UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING

PRESENTED BY: G.ANILKUMAR CHOWDARY Y6IT841, Ш /IV B.TECH gurramanilkumarg@gmail.com kiran.y6@gmail.com Ph: 9885793380 Ph: 9492277536 K.KIRAN Y6IT852, Ш/IV B.TECH

(Approved by A.I.C.T.E) (Affiliated to Acharya Nagarjuna University) Chandramoulipuram: Chowdavaram, GUNTUR – 19.

Contents 1. Abstraction 2. Introduction 3. The evolution of Ubiquitous Computing 4. Challenges and requirements 5. Context aware 6. Some ubiquitous computing devices 7. Conclusion

Abstraction

To done computations of humans the era of mainframe computers was over, the era of personal computers is in disappearing stage, distributed computing is running and ubiquitous computing is in progress to rule the world in 21th century. As opposed to the desktop paradigm, in which a single user consciously engages a single device for a specialized purpose, someone using ubiquitous computing engages many computational devices and systems simultaneously, in the course of ordinary activities, and may not necessarily even be aware that they are doing so.

Introduction
Mark Weiser coined the phrase "ubiquitous computing" around 1988. It is a post-desktop model of human computer interaction in which information processing has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. Ubiquitous means: present everywhere, simultaneously. Computers become a useful but invisible force, assisting the user in meeting his needs without getting lost in the way. encountered in numerous different instances.All models of ubiquitous computing share a vision of small, inexpensive, robust networked processing devices, distributed at all scales throughout everyday life and generally turned to distinctly quotidian ends. Because of ubiquitous computing we can move beyond desktop machine, and the Computing is embedded everywhere in the environment. Ubiquitous computing presents challenges across computer science: in systems design and engineering, in systems modeling, and in user interface design. Ubiquitous computing encompasses a wide range of research topics, including distributed computing, mobile computing sensor networking, human-computer interaction, and artificial intelligence.

The evolution of Ubiquitous Computing:
It is basically developed on the basis of following technologies builds on previous work in the areas of Distributed Systems And Mobile Computing It inherits the following from Distributed system  Remote communication (layering, remote procedure call, etc.)  Fault tolerance (atomic transactions, etc.)  High availability (optimistic/pessimistic replica control, mirrored execution, etc.)  Remote information access (caching, distributed file systems, distributed databases, etc.)  Security (authentication, privacy, etc.) It inherits the following from Mobile computing  Mobile networking, e.g. ad-hoc protocols  Mobile information access, e.g. disconnected operation  Support for adaptive applications, e.g. proxy trans coding,  Adaptive resource management– system-level energy saving techniques, e.g. variable-speed processor scheduling  Location sensitivity, e.g. location-aware system behavior.

Challenges and requirements

Hardware: The trend toward
miniaturization of computers components down to an atomic scale is known as nanotechnology.

Applications: This is the main
motivation of ubiquitous computing. a combination of several factors, including the current location, the current user or if there are any other Unicom devices present in the near surroundings.

User Interfaces: The multitude of
differrant Ubicomp devices with their differrant sizes of displays and interaction capabilities represents another challenge for it.

Networking: The multitude of
differrant Ubicomp devices with their differrant sizes of displays and interaction capabilities represents another challenge we can my use of wireless in efficient way.

Mobility: Mobility is made possible
through wireless communication technologies

Some components of ubiquitous computing: 1. Context aware 2. Wearable computers

Scalability: Mobility is made possible
through wireless communication technologies

Context aware:
Context aware application: - is one which can capture the context - assign meaning to it - change behavior accordingly

Reliability: In order to construct
reliable systems self-monitoring, selfregulating and self-healing features like they are found in biology might be a solution

Interoperability: This will probably be
one of the major factors for the success or failure of the Ubicomp vision. Use of technology just existed: JINI,CORBA,ecc…This diversity will make it impossible that there is only one agreed standard

It refers to a general class of mobile systems that can sense their physical environment, i.e., their context of use, and adapt their behavior accordingly. Such systems are a component of a ubiquitous computing or pervasive computing environment. Three important aspects of context aware are: (1) Where you are (2) Who you are with and (3) What resources are nearby? It provides services like  Computing services sense aspects of environment (location, user emotion,…) and tailor provided services  Walk into conference room, my email is projected on a big screen there

Resource Discovery: The ability of
devices to describe their behaviour to the network is a key requirement. On the other hand, it cannot be assumed that devices in a ubiquitous environment have prior knowledge of the capabilities of other occupants

Privacy and Security: In a fully
networked world with ubiquitous, sensor-equipped devices several privacy and security issues arise. The people in this environment will be worried about their privacy since there is the potential of total monitoring. must be understandable by the user and it must be modelled into the system architecture.

