helpful bird the Eastern story. the inci- . the devil's age. three claim comment —the superstitions about iron. in the Lorraine variant. instead of his name. would carry us into the wide and fascinating subject of barbaric belief in community between man and beneath him.IV INCIDENTAL FEATURES OF THE STORIES Although the selection ' of only a few of the numerous variants of Tom Tit Tot ' relieves us from comment on sundry differences in detail between the whole of them. in to secure quittance from the bargain.

but whoever. and the power of ' The devil may have or fiend.' which. and this ex- among other matters. are objects of dread in the degree that mystery invests plains. both from fear tradition. among the Jews in circumcision sacrificial of obsidian or other stone . flint knives. 33 dents of spinning. beliefs embodied which otherwise would remain obscure. the old ideas which attached to iron. of rites and ceremonies. but throw light on the customs and in them. among the ancient Egyptians. and the retention of stone instruments for sacred for example. in mummy-incision. as. and . the first Whig. and of outwitting the demon or (a) Superstitions about Iron is The reference to iron one among other in folk-tales examples of incidental features which not only evidence their antiquity. them .INCIDENTAL FEATURES other maliceful agent. Things new or unusual. The been unlettered are conservative. would spell Radical. has that distinction. whether man challenged authority to produce its credentials. nowadays. knives among the Mexicans c while in . being unknown.

Witches creations of the Stone Age the . 2 Remaincs of Oentilisme and Judaisme. yet in It and nowhere more than in London. ' good people maim men and And the dread with which these creatures are believed to regard iron explains its widespread use as a charm against them. Old Aubrey says that 'a Horse-shoe is nailed on the threshold of the dore fashion. the nailing of horse-shoes to 'keep off the pixies. . Lilly says) to be a Horse-shoe that one finds by chance on the road. ^ ought (Mr. conversely. 27. is The end of it to prevent the power of witches that come into your house.' and. in a kind of Yule- tide fire-wheel. 1 An astrologer who ' flourished ' in the reign of Charles p. The magical power i. Scotland. peasant-folk see in the delicately shaped forerunners ' flint arrow-heads of our Neolithic ' the elf-darts ' wherewith the cattle.^ 34 INCIDENTAL FEATURES making the clavie.' As many a stable-door and mainmast testify. So neere the mainmast in ships. thrives to this day. to bring luck to farmer and sailor. a stone and fairies are hammer was used. So in Germany the common people doe naile such an Horse-shoe on the threshold of the doore.

for example. the umbilical cord it cut and buried in the room. p. while homelier illustra- tions are given in the use of iron tongs or scissors to protect a new-born babe from being stolen by the fairies. In Arab belief the zoba'ah or sand-whirlwind. King Arthur's wonder-working sword Excalibur plays part. whereby he becomes enslaved so he keeps clear. is and kept there till the work finished. Tribes iii.OF THE STORIES of iron is 35 shown in the hero-legends wherein. ^ The the if Hindus consider night. when in the fire. which sweeps. visitor lest it unlucky to visit the sick at follow some prowling demon invalid. of the ^ North.Western Provinces. the hair demon thinks that his may be . 307. started. 18. vol. is Among the Kols of India. p. and Castes. the tongs are is or a piece of heated iron put under the churn. '^ In county Donegal. The name of the metal is itself an effective charm. 1897. . is when a child born. as assail a protection against evil spirits who may put mother or churning is infant. and then haunt the But a piece of iron be taken. and over a fire is lit in is an earthen pot. Folklore. into which a bit of iron put. cut therewith. 1 Crooke.

and so forth. sented in this country chiefly by Professor Miiller Max and Sir George W. 1088. p. Promidistaff" nence is therefore given to the wheel and as woman's typical occupation. when seen.' because the very drive the jinn away. ch. and the more at daring among them would throw boomerangs these blinding whirlwinds. . x. or. the still flax. p. Teutonic Mythology. a large quantity of as in the Swedish variant.^ (6) Woman all as Spinster and Farmer ' Wellnigh the heroines in the Tom Tit Tot' group are set the task of spinning. one of the approach ' charms uttered Iron. and therefore. flight of is a jinnee. is pillar-like. The old and repre- now discredited school of interpreters. 2 Of. Cox. Modern Egyptians. Grimm. across due to the its is. harder task of spinning straw into gold. which resolved every myth and 1 folk-tale.36 INCIDENTAL FEATURES the land. thou unlucky. the Australian evil spirit. and occasionally even Lane. in a magic space of time.^ toria name is believed to The aborigines of Vic- thought that dust-storms were due to Koo- tchee. 204.

.' is. 2 3 ii.' While the man was fighting or chasing the coveted game. soil. explains the spinning incident as the dawn-maiden. In East Africa she tills the tends the cattle. p. They were the first and over a wide area of the arable ' earth they still hold the field. 362. Mrs. French Sheldon.OFTHESTORIES history itself. vol.^ among the Niam-Niam ' the men devote them- 1 The siege of Troy is but a repetition of the daily siege of the East by the solar powers that every evening are robbed of their brightest treasures in the West. Cox. and the work of handling both spade and spindle falls to the agriculturists. War and the chase the lives of men . Journal Anthropol.^ 37 into solar elements. p.' Max Miiller's Science of Lan- — guage. 515. round whose clearing she learned to sow the cereal and plant the fruit-tree. 165. the woman was grubbing up seeds or nuts to keep roots and pounding hunger from the hut.'^ interpretation children. . p. ii. weaving robe of clouds. Inst. 1892. women.' because among barbaric people the fill woman does both. and does the bartering. Mythology of the Aryan Nations. be she Penelope or the miller's daughter. 'justified of relatively its That was a progress ' advanced stage delved and in human when Adam Eve span. ' her But a more sober school of like wisdom.

^ Palestine. Sohweinfurth. and to be a ground the most dishonourable. . and sowing. follow to in the drop the seed into the district. 147. vol. the harvesting largely and thrashing. p. while the rudest form of agriculture is found among the squaws of Central California. Hea/rt of Africa. buttoo. do harvest. woman ever it as a sign of her degradation for wher- now exists.38 INCIDENTAL FEATURES and leave the cultivation of soil selves to hunting. the women . Womom's Share in Primitive Culture. are is. rubbing the earth who to powder between their hands. use their fingers as hoes. an error to speak of fieldwork by . 12. the to the all women. 90. and indeed throughout Europe. among the Monthe husbandry from hoeing to iv. in furrows and Sonneberg Ger- many. done by women.'' ancient Peruvians. who. It therefore.^ Herodotus (Book 6) says of the Thracians that 'they accounted idleness as the most honourable thing. although often evidencing it is man's laziness or brutality. although the In modern men do the ploughing. ' a survival of pp. ii. the preparation. planting. farm-work tiller of the Among the fell entirely to the womenfolk. ^ Mason.

— OFTHESTORIES primitive conditions 39 when everything domestic devolved on the female. woman tidied the house. The relics stone spindle-whorls found among other of early Neolithic deposits witness to the high antiquity of an art which ultimately became. Among the indoor duties were the keeping of the hearth and weaving. lies beyond our province to deal with. it must be borne lie mind that the roots of social unity in blood- relationship between mother and offspring rather offspring. the type of woman''s work. 1 of the family In opposition to the male or ' spear-side. both in symbol and language. he was a wise father who knew his own child. But. and with the primitive spindle-stick she twisted the plant-fibres into yarn. as in related to what follows. than between father and For in the unsettled conditions of barbaric when inter- course between the sexes was irregular fitful — the absence or movements of the men leaving the care of home and children to the women.' the female branch was formerly known as the ' spindle-side.' . life.^ How much this all bears on her long foremost place in social organisation. With the long grass as primitive broom.

'the mother would be at least the nominal head of the family. of its traditions. would hand down to her daughters the knowledge . and other students of ancient social groups. the wise woman.' Thus. and hence not only arose the tie of blood-relationship through the mother. The hus- band and father being insignificant or entirely absent. The goddess The woman. and brother and sister.40 INCIDENTAL FEATURES Birth and the early nourishment of offspring were the great factors. tribal lore. not by husband. custom and the witch. but the tracing of descent along the female both being grouped under what ' line. there would thus easily arise virgin myths of and child. the bearer knowledge. but by child or brother. of the group would naturally be served by a priestess rather than as depository of family by a priest. and that the primitive goddesses were accompanied. the sibyl. Karl Pearson on a subject which was originally dealt with some years ago by Bachofen. and its religion. is known as mother -right. deities. MacLennan. its Hence we should expect to find that the deities of a mother-right group were female. to quote from an able essay by Mr.

. an offering ^ whom Demeter seeks . Twelve Tables. vol. weaving. Worship of the Romans. The symbols of these goddesses would be the symbols of woman's work and woman's civilisation. Nirdu. Grimm.' ^ spear. Grainger. the Mexican maize-goddess 1 . and other Studies in Evoluii. such as a priestly caste love to enshroud their mysteries in. p. and the Herein lies the key to the femininity of the larger number of corn and vegetable and whether one or triune. 41 of the religious observances. —the distaff. from whom mankind learned the occu- pations and arts of housekeeping and husbandry. possibly also in some form of symbol or rune. Karl Pearson. ' spinning divine deities.OFTHESTORIES herbs. spinning. the mothers who travel round and visit houses. 2 ^ p. Chcmces of Death.' to whom the corn-thief. of the power of the mother-lore in the mother-tongue. 260. tending the hearth. 250. not the hammer. sorrowing. tion. sowing and field reaping. by the as code of the . p.' ^ Ceres. Teutonic Mythology. the axe. to find her with the upsprouting corn Xilomen. ' at whose nod the wheat- shakes. 8. was hanged Persephone. and the broom. the pitchfork.

enraged at finding no fault in it. and the Teutonic Hlodyn. The Greeks put spindle and distaff in the hands of several of their goddesses. . as of Artemis. known by many names.^ Naming Vesta. Leto.42 INCIDENTAL FEATURES among the Teutons. When Arachne produced the cloth on which the loves of the gods were depicted. History of America. vol. but an article of positive belief. tore the work to pieces. But Athene loosened the rope and changed Arachne becoming a spider. as among the aboriginal Americans. but everywhere worshipped as the giver of life. the last-named recalling to mind the legend of Arachne's challenge to the goddess to compete with her in the art of weaving. Pachamama. Athene. —one and all subordinate to the mighty food-giving Earth -mother. i. whose motherhood. 464. Demeter. p. and Athene. of whom. it into a cobweb. our more immediate interest in this digression centres deities round the spinning and wise women. Dharitri. was no mere figure of speech. among hearth-goddesses only the Roman the Greek Hestia. according to 1 Payne. With the Greek Fates. whereupon the despairing Arachne hanged herself. Erda.

but she too remote for knowledge of the degree in which she was a spinning deity. The hieroglyph of the great Egyptian goddess lies Neith was a shuttle. the region between the eastern and western ends falling to Helgi's share. Clotho spins the web of man's destiny. while a third fastened it northward. cultivation To Holda She spins is assigned the spindles of flax. the distaff's . fate 43 Hesiod.OFTHESTORIES while thread. Stretching the golden cord across the heaven. and reels full for them overnight. one Norn hid an end of the thread eastward. gives their industrious girls. all ' spoils the distaffs On her coming at Christmas. are well Carnival. and left standing for her by when she be turns homeward. and the staffs is kept out of her sight. Lachesis allots and Atropos cuts the may be compared the weaving of Helgi's by the three Norns of Teutonic myth. Not so our western Berchta and Holda. otherwise her curse on the disobedient. round whom. stocked. another Norn hid an end westward. but she burns or of lazy maidens. many to a legend clusters. all the spinning must finished. and their degraded forms in witches. The .

from Yule day to New Year's day. songs rose to Frau Holle as the women dressed the flax .. 270. and. on whose holy days spinning forbidden. p. In Bavaria. so high will the flax grow but we find also that as high as the bride springs from the table on her marriage night. p. 44. ^ neither wheel nor windlass must go round. 270. to the Virgin is Mary. 'flax will not thrive unless it is sown by women. Hid. like ^ an idea many others. and strange over the ceremonies.'' In Thuringen. Walpurgisnacht) goes round the fields at harvest-time with a spindle to bless them. made of as wood consecrated during the maids j As high hilltops ump over the fires on the on Midsummer Night. and in Lower Austria. concealment of the implements shows the sacredness of her holy day as a time of rest transferred. ' in the North. Teutonic Mythology. Berchta spoils whatever spinning she finds unfinished the last day of the year. so high ^ 2 Grimm. INCIDENTAL FEATURES . . field this has to be done with the fire including scattering of the ashes of a matins. witch- Walpurg (whence the name of the great gathering.

Ye must on Burn the Give St. let their hair hang loose down their back. Hesperides. vol. within recent years. for fear of offending the spirit who watches over the cattle and the the crops. 59) ' we may couple that given by Mr. p.— OF THE STORIES will the flax 45 grow in that year. or the Morrow after Twelfth Day. Then bid Christmas sport good night. Frazer. Distaffe's Day. Chances of Death. of ' sympathetic magic ' With which examples (see p. sowing. In the interior of in Sumatra the rice is sown by women who. i. ii.'' At 1 Pergine in Tyrol. the Karl Pearson. flax and fire the tow . ' as in Herrick's lines Partly work and partly play. and other Studies vol. If the maids a-spinning go. Distaffe all the right. 10. St. Distaif's Day.'^ The day Twelfth Day was called St. ' 8 St. when : spinning was resumed. in Evolution.' . The Golden Bough.^ In Sweden no spinning is done on Thursday night. 2 p. 36. Distaffe's day . in order that the rice antly and have may grow luxuriafter long stalks. The twisting of the thread and downward pull of the spindle might affect the growth of the corn.

are for the most part mortals variously magnified. watch the skies. In these illustrations of the prominence given to spinning in popular belief and ritual. with anxious outlook on the harvest of both land and sea. with the swarm of godlings.. 46 friend INCIDENTAL FEATURES of the bridegroom carried a spinningthe wheel. the tamer of the life. and distafi^. the broom. no line has been drawp between the part severally played by goddess and by witch. who ties. cat. —here are the elements out of which was . she may be regarded as the degraded and demon-inspired representative of the priestess and medicine- woman. and therefore the gods and goddesses. still survive in barbaric all folk communi- Weatherwise. reflection of those whose deeds are the the life which fill of man. As for the witch. making the devourer of the flock to be the guardian of the fold. as. in wedding procession. skilled in the virtue of simples through testing of the qualities of plants wielder of the pitchfork. Earth supplies the pattern of heavenly things. with flax wound round the distaff. in his more adven- turous man was tamer of the wolf. as become who.

has mythology.' But man is a combative animal. explaining The ridicule followed his defeat in his own realm of trickery and cunning by mortals. Ridicule paved the parative sealed. devil's favourite In the belief that the method was the bargaining for both body and he might win both.OFTHESTORIES mankind and sent thousands the stake. speaks of the devil 'as now almost of six thousand years. Abercromby. way in to a doom which comhim. It was a sincere belief among Scotch theologians of the seventeenth century that his cunning so increased with age that he became more than a match for the cleverest. warmed rather than chilled his fighting instinct. and the feeling that the devil was ever on the watch to trip him up or outwit him. that spirit of rivalry in the . in his Physick of the Soule. the soul. 47 shaped the monstrous nightmare that terrorised to the gallows or (c) The Gullible Devil The stories of the gullibility of the devil are incidents in the history of his decline and fall. and of great wilyness and experience.

Perplexed at the . but lacked the means to accomplish dale he this. King Olaf desired to build a church greater than any yet seen. when he checkmated. And of this defeat many a legend In northern saga. pull devil. and ere long the structure was finished. offered to build the church for him within a given time. great the joy at the discomfiture of the 'stupid beast. As he walked troll.' as Pope Gregory the Great called him. 'twixt hill and met a who.48 INCIDENTAL FEATURES aroused. and as is also manifest in the stories. 'Tom Tit Tot' group of he is the transformed giant or wizard with it the superadded features of the fiend whose aim is to induce the unwary to agree to price of is sell themadvanis selves to him at the some fleeting tage. Hence. except the roof and spire. so that it be' game of huckstering was came a contest of saying goes. when he heard the king's wish. the church was to be large enough to allow seven priests to preach in it at the same time without disturbing one another.' as the As the old legends show. or Olaf himself. tells. The king agreed . pull baker. stipulating that he was to have the sun and moon. in payment.

Olaf once more and dale. find out his eyes. p.' Overjoyed at this discovery.^ In Swedish legend a giant promises to build a church for the White Christ. home.^ In the great collection of Welsh manuscripts published by Owen Jones in the beginning of this century. 49. while a giantess quieted it with these words. the king turned home. 548. the giantess overheard hushing her crying child and uttering the giant's name. 547. ' Cp. when suddenly he heard a child cry from within a mountain.' fell off when instantly the giant the ridge of the roof with a fearful crash. which were nothing but flint stones. Amason. 'Hush. arriving just in time to see the spire being fixed. and burst into a thou- sand pieces. otherwise he must in As the Olaf story. pp. He cried out. Icelandic Legends. to-morrow comes thy father.' OFTHESTORIES wandered over hill 49 bargain which he had made. thou hast set the spire askew. if Laurentius can forfeit his is name. the story of the battle of Achren Grimm. ' Wind and Weather. hush. built where the story hinges Keynir Church ? . bringing both sun and moon. Wind and Weather. on the name of the builder in "Who 1 2 Teutonic Mythology. or saintly Olafs self.

which he discovered to be Bran Bran. was fought on accoxint of a white roebuck and a puppy which were of Hades. self. and englyns. 244. that say.^ to he was probably the King of Hades him- Cognate with the foregoing legend of the is discomfiture of the devil that which tells how he agrees to build a house for a peasant at the price of the man's soul. Prof. son of Don. and they embody Gwydion's guess as to the man's name. King of Hades. They are the verses alluded to. and there was in the engagement on the side of Hades a man who could not be vanquished his unless name could be discovered . which means a ' .' is one of the appel- lations of the terrene god. whose name was to be found out before her side could be vanquished. Therefore he fought with Arawn. the contract to be null and void if the work 1 is not finished before cockcrow. Hibiert Lectures.50 INCIDENTAL FEATURES It precedes some verses. and as crow. guessed sang the two following the man's name. son of Don. Amathaon. . he may be supposed is to have been a principal in the fight. Gwydion. had caught them. while there was a woman on the other side called Achren. p. Rhys.

Or the devil helps to construct a bridge on condition first that he receives in payment the soul of the thing that crosses it. Punch seizes him is strings him to the gallows. who whistles the Gospel which he has bound himself not to say. and as the devil is 51 putting all on the roosters last tile. and by the refusal of another to carry out his fall bargain at the of the leaf because the foliage is sculptured on the church columns still on the boughs.OF THE STORIES Just as day dawns. a chamois or dog rushes story him. The story told of some angry lookers-on stoning a show- man who by reversed the devil traditions of the play letting the carry off Punch. These gathered examples. the peasant wakens up their the by imitating crowing. and while he is on the watch to past seize his prize. In the venerable street play of ' Punch ^ and Judy the climax is reached when. after shamming and defeat by the devil. In the well-known of the shadowless man. and is able to grasp only the shadow of the rearmost runner. the devil agrees to take the hindmost in a race. is The fiend also befooled by one man. of which a store may be .

p. Popular Tales and Fictions. p. 177 . Northern Mythology. Thorpe. Thorpe. we may now advance without further 1 Grimm. vol. p. 1018-1024 .52 INCIDENTAL FEATURES Grimm. Dasent. i. ' Tom Tit Tot ' and along the main track of which group of folk-tales digression. . Teutonic Mythology. Crane. xcvii . Italian Tales. 381. vol. 221 . pp. Clouston. Popular Tales from the Norse. and other collectors. ii.^ from fall into line with the typical incident of the befooling and discomfiture of the demon in one shape or sex and another in his variants.

Barbaric man believes that his name is a vital part of himself. and this that the justification exists for in assuming the name-incident in ' Tom Tit Tot ' to be probably the most archaic element in the story. before the inven- tion of the art of spinning before the formula- tion of the theory of spirits. against whose wiles mortals might successfully plot. whether he be deity. or mortal. these is was the choice of personal names. in the power of .BARBARIC IDEAS ABOUT NAMES Befoke the discovery of iron . —men had found Among it the necessity of inventing signs or symbols where- with to distinguish one another. He further believes that its know the name is to put owner. . and therefore that the names of other of superhuman beings are also vital men and to parts of themselves. ghost.

between names and things or between symbols and realities —which is a universal feature of barbaric modes of thought.' because in the perception. it lies at the root of all fetichism and of all witchcraft. This confusion attributes the qualities of living things to things not living idolatry . and always from his foe. This belief. are a part of that general confusion between the objective and the subjective — in other words. remembered. It it is.54 BARBARIC IDEAS harm or destruction another. is To look for any consistency in barbaric is philosophy standing it. shamanism. life and magic. He therefore takes all kinds of precautions to conceal his name. be the savage. science born. 'the physics of mankind in a state of nature. involving risk of to the named. often from his friend. and other instruments which are as keys to the invisible kingdom of the dreaded. however blurred or dim. and the resulting acts. to disqualify ourselves for underit and the theories of which aim at . of some relation between things. everything Where such ideas becomes a vehicle of magic. . rules the as of Adolf Bastian aptly remarks. prevail. as will be shown presently.

That he should envisage the intangible — that his name should be an entity. rests on the concrete. ABOUT NAMES symmetry are their 55 own condemnation. where mainly struggle. the terms . To ' ' appreof ' hend to ' ' a thing ' is to ' seize or ' lay hold ' ' it it. ' is to speak of him as ' raising eyebrows while. and all their kin. an integral part of himself. but ruled likenesses by the superficial which many exhibit. wizards. man is ever on the watch against malice-working agencies. its Yet that philosophy. from the simple phrases of common " life to the highest abstract terms. may the us less surprise when it is remembered that language. own irregular con- works not illogically. medicine-men. prohibiting the export of to call another man his ' supercilious ' . possess call ' a thing is to ' sit by or ' beset To one man a ' sycophant is to borrow the term fig-blabber. chiefly because things are feared in the degree that life is they are unknown. and because.' applied by the Greeks to the informer against those who broke the Attic law figs . the barbaric mind regards evil. as we all know. Ignorant of the properties of things. them as vehicles of good or evil. within fines..

' .' relics 'most bodiless and is made up of the of several verbs which once had a distinct physical significance.' growing . human Even the substantive verb 'to be.' that of ' dwelling ' or abiding. ' am. contained the idea of ' 'Be' is.' the colourless of all our words. ' and ' are.' the idea of ' sitting ' ' ' was and were.' .56 ' BARBARIC IDEAS ABOUT NAMES ' disaster and ' lunatic preserve the old belief in ' the influence of the heavenly bodies on life. ' art.

and are carefully burnt or thrown away into a river. parings of his nails. Blood. even that from a small cut on the finger. The Igalwa and bits of nails or hair other tribes will allow no one but a trusted friend to do their hair. his saliva. 67 . makes him adopt precautions against cuttings of hair. is the extreme and more subtle form of the same dread which. ' Miss Mary Kingsley says that the fear of nail and hair clippings getting into is the hands of evilly disposed persons sent ever pre- to the West African. excreta. which haunts the savage. his and the water in which his clothes —when he wears any —are washed. falling under the control of the sorcerer. for a like reason.MAGIC THROUGH TANGIBLE THINGS The dread of being harmed through so in- tangible a thing as his name.

and as is still the custom among Turks and is Esthonians. as was the custom among the Incas. the Italian reluctant to trust a lock of his hair to another stands on the same plane as the barbarian. the refuse of hair and nails served so that the owner pre- may have them at the resurrection of the body. ' - Golden Bowjh. i. Sometimes. is most carefully has fallen on life covered up and stamped out if the earth. 203. hence the liberated blood the liberated spirit. In connection with that his Jamaican one of my sons tells me negro housekeeper speaks of the old-time blacks keeping their hair-cuttings to be put in a pillow in their coffins. vol. . lest the child Travels in West Africa. and in Africa is means a spirit. 27ie p. it Blood is the life. and preserving the parings of would need them in the superstition their nails.'^ Crammed with Pagan who is superstitions.58 or from a MAGIC THROUGH fit of nose-bleeding. It is a common among ourselves that when children's teeth come out they should not be thrown away.^ this. and liberated spirits are always whipping into people who don't want them. because they next world. p. 447.

p. . 203. effects being thereby brought about in the man himself by the production of like effects in things belongeffigies ing to him.' practices give exis But the larger number of what say. the man who had eaten of the food would sicken as the fragment decayed.' or ' more appositely. when they have secured a portion it in of their victim's dress. to hide nail-parings and cuttings of and to give the remains of food carefully to the pigs. ' When the mae snake carried away a fragment of food into the place sacred to a spirit. his life may decay. as it rots away. In the New Hebrides it was the common practice hair. Melcmesiams.TANGIBLE THINGS has to seek for the lost tooth after death. so that. in barbaric theory. The Zulu sorcerers. the accused 1 Codrington. the other hand. or in images or of him. ' pression to the belief in known as ' sym- pathetic magic ' . it is 59 On an equally common practice fire ' to throw the teeth in the out of harm's way. kills like.' ^ Brand tells that in a witch- craft trial in the seventeenth century. as we like cures like. will bury some seci-et place.' Things outwardly resembling one another are believed to possess the same qualities.

and that was another sign of death. 468.60 confessed ' MAGIC THROUGH having buried a glove of the said Lord in the ground. a young man off named Gibberook came behind her and cut a lock of her hair.' was wasting away. A fever-stricken Australian who attended her that native girl told the doctor ' some moons back. the said lord might Britain sorcerer of and the New to-day will burn a castaway banana skin. and that she was sure he buried it. so that as the glove did liver of Henry rot rot and waste. which means 'a leaf. Her name was and the doctor Murran. p. had and that it was rotting somewhere.^ 1 Brough Smyth. vol. so that the man who carelessly left it unburied may die a tormenting death.' afterwards found that the figure of leaves had been carved on a gum-tree as described by the girl. Aborigines of Victoria. . i. fat) Her marm-bu-la (kidney she would die. The sorceress said that the spirit of a black fellow had cut the figure on the tree. when the Goulburn blacks were encamped near Melbourne. the and waste'' . and when the stolen hair had completely rotted She added that her name had been lately cut on a tree by some wild black.

the mothers take their children. perchance once sacred to Hermes. 1093. full of prescriptions based on Its doctrine sympathetic or antipathetic magic. Teutonic Mythology. while among the wonder- working roots there is the familiar mandrake of human shape. is Folk -medicine. and pray to to stay the illness or end the sufferer's life. God The Cheroki make a decoction of the cone-flower for weak eyes because of the fancied resemblance of that plant to the strong-sighted eye of the deer and they also drink 1 an infusion of the tenacious p. to some boundary stone. and of eye- bright for ophthalmia.i is while the chewing of a piece of to thought soften the is heart of a man with whom a bargain being driven. wood as a nail driven into a horse's footprint to lame him. wasted by sickness.. TANGIBLE THINGS The putting of sharp of an is 61 stones in the foot-tracks enemy is believed to maim him. credited. of ' seals ' or ' signatures ' is expressed in the use of yellow flowers for jaundice. the wide world through. Grimm. In Umbria. . where the peasants seek to nourish the consumptive on rosebuds and dew. in virtue of that resem- blance. with magic power.

96. 175. gave their patients pulverised years. may wither away. and then bury the wart it. a for warts is common remedy ' to secretly pierce a snail or dodman with a gooseberry-bush thorn. logic. i. p. middle. Chinese doctors administer the head. so that their lives may be that of less prolonged to old age. and Religion. 1 2 . vol. To ensure a fine voice. burrs of the an American species of the genus Desmodium. to strengthen the memory. p. body. or roots of plants. Zulu Nursery Tales. and drink the In Suifolk and other parts of these islands. is Bishop Callaway. crickets. they boil liquor. so that. as the case may be.' 62 MAGIC THROUGH common beggars' lice. Lang's Myth. who takes the bones of the oldest bull or dog of the tribe. to cure the complaints of their patients in the head. or legs. giving scrapings of these to the sick.^ we may compare doctors in the seventeenth century. The inclusion of mummy in the old pharmacopceias was perhaps due to certain virtues in the aromatics used in embalming.^ ' mummy to prolong their ' Mummie. rub the snail on the wart. And with the practice of the Zulu medicine-man.' says Sir Thomas Browne. who with but perchance unconscious humour. as it decays. Bitual.

' reference made Roman customs of not ' completely clearing the table of food. 63 Mizraim cures wounds. ^ and Pharaoh is sold for balsams. if a man wounds another with an arrow. The sympathetic powder ' ' used by Sir Kenelm Digby 1 2 in the seventeenth century Urn-Burial. Here. (Nutt. but suffering it to goe out of the owne accord. which Dr. 1892). and never putting foorth the light of a lampe. in his valuable preface to the reprint of Philemon fairly Holland's translation. he will drink hot juices and chew irritat- ing leaves to bring about agony to the wounded. p. though wide seas between them we may compare the same philosophy of things at work. vol.^ earliest remarks formal 'may be said to be the treatise written is on the to the subject of folk-lore. Jevons.' In Melanesia. BiUiothique de Carabas. 46 (collected works).' In Plutarch's Roman Questions. vii. iii.TANGIBLE THINGS become merchandise. . pulling it at his intervals to cause nerve-tension and tetanus in victim.' These obviously ' come under the head of sympathetic magic. roll. being safeguards against starvation and darkness. and he will keep his bow taut.

The Chaldeans diverted pro- the spirit of disease from the sick man by . Here. Equally puzzling to Plutarch was the custom among Roman women ' of the most noble and little auncient houses' to 'carry their shoes. so that the wound may not fester. too.64 MAGIC THROUGH if was believed to cure a wound sword that inflicted it. that onely the spoiles of enemies consufifered is quered in the warres are neglected and to run to decay in processe of time : neither there any reverence done unto them.' moones upon These were of the nature of amulets. so that it might enter the crescent charm ' instead of the wearer. the Suffolk farmer keeps the sickle with which he has cut himself free from rust. the custome at Rome. designed to deceive the lunacy-bringing moonspirit. nor repaired be they at any time when they wax olde course the custom is ?'' Of the outcome of the belief that the enemy's power waned as his armour rusted away. lies the answer to the ' question that puzzled Plutarch. applied to the and. to-day. What is the reason that of all those things which be dedicated is and consecrated to the gods.

TANGIBLE THINGS attract the plague. Plutarch's Eomane Questions. the plague). of the sick possesses man). left the evil spirits to complete the fell work. describes how the Naba- thean sorcerers of the Lower Euphrates made an image of the person whom they plotted to destroy. p. . which so profoundly influenced the West. 51. and the practice of injuring a man through 1 his Jevons.' his likeness it (i. is no break in the long centuries between Accadian magic. A Chaldean tablet ' records the complaint of some victim. uttered They transcribed magic curses over his it.' reverse effect was more frequently the aim. name on and then. apply to the living flesh of his body (i. his effigy. 3 lb. may the malevolent ^ Namtar who But the him pass into the image.e. life by image' and Ibn Khaldun. 79.e. 63. ^ ' 65 viding an image in the likeness of the spirit to Make of it an image in of Namtar. 2 Lenormant. p.^ In ancient Egyptian belief the ka of a living person could be transferred to a wax image by the repetition of formulae and there . p. that he who enchants images has charmed away my . after divers other ceremonies. an Arabian writer of the fourteenth century. Chaldecm Magic.

and then pricking with a sha. or doing any- thing that would be done to the living body to cause pain or death.. Primitive .' 66 MAGIC THROUGH The Ojibways any person as ' image.. that the peasants expect better crops 1 by sowing their seed at the Svperstitions.'^ ii. or by considering any object it the figure of a person. the person thus represented will suffer likewise. Book teaching ' the devil clay. Johnson's observation. and a ' heart from Devonshire. a or ' Corp Creidh pig's clay body from the Highlands. speaks of i. besides similar objects ' from the Straits Settlements. King James ch. The assumed correspondence between phenomena and human actions is physical further shown his in Dr.rp stick or other weapon.'' and. believe that by drawing the figure of in sand or clay. p. v. how to make pictures of wax or that by roasting thereof the persons that they bear the name of dried away by may be continually melted or sickness. there are exhibited in the Pitt Rivers Museum at Oxford. with pins stuck in them. visit when describing to the Hebrides. 139. in his Dcemonology. new Dorman. which flourishes to-day. as showing the con- tinuity of the idea.

who strip a little girl naked. while bowls of water are make the rain come. The of man many pulsates with the great heart of nature in a touching superstition.TANGIBLE THINGS moon the . and. and then dance and sing poured over life round her to her. we of the modern may compare the practice Servians and Thessalians. 67 and he recalls from memory a precept kill annually given in the almanack. of which Dickens makes use in David Copperfield.' With the ancient Roman custom of throwing images of the corn-spirit (doubtless substitutes of actual human crops offerings) into the river. 150. but wrap her completely in leaves and flowers. the tree-spirit incarnated in the priest-king ^ in the group which connects the waning of the days with the decline of human years . ' life I was on the point of asking him 1 if he knew me. as in the belief in the dependence of the earth's fertility on the vigour of . that the bacon may prove the better in boiling. ' to hogs when moon is waxing. . so that the might be drenched with rain. that goes out with the ebb-tide. See infra^ p. pathetic- ally enough. in the widespread notion.

without reference to its significance in connection with food outside the prohibitions which are usually explained by the totem. Captain Wells." And. so 1. was cut up into many which were distributed among the 1 allied tribes. Myth. "Barkis willin'. with a pleasant smile.68 MAGIC THROUGH tried to stretch out his arm. . 'The narrower the range of man's knowledge of physical causes. vol. drawn from home as well as foreign sources. 88. it being low water. and who was celebrated for his valour parts.' ^ We must not pass from these examples of belief in sympathetic connection.' The general idea has only to be decked in fit another garb to reserves the frame of mind which still some pet sphere of nature for the opera- tion of the special and the arbitrary. that is. ' and said to is distinctly. Lang. he went out with the tide. abstinence from the plant or animal which is regarded as the tribal ancestor. who was killed near Chicago in 1812. among the Indians. p. and Beligion. the wider is the field which he has to fill up with hypothetical causes of a meta- physical or supernatural character. when he me. Ritual.

p. barbaric hunters will abstain from slip lest the game through their fingers. 107. a com- mon is belief among barbaric folk that by eating the flesh of a brave absorbed. Primitive Culture. vol. the origin probably due to a scarcity of animal food. 149. Primitive Superstitions. first and among the Brazilian natives the it. man a portion of his courage the blood spiri- The Botecudos sucked of living victims that they might imbibe tual force. in of. when weaning was the flesh of an enemy. Contrariwise.^ of which is Cannibalism. . the Hessian lad thinks that he may girl's escape the conscription by carrying a baby- cap in his pocket : a symbolic way of repu- diating manhood. lion's The same oil flesh gives courage. which also lies the explanation of the eating or abstaining from.TANGIBLE THINGS that all 69 might have the opportunity of getting a For it is taste of the courageous soldier. . the deer's flesh causes timidity and in more subtle form of the idea. therefore acquires this superadded motive. 2 Tylor. food given to a child. the flesh of certain animals.^ Most suggestive of all ' is the extension of the Dorman. i. p.

