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b) To measure relative reduction potentials for a number of redox couples in a galvanic cell. c) To develop an understanding of the movement of electrons, anions and cations in galvanic cell. d) To identify the reactions occurring at the anode and cathode during the electrolysis of various aqueous salt solutions.
INTRODUCTION Oxidation-reduction reactions are second fundamental type of chemical reaction. Redox reactions as they are often called are simply reactions that involve the transfer of electrons from one chemical species to another. Atoms that gain electrons are said to have been reduced (their oxidation number goes down) and atoms that have lost electrons are said to have been oxidized. .Electrochemical reactions can occurs if we separate the oxidizing agent from the reducing agent, connecting them only with electrodes, a wire, and salt bridge. Thus, it is called an electrochemical cell. If a particular redox reaction is thermodynamically spontaneous, then the electrons will transfer spontaneously and a current will be produced. An electrochemical cell that generates a current is called a voltaic or galvanic cell. If the reaction is not spontaneous, then an electrical current (i.e., electrons) are required to make the reaction proceed. An electrochemical cell that uses a current is called an electrolytic cell. A standard reduction potential is defined as a reduction potential obtained at a standard condition where the concentration of solution is 1.0 M, the gas partial pressure is 1 atm and temperature is 25°C.The standard reduction potential values are arranged in a certain order and the list is known as the Standard Reduction Potential Table. The potential difference between two metals in an electrochemical cell is called cell potential. The cell potential or the cell voltage at the standard condition is: E°cell = E°cathode - E°anode In other conditions,the cell potential can be calculated by using Nernst equation. Ecell = E°cell ±0.0592/n log Q In this experiment,cell potential is obtained from the voltmeter reading. By inserting the value and the concentration of electrolyte in Nernst equation, standard cell potential, E°cell can be determined.
4. Two wire leads ( different colour) attached to alligator clips were connected to a direct current ( DC power supply). 3. A piece of filter paper was rolled and flatted. 1. 9.Reduction potentials of several redox reaction 1. The alligator clips were connected to the corresponding elements : . the connection was reversed. A Cu strip was placed in the Cu( NO3)solution while Zn strip was placed in Zn (NO3)2 solution. The metal strips that serve as cathode (positive terminal) and anode (negative terminal ) were identified.1M of KNO3 solution. and iron metal were polished with emery paper. 14. 16. 2.The cell is made up of two electrodes connected to battery which functions as a source of direct current. zinc. 2.0 M of HNO3 and deionized water. The cell potentials for all possible galvanic cells that can be constructed were determined. (as the salt bridge) 10.1 were prepared before it were filled into the beakers. A glass u tube was mounted on a ring stand or clamps at a retort stand as in figure 1. The positive cell potential was read. The ends of the filter paper was folded and inserted into the solution of the two beakers. 11.During electrolysis. 0. 3.1 M solution that in figures 1. 7. magnesium. 8. Half reaction and overall reaction were determined.cations are reduced at cathode while anions are oxidized at anode. 5. One electrode was connected to the negative terminal of the voltmeter and other to positive terminal. 15. 12. The filter paper was wetted with 0.2 in the lab manual handout. 13.An electrolytic cell uses electricity to produce chemical changes in electrolyte. B) Electrolytic cell.electrolysis of aqueous salt solution. If the voltmeter read negative potential. A new salt bridge was prepared for each galvanic cell. PROCEDURES A) Galvanic cell. 4 small beakers were obtained. The strips were rinsed with 1. Strips of copper. The strips were put in their respective beakers 6.
some of error make the different of electrode cell potential with the standard electrode cell potential are the voltmeter not functioning well. There are two types of electrochemical cells.1 M CuSO4 ELECTRODES Carbon ( graphite) Carbon ( graphite) Carbon ( graphite) Polished Copper Metal Strips 4. DISCUSSION Oxidation and reduction reaction involves the transfer of electrons by mean oxidation will lose electron whereas reduction reaction gain electron.1 M CuSO4 0. E°cell can be determined. The electrode that are more positive mean that it reduce more. During the experiment. The cell is made up of two electrodes connected to battery which functions as a source of direct current. In galvanic cell we determine the anode and cathode electrode based on the standard electrode potential table. RESULT AND ANALYSIS Prepared in report sheet. In this experiment. An electrolytic cell uses electricity to produce chemical changes in electrolyte. The u-tube was filled three fourth full with a solution from table and was electrolyzed for 5 minutes. thus we can conclude the electrode is cathode. 5. an electrolytic cell requires an external source of electrical energy to make a non-spontaneous reaction to proceed. cell potential is obtained from the voltmeter reading. A galvanic cell converts chemical energy to electrical energy which made it as spontaneous reaction.SOLUTION 2g NaCl + 100 ml 2g NaBr + 100 ml 0. On the other hand. While the anode electrode have the less positive of electrode cell potential. cations are reduced at cathode while anions are oxidized at anode. Any evidence of the reaction in the anode and cathode were observed. During electrolysis. By inserting the value and the concentration of electrolyte in Nernst equation. standard cell potential. the crocodile clip enters a solution and this might effect of voltmeter readings. they are either galvanic or electrolytic. .
.71 V 2 H2O + 2 e. there were no gas evolved at both electrodes. the Na+ ions migrate toward the negative electrode and the Cl. But by using copper as electrode. So now there are two substances that can be reduced at the cathode: Na+ ions and water molecules.In this experiment. the mini U-tubes are designed to keep the electrode reactions more or less separate but still allow ions to migrate through the solution and carry the electricity. Because the salt has been heated until it melts. Fe. the positive ions flow toward the negative electrode and the negative ions flow toward the positive electrode. By using NaCl as electrolyte. Cu.ions migrate toward the positive electrode. There are some differences between galvanic cell and electrolytic cell which are the changes of energy during the reaction and also the electron flow from each terminal. That¶s why only small amount of gas evolved at anode. But. That¶s why we observe the gas evolved at cathode both in NaCl and NaBr electrodes.ion might be the best anion to use because it is the most difficult anion to oxidize. Zn. However the SO42. Galvanic cells do not need any external power whereas electrolytic cell does. mean it involve the mixtures of salt and water. It¶s because copper never reacts with any of the aqueous solutions. Na+ + eNa Eored = -2. In the electrolytic cell.H2 + 2 OHEored = -0. because of the aqueous salt solution. the electrolyte acts as a chemical substance which conducts electricity in the molten or aqueous state. CONCLUSION The metal is ascending order of strength oxidizing agents is Mg. the only product formed at the cathode is hydrogen gas. It able to conduct electricity because of the presence of freely moving ions.83 V Because it is much easier to reduce water than Na+ ions.