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PHYSICS6CF08

Electric Forces and Fields

Due at 9,OOam on Monday, October Ii, 2008

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Coulomb's Law Tutorial

Description: Use Coulomb's law to compute the (vector) force between two, and subsequently multiple, electric charges (both positive and negative). One charge acts at an angle ofpi/4 radians relative to the given coordinate axes, and thus trigonometry is required to solve the problem

Learning Goal: To understand how to calculate forces between charged particles, particularly the dependence on the sign of the charges and the distance between them

Coulomb's law describes the force that two charged particles exert on each other (by Newton's third law. those two forces must be equal and opposite). The force F;,: exerted by particle 2 (with charge lJi) on particle 1 (with charge i/,) is proportional to the charge of each particle and inversely proportional to the square of the distance e- between them:

is the unit vector pointing/rom particle 2 to particle 1. The force vector will be parallel or antiparallel to the direction of /2h parallel if the product

o and antiparallel if ill

u; the force is

where

and

attractive if the charges are of opposite sign and repulsive if the charges are of the same: sign.

Part A

Consider two positively charged particles, one of charge (particle 0) fixed at the origin, and another of charge (particle I) fixed on the y-axis at

is the net force on particle 0 due to particle I?

01. What

Express your answer (a vector) using any or aU of A-, if,i, <il' dH :/', fj, and

(J). What is the new net force

add a third, negatively charged, particle, whose charge is on particle O,/rom particle 1 and particle 2?

(particle 2). Particle 2 fixed on the y-axis at position

Express your answer (a vector) using any or aU of k, 0:" q~, It;" u\,

I ~';*

.. r

panklel

_ .•.• - ...... y parlkk 2

ANSWER:

Parte

Particle ° experiences a repulsion/rom particle 1 and an attraction toward particle 2. For certain values of <1; and J_h the repulsion and attraction should balance each other, resulting in no net force. For what ratio no net force on particle O?

Express your answer in tenus of any or aD oftbe foDowing variables: k, ifi, ~h, .q:'j'

is there

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..

ANSWER:

add a fourth charged particle, particle 3, with positive charge fixed in the yz-plane at

What is the net force i' on particle 0 due solely to this

rnr1i(./tk ... ( .. J .•••••. 1...... particle I

..............."

parlkk :2

,

ANSWER:

Find the magnitude of force from particle 3

Distance to particle 3

the Pythagorean theorem to find the straight line distance between the origin and

Express your answer using k, 7~), 1f.'i'

Vector components

Because is synnnetrically located between the y-axis and the a-axis, the angle between

magnitude of the vector above. Now break up the force vector into its y and z components.

the unit vector pointingfrom particle 3 to particle D, and the y-axis is

radians. You have

Express your answer (3 vector) using A, ,Jr_" 1[;;, J." i, ii, and Include only the force caused by particle 3.

ANSWER:

know from Coulomb's law that it will experience a net force (either attractive or repulsive, depending on the nature of the object's charge). A test charge may also experience Any attraction of a neutral insulator or neutral conductor to a test charge must occur through induced polarization. In an insulator, the electrons are bound to their molecules. insulator, they can shift slightly, creating a rather weak net attraction to a test charge that is brought close to the insulator's surface. In a conductor, free electrons will accumulate on the This will create a strong attractive force if the test charge is placed very close to the conductor's surface.

Consider three plastic balls (A, B, and C), each carrying a uniformly distributed unknown charge (which may be zero), and an uncharged copper ball (D). A positive test charge (T) experiences the forces shown in the figure when brought very near to the individual balls. The test charge T is strongly attracted to A, strongly repelled from B, weakly attracted to C, and strongly attracted to D.

Assume throughout this problem that the balls are brought very close together.

T

is positively charged, and there is a strongly attractive force between ball A and the test charge, what must be the nature of the net charge of ball A?

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ANSWER:

positive ,. negative

Since the test charge is positively charged, and there is a strongly repulsive force between hall B and. the test charge, what must be the nature of the net charge of ball B?