See. It is. 89. bearing of one set of facts upon another especially if the application can be made to their traditional beliefs. Professor Percy Gardner's tract on the Origin of the Lord's Supper. transubstantiation ^ being. 70 MAGIC THROUGH imbibed. like Dionysus. 18-20 (Maomillan and Co. the worshipper partakes of the real body and blood of his god. Frazer. the savage believes in that ' by eating the body of the god he shares . therefore.' Experience shows that people possessing gence above the ordinary often fail intelli- to see the set. p.). whether these are only mechanically held. pp. i. the corn is is his proper body is when he a vine-god. the god's attributes and powers and when the god is a corn-god. whereby his spirit is secured. and so. on this matter. by eating the bread and drink- ing the wine. the descendant of the Golden Bough. laterally 1 ^ or lineally. Thus the drinking ^ of wine in the rite of a vine-god. and communion with the unseen idea to the eating of the slain god. not wholly needless to point out that Mr. the juice of the grape his blood. or ardently defended. To quote Mr. it is a solemn sacrament. . Frazer's explanation rites is to be extended to the attaching to Christianity.. is not an act of revelry . vol.

' ^ Thenceforth their Among the Unyamuezi the ceremony is performed by cutting incisions in each other's legs and letting the blood trickle together. is the rite of blood-brotherhood. 296. in which is the key to the belief in the efficacy of of supernatural power. Journal of Discovery of the Source of the Nile. have more fitting place later on.^ Fuller reference to this widely diffused rite will. the simplest form of which is in two men opening ' their veins and sucking lives are one another's blood. when treating of the custom of the exchange of as will names which.TANGIBLE THINGS ' 71 barbaric idea of eating the god. clearly traceable. . p. Belief in virtue inhering in the dead man's involves belief in virtue in his body belongings. that a notable application of the idea of eating the flesh or drink- ing the blood of another being. whereby the communicant becomes a partaker of the divine nature. relics as vehicles Here is the continuity is There no 1 2 Religion of the Semites. not two. often goes with it. so that a man absorbs its nature or life into his own. 96. but one. be seen. p. however.' fessor In connection with this we may cite Pro- Robertson Smith's remark. Speke.

72

MAGIC THROUGH
about with him the skull-bones of his

fundamental difference between the savage who
carries

ancestor as a charm or seat of oracle, and the

Buddhist who places the

relics

of holy

men

be-

neath the tope, or the Catholic who deposits the
fragments of saints or martyrs within the altar

which their presence

sanctifies

;

while the mother,

treasuring her dead child's lock of hair, witnesses
to the vitality of feelings

drawn from perennial
Well-nigh every
relic

springs in

human

nature.

which the Church safeguards beneath her shrines,
or exhibits, at stated seasons, for the adoration of the crowd,
cule thrown
is

spurious,^ yet

no amount of

ridi-

on these has impaired the credulity
lies

whose strength

in the

dominance of the wish

to believe over the desire to know.^

In

'

Whuppity

Stoorie

'

the widow and the

witch ' watted thooms ' over their bargain.
1

Man's

On

the manufacture of and
p.
ii.

traffic in

relics,

Erasmus,
Ages, vol.
2

128; Gregorovius, Hist,
pp. 73-77
;

of

Rome

see Fioude, in the Middle

iii.

pp. 72-75.

In John Heywood's Bntcrlvde of the Four P's (a Palmer, a Pardoner, a 'Poticary, and a Pedlar), the author, a sixteenthcentury writer of Morality Plays, did not allow his staunch Catholicism to hinder his flinging some coarse satire at the relicmongers. He represents the Pardoner as exhibiting, among other curios, the jaw-bone of All Saints, a buttock-bone of the Holy Ghost, and the great toe of the Trinity.

TANGIBLE THINGS
saliva plays a smaller,

73

but by no means inactive,

part in his superstitions.

A

goodly-sized book
disit.

might be written on the history and ethnic
tribution

of

the

customs

connected

with

Employed

as vehicle of blessing

or cursing, of

injury or cure,

by peoples

intellectually as far

apart as the Jews, the South Sea Islanders, the
mediaeval Christians, and the Central Africans of
to-day, the potencies of this normally harmless
secretion

have

been
is

most

widely

credited. ^

Among

ourselves it

a vehicle of one of the

coarsest forms of assault, or the degenerate repre-

sentative of the old luck-charm in the spitting

on money by the cabman or the costermonger.

Among

certain barbaric races, however, the act

expresses the kindliest feeling and the highest

compliment.

Consul

Petherick

says

that

a

Sudanese
it,

chief, after

grasping his hand, spat on
like to his face, a

and then did the

form of

salute which the consul returned with interest, to

the delight of the recipient. the same custom
'

Among
;

the Masai
it is

is

universal

and while

bad

1 Art. on Saliva Superstitions,' by Fanny D. Bergen, American Folk-Lore Soc. Journal, vol. iii. p. 52.

74

MAGIC THROUGH
kiss

form to
her.i

a lady,

it is

comme

il

Jaut to

spit

on

The

authority

who

reports this adds

an

account of certain generative virtues with which
saliva, especially if
is

administered by a white man,
it is

accredited.^

But

as a prophylactic, notably

in the

form of fasting
all

spittle,

and

as a protection

against sorcery and

forms of black magic, that
references to it in ancient
'

we meet with frequent
writers,

and

in

modern books of travel.

Spittle,'
all

says Brand, 'was esteemed a

charm against

kinds of fascination,''^ notably against the evil
eye, the

remedy
is

for which, still in

vogue among

the Italians,

to

spit

three times upon the

breast, as did the

urban maiden in Theocritus
rustic wooer.
trial

when she refused her
in the course of

It

came out

a murder

at Philippopolis,

that the Bulgarians believe that spitting gives

immunity from the consequences of perjury.*
example of
the
its

An

use in benediction occurs, as
his clergy
its

when
laity;

Abomel of Alzpirn spat on

and

but more familiar are the cases of
1

application
p. 166.

Joseph Thomson, Through Masai Lwnd,
Ibid. p. 165.

2 3

Popular Antiquities,

4

iii. p. 228 (Hazlitt's edition). Westminster Gazette, 28th July 1897.

; ;

TANGIBLE THINGS
in
'

75

baptism and name-giving.

Seward says that

the custom of nurses lustrating the children by

spittle

was one of the ceremonies used on the

Dies Nominalis, the day the child was
so that there can be

named

no doubt of the Papists

deriving this custom from the heathen nurses and

grandmothers.
as it were,

They have indeed
flinging in

christened

it,

by

some Scriptural expresit

sions
filthy

;

but then they have carried
extravagance by daubing
it

to a more
nostrils
tells

on the
'^

of adults as well as of that when Hasan was

children.''

Ockley

born, his grandfather,

Mohammed,

spat in his

mouth

as he

named him

and Mungo Park thus describes the name-giving
ceremony among the Mandingo people.
child
is

'A

named when

it is

seven or eight days old.

The ceremony commences by shaving
The priest
blessing of

the head.

offers a prayer, in which he solicits the

God upon

the child and

all

the com-

pany, and then whispering a few sentences in the
child's

ear, spits three times in his face, after

which, pronouncing his

name

aloud, he returns

the child to
1

its

mother.'
p.

Conformity ietween Popery and Paganism,

14 ; Brand,

iii.

p. 229.

76

MAGIC THROUGH
All which, of course, has vital connection with

the belief in inherent virtue in saliva, and therefore with the widespread

group of customs which
its falling

have for their object the prevention of
within the power of the sorcerer.

Suabian folk-

medicine prescribes that the saliva should at once

be trodden into the ground
person use
it

lest

some evil-disposed
the result of ex-

for sorcery.

As

tensive acquaintance with the

North American
all

Indians, Captain

Bourke says that

of

them
;

are careful to spit into their cloaks or blankets

and Kane

adds his testimony that the natives of
spit without

Columbia River are never seen to
carefully stamping out the saliva.
lest

This they do

an enemy should find
it.

it,

and work injury
'

through

The

chief officer of the

king ' of

Congo

receives the royal saliva in a rag,
kisses
;

which

he doubles up and

while in Hawaii the

guardianship of the monarch's expectorations was
intrusted

only to a chief of high rank,
office

who
same

held the dignified
king,

of spittoon-bearer to the

and who,

like his fellow-holders of the

trust under other Polynesian rulers, buried the
saliva

beyond the reach of malicious medicine-

TANGIBLE THINGS
men.
Finally, as bearing
lines

77

on the absence of any

delimiting
there

between a man's belongings,

may be

cited Brand's reference to Debrio.

He

'

portrays the manners and ideas of the con-

tinent,

and mentions that upon those
in

hairs

which

come out of the head
before they throw

combing they
^

spit thrice

them away.'

The
traits

reluctance of savages to have their por-

taken

is

explicable

when brought

into

relation with the group of confused ideas under
review.

Naturally, the

man

thinks that virtue

has gone out of him, that some part of his vulnerable self
is

put at the mercy of
'

his fellows,

when he

sees his

counterfeit presentment ' on a

sheet of paper, or peering from out magic glass.

The

reluctance of unlettered people

among
is

our-

selves to

have their likenesses taken

not un-

common.

From Scotland

to Somerset^ there
ill-health or ill-luck

comes evidence about the

which followed the camera, of folks who 'took

bad and died'
facts will
1

after

being 'a-tookt.'

These

remove any surprise at
p.

Catlin's well-

Pop. Antiq. iii. p. 231. Napier, Folklore of West Scotland, Eye, p. 86.
2

142; Elworthy, Evil

i ^ by putting so many pictures of them in Dorman.78 MAGIC THROUGH TANGIBLE THINGS story of the accusation brought against buffaloes known him by the Yukons that he had made scarce his book. 140. . p.

and the shadows which follow or precede. belongings as vehicles of black magic will have paved the way for examples of like belief about intangible things. a man's figure . The echoes of voices which the hillside flings back the reflections which water casts . reflections. VII MAGIC THROUGH INTANGIBLE THINGS The examples of belief in a man's tangible . as shadows.. and which lengthen or shorten. the 79 owner. self. The savage knows nothing of the action of the laws of interference of light or sound. a crocodile may seize it. In Wetar Island. and names. as his on the water. near . The Basuto shadow falls avoids lest. all unite in supporting the theory of another the river-bank. and harm the Celebes.

Starting at the bottom of the scale. those ideas find sufficing illustration in savage notions about names. we have Mr. moreover. the manes or umbra of the Romans. the belief being that he will die within the year. magicians profess to ill by spearing or stabbing his shadow if the Arabs believe that it a hyaena treads on a shadow.80 MAGIC THROUGH make a man . deprives the man of the power of speech. Brough Smyth's testimony that the Victoria black-fellows are very unwilling to tell . and. since it no small involves the story of the origin spiritual and development of life ideas ruling the of man from the dawn of thought. and of idea in the tribes call the soul chemung or civilised sleia speech indicates community of the Greeks. New England shadow. is so that his shadow thrown on the foundation-stone. and the shade of our own language. has survival in the builder en- ticing some passer-by to draw near. But any due enlargement of fill this department of the subject would volume. and in modern Roumania the ancient custom of burying a victim as sacrifice to the earth-spirit under any new structure.

The Tshi-speaking Peoples of the Gold Coast. vol. believe in a real and material conhis nection between a man and by means of the name. it is ' of little use in that the owners have a very strong objection to telling or using them. .' a nick- he always known by an assumed say.^ name. and to other persons name. p. i. 1 To avoid any danger of spreading ^ Aborigines of Victoria. p. and that. injury may be done to the man. and that he who in knows has part of the owner of that name his power.INTANGIBLE THINGS their real 81 is names. names Among Africa. apparently on the ground that the name it is part of the man. B. 98.' ^ Mr. all ' the Tshi-speaking is tribes of West a man's name always concealed from but his nearest is relatives. Ellis. 109. Sir A. 3 The Ewe-speaking Peoples. although the Indians of British Guiana have an intricate system of names.^ Backhouse says that the dislike to their Tasmanians showed great being mentioned. 469. as we should peoples ' The Ewe-speaking name. and that this reluctance due to the fear of putting themselves at the mercy of sorcerers. Im Thurn says that. p.

British Columbia. p. hesitation. between those two there no relation- ship the term for which can serve as a proper name. and shown by the Indian to any white who asks British his name/ ^ The Indians ' of Columbia all pervade — and the prej udice appears to tribes alike' — dislike telling their name will tell names . and the natives of the Fiji Islands would get any third party who might be present to answer as to their 1 Among the Indians of Guiana. one Indian. Mayne. the Indian asks the European to give him a name. which is usually written on a piece of paper by the donor. 220. 119. and as. but they each other's names without with this. thus you never get a man's right from himself. therefore. p. 278. of course. ' Farrer.82 MAGIC THROUGH knowledge of their names. But an Indian is just as unwilling to tell his proper name to a white man as to an Indian is . p.^ In correspondence the Abipones of South America would for his nudge their neighbour to answer any one among them was asked them when name . . usually addresses another only according to the relationship of the caller and the called. Primitive Manners and Customs.

whom 1 she calls the Fairy Band P. 83 know his name arose from a d€sire to and the Araucanians would not allow lest these their names to be told to strangers should be used in sorcery. A like motive probably explains the reluctance of which Gregor speaks in his Folk-Lore qf the North' East qf Scotland. Dobrizhis hoffer reports that they would knock at door at night. and were warned they would stop growing names. While my friend Mr. who tells of a fairy- haunted old woman living in King's County. Among told the Ojibways. when asked who was there. would not answer for fear of letting their names be known to any evilly-disposed listener. when folk calling at a house of the better class on business with the master or mistress had a very strong their dislike to tell names to the servant who admitted them. 30. Yeats hands me a letter from an Irish correspondent. each other's that husbands and wives children never names. B.' ^ these sheets are passing through the press. if they repeated their own Of the Abipones just named. W. and. ' Her tormentors. .INTANGIBLE THINGS wish to steal it.

84 MAGIC THROUGH They pelt of Shinrone. One may ask a his any tribe to give name. Captain Bourke says that 'the of name thing. And all this spite is manifested because if they cannot find out her name. an American Indian is a sacred never to be divulged by the owner himself without due warrior of consideration. and . hurl abuse at her. her with invisible missiles.. Sometimes sarcasm or chaff is employed. she chapters and verses from the Bible to charm them away. she they could learn would be is in their power. which is no laughing matter recites and then. with — all which she freely talks about.' this Speaking general on name-concealment custom. until she driven well-nigh mad. holds her own the 'band terms of Shinrone. for that. plagued against in And although she has been thus she still for years. often fits of laughter. coming in through the wall over her bed-head. But the fairies trouble her most at night.'' come from Tipperary. and a nickname given her to entrap her into telling her real name. and rail against her family. both the dead and is the living. being a good Protestant.

Bourke. or the more diplomatic evasion that he cannot understand what is wanted of him. The Medicine-Men of the Apache. to remain through except in the case of the medicine-men. seems life. 1 John G. who. {i.e. warrior The moment a first friend approaches. 1892). . 461 = Blackfoot Lodge Tales. in the belief that if he should reveal all his would be unlucky in undertakings. p. receiving a re- ciprocation of the courtesy from the inquirer. 194.' same way that among ourselves a successful general or admiral sinks his name when raised to the peerage.INTANGIBLE THINGS 85 the question will be met with either a point- blank refusal. tell his ' A he Blackfoot will never it. the is will whisper what wanted. I have known as four or as many but the Apache name. he in the new coup entitled to a new name. Whenever a Blackfoot some deed of bravery). once conferred. (Washington. and the friend can tell the name. I have always suspected. name if he can avoid it. and some of them who had enjoyed five .'^ The warriors of the Plains Tribes 'used to assume agnomens or battle-names. p.'^ Grinnell says that ' many Blackfeet change their names every counts a is season.

The foregoing reference to names of warriors permits the inclusion of a story told by Fraser in his Tour to the Himalayas. because signified in the native name and language ' Crocodile. say the great incanit. 530. members of ecclesiastical this and so forth. But of more presently. 2 . : take it and some and turmeric . much China is said to do. tation three times having said send for some it.^ during In one of the our despatches intercepted war with Nepaul.86 MAGIC THROUGH as a professor of learning in ^ change their names on assuming their profession. Bourke. it may be added. the city would be captured by that explains Phonetic confusion to .' there was an oracle that reptile. write rice it upon a piece of paper . p. as among high dignitaries of the church. Gooree Sah had sent orders to 'find out the name of the commander of the British army .' plum-tree wood.' and. 462. and therewith burn There is a story in the annals of British conquest in India to the effect that General Lake took a city with his surprisingly little resistance. orders. the honours paid Commissioner Gubbins by the natives of Oude 1 Govinda being P.

(rather is impatiently).? me D. when the following conversation ensued with the mother Doctor. tells published in 1887. University of Oxford. (getting desperate). at a (assuringly. Is me name ? . ? Yes caal .'' — D. the popular incarnation of Vishnu. Then why couldn't . in his Guide to Trinidad. For these two illustrations I am indebted to my friend Mr. D. you what W. R. Collens.'' you say so ? Mr. but with a suspicious side-glance neighbour who is intently taking all in). H. Dey does . In the course of his duties he came to a little girl. ! D. (with much reluctance approaching the doctor. I asked Sal. .^ Mr. And what is your name W. D. MorfiU. (with intense disgust).— INTANGIBLE THINGS the favourite — 87 name of Krishna. Oh. whispers in the lowest possible tone of voice). Well what W. Collens remarks that 1 his 'medical friend W. . Delphine Segard. Dey does alius caal me Sal. Are you the child's mother ? : Woman. Reader in Russian. your name Sal (hesitatingly). J. the following story : A doctor in a remote district had one day assembled a number of negro children for vaccination. botheration will you tell me your proper name or not W. sir is me darter. Yes.

name only.— 88 MAGIC THROUGH bears these little now passages with more equanimity.' With group of examples chosen from widely sundered sources. and knows that the reason why the woman was so reluctant to utter her name aloud was that she believed she had an enemy in the room who if would take advantage of the circumstance she got hold of her true name. and would work her all manner of harm. and not an should be believed capable of carrying some of the personality of . It appears strange that the birthalias. It is a fact that these people (the negro population of Trinidad) sometimes actually forget the names of their near relations from hearing and using them so this little. ideas lurking in the veriest far-fetched as at first it may not be so sight it seems. to detect traces of the avoidance-superstition in the game- rhyme familiar to our childhood ' : What is your name ? Pudding and tame. and with the old ever- growing evidence of continuity of trifles. for he has gained experience.' Ellis says. If you ask me again I '11 ' tell you the same.

' Barbaric. ' 'The ancients. —the equivalent to our christening. which is universal through every stage of culture.' and an integral part of the general body of customs which have for their object the protection of the infant from maleficent agents at the critical period of birth. of demons covetous to it. civilised communi- the ' baptismal name the real name. possess it. the this belief is name registered in heaven. takes practical effect from the time that the child is bom and made the subject of In is name-giving ceremonies. But the native view seems to be that the alias does not really belong to the man. in the belief that the child's life is at the mercy of evil spirits watching the chance of casting spells upon it. ties.INTANGIBLE THINGS 89 the bearer elsewhere. and of fairies eager to steal its and leave a last-named p.' This view. had a solemne time of giving ^ names. 40. Pagan. 'changeling' in 1 place. . since the latter preserves the subjective connection just as well as the real name. This Bemames of Gentilisme and Judaisme. and Christian folk-lore is full of examples of the importance of naming and other birth-ceremonies.' says Aubrey.

1836. in the Towneley Collection. one of them remembers that no gift had been made to office.90 MAGIC THROUGH born by the ' superstition as to theft of the newly 'little folk is availed of as subject of humorous incident by the writer of the old mystery play Shepherds ' of the ' (Secunda Pastorum).) . and ' bidden to speke soft ' because of the seke woman. which he pops into the cradle. but on leaving. Then he sleep. shamming that they have roused him from a dream that ' his wife has given birth to a yong lad. and.' Surtees Society." and he so is makes excuse to hasten to gone. the child. 1898. When are is missed.' They are thus put off guard. (Be-issued Both Mak and his ' by the English Dialect Society. the sheep herds ' her. he steals home with a sheep.' ' lyttle day starne. says returns to his mates. telling his wife to feign lying-in.^ While all the hinds except Male have fallen asleep. whereupon the shep- follow Mak home. so they return for that kindly Despite Mak's entreaties not to disturb the sleep of the clowtt.' they ' lyft up the between and discover strange likeness the babe and the 'shepe.

' ^ 15. Custom and Myth. 66 . saying that the boy Was I takyn with an saw it myself ' When the clok stroke twelf Was he forshapyn (transformed). pp. as strong both there and carefully watched till the rite of baptism is performed. Folk-Lore of North-East Sootland. 89. saying. p. 2 Andrew Lang. INTANGIBLE THINGS wife declare this 91 metamorphosis fairies. ' The hour of midnight.' says Brand. Folk-Lore of Northern Counties. while in West Sussex it is considered unlucky to before baptism.. 1 Henderson.^ divulge a child's intended name This reminds us of the incident in the Moray' story. Nicht Nought Nothing. 11. fishermen's nets being sometimes spread over the curtain openings to prevent the infant being carried off. in which the queen till would not christen the bairn back. the king came 'We will just call him Nicht Nought Nothing until his father comes home. Gregor.' is In Ireland the belief in changelings as it was in pre-Christian times in Scotland the child is . p. ' was looked this on by our forefathers as the season when species of sorcery was generally performed. to be the maliceful work of ' the woman elfe.

p. it is the custom in Abyssinia to conceal the real name by which him only by a a person sort of is baptized. or some steel instrument as amulets about the house before laying the new- born babe in the cradle. 1889. p. p. so that all evil influences may pass into in them instead of harming the babe. and to call his nickname which mother gives him on in leaving the church. Institute.^ in Scotland lie ' Henderson ^ says that safeguard is the little one's held to in the placing of some article of clothing belonging to the father near the cradle. 293. 14.^ and is New Britain a charm always hung in the house to secure the child from like peril. and a word-charm pinned to them. 143. Folk-Lore of China. Journal. salt. 2 5 * Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties. . Dennys.92 MAGIC THROUGH of putting Brand says that among Danish women precaution against evil spirits took the form garlick.* it is In Ruthenia believed that if a wizard knows a man's baptismal name he can transform him by a mere Parkyns says that ' effort of will. bread. ii. 13.' while in South China a pair of the father's trousers are put near the bedstead. Anthrop. p. 1 The baptismal names Vol.

however. He takes a particular it kind of straw. he adopts a method of which illustrations have been given in the references ' to sympathetic magic. and muttering something over bends it into a circle. Those given by the mother are generally expressive of maternal vanity regarding the appearance or anticipated child. have learned the true name of his victim.INTANGIBLE THINGS St. but perhaps the repute ^ Life in Abyssinia^ vol. and should by accident snap under the operation.' ^ Parkyns adds that in Abyssinia are all blacksmiths looked the is upon as wizards or Boudas. and places is it under a stone ill The person thus doomed taken at the very moment it of the bending of the straw. Among many characters in which the devil appears that of Way land ii. p. such as Son of George. Slave of the Virgin. 93 Abyssinia are those of saints. Moses. the Smith. .' Should he. the result of the attack will be the death of the patient. 145. merits of the The reason for the concealment of the is Christian name that the Bouda cannot harm a person whose real name he does not know. Daughter of etc. the northern Vulcan.

How possibly they manage to hide did not learn ^ by confiding it only it to the priest.94 MAGIC THROUGH may be an example of the attaching to the Boudas has no connection with that conception. They are credited with the faculty of being able to turn themselves into hyaenas and other wild beasts.' Good Words. 'An Artist's Jottings in Abyssinia. Theodore Bent says that call a custom in the Cyclades to a child Iron or Dragon or some other such name before place. we find the child is Hindu belief that when a it. 607. so that few people will venture to molest or offend a blacksmith. and barbaric beHef in the magic power of iron to which allusion has been made. Travelling east- wards. 1868.' is Mr. the baptismal name must be it I used. while she feeds the child up with the other (in which case the spirit dies of hunger) the child grows up with the endowment of the 1 'William Simpson. par- ticularly in prayers for the dead. p. christening takes the object being to frighten away the evil spirits. born an invisible spirit is born with tied and unless the mother keeps one breast for forty days. ' In all church services in Abyssinia. . .

as the foregoing ii. saved the ' La Belle Sauvage. 2. Ibid. and many to of the nicknames which are generally given children. This was concealed from the English in a superstitious fear of hurt by them It if is her name was known.^ 95 Two names are given at birth. ii. of . and the other for ordinary use. Folk-Lore of North. p. learns the real name.INTANGIBLE THINGS evil eye.' whose pleadings life of the heroic Virginian leader. School- Little Fox ' or ' Red Head. one secret and used only for ceremonial purposes. birthday in importance 1 2 ' and. 5. W. the family. vol. . Ewrly History of Mankind. vol. often with reference to some dream but this real name is kept mysteriously for it is and what commonly passes such as ' a mere nickname.' ^ craft says that the true name of the famous Pocahontas. if she evil work her charms con- through it. 142.West India. p.' known that in well Roman Catholic countries the name-day wholly supersedes the .^ Among the Algonquin old tribes children are usually named by the woman secret. was Matokes. Tylor. John ' Smith. p. can The witch. Crooke. Hence arises the use of real many tractions and perversions of the name.

96 MAGIC THROUGH testify.' At the the birth of every Singhalese baby is its horoscope is cast by an astrologer. that even death more reliance is the hour of placed upon ! than on the symptoms of the patient is Again. causes grouped round belief in omens. 461. 1 This name he tells only Bourke. rice are first placed in its He selects for the little one a name which is compounded from the name of the ruling planet of that moment. and in meanings to be attached to is certain events. The Plains Tribes named their children at the moment of piercing their ears. of which astrology interpreter. . p. ^ rather. as near their first year as possible. a world-wide Among the is Red Indians ' the giving of names to children a solemn matter. and so highly in it document esteemed. the astrologer ' called in to preside at the baby's rice-feast. examples the significance attached to the name brings into play a number of causes operat- ing in the selection. and one in which the medicine-man should always be consulted. occur at the sun-dance after their birth. first which should or.' when some grains of mouth.

' and.. i. 278. Vox Stellar um than in the Nautical Almanac the and of rare are households where the Book Dreams and Fortune-Teller in the kitchen.^ and be In every department of human thought eviis dence of the non-persistence of primitive ideas the exception rather than the rule. 97 who else whispers it low in the baby's it. there found in the derm. INTANGIBLE THINGS to the father. profit and the there may in the reminder of shallow depth to which knowledge of the orderly sequence of things has yet penetrated in the many. are more people who believe in Zadkiel's . pp. 279. vol. Two Happy Years in Ceylon. . Societies and serials for the promulga- tion of astrology exist and flourish among us Zadkiel boasts his circulation of a hundred thou1 Miss Gordon Cumming. ' no one ' must know name. ear . like the Chinese infantile this rice-name ' it is never used lest sorcerers should hear able to work malignant spells. ties are not to be found The Singhalese caster of nativi- has many lie representatives in the West. "Scratch the epiderm of the is civilised man. and the barbarian In proof of which.

a theory is formulated ' on ' the power of Names and essentially numbers. bably is. entitled Kabalistic Astrology/. was pestered.' Numbers. for example." " Horatio." . A name in is a mantram. This evident to us in the fact that certain characteristics. corresponding to the mass-chord of the name. How different. are set up. in which. darkened by pages of pseudo-philosophic jargon." whose modifications form is the basis of changes of thought. names import to our minds more or less definite according to the acuteness of our psychometric sense. not only in the atmosphere. wherewith to cross his lies There before me a book." " Ralph. by a modern philosopher as " mind-stuff. and vaunts the fulfilment of his Delphic prophecies while the late Astronomer-Royal. sand.98 MAGIC THROUGH . pronunciation. with requests to work the silver planets. certain vibrations. a charm. are the impressions conveyed to us in the names " Percy. Sir as his successor pro- George Airy. a spell.' all names being ' and vice versh. accompanied by expert palm." « Eva. It gains its efficacy from the fact that. but referred to also in the more ethereal substance. an in- vocation.

'' ^ The evidence of astrological logic which is this last sentence affords on a par with what volume. and each has its letter in the name numerical and astral value by which can be planets were in the ascendant at the is known what time of birth of the person whose horoscope being cast. 1 Kdbalistic Astrology. It strove to establish a connec- tion between these actions and the motions of the heavenly bodies which were deified by the ancients and credited with personal will directing the destiny of man. Such is the stuff that still 'leads captive silly' folk. By Sepharial. follows throughout the fatuous All names are numbers. But the new astrology™is the vulgarest travesty of the old. The old astrology it. not seem wholly improbable that a difference of fortune and destiny should go along with them. (The Astrological Publishing Association.) . London. or Yov/r Fortune in Your Na/me." will 99 it Seeing then this difference.INTANGIBLE THINGS and "Ruth. had a certain quality of nobleness about As Comte has justly said. it was an attempt to frame a philosophy of history by reducing the seemingly capricious character of human actions within the domain of law.

^ bound round the child to avert Throughout Australia the custom of deriving the name from 'Like the for. will will then and if his old name be perhaps forgotten. he receive a fitting designation. Or. i. on arriving at similar to that of manhood. 332. Brough Smyth. or under the shelter of a tree. a sign is looked and the appearance of a kangaroo or an emu at the time of birth. some slight circumstance prevails. a name dies. is This name be known in not the one by which a life. decides the infant's name. given him on his initiation and.100 MAGIC THROUGH While among the Mordvins of the Caucasus and other peoples accident or whim determines the child's name.' ^ With may be compared vol. . or the occurrence of that event near some particular spot. man will after Another is . charms are evil. it is any one who this 2 changed the by his tribe. among the Tshi-speaking tribes of is West Africa this given at the moment of birth and derived from the day of the week when that event happens. p. nomadic Arabs and the Kaffirs. After being washed. he has had con- ferred on him. xxi. p. if his career to rank in the tribe should be marked by any striking event. 1 Ellis.

Denham Tracts. 49. in Genesis xxx. ii. where Leah's said.^ The custom of name-giving from some event as. Worship of the Romans. 11. for example.' this notwithstanding the legend that the name-avoidance was due to Marius Manlius of the city —who proved himself the saviour geese aroused for when the clamouring of the garrison of the Capitol to a scaling attack by the Gauls —being afterwards put to death plotting to found a monarchy. vol. when they are dead. p. . Grainger. has frequent reference in the Old Testament. this that the possession of We the may infer from name was once thought and to be bound up with evil consequences. vi. because. 249. 49. 'And she A troop 1 2 2 Folk-Lore Journal.' ^ and North of England against perpetuating a favourite baptismal name when ' death has snatched away clan of the Manlii at its first bearer. maid gives birth to a son. they are not to be 'mentioned without also the feeling in the tears. p.INTANGIBLE THINGS Aino abstention from giving the name of 101 either parent to the child. p.^ The Rome avoided giving the name of Marcus to any son born in the clan. vol.

329. and she called his So Rachel. vol. p.102 MAGIC THROUGH name Gad. AmericoM Society Folk-Lore Journal. dying in childbed. his fortunes are believed to depend. dur- ing which the priest repeated a long ancestral names. when he may of. moun- where he fasts and watches for something a dream and give him a to appear to him in name. ' son of sorrow.' Cometh.^ The Maoris had an teresting baptismal or lustration ceremony.' but the father changes his ' name to Ben-jamin. On the success or failure of the vision is which the empty stomach designed to secure. sprinkled the iv. No one ques- tions him on his return. through- out his life he is known to his fellow-tribesmen in- by some nickname. the chosen. name which was then being uttered was and the 1 priest. will have done something to be proud his he reveal name to trusted friends. . and only years hence. list of When the child sneezed. the matter being regarded as sacred. son of the right hand. as he pronounced it. Of course. one of the more curious being the sending of a child in his tenth or twelfth year to the tains. calls the babe Ben-oni.' their The Nez Perces obtain names in several ways.