Transformed Refined proxy interaction from proxy

Local UI content for content

Examples:

Adapting vector mapping
Maps can be…  Split into features and presented in part  Encoded at different scales – different feature detail  Selective adaptation can consider content being degraded

Active Badge & PARCTab

 Shopping assistant  Cyberguide

Smart dust
Context Adaption
 Autonomous sensing and

What: Compression, filtering, device specific, Transformations, information selection
Where: Server, proxy or client? Proxy Client and server do not change


User selection
Proxy transforms as best as it can, but gives users a way to force proxy to deliver original content here, a simple client-side UI enhancement is coupled with proxy-side refinement intelligence.

communication in a cubic millimeter – “dust motes” Sensors for temperature, humidity, light, motion …. With bidirectional radio or laser + battery Costs soon < $1 Typical Applications 1. Defense related battlefield sensors, motion detectors etc. 2. Inventory control on boxes which communicate with crates, trucks, plane etc to tell you where they are

3. Product quality monitoring – vibration, humidity, overheating 4. Car component monitoring

Smart dust technology Scaling factors
 100K computers per person  Self organizing and self configuring  Coherent behavior from vast numbers of unreliable sensors, actuators and comes. Devices  Need new techniques for interaction maybe based on biological organisms?  Exponential Growth? By 2100 ……

Intelligent environment
 Lights, air conditioning, TV automatically switch on and off when you enter or leave rooms  Sit on your favorite chair and TV switches on to the program you usually watch at this time of the day  Use communicator/PDA for phone, remote control, keys, payments, passport, health records, and authenticator.  Route input from ‘virtual’ keyboard to nearest suitable display.  Automatic detection of new items to control and physical layout in a room or office, using computer vision.

Future smart dust
 Intelligent paper with integrated 

 

radio  replace current displays Smart paint monitors vibrations and detect intruders or changes color to react to temperature, lighting etc. Intelligent glass can filter sunlight, become opaque no need for curtains Smart garments or inject able sensors for people monitoring Download design and printable motes for < 1c mote Printable batteries

Some devices of ubiquitous computing

The Tab project is consider by many to be the most significant of the three prototyping efforts

Tab

Classroom 2000

 prototype handheld computer 

Was 2x3x0.5", had a 2 week battery life on rechargeable batteries, and weighed 7 oz Uused a Phillips 8051 processor with 128k NVRAM Ffeatured an external I2C external bus, a custom resistive touch screen, and a 128x64 mono display Iincluded an infrared base station in the ceiling for LAN connectivity
 Iinstructors are given the ability to present

more information during each lecture, with the goal of providing a deeper
 As a result, sstudents are often

drowned with information and forced into a “heads down” approach to learning

Universal computing environment
The infrastructure of the ubiquitous computing environment may be organized and structured as a cyber equivalent of an ecosystem, a very complex, dynamic infrastructure. A ubiquitous computing system is a integrated system of computing resources, devices, services, and the ubiquitous computing environment (UCE) that provides a communication framework to connect all of the components.

it provides the functionality for synchronous cooperation and interaction with room ware components

Conclusion
Strengths • • • • The paper identifies certain key features of Ubiquitous applications Exemplifies these features with real-life projects Correlates SE challenges pertaining to such pattern of application development Accordingly, it proposes changes that need to be inculcated in the stream of Software Engineering

Weakness
-

The paper only looks into ‘Rapid Prototyping’ paradigm of application development It overlooks other models and approaches available for UbiComp application development.

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Live board

this architecture was used as the basis for the implementation of BEACH

Other devices ubiquitous devices

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