ANSWER:

,. positive negative zero

ANSWER:

strongly repulsive weakly attractive

neither attractive nor repulsive

What is tbe charge on haD C?

Recall that ball C is composed of insulating material, which means that it can be polarized, but the charges inside are otherwise not free to move around inside the hall. Since the test charge experiences only a weak force due to C, what must be the nature of the net charge on ball C?

What are the surface charges on baD D?

that copper is a conductor, in which charges can freely flow. When hall D is brought close to ball A, what will be the nature of the surface charge density on the side of ball D that is closest to ball A?

ANSWER:

.. positive negative zero

The negatively charged hall A (see Part A) will exert an attractive force on the positive charges in ball D and a repulsive force on the negative charges (namely, the electrons). Since ball D is made of copper, which is a conductor, the electrons will be repelled from negatively charged ball A and will migrate to the side of ball D farthest from ball A.. The deficit of electrons on the side of ball D that is closest to ball A results in a positive net surface charge density on that side of ball D. Because the positive charge on ball D is much closer to ball A than the negative charge, the attractive force that ball A experiences due to the positive charges on ball D is stronger than the repulsive force ball A experiences due to the negative charges on ball D.

ANSWER:

, attractive repulsive

neither attractive nor repulsive

''it Part D

What is the nature of the force between balls D and C?

ANSWER:

attractive repulsive

6 neither attractive nor repulsive

Electric Fields and Forces

Learning Goal: To understand Coulomb's law, electric fields, and the connection between the electric field and the electric force.

Description: Electric forces and electric fields.

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law gives the electrostatic force I" acting between two charges. The magnitude P' of the force between two charges and depends on the product of the charges and the square of the distance T between the charges:

'ire N The direction of the force is along the line connecting the two charges. If the charges have the same sign, the force will be repulsive. If the charges have opposite signs, the force will

the charges are not in contact with each other, there must be an intermediate mechanism to cause the force. This mechanism is the electric field. The electric field at any location is equal to the force per unit charge In other words, if a charge Ii experiences a force j", the electric field £~ at that point is

field vector has the same direction as the force vector on a positive charge and the opposite direction to that of the force vector on a negative charge.

An electric field can he created by a single charge or a distribution of charges. The electric field a distance r- from a point charge has magnitude

The electric field points away from positive charges and toward negative charges. A distribution of charges creates an electric field that can be found by taking the vector sum of the fields created by individual point charges. Note

that if a charge is placed in an electric field created by q will net significantly affect the electric field if it is small compared to

Imagine an isolated positive point charge with a charge q (many times larger than the charge on a single electron).

There is a single electron at a distance from the point charge. On which of the following quantities does the force on the electron depend?

ANSWER:

'* the charge on the electron the mass of the electron

• the charge of the positive charge the mass of the positive charge the radius of the positive charge the radius of the electron

same situation as in Part A, on which of the following quantities does the electric field at the electron's position depend?

ANSWER:

, the distance between the positive charge and the electron the charge on the electron

the mass of the electron

• the charge of the positive charge the mass of the positive charge the radius of the positive charge the radius of the electron

electrostatic force cannot exist unless two charges are present. The electric field, on the other hand, can be created by only one charge. The value of the electric field depends only on the charge producing the electric field and the distance from that charge.

that the positive charge is much greater than the charge on the electron.

tv Part D

If the total positive charge is q = l.62xlO-6 C, what is the magntidue of the electric field caused by this charge at point P, a distance d = 153 from the charge?

Enter your answer numerically in newtons per coulomb.

.P

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ANSWER:

t.r Part E

'What is the direction of the electric field at point P?

letter of the vector that represents the direction of E~"

A H

C 'G

F

I', ANSWER:

find the magnitude of the force on an electron placed at point P. Recall that the charge on an electron has magnitude

c.

Determine how to approach the problem

What strategy can you use to calculate the force between the positive charge and the electron?

ANSWER:

Use Coulomb's law.

Multiply the electric field due to the positive charge by the charge on the electron. Do either of the above.

Do neither of the above.

Enter your answer numerically in newtons.