. or New Zealand and ^ its i. veil when the Miserere is and a pall flung over the nun who takes the and 1 effaces her old self under another name. Dennett makes the interesting and significant statement that on the initiation of a youth into the tribal mysteries when he reaches manhood. and on scarcely rising takes a new name. p. Inhabitamts. Mr. he lies down in his forest retreat as if dead. which came into my hands. Duff-Macdonald says that of teasing a a terrible way Wayao size to point to a little boy and ask if he remembers what was his name when he of that boy. Africana. Roman chanted. it is Mr. 128. Here we seem a step removed from the ritual of the Catholic Church. and in an unpublished manuscript on the customs in Loango. Te Ika a Maori. p.INTANGIBLE THINGS child with a small branch ' 103 of the ^ karamu which was stuck upright in the water. vol. which it must never be mentioned. Taylor.^ was about the Miss Mary Kingsley confirms these reports of the silence and secrecy on the part of the initiated .' In East Central Africa the birth-name rites are is changed when the initiatory after performed. 185.

for example. that the ordinance of is baptism in the Christian Church of divine authority. thus possessing warrant which makes it wholly a thing apart from the lustrations so and naming-customs which are feature prominent a of barbaric life. Those who contend. events. do. and mock their solemn Christendom still The majority of attaches enormous importance . holy water. who on with seeall tonsured of Buddhist rosaries. marriage. and ceremonies gathering round the chief as birth. and death. in the spirit of the ing the Roman the Catholic missionaries. arch- deceiver. apparatus relics. as and believed that the devil. maturity. had tempted these ecclesiastics to dress themselves in the clothes of Christians. monks bells. rites. In these correspondences bring us face to face with the large question of the origin of the rites and ceremonies of essential civilised faiths which show no difference in character from rites those in practice among barbaric races . will not be at pains If they to compare the one with the other.104 MAGIC THROUGH fact. it will be rather to assume that the lower is a travesty of the higher.

may change their name.^ an importance which shared.INTANGIBLE THINGS to infant 105 is baptism. p. and those who the ritual of the higher religions the persistence of barbaric ideas.' ^ ' by rustics. there will be agreement when the poles meet the equator. Rites. That superstitions of this order should be ram- pant among the unlettered. but not their can youi boy sing acceptable hymns to God in His he has not been baptized 1 recently asked the vicar of a parish in Suffolk when the boy's mother expressed a wish that he should join the choir. evidences their pagan origin rather than the infiltration of sacerdotal theories of baptismal regeneration and of the doom of the unchristened. for less precise reasons. till who children never thrive they Ve to and that the night air thrills the cry of the homeless souls of the unbaptized. But between the see in believers in these theories. 2 Henderson. The explanation into line which the evolutionist has to give with what is falls known and demonstrated about the arrest of human development by the innate conservatism aroused when doubt disturbs the settled order of things. 14. 1 ' How if Church ' . believe that christened. like their dis- pensers.

The keynote not continuous evolution is adaptation. and religious the ceremonies of find civil ^ and society we no inventions. There was a great deal of innovating and recasting in forms and ceremonies in the last quarter of the seventeenth century or so. by man.' ' Pollock says. if any. physically and illustrated. this is development. and I should not wonder if it began then . The low of intellectual environment of man's barbaric past in was constant years. lower life-forms Like the that constitute the teeming majority of organisms. the vaster number of mankind have remained but of slightly. change during millions of years. But this. Therefore. and I suspect that is not very old. ' There appears to be no ground for assuming a survival of the avoidance-superstition in the threat of the Speaker of the of House Commons to 'name' a recalcitrant member. but this is a mere guess. as yet. its The intrusion of the scientific method in application to man's whole nature disturbed that equilibrium. only survivals more or less elaborated. modified. only within the narrow area of the highest culture. both and mentally.106 MAGIC THROUGH in nature. and that have undergone little. : cannot be older than the their proper names in debate. his history for thousands and his adaptation thereto was complete. if at all. in a letter to me etiquette of not usually calling — Sir Frederick It members by .

from the beginning of his speaking comparatively. while thought. or the challenge by inquiry. He accounts for their persistence. in the last resort. dominate human centres civilised and ' high places. Man being a unit. and this with long periods of arrest between. So far as its influence on the modern world goes. In other words. while thought. because feeling travels along the line of least resistance. as are the ele- ments that make up the universe which includes him.INTANGIBLE THINGS the superstitions that even in so-called still 107 life. with its assumption that there may be two sides to a question. But the exercise of feeling has been active history. twenty-four centuries ago. has but recently had free play. by the force of .' are no stumbling-blocks to the student of history. not a duality. And these are but as a day in the passage of prehistoric ages. with the Ionian philosophers. thought and feeling are. is and the road of inquiry cleared. in harmony. man wondered long chiliads before he reasoned. must pursue a path obstructed by the dominance of taboo and custom. we may say that it began. at least in the domain of scientific naturalism.

108 imitation. by F. general conservatism of ' human Born into life.' Turgot wrote.' ^ 2 3 John Morley. 106. persistence of the primitive the causes of the nature. it is indolence. in vain. Empedocles on Etna. ' A few years idol in it ago Bullock dug up an ancient stone day he found that Mexico. and for three centuries had been engaged in ploughing and harrowing their minds and implanting the seed of ^ Christianity. and the next had been crowned during the night with flowers. fear. Opinions. Miscellanies.' ^ as in the striking illustration cited in Heine's Travel-Pictures. everything that favours inaction. The obstinate mind decrees. those or these. Storr. vol. Matthew Arnold. trans. 'which opposes the progress of truth . MAGIC THROUGH and by the strength of prejudice. p. . And yet the Spaniard religion with had exterminated the old Mexican fire and sword. Unalter'd to retain. the spirit of ^ routine. and 'It is not error. Bng. p. passion. ii. in a saying that every champion of a new idea should have ever in letters of flame before his eyes.' In these causes lies the explanation of the . obstinacy. 77.

and of the made there is begotten a generous sympathy with that which empirical notions of human fall nature attributed to wilfulness or to man''s from a high are the pity. in the application of it. Barbaric birth and baptism customs. braced with the latest knowledge and with freedom alone effect. which the intellect. and that diversion of them into wholesome channels. ex- . gathered from barbaric and civilised For those examples fail in their intent if they do not indicate the working of the law of continuity in the spiritual as in the material sphere. estate. see that it could not be otherwise. can These remarks have direct bearing on the inferences to be drawn from the examples sources. life And we learn that the art of largely consists in that control of the emotions. 109 and delusion. For superstitions which outcome of ignorance can only awaken Where we thereby the corrective of knowledge is absent. being clear. and the importance attached to the name with accom- panying invocation and other ceremonies.INTANGIBLE THINGS The causes of error spiritual nightmares of olden time.

The story of the beginnings of his order in a prehistoric past is a sealed book to the priest. of the medicine-man. granting that title to apostle. alike. in East and West studies have run between the narrow historical lines enclosing only such material as is interpreted to support the prepos- terous claims to the divine origin of his office which the multitude have neither the courage to challenge nor the knowledge to refute. and Holy Ghost' the lineal descendant. Peter. But the the Bishop of Rome. impelled by similar ideas. was himself a parvenu compared to the barbaric priest who uttered his incantations on the hill now crowned by the Vatican. the existence of similar practices. The priest who christens the child ' in the is Name of the Father. Did those studies run on the broad lines laid down by anthropology. his For.110 MAGIC THROUGH plain without need of import of other reasons. the true apostolic successor. in civilised society. his descent and vaunt from St. Son. He may first deny the spiritual father who begat him. the sacerdotal upholders of those claims would be compelled to abandon their pretensions and thus sign the death-warrant .

but spirit itself. regarded spirits. to whom water. seem exactly of the same nature. On the contrary. between one kind of animal and another. consisting of a body and spirit. ye unto —Numbers xxi. sents in the Ul The modern sacerdotalist repre- ceremony of baptism the barbaric belief in the virtue of water as —in some way equally difficult to both medicine-man and priest to define —a vehicle of supernatural efficacy. it not merely as the dwelling-place of itself but as a living organism. In the oldest fragment of Hebrew song the stream is addressed as a living being. 17. to the Indian all objects. especially flowing water. it That has .^ and the high authority of the late Professor Robertson Smith may be cited for the statement that the Semitic peoples. For the primitive mind associates . animate and inanimate. was the deepest object of reverence and worship. between man and other animals. except that they differ in the accident of bodily form. been the barbaric idea about little life everywhere and wonder. Every object in the whole world is a being. and . spirit. or between animals — man included — and inanimate objects. how much more O well. such as see. sing Then Israel sang this song : Spring up. 2 we The Indian does not see any sharp line of distinction.^ with motion and if in rolling stone and waving branch it sees not merely the home and haunt of 1 it.INTANGIBLE THINGS of their caste.

— . name of Madonna siding deity of the therefore. other than men. the Church treated this old phase of nature-worship tenderly. Birthplace of life itself. therefore. Among the Indians of Guiana. swirling rapid. is Most reasonable. Happily. Everard Im Thurn. and in the greater or less degree of brute power and brute cunning consequent on the difference of bodily form and bodily habits. swallowing or rejecting alike the victim and the ever oiFering. substituting the or saint for the pagan prespring. have spirits which differ not at all in kind from those of men. mysterious fluid endowed with cleansing and healing qualities. which. of the lakes ruled by lonely presiding of the nymphs who were the of wells. 350. it can only be refined. therefore think with it cannot And we ' sympathy of that divine honour ' which Gildas tells us our ' forefathers paid to wells and streams rivers ' . old were ' mothers . of the eddy in which the water-demon lurked queens genii . in the ' . the contention that the barbaric lustrations re-appear in the rite at Christian differs from every other object in no respect except that of bodily form. and life''s necessity. and toss- ing sea. p.112 so in MAGIC THROUGH tumbling cataract. is to note that animals. of the Celtic food-bringing faith. and even inanimate objects. the feeling that invests perish. adapt- ing what it could not abolish. Our next step.

and snakes coiling round ' it. as also feast- of the annual blessing and sprinkling of animals on the day of St. Story gives a graphic account of these races. 113 that the brush of the pagan temple it sprinkles still the faithful with holy water. Winifred in Flintshire. The water flows from an inverted urn. . Antonio. The influence art which pagan symbolism had on Christian illustration in and doctrine has interesting a mosaic of the sixth century at Ravenna. representing the baptism of Jesus. in Boba di Roma. in the dragging of lunatics through deep water to restore their reason. and in the cripples who travel by railway to bathe their limbs in the well of St. as sprinkles with benediction the horses in . W. with reeds growing beside his head. have their correspondences in the children dipped in wells to be cured of rickets. their protecting saint. held by a venerable figure typifying the river-god of the Jordan.^ the Polio or prize races at Siena the leprous and that Naaman repairing to the Jordan. 454 #. W. pp.INTANGIBLE THINGS fonts. together with the sick waiting their turn on the margin of Bethesda.

regulates all inter- course by the minutest codes. is under the guise of cusit rules toms whose force stronger than law. in larger degree than most persons care to admit. Among civilised peoples. and secures obedience to its manifold prohibitions by threats of punish- ment to be inflicted by magic and other apparatus of the invisible.TABOO Taboo is the dread tyrant of savage life. and which further pro- . perhaps. only more terrible and effective than the infamous 'Holy does it Office.' Nowhere. or from even looking at one another. it But among barbaric communities puts a ring fence round the simplest acts. It is the Inquisition of the lower culture. in the series exert more constant sway than of customs which prohibit (a) persons related in certain degrees by blood or marriage from ad- dressing one another by name.

Long. ^ p. as priests also (c) of the dead. as though 1 a it was not the proper thing Beport on Anthro^ Horn's Expedition to Central Australia. .^ The names of mothersit in-law are never uttered by the Apache.^ law the is The name of his father-in- taboo to the Dyak of Borneo. (a) Taboo between Relatives Among may the Central Australians a man may not marry or speak to his mother-in-law. Expedition. Bourke. pology. p. 461. vol. and among of North America the father. and kings.^ them by In the Bougainville Straits the men in would only utter the names of their wives low tone.and Omahas mother-in-law do not speak to their son-in-law or mention his name. 166. and as and (d) of gods spiritual beings generally. p.TABOO hibit (b) the utterance 115 of the names of indi- viduals of high rank. and for would be very improper to ask name. 253. A father may not speak to his daughter after she becomes a woman. speak to his mother at if He all times. but not to his sister she be younger than himself. i.

p.116 to speak of Africa. 143. where the women have extensive privileges and great social power. 44. further. and mentions his before strangers. their sons. 47. It was considered a gross breach of propriety among the Blackfoot ' 2 ^ Guppy. much mother-in-law . on no account name her daughter's husband. A man not his who sits and talks with his wife''s father will less mention his name.^ In East among the Barea. Tylor. p. TABOO women by name to others. . the name of her husband.'^ are not found in all But these prohibitions the Melanesian islands. Codrington.or mothers-in-law to look at. Early History of Mwnkind. and vice versa . the wife never utters . The Solomon Islands.or call their sons-in-law mother-in-law must not by name. or eats in his presence and even among the Beni Amer. the wife is still not allowed to eat in the hus- band's presence. who.or daughters-in-law. or speak to.^ name only the In the Banks Islands ' rules as to avoidance are very minute. The Melanesians cmd their Anthropology. p. the name of and the will like applies to the wife. Among the Sioux or Dacotas the father. while the Indians east of as the Rockies regard it indecent for either fathers.

' ' Father of So-and- meaning one of her is children. As the Hindu wife never. Even Pund-jel. p. and if by any mischance he did if what was worse. New Guinea. Eomilly. i. man to meet his mother-in-law so.TABOO tribe for a 117 . she demanded a heavy payto ment which he was compelled make. so. speaking of him. he spoke to her.^ al- all things. Western Pacific and. Sometimes circumlocutory phrases are used. p. or. woman must when therefore. or covers herself with her clothes if she has to pass him. . the Australian Creator of has a wife whose face he has never seen. as will be seen presently. 423. these are more usually applied to supernatural beings. Brough Smyth. though. among the Amazulu the not call her husband by name .^ In some parts of Australia the mother-in-law does not allow the son-in-law to see her. and the penalty for breaking an oath is to be forced to shake hands with her. For example. she will say. vol. under any circumstances. 195. but hides herself at his approach.^ In New Britain a man must under no . circumstances speak to his mother-in-law he must go miles out of his way not to meet her. to men1 2 s GrinneU.

she calls 'The An 'he.' name be mentioned the vernacular.' Master.' said woman . cottager's tion her husband's name.' When occasion to speak of is him arises.118 TABOO him 'He.' As further showing how barbaric is ideas persist in the heart of civilisation. their wages have been refused season has been a failure. fishin' this ' if the a Ye hinna hid a sic year is ye hid the last. the pronoun supplemented by ' my man.' or ' my master.' is and the man who bears the dreaded name called a 'chif- feroot.' etc. and when they have been hired before their names were known. in chiff.' is old-fashioned Midland wife rarely speaks of her husband by name. they ' spit. it a circumlocutory phrase diz so in so.' or ' used.' 'Swamy. Gregor says that 'in Buckie there are family names folk certain that fishermen will not in pronounce. or.' the the village of CouU If speaking of such a ' spitting out the bad name. as it lives ' The man The laad at such and such a place.' sufficient distinc- tion. in their hearing. there an overwhelming feeling against hiring men bearing the reprobated names as hands for the boats in the herring fishing season .

fir Folk-Lore. the curious set of avoidance-customs just illustrated naturally origin. Lives would poor.'^ lost. na wye cud we ? We wiz in a chifferoofs we cudnae hae a fushin'. ' 119 Na. 202.! TABOO to the daughter of a famous faht 'oose. light can be thrown.' In some of the it villages on the east coast of Aberdeenshire was accounted unlucky to meet any one of the name be of Whyte when going the catch of fish to sea. she may not even prosyllable nounce any word in which the principal of his name name occurs. or ' would be ' In the of Story of Tangalimbibo - the heroine speaks things done ' knowingly by people whose ' . ' upon which Mr. no Kafiir woman may pronounce the names of any of her husband's male relatives in the ascending line. names may not be mentioned Theal remarks. Mean- while. pp. p. . prompt inquiry if as to their Upon The this little. p. 58. any. 200.' ^ Some further examples of this extension of the general superstition to parts of the will be given further on when dealing with higher principalities and powers. fisher. ' Ibid. 201. 1 relation of these customs to the Folk-Lore of the North-East of Scotlcmd.

curiosity. in revolt. stories of the taboo-incident ' was familiar in which ' Cupid and Psyche.' and the more popular Beauty and the Beast. disobeys. code of etiquette.' are types. from Eden onwards. against restraint. but what to motive prompted particular. see each other. the bride must not be touched with bition is iron. and from places much nearer home than have collected evidence of the these. But the prohi- broken . or The man and woman must not call each other by name . and us whimsical. remains a problem not the less difficult of solution in the face of the wide distribution of the custom. as in the Welsh and other forms of the story (see p. from Australia and Polynesia. travellers existence of the custom on which the fact fate of many a wedded pair in and fiction has . From Timbuctoo and North America. and the unlucky wax drops on the cheek of the fair one. 25). social usages was set and before any importance was attached to the folk-tale as holding primitive ideas in solution. or. who thenceforth disappears. Long before any systematic inquiry into afoot.120 general system TABOO of taboo this is obvious.

call and that none should her husband by name. way towards explaining the avoidance-customs. be an isolated appears to suggest. 146. if any. assuming case. In an important paper on the ' Development of Institutions applied to Marriage 1 and Descent. we find in the reference to the abducting of the Carians an illus- tration of the ancient practice of obtaining wives by forcible capture. and the consequent involun- tary mingling of people of alien race and speech. this matter. the origin of which remains a perplexing problem. however.TABOO hinged. Institute.' ^ I. whose fathers they had slain. vol. 2 Journal of Anthrop. 121 Herodotus gives us a gossipy story on which is of some value. That. and handed it to their daughters. carries us but a little. women made a law down to themselves. pp. but took Therefore the wives of the women of the Carians. He says that some of the old Ionian colonists brought no women with them. which Herodotus. xviii.^ Disregarding the explanation of the formulating of social codes by women bereaved of husbands this to and lovers. 245-269. . that they should never sit at meat with their husbands.

' after Among the three hundred and live fifty peoples the husband goes to with his wife's family in sixty-five instances. He shows that the custom cannot arise from local idiosyncrasies. and versa as to the wife and the husband's family. The reason of this connection 'readily presents .122 TABOO may help us toward a solu- Professor Tylor formulated an ingenious method. also The show a relation ' between the avoidance- customs and residence the customs of the world as to marriage. Thus there is a well-marked preponderance indicating that ceremonial avoidance by the husband is in some way connected vice with his living with his wife's family. while there are one hundred and forty-one cases in which the wife takes up her abode with her husband's family. the pursuit of which tion. he finds forty-five examples of avoidance between the husband and his wife's relations . because in cataloguing fifty some three hundred and peoples he finds it in vogue among sixty-six peoples widely distri- buted over the globe . the wife and her husband's relations and eight schedules examples of mutual avoidance. that is. thirteen examples between .

for here the husband less none the on friendly terms with his wife's people because they may not take any notice of one another. where his wife brought him his food.TABOO itself. 123 inasmuch as the ceremony of not speaking see to and pretending not to is some well-known person close by." as to utter the name ("we never mention it). however. As the husband has intruded himself is among a family which not his own. in the social rite familiar enough to ourselves " cutting. as John Tanner. and the implication comes out even more strongly in objection her." which we call This indeed with us implies aversion. the working of the So like is human mind in all stages of . and seeing how at entry the old father. the adopted Ojibwa.and mother-in-law covered up their heads in their blankets till their son-in- law got into the compartment reserved for him. seems not difficult to understand their marking the difference between him and themselves by treating him formally a stranger. and into a house it where he has no right. in the is barbaric custom.' the song has It is diiFerent. by a friendly Assineboin his companion's describes his being taken into his lodge.

and also a recognition of him by the wife's kinsfolk. this being found among peoples practising avoidance-customs. But we can avoid darkening the obscure by multiplying words without knowledge. to project ourselves into the conditions under which some of them arose at least ' is not possible. A seemingly allied custom is that of naming the father after the child. are of vast antiquity. where a status is given to the husband only on the birth of the of first child. and we shall have condensed the whole proceeding into a single word. ' The naming a recognition him as father of ' So-and-so is of paternity.' . many and a seeming vagary of tions. To refer is to these strange and unexplained customs to bring home the salutary fact that perchance we may never get at the back of life. like social Human institu- man himself. We have only to say that they do not recognise their son-in-law.124 civilisation that TABOO our own language conveys in a familiar idiom the train of thought which governed the behaviour of the parents of the Assineboin's wife.

euphemisms. TABOO Euphemisms and Name-Changes 125 Persons and things cannot remain nameless. (i) The flattering and cajoling words in . such mode of flattery being employed to ward off possible mischief. set of names compels into Hence ingenuity comes play to devise substitutes. and even death itself.' as the Cantonese call them. and the like. (iii) Certain rites.. notably that of blood-brotherhood. are accompanied by exchange of names or adoption of new names while in near connection with this stitution of is the sub- new names for birth-names at the initiation ceremonies to which reference has been made. Both dead and things are often given complimentary names in ' good omen words. in it is place of names that believed will grate or annoy. (i) Many motives are at living work in the selection. roundabout phrases. and avoidance of one the use of others. of arousing jealousy or spite in maleficent (ii) Names are also changed with the object of confusing or deceiving the agents of disease. and also through fear spirits.

Lapps. hanging up his skull on a tree as a charm against evil spirits. and Esthonians apply the tenderest and most coaxing terms to him. Swedes.' but among the Finns that we find the most euphemistic names applied to him. The Ainos of Yezo and the Gilyaks of Eastern Siberia beg his pardon and worship his dead body. are to belief in their kinship with him. or designs to kill. Finns.' the fur-robed.' the forest . and apologetic and propitiatory ceremonies accom- pany the slaying of him for food.126 TABOO due which barbaric man addresses the animals he desires to propitiate. the Esthonians it is speak of him as the ' broad-footed. the bear has been a chief object of worship. the Kalevala has for killing of the ' The forty-sixth rune of its theme the capture and sacred Otso. and in the transmigration of souls which makes the beast a possible embodiment of some ancestor or of another animal. while the Hence the homage paid to it it. man stands ready to spear or shoot Throughout the northern part of Eurasia.' ' who is also addressed ' as the ' honey-eater. The Swedes and Lapps avert his wrath by calling him the ' old man and ' 'grandfather ' .

but that he fell fir-tree 'From the Tore where he slumbered." land. p. 84 . ii.' 127 who gives his life 'a sacrifice to North- When he is slain. Wainamoinen. lest their death be avenged 1 ^ and. Such one ought not to . birds. pp. Scandinavian Adventures. 83. sings the birth and fate of Otso. her name must not be the hellish crew.' Freely gave his Thorpe says that in Swedish popular belief there are certain animals which should not at any time be spoken of by but always with kind their proper names. 475. in like Northern Mythology. lest one should be ensnared. his breast upon the branches. Lloyd. kill without cause. and the magpie. also snakes. If any one speaks slightingly to a cat. life to others. and troll in uttered. as they are birds of sorcery.TABOO apple. and artfully strives to make the dead grizzly believe that no cruel hand killed him. vol. i. vol. where she often goes. great caution is necessary. ' allusions. In speaking of the cuckoo. or beats her. . the owl. the old magician-hero of the story. for she belongs to is intimate with the Berg- the mountains.

p. or 'gold-foot.' he that goes in the forest is ' ' . .' and throughout Scandinavia the superstitions about wolves are numerous.' it The Swedes fear to tread on a toad. Grahans. he goes by the ' name ' long. Varg.tail. I will be wroth with thee. I will be kind to thee. for twelve days after Christmas. the wolf said ' : If thou if callest me Varg. In some districts during a portion of the spring the peasants dare not call that animal by his usual name. 98. Hence Livonian is fisher- men (and the same superstition prevalent from Ireland to Italy) fear to endanger the success of 1 Folk-Lore Record.' The Claddagh out to fish if folk of Galway would not go they saw a fox.— 1 28 TABOO Mohammedan women its manner. blue-foot. when dumb creatures spoke. snake by dare not call a name lest it bite them. iv. among the Esthonians he and in Mecklen- burg.^ and the name is as unlucky as the thing.' In Sweden the seal ' is brother Lars. because may be an ' enchanted princess. lest he carry off the cattle. But thou callest me of gold. so they substitute the names Ulf. vol. or ' The fox is grey-coat called ' .' because in olden days.

In Annam and the tiger is called 'grandfather' or 'lord'. 129 by calling certain animals. the gracious like one. p. explains why the Hindus call ' Siva.' and why a euphemism was used by the as Greeks when speaking of the Furies Eumenides. for they were forbidden to have leaven in their houses during the Passover. Among the Jews the taboo had great force.' while the vol. Folk-Lore Record. iv. 77." In Canton the porpoise or river-pig is looked upon as a creature of ill-omen. and on that account its name is tabooed. to let sleeping dogs as we say. peasants 1 the Similarly. Eev. Hilderic Friend. their god of destruction.. and call that animal dabchar acheer. and so forth. they avoid the Being forbidden word pig altogether. dog.' desire not to offend. as the hare. I . swine's flesh. " the other thing. by their common names while the Esthonians fear to mention the hare lest their crops of flax should fail.' ' ^ The lie. both in Northern Asia and Sumatra the same device of using some bamboozling name ' is adopted. and they abstained from even using the word. both Greek and Galway call the fairies 'the others. TABOO their nets pig.

in Glamorganshire the fairies are called mother's blessing. water used for brewing. or the church to which one goes (this last condition is probably post-Christian). on some occa- sions not to be called eld or but hetta (heat) lou. 84. no harm can adds.' ' those.' If the fays are the ' good people. speak of the the thing. natives of the Gilbert Mr. not vatu.' the Irish speak of the tribes of the goddess ' Danu ' as the gentry ' ' . but lag or otherwise the beer would not be so good. The dread call that praises or soft phrases may the attention of the ever-watchful maleficent the person thus favoured. vol. p. arise. causing the ' spirits to Thorpe. 130 TABOO and Marshall Islands. ell.' or With sly humour. ' not unmixed with respect for the quality. for example.^ ' 'Even inanimate all things.' spirits they. as Louis Becke ' tells ' me.. in Sligo we hear of the royal gentry the ' ' . .' Thorpe are not at ' . and names fire and water. times to be called by their is usual names fire. ii.' if a Swedish belief that or one speaks of the troll-pack witch-crew.' the witches are ' good dames.' and their gatherings It is the sport of the good company.

keen to pounce on mortals. TABOO evil 131 eye to cast its fell its baleful spell. 111. . Customs and Lore of Modern Greece. they are atoned for by one of the traditional expiatory formulas.! ^jjg world-wide belief in the invisible powers as. I.' several In India. In modern Greece any allusion to is the beauty or strength of the child avoided at once and if such words slip out. 1 2 In the west of Ireland some p. has given rise precautions. especially when male children have died in the family. 6.. 22. explains the Chinese custom of giving their boys a girl's name to deceive the gods . in the main. or black magic to manifold to do work. Eennell Rodd. boys are dressed as girls to avert further misfortune : sometimes a nose-ring Pausanias tells is added as further device. the story of the attire young Achilles wearing female and living among maidens. and calling the child 'little pig' or 'little dog. sometimes tabooing names altogether.^ and to this day the peasants the north-west coast of girls till of Achill Island (on Ireland) dress their boys as they are about fourteen years old to deceive the boyseeking devil.

" A well-mannered Turk will not pay a compliment without uttering ' Mashallah ' .woman has her 'Lord be wi' us' ready when flattering words are said about her babe. and will not bring Any as one who did not give the usual expressions.^ A survival of this feeling exists in the modern housewife's notion. 32. p. that if she comments on the luck attaching to some household god. p.' ^ bless the work. H2. because this shows that one has no connection with the bad luck. ' fairies. Mamdeud. The Evil Eye. an Italian will not receive one without saying the protective ' Grazia a Deo ' . iv. or saluting a child. Elworthy. . "God was looked on with suspicion. "your good health". " God save you " Slaimter.. 'pride goes before a fall. phrase invocative of blessing should be used on entering a cottage. and Boluary. vol. In each case the good power is invoked as protector against the dangers of fascination and other forms of the black art. 132 TABOO or meeting a peasant. and the English peasant.' She may have exulted over the years in which a favourite china service has 1 2 Folk-Lore Record.

Dukhi or Dukhita. as usually the case. when a parent has lost is a child by disease. it with the intention of so depreciating that it may be child regarded as worthless. can be attributed to fascination or other depractice to moniacal influence. called Kuriya. and brings about the very calamity which they fear. they follow her is The probable explanation that the knowledge of the accident befalling her induces an anxious feeling on the part of those responsible for her safety. which. Among the Hindus. 133 remained intact. and the next day. as she reaches the memory of her vaunting causes the hand to tremble. ' Thus a male . which often unnerves them in a crisis. It has been often remarked that first if any mishaps attend a ship on her ever after. He that has been dragged along the ' ground ' . call it is a common the next baby by some opprobrious name. voyage. and which under ordinary conditions could be averted. or ' dunghill ' Khadheran or Ghasita. The afiiicted one ' . and so protected evil from the is eye of the envious. and the precious ware is smashed to atoms on the floor. TABOO down some of the pieces..

145.' and so on. ii. vol. Gharib. praise accompanied with a sort of amazement or envy. p.^ In keep- ing with this is the story of the pessimist invalid who. beggar ' .. are due to maleficent any theory of . Bhikra or Bhikhu. 'cricket'. ' Tinkouriya or Chhahkauriya. Early History of . 4. added that he would not be so well to-morrow (ii) ! In barbaric belief both disease and death agents. is ' dusty ' Machhiya. natural causes being foreign to the savage mind hence euphemisms to avert the evil.' as a goddess. ' poor ' blind ' and so on. p.. is considered likely to be followed by disease or accident. The Dyaks of Borneo call the smallpox 'chief or 'jungle leaves. and deify 1 2 it The Greeks Mankind. ' fly. call All this connected with what the Scots praise 'fore-speaking.?'^ while the Cantonese speak of this diseases ' Attila of the host of ' ' as ' heavenly flower or good intention. for three or six cowry shells ' .' or say. 'Has he left. . call it Crooke. ' you. Tylor. Jhingura. 'grasshopper'. 134 TABOO ' Phatingua. admitting himself better to-day. She that was sold Dhuriya. So a girl is called ' Andhri.' when beyond measure.

p.' and when a man dies. the Emperor's death ' is pang. vol.' De all Quincey has remarked on the avoidance of death as a is full . i. called For example. p.' Mr. 102. iv. mention of common euphemism and of this China In the Boole of Rites it is of examples. vol. city . 2 ^ Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio. ' called the great sickness. respect. him they will not speak of that ^ disease under its proper name. Giles says that clothes of old age sold boards of old age. the Chinese deem ague to and for fear be produced by a ghost or of offending spirit. he is said to have ' entered the measure. p. Ibid. when a scholar he pat luk. .' are common shop-signs in every Chinese if possible.' certain terms being also applied in the case of certain persons. dies the mountain has fallen is ' .' 'Coffins' are ^ ' tabooed under the term ' ' longevity boards.' 135 or 'she that must be named with 'Similarly. ' without salary or emolument.^ The 1 belief that spirits know folks by their Folk-LoTC Meoord. 80. spoken of euphemistically in some such terms as these. death and burial being always. 78.' and here.TABOO FivXoyia.

p. he at once seeks to get rid of his tribe. to him who in danger of Farrer. p. With the abandon- ment of the old ness is name off. considered bad luck to attempt such fifth time. it is ' believed that the sick- thrown On the reception of the related to the new name the patient becomes Kwapa who purchased change or abandon but it is it. name. . 133. spirit the Lapps ill. which given to the patient.^ by this simple life When the of a Kwapa from Indian is supposed to be in danger illness. change a child's it baptismal name if it falls and rebaptize at every illness. so as to confuse or of the disease . spirit as if they thought to bamboozle the stratagem of an alias.' ^ a thing for the The Rabbis recomnew name. is mended the giving means of new 1 ^ secretly of a as a life. 120. and sends to another member of the who goes to the chief and buys a is new name. of a sick child deceive the is In Borneo the name changed.136 TABOO explains names further the barbaric attitude towards disease and death. viii. Any Kwapa name can his personal four times. vol. American Folk-Lorc Journal.

" and no wonder. was and the girl was called Maude. the bearing of which on the continuity of barbaric and quasi-civilised ideas is significant : — ' In the village of S . and when another daughter sister. and all said that she would die as the three Helens had died. who was named Marian because of her likeness to a dead sister." the neigh- bours said the first .TABOO dying. because the name It Marian ought not to have been therefore tabooed. . .^ 137 The Rev. she was named after her dead But she also died. near Hastings. I%e Blood Covencmt. " it was because the parents had used child's name for the others. and on the birth of a third This daughter the cherished name was repeated. used. there lived a couple their first-born girl Helen. third Helen died. She showed signs of weakness soon after birth. p. She grew to womanhood. 337. that she was married under the 1 Trumbull. and was married so completely but had her baptismal name of Marian been shunned. who had named The child sickened and died. Hilderic Friend vouches for the genuineness of the following story." About the same time a neighbour had a daughter. was born.

there in this attitude towards the unseen. ^ The majority Dorman.138 TABOO it name of Maude. hoping the dead came back they could not find if them. in the their names when a near spirits behef that the if would be attracted back to earth names. ideas as Wherever there prevail anthropomorphic i. they heard familiar their The Lenguas of Brazil changed names on the death of any one. vol. no qualitative civilised difference between savage and man. like in character to those subsisting between ' human beings.' to use Matthew the Arnold's phrase.^ Although the belief. conception of Him follows a 'non-natural.e. for they believed all that the dead knew the names of whom they had left : behind. Folk-Lore Becord. about the Deity. iv. . essentially. and might return to look for them that hence they changed their names. p. 154. magnified man. found in this is. there necessarily assumption that the relations between God and man are. 79. that is if the dead be named their ghosts will appear. p. and by to this day.' ^ continues to be known The Chinooks changed relative died. crude form only among barbaric folk.

through the arbitrary decisions of suc- cessive framers of the canon. 5). and hast prevailed' 28). and in their integral connection with things. the several relations between the parts of which have arisen. for and sometimes altering : Take example called ' Neither shall thy name any more be shall Abram. addressing them direct or through angels these.TABOO of civilised 139 mankind have no doubt that God all their knows each one of them and belongings by name. I will for do this thing also that thou hast spoken thou hast found grace in thee by name' (Exodus My sight. and I know xxxiii. but Israel. 17). . for as a prince hast thou power with {ibid. as He is recorded to have known men of olden time. for a father of many nations I have said. in many the instances. made thee ' (Genesis xvii. ' And he Thy name shall be called no more Jacob. but thy name be Abraham. runs through the Bible. by their names. because that belief is involved in the unscientific theories of . God and xxxii. Miscellaneous as are the contents of the Old and New Testaments. 'And the Lord said unto Moses. the belief in efficacy of names. with men.

The Norse witches tied up wind and foul matter in a bag. present soar in all ancient Man may live in into the abstract. itself Amidst all the vagueness which attaches to conceptions of another world. dance . there is the feeling that the names of the departed are essential to their identification when they enter the unseen. in the devil's name. and then. is The God of the current theology no nameless Being. he finds what slight advance he has made upon primitive conceptions. and one of the prominent spiritual hierarchy is members of the ing Angel that Record- who writes the names of redeemed mortals in the Book of Life.140 TABOO are phenomena which literatures. and to nition their recogCivilised by those who will follow them. When he descends from hazy altitudes to confront the forms in which he envisages his ideas. To name the invisible is to invoke its pre- sence or the manifestation of its power.' when the hurricane the witch's swept over land and sea. and savage are here on the same intellectual plane. shouted ' Wind. but he has to the concrete. undoing the knot.

or Christ ' by uttering the name of God . cups gives her and jewels of gold. her heart horse. using only her hands. it. till it taking a handkerchief.TABOO could be stopped. This she gives to the princess. cuts her own finger bleeds.' (hi) In Grimm''s story of the 'Goose Girl.' when the old queen's daughter starts for the kingdom of her betrothed. devil. a great thirst fell girl had ridden some her. and the like idea is expressed in the phrase. As she drank she sighed. letting three drops of blood fall on the handkerchief. her mother costly trinkets. and. But the girl refused. Talk of the and you '11 see his horns. upon the and she bade the dismount to fill golden cup with water from a stream hard by.' The mounted her but had not gone far before her thirst returned . ' blood If thy mother knew princess this. . bidding her preserve because she will need it on the way. After she and her waiting-maid miles. would break. whereupon the princess alighted to slake her thirst. and the 141 dancers dispersed. and the three drops of said. because the girl would not let her have the cup.

went the prince. be He was an enemy to slain or spoiled or hated. and then. Thenceforth her strength left her. while she. her handkerchief out of her bosom. as came right in the end . stooped to the stream. in. As Sir Henry Maine has observed. one of a group of kindred folk-tales. all Of course. and again she alighted to drink. the story. and was embraced by usual in fiction. forbade her entrance. made the princess exchange clothes and horses. pretending to be the expected bride. and was carried away by the current. as much as the wild .142 'TABOO But this time. being cited only to show how the main incident revolves efficacy of blood. blood-relationship is the sole tie that unites men into tribal com'there fore- munities. on the barbaric belief in the In the early stages of society. but we are not further concerned with the fortunes of the persons. was no brotherhood recognised by our savage fathers except actual consanguinity regarded as a fact. when the palace was reached. If a man was not of kin to another. there was nothing between them. as she fell again the maid refused to serve her. and She the maid had her wholly in her power.

his fellows. charged with the manifold forces of self-assertion and aggression bequeathed by a stormy and struggling past. . 65. all mankind.^ TABOO beasts 143 war. has extended the feeling of community. in unison with growing recognition of mutual rights and obligations. do their best to dispel the dream of the unity of observed. As already the importance and sanctity attached to blood explain the existence of a large number of rites connected with cove- nants between man and .' alien and unrelated And although enlarged knowledge. an outlook on the world does not unprejudiced warrant the hope that the old tribal feeling has passed the limits of race. Human nature being what it is. Early History of Institutions. It would scarcely be too strong an assertion that the dogs which followed the camp had more tribesmen of an in common with it than the tribe. the various nationalities. basing their claims and their unity on the theory of blood-relationship. as belong- upon which the tribes made ing indeed to the craftiest and the cruelest order of white animals. and between man and his gods 1 covenants sealed by the drinkp.

ii. or offering of blood. community of nature and is as it a widely diffused belief that the its name vitally is connected with owner. ing. that by absorb' ing each other's blood. or with the bestowal of new names. . Thenceforth he became M'Kee. part p. proposed an exchange of names.144 TABOO Any account of these rites. a made a treaty Colonel M'Kee. full notably on their sacri- ficial side. an American cessions. Principles of Sociology. establish actual is men are supposed to ' . as to certain con- he desired some ceremony of brotherhood after to make the covenant binding.' ^ Hence the blending is regarded as more goes with the complete when exchange of name mingling of blood. 21. which sometimes accompanies them. is would need a volume. officer. and. Mr. or interfusing. some parleying. but here reference again made to them in connection with the exchange of names. making even more obligatory the rendering of services between those who are no longer Shastikan aliens to each other. chief. which was agreed 1 to. Herbert Spencer remarks. When with Tolo. ' to exchange names to establish some participation in one another's being.

which he did by giving me 1 his own name.TABOO and M'Kee became Tolo. was lost. iii. made the exchange. and to the day of He would his death insisted that his name. his identity. and. and in the utter muddle of his mind as to who and what he had become. The custom West of name-exchanging existed in the Indies at the time of Columbus and .'- There is no small pathos in this revolt of the rude moral sense of the Indian against the white man's trickery. ' He had been in Contributions to Quoted by Dr. named Oree. and refused to resume that of Tolo. p. whereby Cook became ' Oree and the native became Cookee. Captain Cook and a native.'' not answer to either. therefore. vol. Cayenderongue. . But Cad- wallader Colden's account of his new name is admirable evidence of what there the mind of the savage. 145 after a while the But Indian found that the American was shuffling over the bargain. in the South Seas. North American EthrMlogy. 247. Trumbull from Powers' Tribes of California. whereupon off that ' M'Kee angrily cast name. is in a name to time I was " The first among the Mohawks I had this compliment from one of their old Sachems.

quoting from Colden's History of the Five India/n Nations of Canada. 10 (1747). called mundie. and the sponsor. Early History of Mankind. to the novitiate in manhood when he is receives his new name. 128. he found that he was known by the name he had thus received. A curious addition to the New South Wales ritual consists in the giving of a white stone or quartz crystal. to induce 1 Tylor. is A test of the young man's moral stamina made by the old men trying. p. p. ' This stone counted a gift from deity. part i. and is held peculiarly sacred. ^ and that the old chief had taken another. by all sorts of persuasion.146 TABOO me that a notable warrior. and the lad then drinks the warm blood. and that now my name would echo Nations. and he told now I had a right to assume all the acts of valour he had performed.'''' from hill to hill over all the Five When still Golden went back into the same part ten or twelve years later.' In the manhood-initiation rites of the native Australians a long series of ceremonies ' is followed by the conferring of a new name on the youth. opens a vein in own arm. who may be to a godfather his said to correspond among ourselves. .

Frazer published Golden Bough. . are for- and never shown to the women. increases the power of the taboo. working men depended. 337. was somewhat obscure. The divinity that ' doth hedge' both king and priest. 336. That being the obviously the utmost care was used to pro1 Trumbull. indeed overcrowding. as applied to royal and sacerdotal persons. make it clear that the priest-king was regarded as the incarnation of supernatural effective powers on whose unhindered and the welfare of belief.' ^ (b) Taboo on Names of Kings and Priests Avoidance and veneration superstitions gather force with the ascending rank of individuals. pp.TABOO him to surrender received is it. array of examples which his industry has collected and his ingenuity interpreted. the nificance of this taboo. 147 this possession when first he has This accompaniment of a new name in the hair. But the large. which two offices were originally blended in one man. it who bidden to look at under pain of death. tied worn concealed is up in a packet. his Until sig- Mr.

it may be example its well to explain this barbaric theory of the spirit indwelling in man by citing the typical which Mr. because he could obtain the priestly office only by killing the man who it.148 TABOO way the individual in tect in every possible whom those powers were incarnated. As the Golden of popular Bough does not come under the head within a limited circle. Lord Macaulay. therefore. a few miles from Rome. and.' and. there was a famous grove and temple dedicated to Diana. The temple was on under the cliffs the northern shore of the lake village of on which the modern priest of that temple. an old town on the Alban Hills. at he was always a runaway in later times. books in the sense of being widely read. and which gives title to his book. held it. or ' King of the Grove. although. least slave. often quoted. The which was held in high repute throughout Italy. was called Rex Nemorensis. The strangest feature of the business was that he must be a murderer. when he had secured alert against being he had to be always on the attacked. Nemi stands. in his poem of the . Three miles from Aricia. Frazer has chosen.

and it is con- nection with the groups of rites and ceremonies gathering round certain phases of nature-worship.— TABOO ' 149 Battle of Lake Regillus ' {Lays ofAncient Rome). and if any runaway slave could it. The priest who slew the slayer.' This priest-king kept special guard over a sacred tree. who during his reign had long been left unassailed.off a branch from the was compelled to fight him in single com- bat. And shall himself be slain. refers to this curious ' custom : From the still. and especially active where motion was apparent. In the general application of the barbaric conception of life indwelling in all things. The existence of this custom within hisis torical times proved by the circumstance that orders that the the Emperor Caligula gave Rex Nemorensis. notably tree-worship. has been established. for- But origin and reason had then become only in our time that its gotten. glassy lake that sleeps Beneath Aricia's trees Those trees in whose dim shadow The ghostly priest doth reign. should its be attacked and killed. and where . succeed in priest breaking.

from which the ' runaway slave sought to break off the Golden Frazer Bough' —the suggests — was parasitic mistletoe. then the earth would become old and feeble also. the priest- king. it may be added. was not allowed to reach old age . worship . and decline marked the object. 150 TABOO spirit. believed to pass into his slayer and The sacred tree. maturity. Mr. was successor. to prevent this. the trees yielding no fruit and the harvest. growth. the tree was believed to be the abode of a while the priest was regarded as an incarnation of the tree-spirit on which the fruitfulness of the soil depended. he was killed. fields no Therefore. and between one non-living thing and another it is and therein that the key is found to the suffered to belief that if the live Rex Nemorensis was on until he became decrepit by age. and the divine spirit.. as an incarnated god. the probably an oak. and when his waning strength was proved by his inability to hold his own against the aggressor. with its power and vigour unimpaired. We living have seen how universal is the barbaric belief in real and vital connection between also one thing and another.

and to do such things as. the incarnation being sometimes tem- porary. Incarnate gods are common enough in rude society. and among former. we of find corro- borative examples in old-world traditions. fateful sibyl's 151 among the Aryan-speaking Tradition averred that the branch which ^neas plucked at the bidding. although now somewhat shorn of his ancient glory. and sometimes permanent. ' The Can' tonese apply the expressive term priests in god boxes to whom the gods are believed to dwell in seeking for correspond- from time to time. He was required ' to take rigorous care of his person. and stripped of the mystery that invested was regarded as an incarnation of the him. savage races to-day. sun. all the gods repairing once every year to spend a month at his court. who. before he essayed the perilous journey to the underworld.TABOO of which was general peoples of Europe. was the Golden Bough. would be thought ridiculous . examined according to the custom of other nations. but ences to the Rex Nemorensis. Among the we have those relating to the Mikado.

G.' The pots in which his food was cooked and served were destroyed lest they should fall into lay hands . tabooed person to the things he wears. his clothes were fatal is to those who touched them — for taboo extended from the tastes. nor his dirty.' ^ it also withered In Tahiti. i. 110. because a theft at such time ^ did not prejudice his holiness or dignity.' Zapotecs in South Mexico. he was required to motionless the day so that tranquillity might be assured . vol. and if he glanced at a bread-fruit tree away. that he dare not cut nails. Turner. Rev. p. nor his beard. Samoa. His very glance was poison. But ' that he might not grow too washed he was in his sleep. p. even to the objects on which he looks. it If he looked at a coco-nut tree died. or or handles. 1 2 if a chief's foot touches the Golden Bough. . his feet must never touch the ground his all . 23. as illustrated by the Samoan high priest and ' prophet Tupai. the sun must never shine on sit naked head .152 TABOO Like the high pontiff of the and impertinent. to his empire all and such holiness was ascribed to ' the parts of his body.' off neither his hair.

might not enter a private house. if Returning to Rome. cf. p. xxxv. chiefs are therefore carried in Tahiti If he in when they go . viii. the spot which it touches becomes taboo and none may approach it . 62. rules governing the minutest details of his He might not ride or even touch a horse.^ chief. we find the Flamen Dialis. ^ ' like those of . nor wear a ring which was not broken. enters a house it becomes taboo and of ancient Greece the priest and priestess Artemis Hymnia amongst the Orchomenians. Jevons correctly As with the Caesars. the Pharaohs were deified in their lifetime. 'for the same reason as the Polynesian suggests.' as Dr. therefore. who was consecrated to the service of Jupiter. while they too were held blamable the crops failed. and who. 9. was probably the incarnated sky-spirit. nor Neither their washings nor their ways of life in general are common folk. Jeremiah. nor see an army under arms. 13. out. ^ Introduction to History of Religion. and their daily routine was regulated after the fashion of the Mikado. nor do they enter the house of a private man/ Pausanias. 153 earth.TABOO thenceforth.^ and the Rechabites among the Jews. tied and bound by life.

raw meat. had to observe nearly the same rules. leavened bread he might not touch or even name a goat. the- head of it as a charm against evil his hair could be cut only by a free man tree and with a bronze knife. and others of her own besides. and iron was put at spirits . work being done on holy days uncovered ' or annoint himselfe if he might not be ^ "" in the his open air a man in bonds were taken into house he had to be unbound. he might not see . and the cords had to be drawn in the roof. 40. . nor enter a place where one was burned . p. and so let down His the Flaminica. .. beans. he might not touch wheaten flour or . i. 117. had to be buried under a lucky he might not touch a dead body. vol. and his hair and nails. . 154 TABOO . a dog. and ivy he might not walk under a vine the feet of his bed had to be daubed with mud. wife. have a knot in any part of his garments except a sacred fire no fire might be taken out of his house . when cut.^ and when she died the Flamen ' or Priest of Jupiter had to give up his Priesthood 1 Plutarch. Romane Que$ti(ms. ^ Golden Bough. up through a hole into the street.

. and killed as a criminal the next. was sleep. not allowed to quit his chair to he lay down no wind could arise it while in Congo was held that if the incarnated priest-king died a natural death. because if . ' to be kept in vigour at the risk of his worshipped as a god one day.' As these wind and weather gods are held re- sponsible for droughts ^ and bad harvests. he had life. This perception of continuity. is wholly modern. like There- the Rex Nemorensis. the priest-king. illuminated by numerous examples at home and abroad. seas in search of parallels among barbaric In Lower Guinea. because it did not occur to him that the explanation must be sought in the per- sistence of the barbaric ideas of remote ancestors. and he has fanciful many a comment upon them. after tracking the vitality of a belief or custom among the illiterate in civilised communities. and therefore. who was a wind-god. it is not Romane Questions^ 50. the world would perish. we cross the folk.TABOO or Sacerdotall dignitie. for. erroneous as well as fanciful.' ^ 155 Plutarch was greatly puzzled in his search after a rational explanation of these and kindred matters.

^ and. would be the subject of taboo. he said to have cruelles or heallit one hundred persons of the Kings eivell. it was not until the that the custom was abolished. 62 (1834). as in the curing of their scrofula visited ' by touch.156 TABOO is surprising that there no rush of candidates for vacant thrones with their miserable restraints and isolation. it. had the good sense to pooh-pooh reign of George i. The intangible. Scot- land in 1633. coming near the confines of that spiritual realm where > man Dalyell. and that the tactics of the press- gang have sometimes to be resorted to that the succession of the incarnated broken. Darker Superstitions of Scotland. even more than the as tangible. in order may not be In this group of customs hedging in the royal person and his belongings there lie the materials out of which has been evolved the well-nigh obsolete and long mischievous theory of the right divine of kings. . with its resulting belief in their possession of powers bordering on the supernatural.' in Holyrood Chapel on St. p. although William in. When is Charles i. John's day. young and olde.

Meeting the Sun. Frazer omits from his otherwise comprehensive survey. and." ' A Chinese work explains this as follows b. In China the ming or proper reigning name is of the Emperor (sight in of whom tabooed guards when he appears pubhc. title of She Hwang- He succeeded to the throne of China (T'sin) at the age of thirteen. it is not permitted to be written ' or pronounced by any subject.c. is The word ching in the first it really in this particular case pronounced tone or " upper monotone. p.TABOO had no control. . secrecy which hedged the royal name a feature which Mr. following up the career of conquest initiated by his tutor. Although given in the prayer offered at the imperial worship of ancestors. : There lived in the third century a noted Emperor who assumed the Ti. he was able to found a 1 new empire on the ruins of the "William Simpson. 157 Hence the . be spelt differently during his lifetime. The first month of the Chinese year is called Ching-id. 153. even his having to turn their back to the line when the and must Son of Heaven approaches ^) is sacred." though belongs to the third or " upper falling tone.

' and Folk-Lore Record. he might be ever held syllable ching commanded that the Hence the change be tabooed. p. iv. vol.^ and his most Polack says that from a ' New Zealand chief being called ' Wai. the name he bears in never spoken save in the secrecy of the palace harem. 30tli August 1894. Times.'^ No Korean his dare utter his king's is name. life.' a new name had was called 1 = ' to be given to water. and in the twenty-sixth year of his reign declared himself sole master of the Chinese Empire. When the king dies he royal given another name. A chief Maripi. in pronunciation referred to. and shows itself in his desire.158 TABOO Chinese feudal system.' which means water. . and. that sacred. 73. to be considered great the manner in which he destroyed the classics of his land.' or ' knife. it His name was Ching. He was superstitious. by which personality fill may be history. that his name might be handed down first to posterity as the Emperor of China. And even there it is spoken only by the privileged lips of his favourite wife spoiled children. is kept clear in the mass of names that But his real name.

147. Third. vol. any : words even to resembling call his name were ^ changed ' " a horse or dog " prince or " princess " was disgusting to the native mind. Voyage. had been as tori. observes that the accession his of which took place between of Captain Cook. and. p.TABOO knives were therefore called ' 159 by another name. . Early History of Mankind.' On his accession to royalty. Jetu. in the all case of a king whose name was Tu. name of the king of the Society Islands was changed. so tabooed altogether. remarks. becoming Jetm. to tiai.' The custom which that is known as te pi. to strike. ii. p. or only part of as to make it high treason to speak of Tories during her the reign. nekra. and any one uttering the old name was 1 ^ Tylor. Captain Cook. being at changed Vancouver that ruler. Victoria.' ^ In Tahiti. 170. when a chief took highest rank. words in : syllable occurred were star. ' As It is Professor Max Miiller ingeniously as if with the accession of Queen either the word Victory it. no less own visit and that fifty than forty or of the names most in daily use had been entirely changed. changed or for tui. example.

Religion of the Ancient Egyptians. p. Governor of Kotenon. who had been imprisoned by the King of Dahomey. his name it was. pro- bably through fear that it. whereon Tum. 98. 2 ^ E. Safekht.^ p. painting on the temple of Rameses at Gurnah. S. should enable any enemy to harm him hence the names by which the different kings have been known to Europeans are names. 310. Cai-not bewitch him through An interesting comis ment on the foregoing examples supplied by a ii. 156. Ewe-Speaking Peoples. kept secret the knowledge of . Ellis. and Thoth are depicted as inscribing that monarch's tree of Heliopolis. name on the sacred by which act he was endowed with eternal 1 life. indeed.160 TABOO all his relatives. Bayol.' ^ aliases —in native term. . Hartland. put to death with Death was of the penalty for uttering the name of the king Dahomey in his presence lest . Wiedemann. ' strong The London newspapers of June 1890 reprinted extracts from a letter in the Vossische Zeitung relating the adventures of Dr. Science of Fairy Tales. p. The king was too name might suspicious to sign the letter written in his to the President of the French Republic.^ M.

transferred into his own person that which had secured sanctity and supremacy to the priest-king. supreme importance of its functions the priest. l6l separation of the priestly and kingly which followed the gradual subdivision of functions in society. Whatever the appertained to the sacerdotal office reflected . and held the keys of admission king. in the courtyard of Gregory at Canossa.TABOO The offices. there could not to arise the conflicts between the temporal and the spiritual dignities of which history tells. tended to increase the power of the priest in the degree that he represented the kingdom of the invisible and the dreaded. The who reigned by the grace of God. as the term goes in civilised communities. and the king was so much the poorer. iv. as incarnation of the god. therein. and. The prerogatives which the Church claimed could only be granted by the State consenting to accept a position of vassalage trated illus- by the submission of Henry vii. a modern example of these being the relations between the Quirinal and the Vatican. The supernatural power . fail hence. was con- secrated to his office by the minister of God.

A brief . human For to admit that these claims were open to question would have been fatal to the existence of the priestly order. and how persistent they are seen in the feeling amongst the highest races that the malis treating or killing of a priest a greater crime than the maltreating or killing of a layman. and perhaps one of the most is striking illustrations of this supplied by the record of customs attaching to the holy and hidden name of the priests of Eleusis. his fellows. and that the robbery of a church is a greater oflfence than the devouring of widows' houses. These remarks are designed to show that the examples of royal and sacerdotal taboos cited above have increased force when applied to priests in their ascending degrees from medicine- men to popes . and place him whose resulting conservatism challenge of its and opposition to all claims have been among the chief arresting forces in progress.162 TABOO isolate which the priest claimed tended to him more and more from in the highest caste. regulating the life The taboos guarding and and of the priest-king therefore increase in rigidity when applied to priest is shrine .

all and go to the abode of the blest. then will who care for me pronounce it.' When the priest was dead. ' —which he adopted Directly he assumed of the Bleusinian Priests. 1891. the mystic away into the blue rule (or packet) has carried it sea.' W.' The inscription on base ran thus ' Ask not my name. the rest being mutilated. when alive. Pa ton.TABOO account of this 163 may close the references to name- avoidance and name-substitution so far as the living are concerned. This ApoUonius. . 202 and Transactions. ff. . R. his children. the most solemn rites of the its Pagan : world. his sons added some words. Papers pp. Some years ago a statue of one of these hiero- phants was found in that ancient seat of 'the Venerable Mysteries of Demeter. sea. of which only a few are decipherable. reveal the name of the best of fathers. 'Now the we. The Holy Names International Folk-Lore Congress. The name which the priest thus desired should be kept secret until his death was the holy name —usually on taking 1 that of some god his sacred office. which.'^ . is he hid in the famous depths of the . But when I reach the fated day.

is Among these. in this custom of the Greek priest- hood. there was a survival of the barbaric taboo which conceals an individual's name for the same reason that it burns or buries his material belongings. so that. a connection salt instead by the choice of of The custom of sending diseases and demons out to sea is in canoes or in toy-ships. but when he went 'to the abode of the nounced. probably connected with lustration further evidenced fresh water. the chief is one the committal to the sea. (c) Taboo on Names of the Dead liviiig to Passing from the the dead. .' it was 'pro- and became the name by which he was known arise to posterity. Some interesting questions out of the ceremonies attaching to the name-concealment. as symbol of its secrecy.'' blest. which rites . was probably written on a tablet. to say that. not unknown in Malaysia and other parts but discussion on evils modes of transfer and expulsion of and it suffices would lead us too far afield.164 TABOO it that name. and to . it might be buried in the depths of the sea.

of gods. only a few securing such renown as obtains their promotion to the rank of godlings. cheerless in their choice of evils. would accept the Hades so that they might not wander as un- . terrors of the underworld while the remainder. since no one key fits the complex of the wards unseen. of the barbaric The conflicting be- haviour mind towards ghosts and all their kin should be a warning to the framers of cut-and-dried theories of the origin of religion. 165 find the we power of it taboo increased in the degree that things invests more mysterious. Others there are for whom no hope of deification removes the . or to pass-in food to them . a large number is a vague sort of worship in which fear the chief element.' While receive memory of them abides. Sometimes the dead are holes are tempted by offerings at the graves cut in the rude stone tombs to let them out. all sorts of devices are adopted to prevent them from finding their way back ' to their old haunts. at other times.TABOO spiritual beings generally. by another step or two. and. the one object being to lay the ghost. of the lock opening the door spirits of the .

an one.' he Named softly as the household name of one whom God is hath taken. they would use great circumlocution for example. the desired. conceptions of another but not less bewilder- ing than the result of any attempt to extract from intelligent people who believe state in a future some coherent idea of what happens to the soul between death and the day of judgment. Barrett Browning's ' ' To quote from Mrs. because to do so to disturb him summon him. When any member of a tribe Tasmanians abstained ever after from mentioning his name. as Vague and contradictory civilised notions is. there on these matters may nevertheless. at the base a common feeling that prompts to awe and hushed tone when speaking of the dead. is Cowper's Grave.166 buried shades. TABOO All which is bewildering enough and fatal to any uniformity of principle ruling life. 'if William and Mary. husband and .' Among or to a large number of barbaric races he is is never named. both savage and be. In referring to such . believing that to do so would bring dire calamities upon them. and that the last thing died.

Queensland.' they would say. name never escaped and. wife of the brother of Jemmy's father's the wife. who was his brother. sister of 167 were both dead. ^ H. p. no promises or threats could it. p. He told me who the lad's father like. who was Newtown. the deceased William. and they ' wished to speak of Mary.-"^ The Tasmanian circumlocution equalled by that of the Australian native from whom was. and who were panions. 278. 74. that they took every precaution to avoid being drawn into talk about him with white men. and Lucy. whose son Jemmy still survived. Backhouse recording that one of the women threw sticks at J.' ^ have induced him to utter 1 Lumholtz p.' So great was their fear of offending the shade of the dead by naming him. I believe. but the dreaded lips. Ling Roth. how he held his tomahawk in his left his hand instead of his right. what he was how comhis he walked. 367. Thornton on at school at is his mentioning her son. Lang ' tried to learn the name of a slain relative.TABOO wife. also dead. Dr. And that reluctance was extended to the absent. had been married to Isaac. ^ 3 . The Tasmanians. Among Cannibals.

' him by No dead Dorman person must be mentioned.168 TABOO names of the dead.^ In this they from some folk nearer home. 2 Tylor. W. and thus discover their whereabouts ' . and none could com- prehend the meaning of her evening songs. lest their spirits remarks that none of the Australian aborigines ' utter the should hear the voices of the living. vol. and had dreams which told her that she was created for an unheard-of mission. and Sir George Grey says that the only modification of the taboo which he found among them was a lessened reluctance to utter the name of any one who had differ been dead for some time. 1 On ii. one con- Travels in N. 144. Australia. p. . She was a daughter of the tribe. There was a mystery about her being. p.' gives a touching illustration in of this superstition the Shawnee myth of Yellow Sky. 232. for the Shetland Island widow cannot be got to mention the name of her husband. his for his ghost will ^ come to him who speaks name. The paths leading to her father's lodge were more beaten than those to any other. Early History of Mankind. although she will talk of the hour.

warned him. 155. she shrieked 1 out his P. an Indian asked him whose it was. a sad calamity would befall him. . For five summers he lived in solitude. and as darkness settled round about him a change came over him. and her last words were that her husband might never breathe her name. 169 become a namely. but one day. that he who wedded her should If he did. she never mention her name. the story told of a bridegroom and his friends who were riding through a wood.^ is Conversely. near the grave of Yellow Sky. a large buck was quietly feeding. It was the unhappy husband. when they were into wolves by evil spirits. He fell to the earth in great pain. Next morning. as she thought of her lost lover. and in anguish of heart. and he would for ever thereafter regret ness. in Swedish folk-lore. as he was by the grave of his dead wife.TABOO dition alone at last she consented to wife. the forlorn bride all transformed After the lapse of was walking one day in the same forest. his thoughtless- After a time Yellow Sky sickened and died. years. and in forgetfulness he uttered the forbidden name.

;

170

TABOO
Immediately he appeared in

name.

human form
his

and rushed into her arms.

The sound of

Christian name had dissolved the devilish spell that

bound him.

Among

both the Chinook Indians

and the Lenguas of

Brazil, the near relatives of
lest

the deceased changed their names,

the spirit

should be drawn back to earth by hearing the
old
calls

name used

;

while in another tribe,

'

if

one

the dead by name, he must answer to the
relatives.

dead man's

He must

surrender his

own

blood, or pay blood-money in restitution
life

of the

of the dead taken by him.'^

The

Abipones invented new words for anything whose

name

recalled the

dead person's memory, while
nefarious proceeding
tribes,

to utter his

name was a

and among certain northern

when a death

occurred, if a relative of the deceased was absent,
his friends

would hang along the road by which
fact, so

he would return to apprise him of the

that he might not mention the dreaded

name

on
if

his arrival.

Among

the Connecticut tribes,

the offence of naming the dead was twice

repeated, death was not regarded as a punish'

First

Americom Report of Bureau of Uthnology,

p. 204.

TABOO
ment too
severe.

171

In 1655, Philip, having heard

that another Indian had spoken the

name of

his

deceased relative, came to the island of Nantucket
to kill him, and the English had to interfere to

prevent
the

it.^

If

among

the Californian tribes
accidentally mentioned,

name of the dead was

a shudder passed over those present.

An

aged

Indian of Lake Michigan explained why tales of
the spirits were told only in winter, by saying that when the deep snow
voices of those
is

on the ground the

who repeat

their

names are muffled,
mention of them

but that in summer the

slightest

must be avoided,
their

lest in

the clear air they hear

own names and

are offended. ^
its

Among
'

the

Fuegians, when a child asks for

dead father or

mother,

it will

be reproved and told not to speak

bad words'; and the Abipones, to whom reference
has just been made, will use some periphrasis for the dead, as
'

the

man who
Becke

does not

now

exist.'

My

friend Louis

tells

me
it

that 'in the

olden days in the Ellice Islands,
to always speak of a dead
1

was customary
other

man by some

Dorman,

p. 154.
iii.

2

Schoolcraft, part

p. 314.

172

TABOO
alive.
if

name than that which he had borne when
For instance,
Kino,

who

in life

was a builder

of canoes, died, he would perhaps be spoken of as

" teaura moli,"

i.e.

" perfectly

fitting outrigger,'"

to denote that he had been especially skilled in building and fitting an outrigger to a canoe.

He

would never be spoken of as Kino, though
grandson might bear his name heredithis last remark,

his son or
tarily.'

As bearing on

among

the Iroquois, the

name of a dead man could not be

used again in the lifetime of his oldest surviving

son without the consent of the

latter.^

To
like

this

list

might be added examples of

name-avoidance of the dead among Ostiaks,

Ainos, Samoyeds, Papuans, Masai, and numerous

other peoples at

corresponding low levels of

culture, but that addition

would only lend super-

fluous strength to world-wide evidence of a practice

whose motive

is

clear,

and whose

interest for

us chiefly

lies in its

witness to the like attitude
before the mystery of the

of the

human mind

hereafter.
1

L.

H. Morgan, Ancient

Society, p. 79.

TABOO
(d)

173

Taboo on the Names of Gods
of

As with names
spirits,

the lesser

hierarchy of
;

so with the

name of a god

but with

the added significance which deity imports.

To

know

it, is

to enable the utterer to invoke him.
it

Moreover,
close

enables the

human

to enter into

communion with the

divine, even to obtain

power over the god
of the god to

himself.

Hence the

refusal

tell his

name, and of the devices

employed to discover
feeling that the
full

it.

On

the other hand, the

god

is

jealous of his name,

and

of threatenings against those

who take

it in

vain, gives rise to the

employment of some other

name.

But, whatever

may be
is

the attitude of

the worshipper, there

belief in the

power of

the name, and in virtues inhering therein.

The

gods

whom man
in his

worships with bloody rites are
the names given

made

own image, and

them which he dreads
coinage.

to pronounce are his

own

But the

lapse

of time, ever investis

ing with mystery that which

withdrawn or

receding, and the stupendous force of tradition,

which transmutes the ordinary into the excep-

174

TABOO
And any
survey
things

tional, explain the paradox.

of the confusion between persons and

supplies such illustration of the vagaries of the

human mind

at the barbaric stage that
its

we

cease

to look for logical sequence in

behaviour.

Even where we might
of fundamental

feel

warranted in expect-

ing a certain consistency, or a certain perception
differences,

we

find

the
its

insight lacking.

Here, too, tradition asserts

power

;

we

see

how

superficial are the changes in

human

nature as a whole, and in what small
'

degree the

old

Adam

'

has been cast out.