ANSWER:

\V PartG

What is the direction of the force on an electron placed at point P? Enter the letter of the vector that represents the direction of I\

Il C

F

ANSWER: C

Motion in a Uniform Field

Description: A dipole is released from rest and allowed to rotate in an electric field. Find the angular velocity when the dipole is aligned with the field (using conservation of energy). Then find the period of small oscillations about the minimum of potential energy.

Consider an electric dipole located in a region with an electric field of magnitude E' pointing in the positive y direction The positive and negative ends of the dipole have

and - q, respectively, and the two charges are a distance j) apart The dipole has moment of inertia I about its center of mass. The dipole is released from and it is allowed to rotate freely.

charges angle U

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How to approach the problem

is no dissipation (friction, air resistance, etc.), you can solve this problem using conservation of energy. When the dipole is released from rest, it has potential energy but no kinetic energy. \Vhen the dipole is it is rotating, and therefore has both kinetic and potential energy. The sum of potential and kinetic energy will remain constant

due to its interaction with the electric field as a function of the angle fj that the dipole's positive end makes with the positive y axis. Define the potential energy to be zero when the dipole

G.

in the presence of a uniform electric field is

The dipole moment

moment of the electric dipoleP, when it makes an angle H with the positive y axis can be written as

with respect to the y axis. Use the convention that the potential energy is zero when the dipole is oriented

of some or all of the variablesR, q, LJ, and 0,.\.

Find the total energy when n

the total energy (kinetic plus potential) at the moment when the dipole is aligned with the y axis. Use the convention that the potential energy is zero when the dipole is oriented perpendicular to the

What is kinetic energy as a function of angular velocity?

What is the kinetic energy g of a body rotating with angular velocity around an axis about which the moment ofinertia is J?

ANSWER:

ANSWER:

to write as

PartH

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If -t/:} is small, the dipole will exhibit simple harmonic motion after it is released. What is the period of the dipole's oscillations in this case?

How to approach the problem

equation of motion for a simple harmonic oscillator can always be written in the standard form

To solve this problem, you need to write the equation of motion for the dipole in the standard form with

replaced by the angular variable This will allow you to read off the expression for ~,}, which has a simple relationship to the period of oscillation. (Note: Here, the variable does not represent the angular velocity of the

it denotes the frequency of the dipole's oscillation) Start with the angular analogue of Newton's second law: l (~. Recall that ,, , the angular acceleration, is equal to the second derivative of 0, just as linear

that the electric field exerts about the center of mass of the dipole when the dipole is oriented at an angle with respect to the electric field?

jS in an electric field ,P is given by T

Alternatively, the torque can be related to the potential energy /./ ((J) by

can be written as

The small-angle approximation

<;£'1) ~~ln(O} for torque, and take the torque to be

this point we have been interested only in the magnitude of tbe torque. Now let's think about the direction After all, torque is a vector quantity. For a system to oscillate, the torque must be a restoring torque; that is, the

and the (small) angular displacement must be in opposite directions. (Recall that small angular displacements can be treated as vectors, since they obey vector addition, while large angles do not.) If you did the vector

"""qEnS.

now represents the component of f in the direction, rather than the magnitude of-r".

tal Part B.4

Find the osciDation frequency

Putting together what you have so far yields

for a simple harmonic oscillator to obtain the oscillation frequency for the rmtion of the dipole.

relationship between ~\ the angular oscillation frequency of the dipole, and the period of oscillation is given by

Express your answer in terms of and quantities given in the problem introduction.

ANSWER:

Electric Field

Description: Simple conceptual question about identifying where on the x axis the electric field would be zero, given two charges.

Part A

For the charge distribution provided, indicate the region (A to E) along the horizontal axis where a point exists at which the net electric field is zero.

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Zeros of the electric field

net electric field can only be zero if the electric fields due to the two charges point in opposite directions and have equal magnitudes. directions. Then, in each region determine whether a point exists where the fields have equal magnitude. If there is such a point,

If no such region exists on the horizontal axis choose the last option (nowhere).