A

striking illustration of the belief in the

power

over the god which mortals

may

secure

by know-

ledge of his

name

is

supplied by the conceal-

ment of the name of the tutelary deity of Rome.
Plutarch asks,
is
'

How commeth

it

to passe, that
either to

it

expressly forbidden at

Rome,

name

or to

demaund ought

as touching the Tutelar

god,

who hath

in

particular
safetie

recommendation

and patronage the
the citie
;

and preservation of

nor so much as to enquire whether
?

the said deitie be male or female
this prohibition proceedeth

And

verely

from a superstitious

TABOO
feare

175

that they have, for that they say, that
ill

Valerius Soranus died an

death because he
^

presumed to utter and publish so much.'
tarch's

Plu-

answer shows more approach to the true
is

explanation than

his wont.
:

He

continues the

interrogative strain
taine

'

Is it in

regard of a cerhistorians

reason that
;

some

Latin

do

alledge
tions

namely, that there be certaine evocaspels

and enchantings of the gods by

and

charmes, through the power whereof they are of

opinion that they might be able to

call forth

and draw away the Tutelar gods of

their enemies,

and to cause them to come and dwell with them;

and therefore the Romans be

afraid lest they

may do

as

much

for

them ?

For, like as in times

past the Tyrians, as we find upon record,
their citie

when

was besieged, enchained the images of

their gods to their shrines,^ for feare they would

abandon their

citie

and be gone, and as others
sureties that they should

demanded pledges and
come againe to

their place, whensoever they sent

them
1 '

to any bath to be washed, or let

them go
Crooke,

EoTnane Questions, 61. On the cnstom of binding of gods, see paper by

Wm.

Folk-Lore, 1897, pp. 325-355.

Roman pantheon in practical life. to any expiation to be cleansed even so the Romans thought. was the guardian spirit of Cunina the cradle . greater place in the Roman This practice. lest its enemies tactics. 127. was the best meanes. Rumina. Early History of . and to offer him the same pantheon. the Mankind.176 TABOO . p. whom he thinks trustworthy. that to be altogether unknowen and not once named.^ The greater gods of the . and surest way to keepe with their Tutelar god. the spirit of suckling. Tylor. affairs were of foreign origin the religion of the Romans and was wholly designed for use the gods detail who ruled human in minutest from the hour of birth to that of death and burial were shapeless abstractions. 1 Educa and Potina.' Pliny says that Verrius Flaccus quotes authors. to the laid siege to effect that first when the Romans a town. still remains in the pontifical discipline. the step was for the priests to summon the guardian or a god of the place. it and it is certainly for this reason that has been kept secret under the protection of itself what god Rome should use like has been. Pliny adds.

the Roman was it above the savage. Agriculture being the main occupation. watched over the child at home . attendant . and the hinges each had culus. if show how at all. spirit. because he believed that utter the was ' sufficient to '' names of any one of the its Di Indigetes to secure presence and protection. the and arrival. the spirits of departing and travelling. For- and Cardea while Janus presided over door-openings. there were spirits of harrowing. guarding the household from evil spirits. brought him home The its threshold. Adeona and Domiduca. guided the mer- chant vessel safe to port. and threshing . spirits of approaching again. ploughing. Abeona and Iterduca. while Pecunia.' and it was part of the duty of the pontiffs to keep a complete register of them on lists called indigitamenta. attended him on his journey . harvesting. Our interest here lies in the fact that they little. the harbour-spirit. attended the trader. ' the spirit of money. and Portunus. sowing. Hence the spirit importance of omitting the name of no . Limertinus.TABOO spirits of eating 177 and drinking. the door. are These vague numina known as ' Di Indigetes.

Ivii Grainger. opinion of Professor Sayce. bear comparison with the Psalms of the Hebrews. 134. what do they know ? Upon which Professor Sayce in the mysterious i-emarks is : ' The belief power of names lest still strong upon him. vol. he does not venture to enumerate the gods. as many as pronounce a name. but classes titles them under the comprehensive is is of the divinities with whose names he acquainted. Mommsen. Jevous. and of those of whose names he ignorant. History of Rome. 111 . date from in the Accadian times. O god. . none that knoweth Mankind. and which. should not be named or else be named incorrectly. Worship of the Romans. which. History of vol. ? shall thy heart in its hostility be (not) appeased Mankind is made to wander. i. i. O goddess. whom I know. .^ from the tial Among the Peniten- Psalms of the Babylonian scriptures. and know and there is not.— ' . and know not. we find the worshipper pleading ' How How long. whom I know. shall the fierceness of thy heart continue ? long. Introd. It is the same when he refers to the Rome. In fear the deity he has offended at all. in their depth of feeling and dignity. p. 120 . pp. Ihne. 34. p. 178 TABOO pontifical lists. RoTiume Questions. p.

pp. religious assembly — for even sects ritual. laid And although undue might be on certain passages in the Bible which convey the idea of the integral relation between the Deity and His name. ' who. 1 Hibbert Lectures. than he suspects. would be doubted if the name of the Deity was omitted.' The ancient modern worshipper is nearer to the Roman and Every Chaldean. that ^ is. like the Quakers. the efficacy of certain notably that of baptism and of exorcism. or the casting-out of demons." as many. . the ancient superstiIf he as tion about words shows itself plainly. it is not to be questioned that rites. 1887.TABOO human race. again. 353. alludes to mankind. it is to " mankind many as pronounce a name. So that the civilisation between the lower and the higher hard to draw in stress this matter. eschew all break spirit the silence of their gatherings when the moveth'' —invokes line is the Deity in the feeling that is thereby His nearer presence the more assured. as have names which may be pronounced. and to the bar- barian of past and present time. 350. 179 Here.

and as yielding only through is strategy or cunning. The dignity of the story. saying. xiii. .' 180 TABOO religions. preserves a remarkable legend of the great Ra. as in the margin of the Authorised Version). ' 1 Chap. ruling over men as the first king of Egypt. Englished by Dr. demands that slightest abridgement. Wallis Budge. or their That the gods of the higher representatives. in keeping with barbaric In the Book of Judges^ we read said unto the angel of the Lord. seeing it is secret ? (or wonderful. that ' Manoah is What to thy name. Cannot I . oldest of the gods. and she chose the millions of the gods. tell their are described as reluctant to names. And she meditated in her heart. that when thy sayings come pass we may do thee honour ? And the angel of the Lord said unto him. 17. Why askest thou thus after my name. is depicted as in familiar converse with them. A Turin papyrus. conceptions. 18. dating from the twentieth dynasty. it be given with only the Now Isis was a woman who possessed words of power her heart was wearied with the millions of men. but she esteemed more highly the millions of the kkus. and one who.

TABOO
mistress of the earth and

181

by means of the sacred name of God make myself become a goddess hke unto Rft in heaven and upon earth ? Now, behold, each day Rfi entered at the head of his holy mariners and established himself upon the throne of the two horizons. The holy one had grown old, he dribbled at the mouth, his spittle fell upon the earth, and his slobbering dropped upon the ground. And Isis kneaded it with earth in her hand, and formed thereof a sacred serpent in the form of a
'

spear; she set
let it lie

it

not upright before her face, but

upon the ground in the path whereby the great god went forth, according to his heart's desire, into his double kingdom. Now the holy god arose, and the gods who followed him as though he were Pharaoh went with him and he came forth according to his daily wont and the sacred serpent bit him. The flame of life departed from him, and he who dwelt among the Cedars (?) was overcome. The holy god opened his mouth, and the cry of his majesty reached unto heaven. His company of gods said, What hath happened and his gods But Ra could not answer, exclaimed, ' What is it ? for his jaws trembled and all his members quaked
;

;

.'

'

'

'

;

the poison spread swiftly through his flesh just as
all his land. When the great god had stablished his heart, he cried unto those who were in his train, saying, Come unto me, O ye who have come into being from my body, ye gods who have come forth from me, make ye known unto Khepera that a dire calamity hath fallen upon me. My heart perceiveth it, but my eyes see it not my hand

the Nile invadeth

'

;

182

TABOO
I

hath not caused it, nor do this unto me. Never have

know who hath done
such pain, neither
this.
I

I felt

can sickness cause more woe than

am a prince,

the son of a prince, a sacred essence which hath

proceeded from God.
a great one, and

I

am

a great one, the son of

my

father planned

my name

;

I

have multitudes of names and multitudes of forms, and my existence is in every god. I have been proclaimed by the heralds Imu and Horus, and my father and my mother uttered my name ; but it hath been hidden within me by him that begat me, who would not that the words of power of any seer should have dominion over me. I came forth to look upon that which I had made, I was passing through the world which I had created, when lo something stung me, but what I know Is it water? My heart is on fire, not. Is it fire? my flesh quaketh, and trembling hath seized all my limbs. Let there be brought unto me the children of the gods with healing words and with lips that know, and with power which reacheth unto heaven.' The children of every god came unto him in tears, Isis came with her healing words, and her mouth full of the breath of life, with her enchantments which destroy sickness, and with her words of power which make the dead to live. And she spake, saying, 'What hath come to pass, O holy father ? What hath happened ? A serpent hath bitten thee, and a thing which thou hast created hath
!

lifted

up
it

cast forth

drive

head against thee. Verily it shall be healing words of power, and I will away from before the sight of thy sunbeams.'
his

by

my

TABOO
The holy god opened
passing along
his

183
said, I was was going through
'

mouth and
I

my

path, and

the two regions of
desire, to see that

my

lands according to
I

my

heart's
!

had created, when lo I was bitten by a serpent which I saw not. Is it fire ? Is it water ? I am colder than water, I am hotter than fire. All my flesh sweateth, I quake, my eye hath no strength, I cannot see the sky, and the sweat rusheth to my face even as in the time of summer.' Then said Isis unto Ra, O tell me thy name, holy father, for whosoever shall be delivered by thy name shall live.' [And B.t said], ' I have made the heavens and the earth, I have ordered the mountains, I have created all that is above them, I have made the water, I have made to come into being the great and wide sea, I have made the " Bull of his mother," from whom spring the I have made the heavens, I have delights of love. stretched out the two horizons like a curtain, and I have placed the soul of the gods within them. I am he who, if he openeth his eyes, doth make the light, and, if he closeth them, darkness cometh At his command the Nile riseth, and into being. I have made the the gods know not his name. hours, I have created the days, I bring forward the

which

'

festivals of the year,

I

create the Nile-flood.
I

I

make the
houses.
at noon,

fire

of

life,

and

provide food in the

I am Khepera in the morning, I am R4 and I am Imu at even.' Meanwhile the poison was not taken away from his body, but it pierced deeper, and the great god could no longer

walk.

i

184

TABOO
said Isis unto Rk,

Then
shall

not thy name.
revealed.'

O

tell it

' What thou hast said is unto me, and the poison

depart ; for he shall live whose name shall be Now the poison burned like fire, and it was fiercer than the flame and the furnace, and the

majesty of the god

said,

'

I

consent that

Isis shall

search into me, and that

my name

shall pass

from

me

into her.'

Then

the god hid himself from the
for the heart

gods, and his place in the boat of millions of years

was empty. And when the time arrived
of

Ra

to
'

saying,

come forth, Isis spake unto her son Hovus, The god hath bound himself by an oath to

up his two eyes' (i.e. the sun and moon). Thus was the name of the great god taken from him, and Isis, the lady of enchantments, said,
deliver

Depart poison, go forth from Ra. O eye of Horus, go forth from the god, and shine outside It is I who work, it is I who make to his mouth. fall down upon the earth the vanquished poison for the name of the great god hath been taken away from him. May Rfi live, and may the poison These die, may the poison die, and may Ra live are the words of Isis, the great goddess, the queen of the gods, who knew Ra by his own name.
' ;
!

'

he was healed, the strong rule of the its vigour, and even mankind became hostile against him they became angry and began a rebellion.

But

after

old sun-god had lost

:

1

Budge, The Book of the Dead

:

British

Museum,

pp. Ixxxix-xoi.

Cf.

The papj'rus of Aui in the Wiedemann, Beligion of

the Ancient Egyptians, pp. 54-56.

TABOO
The power
many another
drugs,

185

of the divine
old tradition.

Name

is

shown

in

Eifective as were

the qualities ascribed to magic knots, amulets,

and the great body of mystic

rites

con-

nected Avith their use, as also to conjuring by

numbers, incantations, and so
great

forth,

in

that

home

of magic, Chaldea, all these yielded

to the

power of the god's name.

Before that

everything in heaven, earth, and the imderworld

bowed, while

it

enthralled the gods themselves.

In the legend of the descent of Ishtar to the

underworld, when

the

infernal

goddess Allat
effort to

takes her captive, the gods
deliver her,

make vain

and

in

their despair
fast.

beg Hea to

break the spell that holds her

Then Hea

forms the figure of a man, who presents himself
at the

door of Hades, and awing Allat with
still

the names of the mighty gods,
great

keeping the

name

secret, Ishtar is delivered.^
is

Lane

says that it

a

Moslem

belief that the

prophets and apostles to
the secret of the

whom alone is committed Most Great Name of God
it

(El-Izm-el-Aazam) can by pronouncing
1

trans-

Lenormant, ChaMecm Magic,

p. 42.

186

TABOO

port themselves (as on Solomon's magic carpet,

spun for him by the jinn) from place to place
at will, can kill the living, raise the dead,

and

work other

miracles.^

By

virtue of this
seal-ring,

name,

which was engraved on his

Solomon, or

Suleyman, subjected the birds and the winds,
and, with one exception,
all

the jinn,

whom

he

compelled to help in the building of the
at Jerusalem.

Temple

By pronouncing it, his minister Asaf was transported in a moment to the royal presence.^ Sakhr was the genie who remained
unsubdued, and one day when the Wise King,
taking a bath, intrusted the wonderful ring to

one

of

his

paramours,

the

demon assumed

Solomon's form, and, securing possession of the

magic jewel, usurped the throne, while the king,
whose appearance was forthwith changed to that
of a beggar, realm.

became a wanderer

in

his

own

After long years the ring was found in
fish,

the stomach of a

Sakhr having thrown

it

away on
to his
1

his detection,

and so Solomon 'came

own
2
2

again.'

^

In the Toldoih Jeshu,, a
vol.
i.

Modern Egyptians,
Arabian
Clouston,

p. 361.

Society in the

Middle Ages,

pp. 40, 81.
p. 163.

Group of Eastern Romances,

For when King David dug the foundations he found there a stone on which the Name of it God was in the graven. it and placed Holy of But as the wise men feared lest some ignorant youth should learn the able to destroy the world name and be avert ! —which God they made by magic two brazen lions. TABOO are 187 pseudo-life of Jesus of Jewish compilation. and he took Holies. and then he cut . one on the right. One relates that this name was engraved ' on the corner-stone of the Temple. the other on the left. if any one were to go within and learn the holy Name. Name on parchment that he might feel with intent no pain.— . so that from alarm and bewilder- ment he would forget the lose his presence of mind and Name. and learned there the holy writing and after he had written the incommunicable he uttered it. and he went into the Temple. left 'Now Jeshu secretly Upper Galilee and came to Jerusalem. which they set before the entrance of the Holy of Holies. there two legends concerning the Unutterable Name. then the lions would begin to roar as he came out. Now.

But Jeshu cast Judas other. he went out at the door and he forgot the Name. . and raised him between heaven and Thereupon Judas spake the same Name. around in the regions of the air. took the writing out. and made so that his flesh healed up again. Judas then spake again the Name. and sought to down. Therefore he hasted outside the town. cut into his flesh. pp. there came a wind earth. both of them. and seized Jeshu and sought to cast him to the earth. and the wind raised him also between heaven and' earth. 77. Baring-Gould. says that 'when Jeshu had spoken the incommunicable Name.' ' also spake the Name. 78. Then he uttered the Name once more. and they strove one with the Ultimately Judas prevails. The Lost wnd Hostile Gospels. And they flew. and casts S. and when he had studied the signs he retained the Name in his memory. which tells of an aerial between Jeshu and Judas before Queen Helena (!).' ^ The second conflict legend. the lions And when roared. and all who saw it marvelled.188 into his flesh TABOO and hid the parchment with its inscription thereon.

three great gods of the limitless The Hindu pantheon. disciples. Being rescued by his . ffostile Gospels. 83. Vishnu. and all the congregation shall certainly stone 1 him : as well the stranger. and the mystic is Siva. belief in the in power of the Name would lead to hesitation it. lest evil fall on him who uttered and.. 16. he hastened to the Jordan his and when he had washed therein with the miracles. have as their Cm or Aum. since some term would be necessary. and Name he again wrought his former As has been remarked the use of it. p. and he is subjected to the tauntings of his captors. He that blasphemeth the name of the Lord. TABOO Jeshu to the ground. To the Mohammedans. and the elders his seize 189 him power leaves him . S.^ power returned. already. ' ledge of the Supreme. he shall surely be put to death. Baring-Gould. The Lost and . to coinage of substitutionary names. the repetition of which believed to be all-efficacious in giving knowLeviticus xxiv. Allah of the is but an epithet in place to whose wonder- Most Great Name working power reference has been made. symbol Brahma.

the name being the phrase adopted. 7. coupled with the persistence of barbaric ideas about names. or Jehovah . to death. 1 . Thou shalt name of the Lord thy God in vain for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain. conversation with Wingrove Cooke. ' A doubt- ful tradition says that 'Jehovah' was uttered but once a year by the high priest on the Day of Atonement when he entered the Holy of Holies. but perhaps the influence of Oriental metaphysics on the Jews. is The is real name of Confucius so sacred that it it. a said. Adonai' and ' Elohim are sometimes used ' in the place of is Yahweh. a statutable offence to pronounce in ComMr. may have led to a substitution ' which appears to have been post-exilian.'— not take the : Exod. it was spoken for the last time by Simon the Just. when he be put blasphemeth the name of the Lord. and. missioner Yeh. XX. 'Tien means properly ' Cf the third commandment in the Ten Words.' for the ^ shall is sometimes cited as the warrant ' avoidance of the holy and reverend ' '' name Yahweh. according to Maimonides. but more ' often the god anonymous. .190 as TABOO he that is bom in the land.

we name Him by His dwelling-place. iv.* J 2 Folk-Lore Record. xiii. or Daramulun. He differs no whit from that typical savage. p. 5 'II./oMTOoZ^miSferopological Institute. the elders of the tribe whisper the secret name of the sky-god —Tharaupon mulun. 'Some Australian Beliefs. which is in Tien.' . means as it God " for not lawful to use His name lightly.^ and in another. vol.'' ^ The Father of History here gives expression to a feeling dominant throughout every stage of culture. 76." " is 191 it also . 'At the season when the of the sacred Egyptians beat themselves in honour of one of their gods whose name I am is unwilling to men- tion in connection with such a matter'. Herodotus remarks in one place. the Australian black-fellow.'^ In his references to Osiris. " supreme ruler.TABOO only the "material heaven. 171. —a name which he dare not utter lest the wrath of the deity descend him. 132. Howitt. 11. "W. into whose ear. on his initiation. ' On this lake it that the Egyptians represent by night his sufferings whose refrain name I from mentioning. 192 (1883). where he speaks of the exposure cow. p." but Shang-te. * . A.

and the other with things. and through the control obtained over them through knowledge of those names. we have sufficing evidence of the hopeless entanglement of the two in the barbaric mind. magic as a primitive it is form of science bad science. and the justifilies of any division wholly in its con- venience. may be well to bear in mind what has been said already concerning . yet possessing the saving grace of some perception . true. it In examining this attitude. For although the implication may be is that the one associated with persons.IX WORDS OF POWER There cation is no essential difference between Names of Power and Words of Power. for Both are regarded through the as effective weal or woe magic power assumed to inhere in the names.

omens. at least. and In other machinery of white or black magic. Sir Alfred Lyall remarks that among the lower religions ' there seem always to have been some faint sparks of doubt as to the efficacy of prayer and ings. 19s For sacri- and so forth — —prayer. charms. — spells. curses. ' is superseded. side with that universal conviction which all ascribed to divine volition effects that could not be accounted for by the simplest experience. deities can or will interpose in human combined with embryonic conceptions of the possible capacity of man to control or guide Nature by knowledge and use of her ways. and which called them miracles. offer- and thus as to the limits within which affairs. there has always been a remote . his invaluable Asiatic Studies. or signs of the gods.WORDS OF POWER of possible relations between phenomena. here the apparatus of the priest fice. or with some primaeval touch of that feeling which now by rejects supernatural interference in the Side order and sequence of physical processes. incantations. suspended. or. in favour of the apparatus of the sorcerer with his ' whole bag of tricks passwords.

Words . and (e) Cure-Charms in formulas or magic these five intermingled classes words. X. . 125. the ^ p.194 WORDS OF POWER less manifestation of that locates submissive spirit which within man himself the power of in- fluencing things.' ^ the dependence of man on own for regulating his material surround- Words of Power. and the deification of speech itself warrants its inclusion in this section. Of each of a few examples will suffice. ping. broadly classified. (a) Creative Words The confusion of person and thing meets us at starting. who is spoken of in the Rig Veda^ 1 as 'the greatest of all deities. or for removing spells on the living. p. with more or less unavoidable overlap. Probably is the most striking example of such deification the Hindu goddess Vac. or for exorcising demons. 77. into (a) Creative their kin . (6) Mantrams and (c) Passwords (d) Spells or Invocations for conjuring up the spirit of the dead. may be divided. and which works vaguely his toward faculties ings.

' • this earth I have come to this echoes of the sublime claims of Wisdom in the Book 1 of Proverbs haunt the ear. v. and speech turns unto him. x. Frazer. Sanskrit Texts. Over all I stand. and he makes speech subject unto himself. have revealed the heavens to its inmost depths. mother ' ^ of those Another hymn to her declares that first when all she was sent forth.' ' ^ When love I Vac declares I — a Whom I I make migMy. 123.' and in one of the Brahmanas. make him Brahman. vol. as the sacred books. the first 195 of all those worthy of worship. p.• WORDS OF POWER Queen. E. p. p. . iii. 2 3 W. and he who ' to her becomes strong by speech.2 through By sacrifice Speech was thought sacrifices out and found. ^ Ibid. all that was hidden. Muir. . . 74. . I dwell in the waters and in sea. reaching by my mystic power to the I also height beyond. Satapatha Brahmana. 60. or sacerdotal com' mentaries on the Vedas. 8. things. became disclosed love. breathe out like the wind. 342. I first of all living Beyond the heavens and great power. that was best and highest. Literary History of India. Eig Veda. a Seer^ and Wise.

' is still ' more prominent ' in the Targums. while the several speculations concerning the nature and functions of Wisdom apocryphal in the canonical and books took orderly shape in the Logos. p. 201. and through 1 it on the Prov. When Then I there were no depths. . there were no fountains abounding with water. I was brought forth . when . 30. viii. . Memra or Word ' is one of the phrases sub- stituted by the Jews for the great Name . Buddhism. . of Saint is John's Gospel. personification of In Buddhism. or ever the earth was. and that nearest approach to the Vac of for the (as to Hinduism the possible influence of which on the wisdom of the Book of Proverbs.^ although in this con- nection we have to remark that this religion has no theory of the origin of things. was by him. In the ' Wisdom ' of Solomon.' 196 WORDS OF POWER 'The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his way^ before his works of old. from the beginning. 2 Rhys Davids. the high place of as co-worker with the . the Incarnate Word of God. Manjusri the Wisdom. Chockmah or Wisdom. Deity. as one brought up with him ' : and I was daily his delight. I was set up from everlasting. 22-24.

7. xix. or a third. p. Sacred Languages and . ' . the God of the Parsi religion. his soul will I. p. which was the word that he spoke 'before the heavens. or a fifth of it. Writings of the Parsis. the 'Creating Word ' or the ' Word Creator. 186. and so forth. who am Ahuramazda.' When ZaraGood thushtra (Zoroaster) asks Ahuramazda. earth separate from paradise to such a distance in width and breadth as the is.' Ahuramazda answers by dwelling on the sacred Honovar. And all-concluding iiourish of the Pen^ Kun-fa-Yakun. of Yasna. man to dire while ' whoever in this my world supplied with creatures takes off in muttering a part of the Ahuna-variya. wherein these lines occur. in whose sacred books 197 Logos. nothing can be said here) we must cross we read of Honovar or Ahuna-variya. either a half. life . . The Sage began. O last uew vintage of the vine of Planted in Paradise O Master-stroke.WORDS OF POWER into ancient Persia. . or a fourth. the earth.' ^ In his translation of Salaman and Ahsdl. the mispro- nunciation of which subjects a penalties.' 1 Haug's trans. the water.

' ^ He doth but say unto it. ' on Kun-fa- Be. Let there be light. . ' anticipates in the statement. trans. And Elohim light.' said. 15. Palmer. ^ doubtless a transcript of Accadian originals. was repetition of the names of gods and supernatural beings. which created all things. " Be. believed that 1 For they every word spoken under given Sacred Books of the East. Wallis Budge remarks that magic formulae of which the ancient Egyptians made side use for the purpose of effecting results out- man's normal power. vol. (b) Mantrams among the Dr. should be noted. 2 Probably modified by a priestly hand in Babylonia after the Exile. vi.a 198 WORDS OF POWER as note Edward FitzGerald appends Yakiin. The Originator heavens and the earth when He decrees a matter it is. The Qur'an. and there was In this connection the three shouts of the Welsh. and it is —the ' famous word of Creation stolen from Genesis by the Kuran.' of the In that book we read." and — declaration which the Genesis creation-legend. p. certain ceremonies accompanying the same.

Isxx.WORDS OF POWER good or bad. had interpreted words the will of the Deity in respect of the result of the creation. 1227.^ lies The origin of the Egyptian superstition further is back than Dr. and that creation was the god's command. faith in whose efficacy would seem to be increased 1 ^ Grimm.. for harm some one must. ' Book of the Dead. especially of sacred in literature. to trans. although he probably correct in assuming that its develop- ment received impetus from the belief that the all world and things therein came into being immediately after Thoth. Introd. Saxo Gfrcmwmticus. the god of writing. M. and . . cxlviii. it will float in the air the may descend any moment on at. 199 circumstances must be followed by some effect The same idea prompts the belief of the Irish peasant that a curse once uttered must alight on something seven years.^ party it was aimed Allied to this is is the old Scandinavian belief that a curse unless it can be turned back.^ Belief in the virtue of mystic phrases. of the p. T. Introduction by Professor York Powell. its powerful when it it will harm utterer. p. Budge suggests.

as we know. ' The latter. since a stronger ff. praising-wheels. world-wide. with charms or texts from his sacred books. pp. potamia. fills his praying-wheels.e.' more correctly. nothing that can their At their bidding the demons will enter a man or be cast out of him.. the mantrams which are believed 'to enchain the power of the gods themselves.' They there are charged with is both bane and resist bliss effect. being ' Cm Mani padme hum. Te Ika a Maori. in the matamcmiJc of the Red Indian number of and the karakias of the the New Zealander.' But most typical of all are the sacred formulas of the Hindus. ' in the lotus. and the only test of their efficacy is supplied 1 by themselves. The old lady who found Meso- spiritual comfort in 'that blessed word. or emblazoned on silk flags. 200 WORDS OF POWER do not know their is in the degree that the utterers meaning. Taylor. the jewel i.^ while Roman Catholic can double the beads on his rosary by exchanging strings with the Tibetan. the words of wonder-working power frequently placed therein. 197 .' the self-creative force is in the kosmos.' 'Ah.' has her representatives in both hemispheres.

WORDSOFPOWER mantram can neutralise a weaker. Hindu Manners and Customs. Vedas themselves were born from Only a Brahmin has the right to recite it. pp. and of miracle-mongering generally. i. Abbe Dubois. These recite the mystic charms for the ostensible purpose of fortune-telling. efficacious is is ' 201 The most for famous and the most taking away sins. 140 ff. hidden treasure. It is that which is so ancient that the it. and he must prepare himself by the most profound meditation. . the world over. so great that the very gods tremble at called the gayatri. of discover- ing stolen property. mantram whose power it. But. soothsayers. Certain mantrams are credited with special power in the hands of those 1 who have the key to the true pronunciavol. to which all reference has been made. but this used. or the monosyllable Om AuM. that which may have been the outcome of genuine aims has become the tool of necromancers. the is most powerful mantram.' 1 is the one most often Next in importance to the gayatri. It is a prayer in honour of the sun. and their kin. are There are several other mantrams which called gayatri.

202 tion. learning the object of their visit. having married Kalavali. 6. as such mantrams are called. composed honour of Siva : in — ' Dasarha. or penitent Garga. his superior. daughter of the King of Benares. consequently. could not teach him the mantram. WORDSOF POWER reminding us of the race - test in the pronunciation of the old word Shibboleth?the rishis or sorcerers To who know how to use and apply these bya-ahsharas. man could touch her save at the risk of unless he had been himself cleansed from defilement by the same word-charm. because the letters his rights the Jive mantram of which she had learned had so purified her that no his all life. and. Dubois quotes the following story in proof of this from the Hindu poem. who. bade them fast one day and bathe the following day in the holy ^ Judges xii. Brahmottara-Kcmda. King of Madura. because by so doing she would become his guru. nothing is impossible. was warned by the princess on their wedding-day that he must not exercise as a husband. So the next day both husband and wife went in quest of the great Rishi. The princess. . being his wife.

and. whispered these two words in his ear. or Fourth veritable age of Iron is still ." Scarcely Namah these had Dasarha heard marvellous words before a flight of crows was seen issuing from different parts of his body. these birds being the sins which he had committed. a it but they maintain that not uncommon for miracles to be wrought akin to that just narrated. The boy was stain the son of a his birth Brahmin widow. Rishi. invited. 203 This being done. is start- explained by the Brahmins as due to mankind now living in the Kali-Yuga.WORDS OF POWER Ganges. " Sivaya. but with face to the West. having seated himself by his side.' 1 That the mantrams do not now work the ling effects of which tradition tells. Siva had taught a little bastard boy the mysteries of the hya-akshara or mantram of the five letters. vol. He Dubois. and to this which follows. Age of the World. and the on had caused his exclusion from a wedding-feast to which others of his caste 1 had been i. . they returned to the the husband sit who made down on the ground facing the East.

As he entered. whereupon he pronounced the same words backwards. which a believe implicitly. ' to some one else to find. Consternation spread among the guests. they rushed with one accord to invite him to come in. Immedi- ately all the dishes that were prepared for the feast were turned into frogs. and other customs whose signiiicance has vanished. ' I will leave it. so. any- thing amongst the numberless obscurations the of human mind that can equal the extravagance of this story. they asked his pardon for the slight. or the witches went thrice round anything backwards as an in that direction. or repeated the Lord's prayer oath of allegiance to the devil.' Hindu would nevertheless Were that veracious recorder of Oriental belief and custom alive. .204 WORDS OF POWER took revenge by pronouncing two or three of the mystic letters through a crack in the door of the room where the guests were assembled. all being sure that the little mischief was due to the bastard. while the frogs vanished.^ and the cakes and other refreshments appeared. he would be supplied from the narratives of proceedings at ^ An illustration of withershins against the sun.' remarks the Abbe. The idea has well-known outcome in the jocose objection to not passing the bottle sunwise. as when (German wider Schein). fearing that worse might happen. if he can.

The Chapters of Coming Forth by Day. Wiedemann. To secure unhindered passage thither. venerable four thousand contains the hymns. ' The famous Word Dead. literature.' pales before the passwords given in the the or. ' As the Egyptian made 1 his future world a counterpart of the The soul Osiris as to be called the was conceived to have such affinity with the god by his name. This oldest of sacred years b. of the Horizons. Open. prayers. p. the deceased must secret know the and mystical names of the Gods of the Northern and Southern Heaven.c. the underworld that led to the Fields of the Blessed. and of the Empyreal Gate. and magic phrases to be used by Osiris (the common name given to in his the immortal counterpart of the mummy i) journey to Amenti. Book of more correctly. Religion of — Ancient Egyptians. . (c) Passwords of Power. 244. Sesame.WORDS OF POWER spiritualist 205 of stances with examples modern credulity as strong as those which he collected in the land on which the Mahatmas look down from their inaccessible peaks.

and each putting the same question. with which Anubis finisheth the work of ment. hold. thy name. hull blocks. he must have conceived the existence of sail a waterway like the Nile. is Pillars of the underworld your name. and the river-banks chiming in.— 206 WORDS OF POWER loved. : Every part of the boat challenges the Osiris ' Tell Tell me my Hapiu ' is name^' saith the Rudder.' say the Oar-rests. mast.' Strangest evi- dence of the Egyptian extension of belief in Words of Power is furnished in the requirement shall tell the made of the deceased that he names of every portion of the boat in which he desires to cross the great river flowing to the underworld. is thy name. and the Rubric ending . paddles.' ' my embalm' Tell us our names. the river. bows. And so on. keel. the citation of one or two sentences must suffice. whereon he might and perform his desired voyage. ' ' Leg of me my name/ Hair. all Egypt which he knew and it and gave to heavenly counterparts of the sacred cities thereof. Although there is a stately impressive- ness throughout the whole chapter.' sail.' saith the Rope. the sailor. the wind.

WORDS OF POWER with the assurance to the deceased that chapter be if ' 207 this known by him. and his ^ body be like unto the bodies of the gods. pp. (Budge. 2 . of Truth and Justice. fields. and shall and an estate . the doorkeeper challenges him. wine. Bibbert Lectures. . . that he has committed none of the forty-two sins. xcix. woodwork. that guardian satisfied. Anubis requires him to tell the names of every part of lintels.'' he shall ' come forth into Sekhet-Aarru.' difficulties But the of the journey are not ended. p. morality. the bolts. and posts it while the floor forbids him to tread on until it knows the names of it. 196. where the god Osiris and the forty-two judges of the dead are seated. and where the declaration of the deceased. the doors. the two feet wherewith he would walk upon These correctly given. threshold.^ is tested by weighing his heart in the scales against the symbol of truth. p.'— Le Page Kenouf. Osiris bids the deceased approach and partake of ' the sepulchral 1 Ch. because ere he can enter the Hall of the Two Truths. 197. 157-160). . shall and bread. that is. and. sockets. ' The oldest known code of private and public Ibid. and cakes be given him at the altar of the great god.

Two years before he came his to London.'' WORDS OF POWER Then after more name-tests are applied. Lecky's words. the deceased shall be among those who follow Osiris triumphant.' shall who are (d) Spells and Amulets In the famous scene in Macbeth. and of the twenty-one pylons ' of the domains of Osiris. and an ability which few subsequent writers have equalled. and a homestead shall be given unto him. of which other dramatists . ' unmasked the imposture and delusion of the system with a boldness that no previous writer had approached.' 208 meal. Reginald Scot had published Discoverie of' Witchcraft.' that book In a may be found the record of many strange prescription. and the followers of Horus who reap therein proclaim his name as one of the gods therein. a work which. when the witches in their make the ' ' hellbroth boil and bubble caldron. The gates of the underworld shall be opened unto him. in Mr.' Shakespeare drew upon the folk-lore of his time. those of the watchers and heralds of the seven arits or mansions.

spells for raising the various from the ghost of a suicide to the In each case innumerable company of demons. Athanatos. Jehovah. turning to the four quarters. Nephrion. Paracletus. Ollon. 2O9 notably Middleton. Gerson. Basspirits. Names and Attributes. exposure ' of impietie of inchanters is and the knaverie of conjurers' accompanied by examples of a grades number of of spirits. foreknowledge of the weather. to bestow the gift of invisibility. will stand before in him human form to do his bidding. the are of the 'Airy Region' conjured by ' his strong and mighty his ' Name. Sadat. Tetragrammaton. Then the exorcist . made Scot's ' use machinery. Gabon. ' the names. Anek.' and by holy Name.' and by all his 'wonderful Emillat. spirits For example.' whereupon the summoned casting off their phantasms. and of the language of birds.WORDS OF POWER of Shakespeare's period.' Then the calls exorcist. annah. in their Heywood. knowledge of the raising and allaying of storms. the effectiveness of the spell depends on the utterance of names which are a jumble of strange or manufactured tongues. and thaumaturgic the ' Shadwell.

Among all the formulae used for this puris pose which survive cat.. which Scot. Adonai.' to strike on the ground three times with his wand. 481. Agla. 210 dismisses WORDS OF POWER them to their aerial home. which has been write killed pre- pare a tablet. and these words with a solution of myrrh. pp. in 'the Ghost. and then. also the 1 dream desired. and as matters of moment hinged magic was brought into play to secure the desired dream. for he had to go to the grave at midnight with candle.' ^ Name of the Father. repeating the words. . The importance which the attached to dreams is ancient Egyptians It was the well known. 11. a than availed the mediteval necromancer. Son. and hazel wand on which the Name of God was written. ' Tetragrammaton. 482 (1886 reprint of the 1584 edition). universal belief that they were sent by the gods on them. 2 1 Samuel xxviii. and Holy The witch of Endor secured the appearance of his Samuel by the mere invocation of far simpler process ^ name. Crabon. the following : —Take : a black over. thereby conjuring the spirit into the crystal. crystal. 12.

am the Mommon. and thereby magician. Thy name answers to the seven vowels. because. .'' libraries The Babylonian have yielded a large number of incantations sorcery. in whose mouth Thoth. lost.WORDS OF POWER put in the mouth of the cat I : 211 — ' Keimi. and . Keimi. the force of the magic conjurations being increased in the it is degree that they are unintelligible. aoeeo. .' courts where Jamshyd these references to the superstitions that domi- nated the ancient civilisations of the East. or a variation of possess the would not same virtue. Great One. Nanumbre. Thoth. another name. rests . Karikha. make him subject ' to the Then.'' the sacred laniee ien aeo eieeieiei and so on in a string of meaningless syllables which were supposed to convey the hidden name of the god. for use against evil spirits. as the^ conclusion. For needful to preserve the old form of the name. and human ills generally. although the meaning may be it. Hear me. Although ' The The lion and the lizard keep gloried and drank deep. for I shall speak the great Name.

212 WORDS OF POWER in their through them. with the humility of . of the West. The terrible curses which accompanied the once-dreaded excommunication have their pale echoes in our Service (which to Commination most persons nowadays only are suggests the ' Jackdaw of Rheims '). are of service to-day. Regi- nald Scot gives the following charm 'against theeves. elaborated magical forms.. and I said. persisted so long is That they no matter of wonder. In this matter. but carried ' I doo come unto you with the love of God. in these post-Darwinian days. and both the outcome of the barbaric belief that the utter- ance of the word has a direct effect on the against man whom it is spoken. when we remember how late in human history is per- ception of the orderly sequence of phenomena like con- and that persistence also explains why fusion prevails in communities where the scientific stage has not been reached. The belief in that power was extended to the written word. in some vaguely defined way. even ' there are few that be saved ' from the feeling that.' which : ' about one ' — must never be doo go. man can influence the unseen by the power of spoken words.

. with the floud of Jordan. qqr. and prayers . with the word of God. with the 213 ladie. a X t pppcgegaqqestpti hah glk9. 188.WORDS OF POWER Christ. Christians. to avert the evil eye and ward off demons . amulets with the secret name of God chased on them. passages from the Koran enclosed in bags and hung on Turkish and Arab horses to protect them from 1 like maleficence (Reprint). with the praier of Clement. with the constancie of Paule. worn by those very barbaric the Abyssinians. the Jewish phylacteries or frontlets. g b am g 242 q pxcgJcqqaqqpo t i . with the authoritie of Gregorie. p. them Oh onelie Father + oh onUe lord + and Jesus + passing through the middest of + went + In the Name of the Father + and of the Sonne + and of the Holie- ghost +. with the justice of Isaac. hoUnes of our blessed with the faith of Abraham. whose virtue was supposed to rest in the texts shut up in the leathern case . with the might of Peter. with the vertue of David.'1 To this class belong Gnostic amulets with their cabalistic inscriptions.

coma tells is an Mr. tempting Providence ' has fallen from his lips is many a fragment of cabalistic writing cherished rustics and concealed about their persons by the 1 The Evil Eye. ' the into his inner full possession of is In modern Greece garlic the popular antidote to the evil eye. are a Horns. eifect of any hasty or inauspicious (' The German peasant ' says unberi{fen unspoken or ' called back '). and raps three times under the table ' if any word . leaving the customer in the entire stock. . as symbolic of amulet ' common form ' against the evil eye. Elworthy of a fright which he unwittingly gave a secondhand bookseller in Venice when asking about a copy of Valletto's Cicalata sul Fascmo. so the term cTKopSov is used to undo the words. and the superstitious Italians believe that.' ^ the title. the horn or some horn-shaped mere utterance of the word corno or effective talisman. On hearing the last two words of man actually turned and bolted room. in default of a object.214 to the WORDS OF POWER Madonna slipped into charm-cases and worn by the Neapolitans. 18. p. of the lunar cusps. whether overlooking man or beast.

). rol. on heart-shaped amulets.^ have been superseded by Sortes for As Its the spells which guard the departed. the the Book of Dead supplied any number. p. Gibbon. and also printed on a 1 of 358 Brand's Pop. p.WORDS OF POWER magic . Antiq.. while his name was engraved. in times of perplexity. At the burial of the late Czar a prayer scroll was chanted. (oh. xxxviii. but. Sortes Homericce and Sortes Virgiliance Biblicce. hoping to or some devotional book at see in the passage that first catches the eye direction as to action. to the venerable form of divining fate by opening the Bible random. or some monition of the future. vol. iv. 290. 215 of Western Europe as safeguards against black and not a few still resort. because the name brought with it blotting-out of a man's his extinction. There is nothing new under the sun. For this purpose the ancients consulted the Iliad or the ^neid . iii. changing only the instrument while retaining the belief. so that the heart of the man might on others not be stolen from his tomb . Amenti chapters were inscribed on basalt scarabs to protect the Osiris in his passage to . .

The earliest fragment in the Book of Genesis which Lamech chants the his ' is the song in slaying of a man to wounding ^ . . both Apollo and lapius were surnamed Paean.^ unmolested by (e) Cure-Charms Mscu- As gods to the of healing. 1894. and as the word charm (Lat. Nov. carmen. salve of wounds. Ever in song have the deeper emotions found relief and highest expression.216 WORDS OF POWER paper. and the songs which celebrate the healing power of Apollo were also called by that name. his kinsfolk sang a song of 1 Daily Telegraph. after the physician Olympian deities. a song) itself indicates. and then placed by the priest in the hands of the corpse as a document enabling him. to pass on his way evil spirits. 20. while the words themselves have been credited with magic healing power. the old incantations were cast in metrical form. when wandering about the the first spirit-world during few days after death. Songs are the When Odysseus was maimed by the boar's tusk.

217 and when Wainamoinen. coming says that poetry 'is more artificiall of the Greeks and by instinct of nature. he could heal the wound only by learning the mystic words that chant the secret of the birth of iron. the Perusine. ^ Hid.. and used before by the savage and all who were is science and civiltie. xvii. Rune .. the hero- minstrel of the Kalevala. their 1 Kalevala. and also say. and releases him only on his promising to give him his sister Aino in marriage. when challenged to trial of by the boastful youngster Joukahainen. Rune viii.WORDS OF POWER healing . afiirming that the American. cut his knee in hewing the wood for the magic boat. uncivill.. and the very canniball. This proved by certificate of merchants and travellers . do sing.' ^ The same song old hero.^ In his Art qfPoesie. written three centuries ago. plunges him deep in morass by the power of his enchantment. while he could finish the stern and forecastle only by descending to Tuoni (the Finnish underworld) to learn the ' three lost words of the master. Puttenham quaintly ancient than the Latines.

little snatches of rhyme lending and also aid to effect and emas in phasis to incident.— WORDS OF POWER riming ^ 218 highest and holiest matters in certain versicles. like the conversion of Pagan deities into Christian saints. ^ pre-Christian How the cure-charms are transferred by change of proper names to the Christian. jataka. . memory. name 's Tom Tit Tot.' Hence the part which ' dropping into poetry' plays in saga. p. and folk-tale. 1233. p. Traces of the use of these occur among the polished Romans . 157.' which perhaps more than Italian folk-medicine. Scandinavia. whose efficacy largely depends on magic formulae being uttered over them. is seen in these original and Christianised 1 Quoted in Lang's Custom and Myth. has its inconsequential jingle-charms. in any other country in Europe has preserved its empirical remedies. 2 Teutonic Mythology. and Scotland. our title-story ' My Nimmy nimmy not. while Grimm refers to a song-charm for sprains which was current for a thousand years over Germany.

There he rode the leg of his colt in two. Bone That to bone. suffered from . then was of Balder's his foot wrenched ' Jesus rode to the heath. as if they were glued to- gether. as the joint-wrench in the might remain same place. while the repute of the miracles of healing wrought by Jesus largely explains the invocation patient. flesh to flesh leaf. 181. blood to blood. of his name over both drug and is The persistence of the superstition seen in a story told. as well the bone-wrench. joint to joint. Jesus laid marrow to marrow.' bone to bone. . in Miss Burne's Shropshire Folk-Lore} A blacksmith's wife. colt then Sinthgunt charm'd it. Jesus dismounted and heald it. and Volla her sister . 1 who had P. for medicine mained longer in the empirical stage than any other science. Jesus laid thereon a it as he well could. then Woden charm'd it.. as the blood-wrench. WORDS OF POWER ' 219 Phol and Woden went to the wood . among others of the like character. . ' Probably a like substitution of names disguises re- many barbaric word-spells . . and Sunna her sister then Frua charm'd it.

Lord. toothache. and this the form in which the woman had all is it : ' In the Name of God. who as As soon it she had done so the pain left her. was given a charm by a young man. adding that she had relieved ' a many with it. 77. and It was ' never troubled her again. . Lancashire Folk-Lore. words from Scripture that cured her.' she said. + Fiat. Jesue Christ cure thy tooth ake. It make a copy of the proved to be an imperfect version is of an old ague charm given in Brand. when Juses saw the Cross on bones began wich he was to be crucfied to shiver. my teeth ecketh. and thy teeth Fiat + Fiat 1 shall ^ never Eake Eney mour.' After some trouble she consented to talisman.' The following is a copy of a charm also against inside their toothache. Arise and follow mee. Hee sead. Harland and WilMnson.220 WORDS OF POWER told her to wear it in her stays. Peter standing by said. stitched clothing : and worn by the Lancashire peasants ' Ass Sant Fetter sat at the geats of Jerusalm our Blessed Lord and Sead.' Among cures for the same p. Sevour Jesus Crist Pased Eleth thee ? by and What Hee sead. Jesus Christ cure all Deseces.

bread and . as in this for scalds or ' bums There were three angels came from East and West One brought fire and another brought frosty And the third it was the Holy Ghost. in the Name of the Father. or rather demand. are invoked against special and the efficacy believed to attach to the names of Joseph suf- and Mary is shown by sending children fering from whooping-cough to a house where the master and mistress are so named.' Brand gives a long list of saints whose names diseases. be firm in his mouth. son of So-and-so. the formula. and give him no pain. and Holy Ghost. ' Adar Gar Vedar Gar ' being uttered. so let the teeth of So-and-so.— — WORDS OF POWER 221 complaint in Jewish folk-medicine one prescribes the driving of a nail into the wall.' In North-German charm-cures the three maidens (perchance echoes of the Norns) who dwell in green or hollow ways gathering herbs and flowers to drive away diseases may re-appear in the disguise to which we are accustomed in the angels of many a familiar incantation. child 'The must ask. and then : followed by these words firm in the wall and is ' Even as this nail is not felt. Sou. Out fire. in frost.

p. besides recitations of litanies and the paternoster. with which the eye was then to be 1 Cockayne's Saxon Leechdoms. So. 91. among the Amazulu. vol.' In the preparation of a drink for the frenzied. In Cheshire unlucky to take plain currant-cake from a has married a woman who man of her own name ill-luck —a ' superstition allied to the belief in resulting from marriage between people whose surnames begin with the same letter If You change you change the name and not the letter. the Saxon leech recommended. 139. that over the herbs twelve masses should be sung in honour of the twelve apostles. Folk-Medicine. for the worse and not for the better. p. ^ quoted in Black's Callaway.^ A mediaeval remedy for removing grit from the eye was to chant the psalm ' Qui habitat three times ' over water.— WORDS OF POWER Joseph must cut the bread. Mary must slice 222 butter. ii. p. then a cure it is will certainly follow. spread the butter and give the to the child. 432. the sorcerer Ufaku called Uncapayi by name that the medicine might take due effect on him.^ while the name of the sick should be spoken when certain simples are pulled up for his use. .

recite It is because the European doctors neither mantrams nor prayers that the native puts little faith in their medicines. they were unable to recite the special mantram that suits each complaint. ran into the house to fetch a Bible and read a chapter to her. and would inspire no confidence. and then. while modern Welsh folk-lore 223 tells of the farmer who. Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio. 6. because the cure attributed quite as is much to the mantram as to the treatment. i. and in the Chinese tale of the Talking Pupils. Welsh Folk-Lore. p.^ the Hindus. gave her physic. 244. doctors would be regarded as if Among very ignorant. having a cow sick on a Sunday. fearing that she was dying. vol. and to read the Gospel of Saint John to him.^ for fever is An Abyssinian remedy to drench the patient daily with cold water for a week. 2 Owen. Fang is cured of blindness by a man reading the Kuang-ming sutra to him. p.WORDS OF POWER douched. . Midwives are called Mantradaris because the repeating of mantrams by them great is held to be of ' moment at the birth of the child. its Both the new-born babe and 1 mother are regarded Ellas Giles.

which was worn for nine days. and a thousand other baleful elements. but a step from listening to the charm-working words of sacred texts to swallowing them . and the verse of the Moslem practice of washing off a Koran and drinking the water. p. own Dubois. hence the Chinese practice of burning papers on which charms are written and mixing the ashes with tea. 143. The amulet written on virgin parchment. equates cabalistic itself with the wellagainst known fevers Abracadabra charm and agues. It has sunrise into a been remarked already that among all barbaric peoples disease and death are believed to be the work of 1 evil spirits. And a good midwife. well primed all with efiicacious mantrams. these dan- and averts them by reciting ^ the proper it is words at the proper moment.' Obviously. foresees gers. . the inauspicious combination of unlucky planets or unlucky days. vol.224 WORDS OF POWER as specially liable to the influence of the evil eye. and then thrown backwards before stream running eastward. either of their i. and sus- pended towards the sun on threads spun by a virgin named Mary.

They were . ."' aneurism. it is a person dies without shedding blood looked tells on as uncanny. i.e. ' a burst She done witch herself. and then she go die one time. Travels in West Africa. 1 '' Lionel Decle. p.— — WORDS OF POWER sorcerers. but is it never occurs to the savage that there one constant and explicable cause to account Instead of that.' if In West Africa. Three Years in Savage Africa. as logical as that delivered by English juries two centuries ago under which women In trying two widows were hanged as witches. she no nothing.' she was a witch eaten by her own familiar.^ That verdict was logical enough. The natives irri- could not make it out at all. p. Miss Mary Kingsley of a woman who dropped down dead on a ' factory beach at Corisco Bay. " She no sick she no complain . 512. 468. The post-mortem showed The native verdict was. tated about her conduct. successive death as an event wholly by itself apparently unexpected —and only to be explained ^ by some supernatural agency. he regards each for all cases. ' 225 direct malice prepense or through the agency of Man after man dies in the same way.

. the evidence of their direct or indirect activity appears in is aught that unusual. or is flung to the ground . or when he shivers and shakes with ague. diseases lend further When any one is seen twisting and writhing in agony which wrings piercing shrieks from him. thereby giving in employment to an army of witch-doctors setting traps to capture it for a ruinous fee. and has his being plays all sorts of pranks in his normal life. 226 WORDS OF POWER Bury St.' Given a belief in spirits. belief. for witchcraft at Edmunds in 1664. a man moves. and the wisdom of all nations has provided laws against such persons. quitting the body at sleep or in swoons. The phenomena attending support to the theory. all the abnormal things that alien happen are attributed to the wilfulness of spirits that enter the man and do the mischief. In barbaric the soul or intelligent principle in which lives. Consequently. laid down in his charge 'that there are such creatures as witches I make no doubt at all the Scripture affirms it. or which has sufficing explanation in the theory of demoniacal activity. Sir Matthew Hale. a humane and it able judge.

The Dacotah medicine-man the patient and singing. al- though the study of anatomy and physiology other words. the precursor of the Chaldean with his incantations to drive away the ' wicked demon who seizes the body. ' reciting charms over ' He-la-li-ah to the is music of beads rattling inside a gourd. fit. there is . of mind and body were made the recency of which demonstration explains the persistency of barbaric theories of disease in civilised societies. Man His is the same everywhere at bottom varieties.' which proceeds from the infernal The . if there are many but one species. of structure and function —in —paved the way. or the wind fever.' spirit ' whose hot breath brings and to cure the disease of the forehead regions. no real advance in pathology was possible until the fundamental unity and interdependence clear. larger branches and whose trunk and savagery. 227 incoherent his eyes.WORDS OF POWER in convulsive ravings. or runs ' amok with ' and with wild light flashing is from the logical explanation that a disease-demon has entered and 'possessed' him. are in Hence. civilisa- tion is the rare topmost shoot of the tree whose roots are in the earth.

and in the power of the + Holy Ghost. tell has warrant in the legends which casting-out of ' of the devils ' by Jesus and.: — : . to the saying of masses. In the Services o/ Holy Week from the Sarum Missed the ' Clerks ' are directed to ' venerate the Cross. with feet unshod. the host of the devil. so that the demon might be exorcised from the possessed. every assault of fiends. are the habitat of evil spirits. by the apostles while the continuity of barbaric ideas in their grosser form has illustration in the practice of a modern brotherhood in the Church of England the Society of St. and all henceforth let all strength of the adversary. through the invocation of his Name. be expelled and utterly driven . creature of flowers or branches in the in the Name of God + the Father Almighty. Osmund- —based on the theory but the sweet that not only unclean swine.' and to perform other ceremonies which are preceded by the driving of the devil out of flowers through the following ' power of the word ' ' I exorcise thee. our Lord. flowers themselves. 228 WORDS OF POWER drinking of holy water and herb decoctions out of a church-bell. every power of the enemy. and Name of Jesus Christ+His son.

modern surgery has not disdained to use where removal of a portion of the skull or brain relief. and other burying-places all the world over. in the improved form of a cylindrical saw. and censed (pp. less Doubt- the disorders arising from brain-pressure. is found necessary to afford as evidenced Prehistoric trepanning. pp.' shall be sprinkled with 3-5). . of Bute to Peru. led to the application of a remedy which. I 229 flowers or branches. caves. or placed inside the skulls themselves as charms against the dead being in Michigan. further vexed. 191-238. by the skulls found in dolmens.WORDS OF POWER away from this creature of Here the flowers and leaves Holy Water. was effected by and fragments of the skulls of the dead who had been thus operated upon were cut off to be used as amulets by the living. and so forth.^ 1 The trepannings Munro. diseased bone. convulsions. and other mechanism composing the trephine. from the Isle flint scrapers. The antiquity of the demon-theory of disease has curious illustration in the prehistoric and longsurviving practice of trepanning skulls so that the disease-bringing spirit might escape. Prehistoric Problems.

him with the mantramall the charm-singers. p. and believe that the others is who the to this day Word of Power most essential ingredient in the 1 remedy applied. Whether.230 WORDS OF POWER details. but the practice of his representatives warrants the inference which connects reciters. the Neolithic surgeon supplemented his rude scalpel by the noisy incantations which are part of the universal stock-in-trade of the savage medicine-man. 510. Prehistoric America. we shall never know. about which we have more complete always were made after death. or in what degree. . by means of a polished stone turned which was round rapidly. and only on adults of the male sex. Nadaillac.^ They were probably obtained drill.

The Hidatsa Indians believe that every human being has four souls which at death depart one after the other. in barbaric psychology. the man ceased to their exist. . conglomerate theories of the individual we have refinements of distinction which surpass anything known in cognate barbaric ideas.THE NAME AND THE SOUL At the close of this survey of evidence that. simplicity itself But this is compared to Egyptian ontology. They had no doubt whatever that composite and if the name In was blotted out. the question which suggests itself is. What part ? attached The importance by the ancient its Egyptians to the name in connection with owner's personality has been already referred to. the name is believed to be an integral part of a man.

^ . . or spiritual body then (2) the ka. To this follow (4) the ah. jealously guarded against abstraction by the placing of heart-shaped amulets on the in order is mummy. but which is usually depicted as a bird with human heads and and of good and hands. about which the texts reveal opposing views. and. or soul. could wander at its and even take up It could eat abode in the statue of a man. Next (5) the hhaihit or shadow then (6) the khu or shining covering of the spiritual body which dwelt in heaven with the gods .. the sweet savour of incense and other ethereal itself offerings failed. could content with feeding on the viands painted on the walls of the tomb. as the seat of vital power. Then there was (3) the ha. 232 THE NAME AND THE SOUL In this we find (1) the sahn. although its normal dwelling-place will. and (7) the sekhem or personified power of the man. 215. or heart. without which there could be no resurrection of the body. was the tomb. held to be the source both of life evil in the life. p. which. if and drink. and. 1 See ante. or double (other-self).

came to be noted as the neverfailing accompaniment of death . shadow. Wiedemann. . flame. that ' part of the immortal Ego. 240-243. Ixxxvi-xc . was (8) the ren or 233 name. and in the pyramid texts we it find the deceased making supplication that ' may flourish or germinate ' along with the names of the gods. pp. and where the is condensation of the exhaled breath ^ . reflection.' no being could Extraordinary precautions were taken to prevent the extinction of the ren. tells us. is too obvious for comment. visible.^ basal connection between this practice and The the that of the importance attached to the record of name in the ' Lamb's Book of Life is ' as ensur- ing admission to heaven. 27. 5 .' Civilised and savage are at one in their identifi- cation of the soul with something intangible.THE NAME AND THE SOUL Last. 294. in the long-run. 15 . as breath. xxi. xx. but not least. 2 Cf Budge. 8 . pp. ' Among the Pacific races. without which exist. Bancroft personality. xiii. and so forth.^ which a canon of popular modern belief. it is the name assumes a the shadow or spirit or other-self of the flesh-and-blood person. But it is the cessation of breathing which. Revelation iii.

classic ' there would be support lent to the theory of souls as gaseous or ethereal. the word for for 'breath' stantial ' spirit and is ' the same. falls Hence. But as even seemingly stable things like numerals and personal pro- nouns undergo rapid change among the lower races. were bar- baric languages less mutable. from that of the barbaric Aino to Greek ' and modern English. Some light.' the search ever. it nebulous conception of and. is tribes of Siberia.234 THE NAME AND THE SOUL In every language. is and how- hopeless. whether there be any evi- dence from philology to show what part of a his man an name first is supposed to be. He says that ' as regards the Aryan . In asking the question. ' two or three generations sufficing to alter the whole aspect of their dialects among the wild and unintelligent Siam. might be possible to find some help to an equation between 'name' and ' soul ' in them. thrown upon the matter by languages in which favourable circumstances have preserved traces of family likeness and of mutations. Africa. the unsub- name into line with the general spirit. Professor Rhys has been in the field to supply materials for answer.

Now. "soul.^ 235 we seem to have a Irish ainm. Bulgarian accusative a name. I abstain from laying any stress on them. In fact. " name. the English word name itself. Old emnes." plural anmcmn also ." and enaid. I think." would add. ndman. and Armenian these anwan — all meaning " a name. ." that I cannot help referring the two words to one and the same origin. especially when I see the same or rather greater similarity illustrated by the Irish words ainm. Old Welsh anu.THE NAME AND THE SOUL nations. evman." 1 As the old theory of a homogeneous 'Aryan' race is abandoned. and Armenian. Sanskrit . " soul. the Latin nomen. the term connotes peoples speaking allied languages. Bulgarian. and To some scholars rightly." and anim. "name. ime\ Old Russian emmens. I have every reason to be satisfied with the wide extent of the Aryan world covered by the other instances which I have enumerated as Celtic. such is the similarity between Welsh enw. Prussian. and the Greek ovofia but. as some others find a difficulty in thus grouping these last-mentioned words. now enw. " clue in an interest- ing group of words from which I select the following : a name.

one is tempted to suppose that the partial was only brought its distinct it differentiation of the Irish forms about under the influence of Latin with forms of anima and nomen." fact. the genitive singular anma. which either " may mean ammee " or " nominis " . " gave up the Lastly. and anmann. for instance. which may be " either " animae or " nomina " . the nominative plural anmanna. either " animarum " or "nominum. anadl." i^e-rrvevae. them as mediaeval Take." Welsh " or and Gothic anan. which represented by such words as Latin anima. Mark's Gospel to render ghost. twice used in the fifteenth chapter of St. Be that as may. " breath.'" as the dative anmcmnaib may likeIn wise be either " animabus " or " nominibus. the that they in the is direct teaching of the Celtic vocables is are all to be referred to the same origin Aryan word for breath or breathing. the lesson which the words in question contain for the student of man is that ." whence the compound preterite uz-on. " blow "breathe.236 TJJE NAME AND THE SOUL This similarity between the Irish words so pervades the declension of them. that a beginner frequently falls into the error of confounding texts.

believed at one time not only that name was a part of the man. 566.THE NAME AND THE SOUL the Celts. or whatever you ^ may choose to define it as being. One by one the theories armed with assumption of the presence of caprice and elements of disorder in the universe have been defeated until they reached their last stand in the citadel of 1 Nineteenth Century. October 1891. but that is it was that part of him which termed the soul. however wide the zones that sepa- rate him. the breath of life.' pp. It adds another item to the teeming mass of facts witnessing to the psychical as well as the physical unity of man. . 567. any set of facts gathered one quarter being complementary to any set of facts gathered in another quarter. 'Welsh Fairies. and certain 237 other widely separated Aryans.' The important bearing language on all of this evidence from is that has preceded too clear to need enlarged comment. he explains the same phenomena in much the same way in . unless we should rather say the whole Aryan the family. It has become a truism that at the same intel- lectual level.

238 THE NAME AND THE SOUL From that final retreat they are being Mansoul. because man's extension of the methods of inquiry into his surroundings to his inner nature makes clear that he is no exception his place in amongst animated beings. but has the universal order. . ousted.

55. p. ' The Pretty but Idle Girl. No. ' H.' of the West of England. 56. Gopfritz in der Wild. 36. 76.' No.' Inthe Land ofMarvels. Innsbruck (1852). Modhng. Basque Legends. and Neulenbuch. ' 239 .) Austria. the author refers to. Busk (1871). Purzinigele. British Isles.APPENDIX VARIANTS OF TOM TIT TOT Austria. p. Chambers (1841). Loschiitz. ' The Wild Jager and the Baroness. and cf.) Romances Robert Hunt (1881). Tirolo Kinder. Wentworth Webster. p. p.' Popular Rhi/mes of Scotland.) 'Whuppity Stoorie. Theodor Vernaleken (1884). (Cornwall. variants from Gablitz.) ' Kruzimugeli.' Household Stories from the Land ofHofer. 110. Basque Provinces. notes.' p. In his and gives abstracts of. Zingerle. Schneller. (Annandale. Lower. 239. all in 26. Lower (Tyrol.und Hausmarchen. (Reichenau. R. Ed. Popular Duffy and the Devil.

W. p. jours lumineux. Thorpe. variants : p. 412) give various forms of the name. ' (South Germany. 48 . Henderson of (1879). 55.' Kinder. Benjamin Picardie. 222.) Cceur de Lion. (Hesse. Hunt. France. 150 (1877).' in Tour ienebreuse et les — In Basse-Normandie. pp. und Legenden Niedersachsens. xi. vol. 190 Haute-BretagnCj Sebillot. Yule-Tide Stories. Grimm's notes (p. vol.) Thorpe refers to Harry's Sagen. viii. i.) ' APPENDIX The Idle Girl and her Aunts. Conies Populaires de Lorraine. (1887). and refer to the incident of name-guessing in a Danish saga. 240 (Ireland. (Lorraine. Professor Rhys. Alfred W. Marchen. refers to the French ' Ricdin-Ricdon. Fleury..') Grimm's Household Tales. Amsterdam (1708). i. i. iv.) Kugerl. (Wales. No. Nordouest de la France. p.) ' Ropiquet.) 'Habetrot. Melusine. Cosquin refers to the following p.' (1879). ' Rumpelstiltskin' (' Rumpelstilzchen.' Folk-Lore of the Northern Counties. Fire- side Stories. 45. Romania. 1. p. Emmanuel Cosquin M. pp. Contes Anglais tires d'une ancienne Chronique comprise par Richard sur- nomme Germany. Celle (1840). Ystrad. Translated by Mrs.) ' The Heir 189-194. Patrick Kennedy (TheBorder.und Haus- . Thiele. 268. vol. No.' i. (Lower Saxony. No. 16-19. 258.' Cymmodor.

Kuhn^ Sagen.). i. No. 20.' pp. 298. refers to an Italian variant entitled Rosania. 277. i. Wratislaw (1889). p.' Pen and Pencil Sketches of Faroe and Iceland. 240. No. p.) Thorpe ' Gonzenbach. (*886). A. p. 46. 157. The Lazy Spinning-Girl who became a Queen.' Russia.' Sixty Folk-Tales. Copenhagen (1708). p. The Use of Magic Language. ' Panczimanczi. Another Oriental variant. Symington. 22. 82. Iceland. (Sicily. 306-309.' In the Land of Marvels.) pp. 28 w. 138 (Prusse Hungary. 84 (see ante.' Arang's Erediti Nepmesek. 278-280. Orientale). ' The Golden Spinster. p.' translated into Danish. and to Toeppen. H. am Sud-devischland. Contes de Paysans et Patres Slaves. Busk (1873). is referred to by ' Grimm in the in his Notes (vol. Kropf and Jones ' p.' Sagas from the Far East. p. more akin in detail than that from Mongolia. R.APPENDIX m'drchen 241 pp. ' Gilitrutt. Alexandre . p. Mongolia. Mullenhoff. p. Cosquin also refers to Proehle 11. (Westphalia. Vernaleken (see above). Zingerle. des ' Kinkach Martinko. 112) as occurring Thousand and Otic Days under the title of ' Turandot. 341-347. Italy. ' Winterkolble. p.' Magyar Folk-Tales. H.

) Clay and The Girl who could Spin Gold from Long Straw. Busk (1870). Sweden. Paris (1864). (Upland.' Yule-Tide Stories. l68. Spain. 181. p. 56.' H. Cosquin refers to a Lithuanian variant in Schleicher. 10.242 APPENDIX Chodzko. . Patranas. Both Cosquin and Grimm refer to CavalliuSj No. p. ' What Ana saw R. in the Sunbeam. ' Benjamin Thorpe (1888). p.