ANSWER:

PartB

For the charge distribution provided, indicate the region (A to E) along the horizontal axis where a point exists at which the net electric field is zero.

HintB.1

Zeros oftbe electric field

and have equal magnitudes. Therefore, first determine the region(s) where the two constituent electric fields point in If there is such a point, then select that region

Part B.2

Determine the regions where the electric fields could cancel

In which region(s) do the electric fields from the two source charges point in opposite directions? List aU the correct answers in alphabetical order,

ANSWER:

Consider the magnitude of the electric field

For each of the three regions found in the previous hint., determine whether it is possible for the magnitudes to be equal. As an example, consider the point directly between the two charges. Which charge produces the largest magnitude field directly between the two charges?

ANSWER:

I the charge on the right the charge on the left

neither, because they have the same magnitude

ANSWER: A

• B

C

D

E nowhere

PartC

For the charge distribution provided, indicate the region (A to E) along the horizontal axis where a point exists at which the net electric field is zero.

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Zeros of the electric field

net electric field can only be zero if the electric fields due to the two charges point in opposite directions and have equal magnitudes. Therefore, first determine the region(s) where the two constituent electric fields point in Then, in each region determine whether a point exists where the fields have equal magnitude. If there is such a point, then select that region.

ANSWER:

PartD

Zeros of the electric field

net electric field can only be zero if the electric fields due to the two charges point in opposite directions and have equal magnitudes. Therefore, first determine the region(s) where the two constituent electric fields point in Then, in each region determine whether a point exists where the fields have equal magnitude. If there is such a point, then select that region.

ANSWER: • A

B C D E

Nowhere along the finite x axis

Problem 20.14

Description: Suppose the electron and proton charges differed by one part in one billion (a) Estimate the net charge you would carry. Suppose the electron and proton charges differed by one part in one billion.

Part A

Estimate the net charge you would carry.

Description: The dipole rooment of the water molecule is 6.2 * 10"( - 30) C * m (a) What would be the separation distance if the molecule consisted of charges pm e? Note: The effective charge is actually less because electrons are shared by the oxygen and ...

dipole moment of the water molecule is

Part A

What would be the separation distance if the molecule consisted of charges t,? Note: The effective charge is actually less because electrons are shared by the oxygen and hydrogen atoms.

Express your answer using two significant figures.

ANSWER:

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Problem 20.32

A

Description: (a) Find the magnitude of the electric field due to a charged ring of radius a and total charge Q, at a point on the ring axis a distance a from the ring's center.

ANSWER:

Find the magnitude of the electric field due to a charged ring of radius and total charge q, at a point on the ring axis a distance from the ring's center.

Problem 20.63

A dipole with charges

Description: A dipole with charges pm q and separation 2a is located a distance x from a point charge + Q, with its dipole moment vector perpendicular to the x axis, as shown in the figure. (a) Find expressions for the magnitude of the net torque on the dipole ...

and separation 2>( is located a distance ,_t from a point charge q, with its dipole moment vector perpendicular to the J" axis, as shown in the figure.

Part A

ANSWER:

Find expressions fur the magnitude of the net torque on the dipole in the Iimitz

ANSWER:

Find expressions for the magnitude of the net force on the dipole in the limit 7

Parte

What is the direction of the net force?

ANSWER:

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counterclockwise from the .c-axis

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Problem 20.78

Description: Suppose you have a friend who has a part-time job translating computer maintenance training materials from Japanese into English. A section of a manual for an inkjet printer is missing, and an important derivation is needed. The printer works by ...

Suppose you have a friend who has a part-time job translating computer maintenance training materials from Japanese into English. A section ofa manual for an inkjet printer is missing, and an important derivation is needed. The

printer works by steering drops with charge and mass between two parallel surfaces where there is a unifonnelectric field E' that deflects them the appropriate amount (see the figure). The field extends over the length J and

width The reader of the manual must know the minimum speed of the drop ifit is to make it through the electric field region without hitting either of the plates.

\'

I I

i,

{

,--' Part A

Find this minimum speed.

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