37. Abracadabra. woman as farmer in. Banks 116. cajolery of. 89. Barbaric ideas about blood. Adonai. 83. Australians. Aino name-customs. 224. sorcerers dead. 64. 100. Amenti. 2. 96. 69. Berchta. Becke. 101. 91. Island taboo-customs. 171. Baptism. name-giving in. 34. 139. of. 201. qualities. 208. 50. 92. Louis. with spittle. name-superstition. 44. 84. Africa. 213. 43. Abipone name-superstition. name-avoidance of the 167. 126. Astrology. 178. 171. eaten to acquire Beauty and the Beast. of. 171. B Babylonian psalms. 82. name-avoidance among. flesb of. among. 101. AuM. Aohren. name - giving 81. name-superstition in. Amulets. name-giving in the. 215. - customs. Baptismal name. 81. 189. name-giving. Animals. 129. 130. Arachne. Athene. importance 89. of. 58 death and disease. taboo-customs. 126. name-superstition. battle of. 75. 60. 21.customs. 100. Abyssinian baptism . 205. 53. 224 . flattery Tom Tit Tot. 97. 243 . American Indians. — — among the. 110- 95. 82. 117. 42. . taboo 116. 170. 134. Bible. pagan origin 112. 42. names.INDEX Aubrey. Basque variant of Bear. 190. 120.

Browne. 212. Cradle safeguards. for rain. Charms against thieves. 227. C Cabalistic writing. 224. 92. Creative words. 116. 157. Changelings. 59. name-superstition in. prayer buried with. 35. 90. 60. euphemisms 125. 42. 65. 94. Sir T. Boys dressed as Brand. 138. 77. Crooke. Britain. . 220. 76. 85. Confucius. 160. hidden names of EmChiefs. 99. Miss Roalfe. gullibility of. Digby. 141. Dr. Bishop. charms. Comte. through mother. Budge. D Dahomey. Breath as soul. of. 71. Sir G. 198. Dead. spells for raising taboo on names 172. of Osiris. 25. 67. Book of the Dead. Dionysus. barbaric theory 224. 138. 179. 207. hidden name of. Corp Creidh. moon-shaped. 222. 175. 163. 210. relationship. 215. 215. Disease. 213. 194-198. W. "WaUis. 100-103. the. 75. Deity and names of mortals. Boat. 180. Demeter. 134. 95. Indigetes. Customs. 28. 59. of. 65. 206. 82. girls. 146. 212. Curses. Cyclades naming-customs. Callaway. 205. 233.. Captain. 190. 39. 142. 184. 41. 70. Bride not to be struck with iron. 64. Building-sacrifice. 62. 214. 219. 135. 92. Burne. 177. China. 185. 145. 80. 72-77. Cannibalism. image. Miss. 91. British. 36. 158. 67. 115. 131. INDEX 143. Czar. barbaric theory of. naming-. saliva. Bourke. peror of. 134. 47-52. Cook. 223. New. Cure-charms. Columbia. hidden Devil.. Bouda.. 164- Death. sorcerers. 41. Cinderella variants. Oodrington. Chaldean magic. "W. saliva-. 199. 62. 92. 216-227. 66. 233.. Captain. sacred. 28. Mr. 75. Chinese doctors.244 Blood -brotherhood. to avert. Cox. Di 62. Sir Kenelm. Corn-goddesses. 69. 63. of king David Copperfield. names of. horse-shoe. 34.

writing. Herodotus. Genesis Creation-legend. 58. charms Excalibur. and sons-in-law. Healing. 123.. exorcising demon from. hearth. 42. Groome. 5. superstition about. the. 2. 3. Euphemisms. 229. Gnostic amulets. E Earth-mother. of. 45. modern. 35. 218-224. 198. T. 115-117. 41. wind and weather. 210. Hearth goddesses. 216. 198. 129. 52. 66. Flowers. 74. 45. ). about. Elworthy. Flaminica. 213. G Games. Friend. Ahhi. 133. 35. Witch of. G. Dubois. Hall of the Two Truths. Golden Bough. 147. 125. Exorcists. Girl. 38. Edward.cuttings. 77. Gods. euphemism for. 147. 128. 228. W. flattery 150. 210. earth. J. Hindes. Donegal. 173. 70.. Tom Tit Tot. Indians 8. 132. Rev. superstition in Dorman. 43. 216. 129. Flax-goddesses. Effigy. 151. 42.INDEX Disease. 47-52. 201. Heart-shaped amulets. ffilderic. H Hair . Goddesses. 141. 137. 81. 214. F. Eastern variant of 23. Fathers-in-law. Guiana. 154. 58. 70. of. 207. Endor. the. Flamen Dialis. 37. precautions Folk-medicine. 29. euphemisms to avert. 91. 245 4. 42. Fox. Dreams. Giant with no heart in his body. spinning. Dr. 131. Fitz-Gerald. Frazer. 83. 125. 49. antiquity of. 59. of. Dust-storms. 29. 65. 155. gods of. 42. Sir Matthew. 62. God. taboo between. 70. avoidance of names 177. Goose Fairies. 61. 42. 218. Gregor. 199. 42. corn. 41. 215. Hale. . 226. Funeral games. 191. Fates. name on. of healing. Furies. Gullible Devil. 134. 78. Grimm. 36. 199. F. 57. 214. against. 168. incarnate. 43. 213. eating the. Evil Eye. 38. 203. 153. woman as. Farmer. 111 (m. 69.. 150. 44. 44.

217. Sir Alfred. 86. 211. 142. the Egyptian. 185. Indigitamenta. Incantations. 177. tween. name-taboo among 129. 65. Kaffir taboo-custom. 190. Jesus. as cure-charm. Lustration with spittle. 151. 62. Jinn. 196. 50. of. INDEX of chiefs Hidden names kings. Marriage-taboo. superstitions about. 103. 59-68. Language. 68. 103. Isis Lyall. 1. 74. charm through.&. 29. 198. 186. K Ka. 225. as cure- Joukahainen. as healer. 163. Manlii. 91. Initiation rites. Kings. 47. 35.. Holda. devil. Maine. 227. Kols of India. Jews. Johnson. Mantrams. 221. Maori naming-custom. 123. 193. Lang. Incarnate gods. 75. 57. of. 83. 34. 57-78. Dr. 228. as exorcist. hidden names 160. 55. 36. 147. 208. 157- Kingsley. 188. 45. 217. 35. 178. Karakia. 79-113. KaZevala. legends of. concrete terms 25. King's evil. 133. 54. of. 63. and Joseph. Miss Mary. . Images. 122. taboo on chief or priest entering. through tangible things. Irish name-superstition. 157. Idylls of the King. 185.. Man and the. of priests. House. Incarnation of priest. name 221. and secret names of God. 157-160. 218. 153. Magic. 200. 94. 232. 119. 93. Hindus. Horse-shoes as charms. 219. through intangible things. 33-36. 43. Logos. 180-184. 126. 45.king. Honovar. 221. and B. in. 187. M Macbeth. 197. 65. Iron. 66. 146. Jehovah. Sir Henry.246 Herrick. bargains be- Jevons. 153. Dr. Andrew. sympathetic. name charm. 200-204. Ishtar. 101.

. 48. Portraits. taboo between. 180-184. Professor York. 215 deity. of. Norns. Moon-charms. 200. 163. 213. name 221. Priest-king. equated with soul. 125.INDEX Mary. 106 (m. 222. ' R Ra and Isis. barbaric ideas about. 1. 'Mawther. Midwives and mantrams. of origin change of. 228. Olaf. Rain-charm.' 200. 43. 216. the goddess. 61. Neith. 106 («.). Names. Karl. 131. 152. 231- 199. Mummy as medicine. incisions in. 64.. N Nail-parings. 189. ' and diffusion of stories. 45. 122124. 62. 191.' 9.3. 36. Mothers-in-law. Paton. Phylacteries. 119. Su. 201. 91. Naming a Member of Parliament. 74. Pausanias. 174. king. PoweU. Proverbs. 28-31. taboo between. Problem of marriage-taboo. Moslem. 57. Relations. 117. and sons-in-law. 25. 64. Om. Mikado. folk-. Naming-customs. Punch and Judy. Name-giving with spittle. 28-31. 77. 72. 100-10. W. Relics as charms. Masai saliva-custom. avoidance baptismal. Origin and diffusion of stories. 131. 151. Melanesians. 123. ' 189. superstitions about. secret name of 185. on mummy. 110. Pearson. incarnated. Osiris' (the god). Pollock. Miiller. Medicine. 89. Praying-wheels. 57. R. 247 as cure-charm. 103. 195. 51. 147. 207. 90. on effigy. 215. 205. 67. 63. unlucky.Frederick. 33. Om Mani padme hum. precautions about. 118.). Penelope. 75. 153. woman as farmer in. 'Open Sesame. Plutarch. origin of the. of. mummy). 205. 155. Book of.' derivation of. 43. Priesthood. 28. Professor Max. 113Odysseus. 224. 40. 115-117. (the 223. Praise of children deprecated. Mexican pontiff. 37. 65. 63. Name 237. Palestine. 62. Mystery plays.

Sprinkling of horses at Siena. 173. Trepanning skull. 17-26. 150. Theocritus. 107-109. story of. Toldofh Jeshu. Rex Nemorensis. 9-16. Thief. Egyptian theory of. Soot. variant of 18. spells for summoning. 81. 63. diffusion of. 127. 174. Sayce. and of. 1. 59-68. Rhys. Herbert. Thorpe. 194-196. 58. 209. Thracians. Tom Tit Tot. 164. 233. 111. Professor Robertson. seal-ring of. 28-31. 119. 79. Teeth. 74. Professor. Scotch belief in unlucky names. 39. Speech as divine. Songs of healing. 169. woman as. 93. 229. Leslie. civilised theories variants of. 115. Thoth. 219. 25. the dead. 152. Tree-spirit. 144. Spells. 41. on name of gods. problem of origin and persistence of. 233. Rome. Virgilicmce. Spindle-whorls. 96. 186. 80. 235- Spinster. Simpson. 42. Transubstantiation. kings and priests. 114-191. Professor. 157. luck in. Ren (or name). 71. Homericoe. Soul. Singhalese name-giving. 33. 45. Reginald. Superstitions. Tootliache cure-charms. 36. Seals or signatures. barbaric theories of. Tom Tit Tot. 148. 132. Stone implements. tutelary deity Rumpelstiltskin. Smith. 215. doctrine 61. Shadow. of. 220. 90. Sortes BiUioce. of. Social groups. survival of use of. Salutations. 70. 6. between relatives. Tasmanian name-customs. Taboo. . 212. . 94. 216. 72-77. Sacrifice to earth-spirit. 231237. powder. equated with name. William. 215. 199. 237. 178. Towneley Plays. Spinning-goddesses. 215. 113.38. 52. charm against. precautions about. 40. Stephen. Samoan high priest. early. 186. Sympathetic magic. 208. 80. 6. Spirits. Saliva-superstitions. 212. incarnation of. Solomon. Benjamin. 147. 50.248 INDEX Spencer. 208. Shropshire Folk-Lore. magic through. 28. Stories.

195. Words W Wainamoinen. Vox Stellarum. Zarathushtra (Zoroaster).). B. for. of power. Constable. 194. "VVater-worship. 201. 212. Wiedemann. Withershins. Woden as healer.. of. Yahweh. Printers to at the Her Majesty Edinburgh University Press . 27. 199. Turgot. Walpurg. 83. 36-41. remedy 221. and spinster. Vedas. Wood-chewing 61. to soften heart. as farmer Woman Vac. W. Tyrolese variant of Tom Tit Tot. 190. 196. Tit Tot. 204{«. 44. 62. 205. 69. 108. 111. Tylor. Whuppity Stoorie. 20. Trit-a-Trot. Witch. of. 225. Yeats. 113. 122-124. 46. 87. Zulu sorcerers. 27. 72. 97. 127. 168. of Tom Yellow Sky. god of. 195. Discoverie 208. story Whooping-cough. 18. Wind and Wisdom. taboo-customs. 197. 219. 62. 28. Winifred's well. and A. Welsh variants 24. 249 weather gods. 59. 233. Warts. 117- Printed by T. Writing. Saint. 192-230. Professor. Witchcraft. 217. Trwtyn-Tratyn. 155.INDEX Trinidad name-auperatition. remedy for. 184.

.

It also deals with the geography of the country and the ethnology of the people . ESSAYS ON Crawford. with some account of the military expeditions undertaken for the maintenance of peace on the border. de Thierry. This work. Joseph Texte. Crown ivo. which has recently been 'crowned' by the French Academy. Introduction by W. Author Abdur Rahman. with the history of the border tribes previous to the British annexation of the Punjab and Scinde. LONDON : DUCKWORTH AND CO. By V. and to form an impartial estimate of the work achieved by men of the Lawrence and Roberts schools respectively. and with the pohtical problems arising out of the recent disturbances. Small Crown Zvo.. COSMOPOLITAN SPIRIT IN A Study of the Literary Relations between France and England in the Eighteenth Century. Crown ivo. JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU AND THE ORIGIN OF THE LITERATURE. FRENCH WRITERS. STUDIES OF A BIOGRAPHER.DUCKWORTH AND Extra Crown CO. price \is.' of 'The Ameer Mr. price is.West and West Frontiers from Chitral to Baluchistan. C. M. An endeavour is made to trace the origin and development of the Forward policy. By With an WAR AND POLICY ON THE INDIAN BORDER. 6d. A new Collection of Essays in 2 vols. Matthews. price ys. Wheeler's book consists of an historical summary of the relations of the Indian Government with the tribes on the North. E. price ys. Henley. . IMPERIALISM. By Leslie Stephen. By Dr. 6d. Translated into English by J. By Stephen Wheeler.'S BOOKS Zvo. W. will be the first of a small collection of standard French criticisms upon matters concerning English Literature. and revised by the Author.

. edition Literature (Feb. and still is. — — . . Langlois and Ch. with a Preface by Prof F. as Renan's famous early book just cited was. in the preface to L'Avenir de la Science. V. ." This book of M. HIS- By Ch. however. . and an ''Introduction to Historical Studies " that is adequate is bound to be as warmly welcomed by students in Great Britain or the United States as by students in France. MM. for the cultivation of what he called " historic psychology. Langlois and Seignobos. LONDON : DUCKWORTH AND CO. . that wilful defect of vision. Seignobos and M. 1898) spoke methodical to fix the nature and determine the difficulties of historical studies has ever been made in France.' Of the French : thus — ' No effort so seriously . . . note this ordinary disability and this incomparable privilege of the French tongue ? not only have been the first to systematise concisely and clearly the scattered results of reflections upon. historical studies. Langlois is. and elevated there as a memorial of the victory of the critical method. in England than in France. as it were. The rigorous scientific treatment of historical studies has not been more general and systematic. Seignobos. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF TORY. and experience of. 12th. . a solid monument of masonry raised on the high plateau to which French scholars have been ascending now for thirty years. of the Sorbonne. with that clearness which seems inalienable from French thought. York Powell. and so logically complete. which usually in French books is the condition of French clearness does not Renan himself.Extra Crown Svo. Nor is there anything of the sort in English or German at once so precise. Translated by G. price ys. G. but have also themselves formulated the principles of historical research with a critical precision and competence which make these remarkably compact and suggestive pages as useful an essay in definition of a right historical method. Berry. but with none of that superficiality. 6d. so admirably concise.

will Further announcements be made from time to time of the issue in similar format of other books. POLITICAL AND SOCIAL. text. Coleridge. 8vo. L. as a rule. Stephen. now in the In preparation. of which at present no well-annotated and otherwise sufficiently desirable editions exist. In 2 Vols. and an Introduction and Notes. punctuation. except in so far as fresh treatment of them may seem. Poems of 1798. National Portrait Gallery. with certain T. by Thomas Hutchinson. ' of 1798. on the whole. spelling. . LYRICAL BALLADS. 1795). and S.' It also contains reproductions in photo- gravure of the portraits of Wordsworth (by Hancock. : needful. Edited. net. This Edition reproduces the etc. price 3 j. LONDON DUCKWORTH AND CO. kd. STATE TRIALS. Selected and Edited by H.Fcap. 1 798) and of Coleridge (by Peter Vandyke.' The Three and The Wan- derings of Cain.. It is not intended to include herein. ' now ' time) and Coleridge's Lewti. ' and gives in an Appendix Wordsworth's Peter reprinted for the Graves. u?iiforni with the above volume.' first ' Bell (original text. By William Wordsworth 1798. the oft-reprinted classics.

and a rule. appeal also to old Scholars. F. F. CusT.A. Oxford Assistant Charity Commis- A HISTORY OF RUGBY SCHOOL. Leach. have pleasure in anseries of nouncing that they have arranged to issue a books upon the English Public Schools. D. Duckworth and Co. . No when series of such School Histories exists. as : . To be followed by others. Gallery.S... M. each. H. will be illustrated will cost. publishers believe that leaving it. issued moderate The and tion. of All Souls'. M. By Arthur sioner.A. The first three will be A HISTORY OF ETON COLLEGE.— English Public Schools Messrs.. it is hoped. they will be printed 5s. W. formerly Fellow . while at school to may possess an at a account of their School. Rouse. Series will. many like boys..A. By Lionel Portrait M. Director of the National A HISTORY OF WINCHESTER COLLEGE. By of Cambridge. LONDON : DUCKWORTH AND CO. and the and authentic price.A. sometime Fellow Christ's College. to all interested in the history of English educa- The volumes in small quarto.

' etc. was in 1710-11. with Engraved Frontispieces. a complete set of the folio sheets. Author of 'The Life of Steele. being pubsubscription. THE TATLER. with notes by Bishop Percy. but the eccentricities of spelling which were the printer's. and have been freely made use of by subsequent editors. LONDON : DUCKWORTH AND CO. was revised and corrected by the author' . and Dr. John Calder. not the author's have not been preserved. Pearce and though these notes are often irrelevant and out of date. price 7J. Aitken. The first and The volumes will not be sold separately. but I have had by my side. which. for constant reference. containing the Lucubrations of Isaac Bickerstaff' in the form in which they were first presented to the world. The eighteenth-century diaries and letters published of late years have in many cases enabled me to throw light on passages which have hitherto been obscure. the general public. dd. and sometimes useful illustrations have been found in the contemporary newspapers and periodicals. Small Demy 8vo. in duodecimo. I have endeavoured to preserve what is of value in the older editions. the most valuable of the annotated editions The Tatler was published by John Nichols and others in 1786. Dr. .— In Four Volumes. Scrupulous accuracy in the text has been aimed at. as recorded on the title-page. per volume. Richard Edited with Introduction and Notes by George A. The present edition has been printed from a copy of the latter issue. as concisely as possible. they contain an immense amount of information. and the punctuation has occasionally been ' ' — corrected. while the other. and to supplement it. of . dull gold top. THE EDITOR'S PREFACE The lished for original numbers of The Tatler were re-issued one edition. in two forms by in octavo. bound in buckram. by such further information as appeared desirable.

. Translated by C. Mabel Lawrence. Some of them are of little interest to the general circle of Dante students. Giuliani. of great variety of interest. price 6s.Crown tvo.£i. and others . He is the acknowledged master of Scartazzini. and the Comedy) underlies all subsequent work on the inner meaning and articulation of Dante's writings. dealing as they do with German translations of the Comedy or German works on Dante . the Editor will give the student the means of checking Dr. but he will carefully abstain from fretting the reader by a running commentary of criticism interrupting the essays themselves. . which makes them out of the reach of many even of those Dante students to whom the languages in which they are written (German for the most part. In an introduction. LONDON : DUCKWORTH AND CO. and in especial.. and his translations.A. and in special notes in the several essays. Witte collected the essays in which this and many subsidiary points are elaborated in two volumes. to the discussion of biographical details or the identification of the authors and relative antiquities of ancient commentaries. Wicksteed.A. KARL WITTE'S SELECT ESSAYS ON DANTE. editions. Karl Witte was actively engaged in Dante studies. The proposed translation will include all of Dr. Dr. Witte's results in doubtful or speculative matters by reference to the original sources or to essays written from another point of view. and essays constitute a more important contribution to the revived and deepened study of Dante than any other single scholar can boast to have made. but the remaining essays constitute an invaluable body of investigations. the Convito. ranging from a general survey of Dante's mental development or a presentation of his conception of the Universe. Witte's essays that have any general interest.8s. his conception of Dante's Trilogy (that is to say. Dr. but occasionally Italian) offer no difficulties. Edited by Philip H. B. M. his idea as to the mutual relations of the Vita Nuova. During the whole of the central portion of this century. They are published at the high price of .

net. as issued in the rare periodical. . drawn also designed the by Mr. William Michael Introduction giving of the poem. B. who has Cover. £1. 50 copies on Japanese Vellum. by permission of Mr. photogravured and printed by the Swan Electric Engraving Company. afterwards Art in a and Poetry. IS. THE BLESSED DAMOZEL By Dante Gabriel Rossetti. W. The Text is that of the earliest printed version. The Frontispiece. ««/ (all sold). Rosseiti contributes an concerning the writing has undergone. a reproduction of Dante Gabriel Rossetti's Crayon Study of the head of The Blessed Damozel. Macdougall. full details it and the changes is Each verse enclosed in a designed border.Small Crown ^to. and consequently presents the poem form hitherto practically inaccessible. $s. LONDON: DUCKWORTH AND R CO. is Frederick Hollyer. Mr. The Germ.

' All lovers of cricket should procure it. hard to ' James's Gazette. 'Pretty well every department of the dealt with.' ' ' By the Hon. they really would be ill-advised were they to close their pockets against this capital little book.' We heartily commend this Much more interesting Glasgow Herald. game is tersely 'Well informed and ' interesting. appeal to players of the national game. .—— —— — — ——— — — — — — — Small Crown ivo. advice and plenty of instructive capital. ' Mr. ' Young players will find here hints of the utmost value.' Truth.^— Midland Sporting Gazette. 'Whatever else devotees of the national game may decide to leave unbought.' Sporting Life. little manual of a notable cricketer. instructive than LONDON DUCKWORTH AND : CO. R. CRICKET. 'A capital cricket book.' beat. 'There gossip. There is not a dull page in the book.' Dundee Advertiser. His characterisations of the various mighty players will be A pithy deliverance of an expert.' Literary World. Players of all ages will take a pleasure in reading these suggestive and well-written pages. and we hope hundreds and hundreds of players will be of the same mind as ourselves. and will be appreIts enthusiastic ciated by all cricket enthusiasts. Lyttelton's chapters are all of the greatest interest. A volume for which we are grateful.^x%. is much good All the hints and comments are Athenaum. Lyttelton.' Sheffield Independent. ' Globe. H. 'The book is full of sage reflections.' — Times. tone and sound sense mark it as eminently suitable for school captains.' Pall Mall Gazette. nor one from which useful information may not be derived. Full of points likely to 'An excellent little volume. His remarks upon the questions of amateurism and professionaUsm are especially worthy of consideration.' Sunday Special. as a more interesting and concise little volume has not gone through the hands of the ^xvaX. is. It is a most admirable budget of experience and philosophy.' Birmingham Post.' Pelican.' ' many systematised handbooks.' Si.' Scotsman.6d. Speaker. 'Contains many hints which young players would do well to lay to heart.

any by no means unsympathetic. The criticism of is Lord Rosebery. The papers are all the outcome of careful study. intelligently show how and effectively onlooker can criticise our literary These quotations will an American Glasgow politicians. gilt top. . ' Mr.' Herald. are though subject numberless reserva- almost always acute and worth considering.' Daily News.' ' Manchester Courier. serve to exceedingly acute. by no means to be despised. an able writer. Hapgood's essays exhibit a good deal of penetration critical and ' acumen.— — — — — Crown Bvo. 6j. to His judgments. Careful pieces of work. laudatory. which deserves to be ' read by many. Norman Hapgood The is. straightforwardness of his dograte. LONDON DUCKWORTH AND : CO: . LITERARY STATESMEN AND OTHERS By Norman Hapgood.' ' Scotsman. The essays deserve to be preserved as the outcome of a clever and charitable thinker.' ' Daily Telegraph. They make a pleasant and interesting book. . hickram cloth. matism to us at too.' Daily Chronicle. while sympathetic and . tions. and they are here presented in a most artistic form. is Mr. whether as an assthetician or a psychounaffected logist.

By Clemence Housman.' Standard. . ' Leeds Mercury. we may read obscurely the secular struggle of spirit and flesh.— —— — — ' Crown %vo. and here her imagination has had full play. and metaphorical. who is unable to appreciate the dainty fashion in which the tale is treated. let it be added. charm. reality. is On the conception of congratulated.' ' ' A writer of rare and its treatpower that is weirdly stories that has been original. and death have the poignancy of and his sacrisymbol though he is of the world's greatest idea.' Academy. feeling that if it is all mere fancy on the author's part. considerable poetic feeling in The Unknown Sea. dull gold top. delicate fancy and a rich imagination have enabled the author to invest it with singular impressiveness. The reader must pocket his criticising spirit and simply give himself up to the spell of the writer of Tie Unktiown Sea. But the allegory may be what it will. there ought to be. 6s. ceived. and has a certain palely imaginative quality that is of a strange delicacy. The Unknown Sea is not a popular novel there is too much really fine work in it for that . Aberdeen Free Press. A — Nottingham Daily Guardian. ' Original. The story is justified of itself. fresh. It the most exquisite allegory that has been written for a long time. ' There is — promise. ' Newcastle Chronicle. the maiden of the sea. She has imagination. Romantic and well con- LONDON DUCKWORTH AND : CO. nor. art vellum. In the unhappy and ascetic passion of Christian the fisherman for Diadyomene. The theme is ment is marked by a degree of imaginative impressive. is ' The poetry and mysticism of the story are its great charms. THE UNKNOWN ' The idea atmosphere. He is ideal without fice a strange and poetic one. A Romance. and the book has an Christian the author may be sentimentality. One of the most remarkable put in our hands for a considerable period. SEA. Miss Housman is the true sister of her gifted brothers. and a haunting Celtic sadness about her style that one does not often meet with.' Literature. but hardly a page fails to indicate the author's delicate methods and robust individuality. ' The Unknown Sea is a novel. but it is like no other novel. To those who have not lost a taste for legendary lore we commend the book. The reader need not be envied who can lay aside the book unfinished. and there is no legend here why.

Septemfeer t898. LONDON.C 3 . A LIST OF Messrs DUCKWORTH & CO/S ANNOUNCEMENTS AND PUBLICATIONS HENRIETTA STREET. COVENT GARDEN. W.

York Rossetti. A. Emile de L'lsle Adam Voynich. V. Cust. Bateman. S. Joseph Thierry. W. INDEX PAGE Aitken. Bevan. Ostlere. Leslie W. . Mabel Leach. 7 Armour. H. H. Seignobos. Lawrence. Mrs Humphry Day don James. 22 7 II Rouse. B. Philip H. „ Hon.A. August Sutro. Mrs W. . R. Arthur Hapgood. Sir Philip Burton. . Wordsworth. W. Maurice Malet. Stuart Brieux . Hennessy. Madame . Lilian Gamett. Broglie. Walter Savage Langlois. G. Alfred . Ch. Edith . Browning. Henri Joubert Jackson. Crawford. B. L. . E. H. Archer. Landor. . . T. . CliflFord. W. . Macdougall. E. de Brooke. C. . Rev. Margaret Ashton. John . Robert . . 10 18 D. Edward . Edward H. Hay. Philip . J. H. Edith Johnson. A. Wilson. Kurth. Virginia M. John . Mrs H. Philips. L. Sinjohn. F. Corbet. Lionel Erichsen. Cooper. Stephen. . Henry Jennings. K. Theresa Barry. . M. Wilkins. . Wheeler. A. F. Constance Gautier. . Berry. G. Clemence Humanitarian. W. de Tyrrell. 18 5 Powell.. Coleridge. Stephen. Karl . and K. S. M. Mrs Neville Hon. Percival. Henrik Verhaeren.G. Stephen Wicksteed. Lady Burrow. Th^ophile . J. . K. Housman. C. Sienkiewicz. Beam. R. . Symons. W. D. Ch. The Hutchinson. . Strindberg. Brimley Joly. Villiers Ward. H. Sergius Street. Mona Witte. Barclay. Leslie Stepniak. Helen Henley.A. . C. E. M. G. Prince E. Lucas Matthews. Belloc. . Ostrovsky J. Pollockj Sir Frederick Clodd. T. Norman Hatzfeld. Rossetti. W. May Lyttelton. 16-17 Fal . John . Isabel. W. Ibsen. . . N. Maeterlinck. . Texte. G. Knapp. . . C. G. Tennant. Burne-Jones. L.

ARTHUR YOUNG. large crown 8vo.' with which they are more than — ' ' worthy to be associated. He always writes with ease and and is as incapable of vulgarism as of an affectation. gibbon's AUTOBIOGRAPHY. INLAND Telegrams American Cables: 3 : DUCTARIUS. COVENT GARDEN. There is no and judiciously expressed criticism in the English literature of the present day. at the present day. JOHN BYROM. . I do not know any other writer of criticism whom it would be possible to call by that name." "gerwalduck.' FUBLISHEBS HENRIETTA STREET. — "No living man more at home than he in the literature of the eighteenth any. "Those who are prepared to learn rather than be amused or excited cannot do better than study his Studies. instructed.DUCKWORTH & CO.C. LONDON. Times. since the death of Coventry Patmore. writing in English. now capable o* such acute. JOWETT'S LIFE. PASCAL. is by Leslie Stephen. in the "'Who is there." Globe. It is only when we pause to reflect at the end of a paragraph or essay that we recognise how smoothly and delightfully we have been carried along. these are — — felicity. His century. sense. — who is — living English critics. human urbanity and critical insight. THE EVOLUTION OF EDITORS. learned." The titles of the ** Studies " are as follows I. STEPHEN.' He is one of the soundest of our critics. VOL. he is a philosophic thinker." Morning Post. and few. LESLIE. well-balanced. "Learning. " He is ^ lucid as Macaulay without sacrificing accuracy to efifect. witty. NATIONAL BIOGRAPHY. WORDSWORTH'S YOUTH. Two vols. gilt top. responsible criticism as that contained in these two volumes ? Mr Leslie Stephen is not only ft critic." Truth. W. THE IMPORTATION OF GERMAN." Atkenmum. only a few of the qualities Mr Stephen displays. and. MATTHEW ARNOLD. if — ' cool shrewd judgment is often refreshing as a contrast to the tall talk which has been only too common with modern biographers. OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES. II. JOHNSONIANA. serious. have a better right to speak about the literary performances and influences of the nineteenth. 12 s. and ranged side by side with his Hours in a Library. LIFE OF TENNYSON. — "Every serious student better example of fair. unacademic. must really go to the book itself. "Will maintain Mr Leslie Stephen's reputation as indisputably the first of Arthur Symons Saturday Review." Daily Chronicle. STUDIES OF A BIOGRAPHER. : — VOL." Outlook. LONDON. " His * Studies of a Biographer will be received cordially and gratefully. Buckram. THE STORY OF SCOTT's RUIN.

Abdur Rahman. as discursive. A few extracts rom Landor's correspondence with the sister and niece of the Hon. and with the political problems arising out of the recent disturbances. has now been authorised by Lady Graves-Sawle. I OS.Messrs Duckworth & Co. Of the letters then printed. and other illustrations. BOR- by Stephen Wheeler. with some account of the military expeditions undertaken for the maintenance of peace on the border. Edited Wheeler. to give a further and final selection. Author of "The Ameer 6d. as dogmatic. It also deals with the geography of the country and the ethnology of the people British annexation of the . WALTER SAVAGE. OF WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR: PRIVATE AND PUBLIC. and are full of allusions to the political. to whom most of the correspondence was addressed. WAR AND DER. Mr Wheeler. SPINOZA'S LIFE AND PHILOSOPHY. BART. Several are now printed from proof-sheets which he had himself preserved with a view to publication in book form. 7s. Rose Aylmer were published last year.'s FREDERICK POLLOCK. : — WHEELER. and to form an impartial estimate of the work achieved by men of the Lawrence and Roberts schools respectively. With introduction. The letters in the present volume cover a period of twenty-five years. The Second Part contains a collection of letters on public affairs addressed by Landor to various newspapers and periodicals. by Sir New and cheaper edition. Small demy 6d. 2 photo8vo. but not included in any edition of his works. STEPHEN. SIE Frederick Pollock. LANDOR. Among the illustrations is a characteristic portrait from a pen and ink sketch never before engraved. NEW LETTERS by Stephen gravures." demy Mr Wheeler's book consists of an historical summary of the relations of the Indian Government with the tribes on the North-West and West Frontiers from Chitral to Baluchistan. Literature (25th December 1897) said " They are delightful reading. and as suddenly rising into eloquence or flashing into epigram as the famous Conversations themselves. along with newly discovered writings in prose and verse. ." The editor. An endeavour is made to trace the origin and development of the Forward policy. literary and social history of the quarter of a century from 1838 to 1863. POLICY ON Small THE INDIAN 8vo. with the history of the border tribes previous to the Punjab and Scinde.

Small This work." " The Story of Creation. JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU AND THE COSMOPOLITAN SPIRIT IN LITERATURE: A Study of the Literary Relations between France and England in the i8th Century.M. essays in point of fact on sundry questions which would have been better included in a separate volume. Wilkins (author of " The Romance of Lady Burton"). which has recently been "crowned" by the French Academy. will be the first of a small collection of standard French criticisms upon matters concerning English Literature. Tale. Docteur Translated into English by J. EDWARD. a notable memorial to one of the most picturesque and remarkable personalities — of our era. Edited with a W. by Edward Clodd. by F. net.R. 5s. BURTON." CLODD. sometime President of Lore Society. ISABEL.G. F. I have also deleted some press cuttings and unimportant details not germane to the The book remains to all practical purposes as Lady Burton subject. Matthews. and how much he had been misunderstood and misjudged during his life that it was written. I have endeavoured I have been to carry it out by interfering as little as possible with the original text. but this is all. 6d. Isabel. ros. By Joseph Texte. With numerous portraits and illustrations. Isabel Preface by Second (and cheaper) edition.New Books THE LIFE OF CAPTAIN BURTON.C. and two or three chapters and portions of chapters on obsolete controversies and subjects foreign to the narrative. JOSEPH." " Pioneers of Evolution.. his wife." etc. 8vo. H.. W. Dealing with a venerable Suffolk version of Grimm's well-known " Rumpelstiltskin. Upon me therefore the task of revision has devolved. compelled to leave out the appendices. 7s. has given rise to a set of curious beliefs and customs. etc. confusing persons and things. — " It was in the hope that this book should tell the world how great a man it had lost in him. bs lettres. SIR RICHARD K. Crown 8vo. demy . Small demy 8vo. Mr TEXTE.G. Author of "The Childhood of the World. Extract from the Editor's Introduction. which. It is in the same hope that this new edition is brought forth. An Essay on Savage Philosophy in Folkthe Folk- TOM TIT TOT. wrote it.S." Clodd endeavours to show that the main incident in the story contains a worldwide and much-varied superstition. 6d. Burton.. It was found that the two bulky volumes which formed the first edition could not possibly be compressed into one volume at a more popular price and it was Lady Burton's wish that the book should be as widely known as possible.

the Convito. They are published at the high price of ^i.. and in special notes in the several essays. interrupting the essays themselves. and others and in especial. E. or to essays written from another point of view. and essays constitute a more important contribution to the revived and deepened study of Dante than any other single scholar can boast to have made. WITTERS ESSAYS ON DANTE. Giuliani. B. "The history of Modern Imperialism is traced in a brief but methodiqal and exceedingly interesting manner. cr. art vellum. tion by C. He is the acknowledged master of Scartazzini. Philip H. and his translations.A. to the discussion of biographical details or the identification of the authors and relative antiquities of ancient commentaries. DE THIERR V. WITTE.'s DR KARL. Large crown 8vo.Mess7^s Duckworth & Co. Small Appreciative Leading Articles have appeared in the Daily Mail^ Morning Posty and Pall Mall Gazette.A. which makes them out of the reach of many even of those Dante students to whom the languages in which they are written (German for the most part. his conception of Dante's Trilogy (that is to say. "Essay and Introduction alike deal in fine fashion with our recent awakening to the responsibilities and glories of Empire. but he will carefully abstain from fretting the reader by a running commentary of criticism. During the whole of the central portion of this century Dr Karl Witte was actively engaged in Dante studies. Some of them are of little interest to the general circle of Dante students. with an Introduc8vo." — — . M. In an introduction. "We welcome so spirited a statement of the arguments for real Imperial Tiines. IMPERIALISM. the Editor will give the student the means of checking Dr Witte's results in doubtful or speculative matters by reference to the original sources. ranging from a general survey of Dante's mental development or a presentation of his conception of the Universe. . . of great variety of interest. and HENLE V. inspiriting prefaces. mutual relations of the Vita Nuova. C. W. IV. 2S. but occasionally Italian) ofifer no difficulties. De Thierry. A most interesting contribution to a subject of pressing importance. Dr Witte collected the essays in which this and many subsidiary points are elaborated in two volumes. The brilliant little book which Mr Henley has adorned with one of his breezy. by 6d. The proposed translation will include all of Dr Witte's essays that have any general interest." Outlook. investigations. Henley. — unity." St James's Gazette. . 8s. E. editions. by C. Translated by Mabel Lawrence. dealing as they do with German translations of the Comedy or German works on Dante but the remaining essays constitute an invaluable body of . Wicksteed. . Edited 7s. and the Comedy) his idea as to the underlies all subsequent work on the inner meaning and articulation of Dante's writings.

HELEN. MRS HUMPHRY. 5s. CRAWFORD. LOVE. her manner simple and sincere. and SELECTIONS FROM THE PENSEES DE JOUBERT." "We have got genuine pleasure — exquisite little verses. while others attain to a finished technique Miss Armour is among the few whose work possesses both these qualities. B. quiet. . Fcap. Edition limited to 500 copies." — — " The temperament revealed by these Acadeffiy. art by W. "A delightful little volume of verse. — privileges of the poet's calling. Her touch is light. by Virginia M. To some falls the natural gift of melody. 8vo. 8vo. THE HON. her pathos sweet. The book is further beautified by two drawings by Mr W. and is ever alert for beauty. delicate literary skill. Miss Armour sees clearly and thinks Her poems have a sweet gravity. With this little book Miss Armour takes her place among women poets who from these simple and sometimes Miss Armour writes with a dainty grace. by Helen Hay." Dundee Advertiser. LYTTELTON. and are graced by well. THE SHADOW OF Margaret Armour cover design vellum. B. A Lyric Sequence. SOME VERSES. Macdougall. Fcap. ARMOUR. ESSAYS ON FRENCH WRITERS. 5s. admiring more and more their beauty of form and lovely colours. "Contains much fine work of rare texture. WARD. two drawings. restrained lyrics is interest- ing and valuable for its sympathy and refinement. AtheneBum. MRS NEVILLE." Literature. "She has certainly genuine inspiration and a most hopeful sense of the . The reader lingers over them. by with title-page. deserve a hearing." Bookman. Translated by Katharine Lyttelton. VIRGINIA Crawford. 8vo. MARGARET. HAY. — .New Books M. and Fcap. Macdougall. with a preface by Mrs Humphry Ward.

by Ch. G. as it were. and SEIGNOBOS. . 7s. Stock Exchange The Railway Mania— Insurance. seriously methodical to fix the nature the French edition Literature (Feb. by John Ashton. in the preface to VAvenirde la Science. Langlois and Ch. and experience of. Berry. Seignobos.^ note this ordinary disability and this incomparable privilege of the French tongue? not only have been the first to systematize concisely and clearly the scattered results of reflections upon. and still is. CH. . but have also themselves formulated the principles of historical research with a critical precision and competence which make these remarkably compact and suggestive pages as useful an essay in definition of a right historical method. INTRODUCTION TO HISTORICAL STUDIES. — — — — — . . with a Preface by Prof. Seignobos and M. but with none of that superficiality. 6d. in Small demy 8vo. that is adequate is bound to be as warmly welcomed by students in Great Britain or the United States as by students in France. as Renan's famous early book just cited was. that wilful defect of vision which usually in French books is the condition of French clearness does not Renan himself. Authorised Translation by G. and an Introduction to Historical Studies matic. Author of " History of the Lottery England. etc. in England than in France. White's. THE HISTORY OF GAMBLING IN ENGLAND. . . historical studies. V. 1898) spoke thus: "No effort so and determine the difficulties of historical studies — . York Powell. F. — — ' . Nor is there anything of the sort in English or German . Large crown 8vo. The rigorous scientific treatment of historical studies has not been more general and systehowever. MM. Langlois is. and so logically complete and Seignobos. ys. lath. for the cultivation of what he called historic psychology. Almack's — Stories of High Play — Crockford's — Club—Wagers and Betting—White's Betting Book— Horse Racing Bookmaking Turf Frauds Lotteries South Sea Bubble Spectdation. 6d. JOHN..' This book of M." .. has ever been made in France.— ' Messrs Duckworth & Co. so admirably concise. Cocoa Tree. of the Sorbonne. with that clearness which seems inalienable from French thought. Langlois at once so precise. and elevated there as a memorial of the victory of the critical method. buckram Of cloth. CH. a solid monument of masonry raised on the high plateau to which French scholars have been ascending now for thirty years." etc.'s LANGLOIS. Synopsis of Contents :— Origin of Playing Cards— Royal Card Playing —Gaming Houses in the 17th and i8th Centuries— Legislation on Cards and Gambling— Beau Nash — Horace Walpole — Gambling Clubs. ' ASHTON. Paris.

with the grasses concerned in the latter . The contents are based on several years' experience in teaching and lecturing to students. DAYDON.. Secretary Crown 8vo. by B. work. In recognition of the great importance of practical work in teaching.L. Crown 8vo. temporary lays and permanent pasture. Eastern Agricultural net. PERCIVAL. 5s. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL. The author has endeavoured to supply this deficiency. and contain a large application. and other matters of similar importance. every endeavour has been made to introduce illustrative experiments. The copious additions to botanic language made during the last twenty years have not hitherto been published in a complete form in this country. JOHN. Books B. seeds of the farm. Daydon Jackson. F. practical farmers. This volume is intended to supplement existing text-books. their peculiarities in regard to purity and quality of commercial samples.New JACKSON.. the application of science to industries. cereals. . Professor of Botany at the South6s. to be repeated by the students in the field and laboratory and this idea of introducing experiments to illustrate the various principles taught is carried out as far as possible all through the . for agricultural and the growth of colleges and centres and horticultural teaching have imperative that the above defect should be remedied. and is also suited to the needs of made it the rising generation of practical farmers. Practical College. or photographed from the same. A TEXT-BOOK OF AGRICULTURAL BOTANY.S. root and forage crops.A. A GLOSSARY OF BOTANIC TERMS. by John Percivalj M. and will embrace chapters dealing with the structure and physiology of plants in general . Wye. and gardeners. aided by the encouragement and help of many of the most distinguished botanists in many branches of the science. diseases of farm crops caused by attacks of parasitic fungi. of the Linnean Society. men and the Agricultural press have from time to time complained that no text-book of Botany exists which is suitable to the wants of the student of Agriculture those in existence being works which treat the subject from a purely scientific — standpoint. by offering in one work a comprehensive vocabulary of the terms in use from the time of Nehemiah Grew to the present day. Most of the illustrations have been specially drawn for this work by the author himself from living specimens. amount of matter which is without use or practical The rapid advance of technical education. the elements of classification with more complete treatment of the Botany of farm plants. net. and the present volume therefore deals with those facts of the science of Botany only which are essential to the requirements of students at such colleges and schools.

volume which is sure of a place in the library of every lover of A poetry. etc.' with an adequate apparatus criticus by Mr T. — "Mr it is Hutchinson's centenary edition of the Lyrical enriched with a preface and notes which make it a new book. and The Wanderings of Cain." * ' ' — — Notes and Queries. The Three Graves. and not too large to be carried about further announcements concerning which will be made in due course. which are both readable and helpful. now reprinted for the first time). COLERIDGE. Hutchinson. It also contains reproductions in photogravure of the portraits of Wordsworth (by Hancock. Mr Hutchinson is in his line one of the foremost of scholars.. and gives in an Appendix Wordsworth's Peter Bell (original text. One cannot do otherwise than rejoice in the possession of the original text. This edition reproduces the text. the well-known Wordsworthian scholar. The publishers have in preparation further carefully annotated editions of books in English literature. — "The book is indeed a precious boon. review). art vellum. The preface contains much that is suggestive in explaining the history and elucidating the meaning of this famous little volume. but also some very luminous and useful notes. spelling. gilt top. This is a book that no library should be without not the 'gentleman's library' of Charles Lamb's sarcasm. 1798. The book is one which every lover and student of poetry must needs add to his collection. It is not intended to include in this series. the oft-reprinted " classics. 3s. to be produced in the same style as their edition of the "Lyrical Ballads" not too small for the shelf. Mr Hutchinson's notes are especially deserving of praise." of which there are already — — sufficiently desirable issues. of Trinity College. is — " It delightful to have present volume. whose name makes recommendation superfluous." them in the charming form given to them in the Hutchinson has written not only a vefry informing introduction.lo Messrs Duckworth (5f CoJs HUTCHINSON. as a rule. punctuation. 6d. No less excellent are his notes. 8vo." Glohe. 1798." etc. T. "'Lyrical Ballads' was published September i." not a mere reprint. Dublin. for which Mr . Athen^um. net. By a happy thought this centenary is in anticipation very fitly celebrated— without fuss or futilities— by the publication of an admirable reprint of Lyrical Ballads. and Coleridge's Lewti. 1795). but any library where literature is respected. Editor of the Clarendon Press " Wordsworth. Edited with certain poems of 1798 and an Introduction and Notes by Thomas Hutchinson. T. Ballads is (4 col. of 1798. 1798) and of Coleridge (by Peter Vandyke. LYRICAL BALLADS BY WILLIAM WORDSWORTH AND S. now in the National Portrait Gallery. and his introduction is a commendable piece of work. Fcap. for Si James's Gazette. now faithfully reproduced.

" ENGLISH PUBLIC SCHOOLS. Christ's A HISTORY OF RUGBY SCHOOL. while at school and when maylike to possess an authentic account of their school issued at a moderate series will. A HISTORY OF ETON COLLEGE. photographs. RQUSE. and to all interested in the history of Enrlish education. (See Special Prospectus. H. vols. and the publishers believe that many boys. it is The hoped. ARTHUR formerly by Lionel Gust. College. LEACH. by W. contemporary prints. and sometime Fellow of Illustrated Cambridge. Fellow of All Souls'. XJniform with "Lyrical Ballads.1 New Books 1 STEPHEN. A HISTORY OF WINCHESTER COLLEGE. of books upon the English Public Schools. it. ) CUST. L. L. Oxford. A new serie leaving price. STATE TRIALS: POLITICAL Selected AND Stephen. from 5s.or of the National Portrait Gallery. H. SOCIAL. by Arthur F. H. F. Pott 4to. 2 and Edited by H. No series of such School Histories exist. etc. Rouse. of Rugby. IV. appeal also to old scholars. LIONEL. D. Diree. Leach. others}) (To be fdlowed hy . net. Assistart Gharity Commissioner. D.

volumes. All the Our achieved permanent results.12 Messrs Duckworth & Co's BELLOC. Ad. . S. 6s. Augustine. R. which will le announced in due Art vel'um. book may be unreservedly comnended as an excellent and compendious account of Augustine's life and introduction to his works. 4./. The Psychology of the Saints. Two of them were subjects of our Queen. Belloc. by Prof. it is Church Review. in France. stripped of controversial matter or needless personal comment. cheerful and invigorating. HISTORIC NUNS. S. MADAME. S. by Prof. — "One literature of hagiology that has noblest. by Prince Emmanuel de Broglie. Walled Garden. Clotilda. G. Small crown 8vo. Physician to the Rc^alist forces under Lord Howe in America at the time of the Revolution." In this book by B. To be followed by others. a third belonged to a nited family Madame and the fourth was daughter to Dr Bayley." Catholic Herald. series of Lives of the Saints.— " hs a study of what bright. 3s. and the Institutes they founded are still among tie most vital products of this wonderful century in England and America. Belloc tells the story of four remarkable women who lived and worked in the cause of charity and education during the first half of tie present century. THE A new SAINTS. gilt course. purest ant" best in humanity of the most remarkable and valujble contributions to the been published in recent years" 2. " The general result will be the familiarfeing of the ordinary educated public with the true personality of one who is to so man/ little more than a name. Hatjfeld. top. G. 5y Henri is Joly. Ka'th. 1. Tyrrell. in separate English Editor: Rev. Vincent de Paul. Crown 8vo." 3." Outlook. — "The whole — The Month. S. each volume. Author of "In a etc. {See Special Prospectus).

in short. All this points to the need of what we might call a whatever. author of numerous translations are having." The Month following passage. We want to be put en rapport with the Saints. In order to give a true idea of the nature of the volumes the publishers give below some passages from the series to his collaborators. deep penetration and impressive detail.— New The series is Books 13 under the general editorship of M. ..' " That all these qualities have been often enough united in works worthy of being but it has been in the case of quarto books studied we are very far from denying . Dupanloup did not else hesitate to say that. briefly set forth. . and thereby to realise that no miracle they ever wrought is comparable to the miracle of . in a scholarly sequence preparing for and illuminating everything. without which everything living and individual is apt to disappear. treatment of Saints' lives than we have been accustomed to and it is to this that the * Saints addresses itself. dignity. truthfulness. and therefore presumably uninteresting. a few notes addressed especially to English readers.' the precaution of 'making the Saint himself tell his own story. who contributes to each volume a preface and. to interpret it by our own. formerly Proat the College fessor at the Sorbonne and . It has therefore been thought opportune to present a living portrait of each of the great Saints in a more restrained form.J. and of what nature and grace were in it all this traced with simplicity. simple. true and authentic facts. — touching and penetrative. the advantage of the revision of the Rev. and consequently its abandonment of all attempt to weave the human and divine into one truthful and harmonious whole. to feel their humanity. a style.' and he asks for this work. reverent. ' what they were. We need less than formerly to be dazzled Psychologie des with the wonderful. . . ordinary. letter addressed by the general editor of the " In a very remarkable letter upon the true method of writing the ' Mgr. de France. then the portraiture of this soul and its struggles. who should always remain the most prominent figure in his story . in order to draw attention to it and perhaps to re-form the ideas of a much larger circle of . lives of the Saints. there are very few lives of the Saints ' Above and beyond everything a love of the Saint.. Henri Joly. . in some cases. but arranged with skill and cleverly disposed." . showing the "The gradual evolution of the perfect from the imperfect. readers. but nevertheless so that the presentation of the contemporary facts of history may not blur the picture of the Saint. or in works in more than one volume. to many minds makes no appeal more subjective . with its emphasis on the miraculous and startling features of the portrait. taken from an article by the English Editor in The for December 1897. entitled ' ' What is Mysticism ? " will also be of use : as a further indication of the spirit in which the books are being written old time-honoured Saint's Life. its suppression of what was natural. and thus all Saints are made to resemble one another. then a profound study of his life and spirit from original sources and contemporary documents. in such a way that the Saint and his times may be faithfully represented. and more to be drawn to the loveable. . written as they should be. works upon Psychology and the English and will continue to have. Father Tyrrell S.

which. form in which they were first Scrupulous accuracy in the text has been aimed but the eccentricities of spelling —which were The first the printer's. per vol. Aitken. they contain an immense amount of information. dull gold top. {See Special Prospectus. as concisely as possible. and the punctuation has occasionally been corrected. and the most valuable of the annotated editions of The and though these Tatler was published by John Nichols and others in 1786. ' ' The . letters The eighteenth century diaries and published light of late years have in many cases enabled me to throw on passages which have hitherto been obscure. 7s. at. not the author's —have not been preserved. and supplement it. but I have had by my side. Four volumes." 14 Messrs Duckworth & Co. as recorded on the title-page. the other. 6d. with engraved frontispieces. by such information as appeared desirable. was "revised and corrected by the Author". I freely made is use of by subsequent further have endeavoured to preserve what to of value in the older editions. was for the general public." . author of " The Life of Richard Steele. in octavo. for constant reference. in The present edition has been printed from a copy of the latter issue.. being published by subscription. with notes by Bishop Percy.'s THE TATLER. and have been editors. bound in buckram. and some- times useful illustrations have been found in the contemporary news- papers and periodicals.) Extract from the Editor's Preface. and Dr Pearce ." etc. Edited with Introduction and Notes by George A. while duodecimo. notes are often irrelevant and out of date. original numbers of The Toiler were re-issued in two forms in 1710-11 one edition. a complete set of the folio sheets. small demy 8vo. containing the in the " Lucubrations of Isaac Bickerstaff presented to the world. not sold separately. Dr John Calder.

{See is as it originally appeared in TAe Germ. top. by 2 vols. net. A treasure to be appreciated. The scope of the book includes a study of the history. The The Sketch.) New Books 15 FEUDAL Knapp. setti. 5 Macdougall. B. Fcap. and for a long time resided in Japan." really beautifully illustrated. and while covering ground which has become somewhat familiar. by Dante ROSSETTI. The poem given here version fully is net. art." Manchester Courier.. The work of one gilt top. A work which will be welcomed alike for its high literary value. life. in which the artist manifests his power in glorious sweeping lines and delicate tracery. it presents many fresh points of view. and for the '* Speaker. — — ' ' — high artistic standard to which it attains. with life. white cloth. 4to. Binningkatn Gazette. who has frequently visited. DANTE GABRIEL. and furnishes much information heretofore inaccessible to the ordinary reader. Rossetti's crayon study for the head of the Blessed Damozel. thus enjoying peculiar advantages for observation and comment. 8s. Japanese KNAFF. The book is a veritable art treasure. ARTHUR MA K AND MODERN JAPAN. Special FrospectMS. it avoids the indiscriminating praise which has characterised so many works on Japan . The noble poem is nobly decked out in every respect. Michael Ros- a reproduction in Photogravure of D. Rossetti's Introduction deals with the history of its composition and the changes through which it subsequently went. J-bound. G. Gabriel With an Introduction by Wm. blue sides. " The decorative designs are at once original. . and habits of the Japanese. art vellum. is decorative art and an excellent sample of Mr Macdougall's designs are rich. — "A fine bit of modern format." Every page contains a broad framework of beautiful design. language. 8vo. s. Mr W.^-bound. "It — frontispiece is very beautiful. M. Arthur May 24 photogravure illustrations of landscape and architecture. THE BLESSED DAMOZEL." ." This artistic and singularly interesting volume. Though written in a thoroughly appreciative spirit. Rossetti. and consequently the one hitherto practically inaccessible.. religion. Illustrated London News. harmonious and beautiful. and decorative designs and cover by gilt W. Small fcap.

Erichsen. painting "The Dark its World. will The Convert. net. The volumes will contain critical. . Love's Comedy. is the only important work of Ibsen's not yet translated into English. The name of Strindberg. Villiers' La Rivolte is a striking forecast of The Doll's House. the aim of this series to represent. will be found predecessors and followers of Ibsen or Maeterlinck the genius of their as well as others who reflect more independently own country. the activity of the modern drama —not confined to stage performance It so —in England and throughout the continent of Europe. be specially interesting as author's The work of translation has been entrusted to English writers specially in conversant with the literatures represented. who. uses the French tongue . the greater number of the Continental dramatists are country. happens that. many cases. Brimley Johnson and N. though translations seem to be more in demand every day. and. only dramatic attempt. and Brieux is among the most attractive of the younger native Tfie French dramatists. at present little known in this Among them . if in verse. as widely as possible. as nearly as possible in the original metres. brief introductions. or 3s. who.6 1 « Messrs Duckworth & Co. Edited by R. which marks a transition from the early romantic to the later social plays. bibliographical and explanatory rather than and such annotations as may be necessary.'s MODERN It is PLAYS. and they will cost. Every play will be translated in extenso. 6d. The volumes will be printed in pott quarto. whose position in Sweden may be compared to that of Ibsen in Norway. as a rule. like Maeterlinck. 6d. are already associated in the public mind with the authors they are here interpreting. Ostrovsky's Storm. net. 2s. by Stepniak. each. will be almost new to the English public." is generally recognised as the characteristic Russian drama. Verhaeren is already known here as one of the foremost of Belgian writers.

OSTROVSKY "The Storm. Further translations have been promised by Dr GARNETT. &c. Greene. SERGIUS STEPNIAK "The Convert. .. HENRYK SIENKIEWICZ " On a Single Card. AUGUST STRINDBERG " The Father" {Fadren)." Lucas Malet. MAURICE MAETERLINCK " Interieur. ."— E. Voynich. BRIEUX " Les Bienfaiteurs. ISLI VILLIERS DE L'ISLE " La Revolte . EMILE VERHAEREN "Les Aubes. L." \ J „ —Alfred Sutro. and other countries." Constance Garnett. Arrangements are also in progress with representative dramatists of Germany. A. . Messrs Walter Leaf.„ ^ .——— — — New Books 17 EARLY VOLUMES." ^ "Alladine et Palomides. L . ADAM " Evasion. Spain." Arthur Symons. Italy." William Archer. G." Constance Garnett. -Theresa Barclay. Justin Huntly MacCarthy.—'^ Erichsen. HENRIK IBSEN "Love's Comedy" {Kjcerlighedens Komedie). „ . 1 " La Mort de Tintagiles.

8
1

Messrs Duckworth

&

Co.'s

TENNANT, MRS

H.

J.,

and

WILSON, MISS

MONA.

WORKING WOMEN IN FACTORIES, WORKSHOPS AND LAUNDRIES, AND HOW TO HELP THEM, by May Tennant and Mona Wilson.
Small

Crown

8vo.

New

Novels.

JAMES, HENRY.

IN

THE
canvas.

CAGE,
3s. 6d.

by Henry James.

Crown

8vo,

art

\Ready.

CLIFFORD,

MRS

W. K.
Clifford.

A

NEW

NOVEL,

by Mrs W. K.

COOPER,

EDWARD
RICH,

H.

RESOLVED TO BE
Author of

by Edward H. Cooper,

"Mr

Blake of Newmarket," "The Marchioness

against the County," &c.

New

Books

19

STREET, LILIAN:

THE WORLD AND ONORA,
Author of " The
Actor."
Little Plain

by

Lilian

Street,

Woman,"

" Nell and the

Crown

8vo.

6s.

BATEMAN, MAY.

THE ALTAR OF
8vo.
6s.

LIFE,

by

May

Bateman.

Crown

GAUTIER, THEOPHILE.

CAPTAIN FRACASSE,
lated
(first

by Th^ophile Gautier.

TransIllusss.

time in English) by Ellen Murray Beam.
Searles.

trated

by Victor A.

Crown

8vo, 530 pp.

OSTLERE, EDITH.

FROM SEVEN
3s. 6d.

DIALS,

by Edith Ostlere.

Crown

Svo.

HENNESSY, PHILIP.

THE RED

CAT,

by Philip Hennessy.

Crown

Svo.

BARR Y, JOHN ARTHUR.
A SON OF THE SEA,
"

by John Arthur Barry, author of

In the Great Deep," " Steve Brown's Bunyip," etc.

AGAINST THE TIDES OF FATE
Stories,

and

other

by John Arthur Barry.

20

Messrs Duckworth

&

Co's

HOUSMAN, CLEMENCE.

THE UNKNOWN
Housman, Author
art vellum, gold top.

SEA.
of
6s.

A

Romance by Clemence
Wolf."

"The Were

Crown

8vo,

is

Literature. *' On the conception of Christian the author may be congratulated. He ideal without sentimentality, and his sacrifice and death have the poignancy of

reality,

symbol though he

is

Its author has certainly a spell by which, like the ancient mariner, he can force people to listen to and accept his tale."

Guardian.

—"Decidedly powerful and effective.

of the world's greatest idea."

Pall Mall Gazette. "The story is a powerful one, stirring the imagination with vague suggestions of mystery, and compelling interest throughout. For those who can appreciate fine writing, moreover, the style itself will prove an added attraction, and will not only sustain the reputation which Miss Housman has already made, but will also enhance the lustre of the talented family of which she is a member."
are studied and generally successful use appreciation of the beauty of visible things. It achieves an absolute an effect of a kind extremely rare in English that is not verse. The and sense not, thank Heaven, common sense in it, and is quite common trash of the book market."
sion of the supernatural,
its

St/ames's Gazette.

— " The qualities that commend this book —

its fitting

impres-

of words,
effect

and

its

of beauty,

book has beauty
remote from the

!

is

is not a popular novel ; there too much really fine work in it for that, but hardly a page fails to indicate the methods and robust individuality." author's delicate

Nottingham Daily Guardian. — " 'The Unknown Sea'

SIN/0JIN, JOHN.

JOCELYN.
canvas.
6s.

A

Monte Carlo Story by John

Sinjohn,
8vo, art

Author of "From the Four Winds."

Crown

reader's heart athrob,

Daily Mail.—" The love, as love, is shown with such intensity that and the Riviera setting is aglow with colour and life."
Outlook. —"He

it

sets the

has set it against a charmingly painted background of warm Southern atmosphere and Mediterranean scenery, and he has drawn, in the persons of Mrs Travis and Nielson— the polished cosmopolitan and professional gambler, with an unsuspected strain of tenderness beneath his impassive
the delightfully commonplace

two of the best comedy characters that we have encountered in recent fiction." Manchester Courier. '* A powerfully written story. The analysis of character is good, and the depiction of life in the Riviera is excellent."
exterior

New

Books
K.

21

BURROW, a

THE FIRE OF
Wind,"
etc.

LIFE.

A

Novel by C. K. Burrow,

Author of "Asteck's

Madonna," "The
6s.

Way

of the

Crown

8vo, cloth.

The smoothly-written little tale with its rather amhitious title is a real pleasure to read, because it has a wholesome, manly tone about it, and the characters do not appear to be bookmade but of real flesh and blood."
Saturday Review.
nowadays."

Si James's Gazette. — " A clever story.

— " A good, careful, full-blooded novel of a kind that
literary style.

is

not

common

Outlook. — " It has a point of view, a delicate sensitiveness, artistic restraint, subtlety

of perception,

and a true

Mr Burrow proves himself an

artist

with

many

sides to his perception."
'* Had we passed it by unread ours would have been the loss, A charming story based on somewhat conventional lines, but told with such verve and freshness as render it really welcome. Mr Burrow has admirably succeeded in writing a really interesting story, and, which is more uncommon, he has well individualised the different persons of his drama. The Fire of Life' should figure in the list of novels to be read of all those who like a good story, and like that good story well told."
'

Literary World. —

Manchester Courier.
interest."

— " The

whole book

is full

of

'

fire,' full

of

*

life,"

and

full of

diction

Nottingham it would be

Express. — "The

author's style

is

clear

and

crisp,

with a purity of

difficult to surpass."

PHILIPS,

R a
by F. C.
Philips.

MEN,

WOMEN AND
cloth.
3s.

THINGS,

Author of " As

in a Looking-Glass," etc.

Crown

8vo,

buckram

6d.

Daily Mail.—" There is hardly one of them which is not enjoyable. Mr Philips's manner is suggestive of the manner of Gyp. He is a capital chronicler of the surface
things of
life."

"The author has deservedly secured favour as a writer of In the present volume of short sketches we have the usual vivid delineation of character, clever dialogue, and at times good use of incident. The volume is decidedly entertaining."
Manchester Conrier.
smart stories.

Country Life.
Glass'
is

— "Everything
There
is

that

is

written by the author of

'As

in

a Looking-

clever.

ingenuity as well as pathos in these stories,"

22

Messrs Duckworth

&

Co.'s

The

New

Christmas Book by the Authors of

"Animal Land."

CORBET, SYBIL
SYBIL'S

and

KATHARINE.
Reproduced throughout
53.

GARDEN OF PLEASANT BEASTS,
Oblong crown
4to.

by Sybil and Katharine Corbet.
in colour.

BROWNING, ROBERT. PIPPA PASSES. A Drama by Robert Browning.
photogravure.
artist,

With

Seven Drawings by L. Leslie Brooke, reproduced in
Fcap.
4to, with
gilt,

cover design by the
5s. net.

blue art vellum,

gold top.

FAL

and SIR

PHILIP BURNE-JONES,
In Prose and Verse.

Bart.

FABLES BY FAL.
4to,

With Pictures
Square medium

and cover design by Philip Burne-Jones.
pink cloth, blue edges.
3s. 6d.

BE VAN, STUART. THE EVERLASTING ANIMALS AND OTHER
JENNINGS, EDITH,
and

STORIES,
crown

by Edith Jennings; with seven coloured by Stuart Bevan.
58.

drawings and cover design

Large

4to, scarlet cloth, yellow edges.
to

The endeavour has been attempted
to

make

these stories as interesting as possible,

whilst using very few long or difficult words, so that very

young children may be able understand them without any translation or alteration on the part of the reader.

New

Books

23

HAPGOOD, NORMAN,

LITERARY STATESMEN AND
Henry James, etc., by Norman Hapgood. buckram cloth, gilt top. 6s.

OTHERS.
J.

Essays upon Lord Rosebery, John Morley, A.

Balfour,

Crown

8vo,

Daily News. "Mr Hapgood's essays exhibit a good deal ot penetration and critical acumen." Daily Telegraph. *' Careful pieces of work." Daily Chronicle. " Mr Norman Hapgood is an able writer, by no means to be despised, whether as an aesthetician or a psychologist. The unaffected straightforwardness of his dogmatism is, to us at any rate, by no means unsympathetic- His judgments, too, though subject to numberless reservations, are almost always acute and worth

— —

considering."

L YTTELTON, THE HON. R. H. CRICKET, by R. H. Lyttelton. Small crown
Cloth.
IS.

8vo.

6d.

Atkenceum. " All the hints and comments are capital." Guardian. " We have nothing but praise for this book." " We heartily commend this interesting little manual of a notable cricketer." Globe. Birvzinghant Post. " It is a most admirable budget of experience and philosophy." Literary World. "Whatever else devotees of the national game may decide to leave unbought they really would be ill-advised were they to close their pockets against this capital little book. A volume for which we are grateful, and we hope hundreds and hundreds of players will be of the same mind as ourselves."

— —

The book
piring

contains chapters on the following subjects

:

— Batting,

Bowling,

Fielding,

Gentlemen and Players, The Australians, Captaincy UmCricket Reform, Giants of the Game, University Cricket

Matches.

THE HUMANITARIAN. A Monthly Magazine.
Volume
(XIII.), July 1898, No. L, price 6d.

New

Edited

by Victoria WoodhuU Martin and Zula
The Hufnanitarian
is

Maud WoodhuU.

a monthly magazine devoted to the study of social and It is the organ of no sect, clique, or party, scientific questions from all points of view. but aims at getting the opinions of the best men and women on all subjects which affect the welfare of the race, and welcomes as fellow-workers all those who have the true interests of humanity at heart, without distinction of race or creed. The Humanitarian has won for itself a recognised position as the frank and fearless exponent of old truths and new ideas. The object of the magazine is to discuss freely all matters which concern the spiritual, mental, and physical health of humanity.

.

.

.

.

'*• V ^.?{*.'5 rf I 4--— « fa'" ..:». -. •J.« „ '-••.•"•. .*'.- v .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful