Chapter 7 NERVOUS SYSTEM 3 Functioning Parts of NS I.Sensory Receptors - Monitors Changes (Stimuli) inside & outside body & responds. II.

Integration or Association by CNS aided by PNS- Processes, interprets and makes decisions about what done each instant. III. Effectors -muscles or glands to cause a response. (Red light (sensory) integrates with previous input & brain decides on - Motor output of foot to brake) 2 Coordinating Systems that maintain Homeostasis for body Nervous system - Faster and (more specific) Endocrine System -slower-> hormones thru blood thus -More general Two types of cell in NS 1) Neurons 2) Neuroglial Neuroglial (nerve glue)- support, insulate and protect delicate neurons - cannot transmit nerve impulses like neurons - continue to divide so most brain tumors are Gliomas Nerve & Glial Cells Neuron -highly specialized to transmit messages (Nerve Impulse or Action Potential) Common Nerve fibers or Processes microscopic to 3-4 feet (big toe to lumbar region) 1)Cell Body with nucleus (metabolic center) 2)Dendrite conduct impulses toward cell body May have thousands. 3)Axons (only one) typically conduct impulses away from cell body to many axon terminals which release Neurotransmitters into Synaptic cleft. (Axon Hillock or trigger zone initiates Action Potentials)

insulates and speeds up transmission rate In PNS. Synapse Synapse .Types of Glial Cells for CNS 1) Astrocytes (star shaped) . myelin sheaths formed by oligodendrocytes With many extensions. muscle or gland Neurotransmitters are broken down or reabsorbed VERY soon after they are released in the synaptic cleft. are called Nodes of Ranvier Inside cavity of brain & spinal cord -Have cilia help circulate cerebrospinal fluid that fill dorsal cavity & forms protective cushion around CNS 4) Oligodendrosites wrap flat extensions tightly around nerve fibers producing fatty insulation called Myelin Sheaths Type of Glial Cells in PNS Schwann cells form the Myelin Sheaths around nerve fibers of PNS 2. Myelin -white fat that covers. Schwann Cells wrap jelly roll fashion around Nerve fiber to form MYELIN SHEATH over axon (Neurilemma -part of Schwann cell outside myelin sheath that helps fiber regeneration after an accident) Gaps in Myelin Sheath where different Schwann Cells join.Can be part of Nerve. bacteria etc. one cell can form around small sections of up to 60 different fibers .dead brain cells. 3) Ependymal cells . brace them.1/2 of neural tissues cling to neurons.dispose of debri. (Blood-Brain Barrier) 2) Spiderlike Microglial .consists of: 1)Presynaptic membrane -Releases neurotransmitter made in axon terminal 2)Synaptic Cleftgap through which neurotransmitter diffuses 3)Postsynaptic membrane -membrane with Receptors that match shape of neurotransmitter -Can be stimulated or inhibited . Satellite cells protect and cushion cells. anchor-link the neuron and capillary preventing harmful substances & changing chemistry of brain by recapturing Neurotransmitters & ions.

Sensory or Afferent (to go toward) Neurons . nerves do not function well Loses control of muscles -> disabled -Seems to be Autoimmune damage to protein of myelin sheath which may be triggered by virus. most numerous. of stretch to brain for adjustment to maintain balance & posture Functional Neuron Classification I. equilibrium. can be strong stimulation of any cutaneous receptor such as extreme heat/cold. hearing.Cell bodies of Sensory Neurons in GANGLION outside CNS Let us know what is happening outside and inside body. pressure Proprioceptors in muscles and tendons Sense amt.) Cutaneous receptors in skin Pain least specialized (bare dendrite).bundles of fibers Nerves in PNS In CNS White Matter -dense collections of myelinated fibers (tracts) Gray Matter . Association Neurons or Interneurons -Neurons of brain and spinal cord connecting & integrating Sensory and Motor neurons III.Mostly unmyelinated fibers and cell bodies Functional Classification of CNS Neurons By Direction impulse travels in CNS I.impulses from CNS to Viscera or Somatic muscles and glands).Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Demyelinating disease so without myelin sheath. Motor (Efferent Neurons) .Collections of cell Bodies in CNS Protected by Bony skull or vertebrae (Not reproduce) Ganglia . .Carry impulses from receptors (internal organs or skin) to cell body . taste. smell. Nuclei or Ganglia Nuclei . Dendrites of Sensory neurons associated w/ Receptors to detect Specific Change Receptors For senses (vision. Sensory Nerves (Afferent) II.Collections of cell Bodies in PNS Nerve Tracts in CNS.

Rare. SO4-. rest functions as axon Neurons 2 unique functions 1) Irritability .ability to transmit impulse to other neurons. . muscles or glands Membrane Potential Nerve and Muscle Cell membranes are polarized (More + ions outside than inside) largely because of the 1) Effects of the Na+K+ Pump which pumps 3 Na+ out of the membrane for each 2 K+ that is pumped into the cell. Resting Potential of an inactive neuron is Polarized. Cl. Membrane is more + outside than inside (or more .ability to respond to stimuli 2) Conductivity . meaning there are more + ions outside than inside but there are still More Na+ outside and more K+ inside.inside cell. Ex. 2) Membranes are not very permeable to ions but K+ can move out of the membrane faster than Na+ moves into the membrane. being able to produce action potentials by selectively changing the permeability across the membrane. Unipolar Single process -divides immediately into proximal and distal fibers.) Action Potential Plasma membrane of Neurons and Muscle cells are unique.Structural Neuron Classification Based on Number of processes from cell body Multipolar -Several processes as in motor and association neurons .inside than outside. . in some eye/ear cells 3. Small dendrite. Action Potential Plasma membrane with Resting Potential (an inactive neuron) is Polarized.Most common 2. 3) More negative ions (PO4-3). Bipolar . more + ions outside than inside even though there are More Na+ outside and more K+ inside. Sensory Neuron where Axon conduct to & away from cell body.

) Nerve Impulse is All or None Response is Either Action Potential transmitted along entire neuron or doesn’t happen at all. necessary so neuron can conduct another impulse. It causes neuron to transmit an Impulse or Action Potential because all parts of the cell membrane respond the same way. Regardless of stimuli.etc. -Requires ATP (Neurotransmitters are most common cause for change in cell membrane that results in Action Potentials. The A. temp. REPOLARIZATION .restoring of electrical conditions of membrane with more + ions outside compared to inside. can NOT travel through membrane where fatty sheath insulates.making inside of membrane more +. As K+ diffuses out. Action Potential Immediately after Na+ gates open in these membranes.ability to send messages from nerve to nerve (To follow) .touch. “Sodium gates” or channels of neuron or receptor membranes open and Na+ quickly diffuses in -. Na+ cannot move through cell membrane but with adequate stimulation.ability of neuron to send message along its neuron (above) Conductivity property .Receptor Different stimuli excite and cause specific receptors to generate impulse or Action Potential Light for Eye Sound for ear Pressure. Saltatory (to jump or leap) Conduction Irritability property . for cutaneous receptors.. it restores the charge of membrane to + outside.Never partial Nerve Action Potential (AP) Saltatory Conduction In myelinated neurons. the permeability of the membrane changes again. Very Fast so only a few ions move through membrane Action Potential Na+-K+ pump restores the ions so more Na+ outside and more K+ inside. .P. Action Potential Normally. This is called DEPOLARIZATION. it becomes impermeable to Na+ but permeable to K+. it JUMPs from node to node. permeability of receptor membrane changes for a brief period. Action Potential is much faster.

elimination. it causes a change or affect in next neuron’s membrane and an A. Factors which block nerve impulses and impair conduction of impulse : alcohol. Reflexes Programmed reflexes for things we do automatically every day (for protection) (limited neurons so quick but always same) Rapid.diffusion of Neurotransmitter (chemical) across synapse Each neuron is in conversation & contact with many other neurons at same time. Predictable. heart and glands -salivary reflex. (If no Na+ entry. blood pressure.broken down by enzymes or reabsorbed by axonal terminal. Involuntary responses 2 classes of Reflexes Somatic reflexes .Change in ionic concentration along membrane Chemical . -hand from hot stove or step on tack Autonomic .stimulate skeletal muscles. pupillary reflex of eye & regulates digestion. . anesthetics. sedatives. Making cold or twisted leg you are sitting on “go to sleep”.(Hot) 3 neurons The fewer neurons. Tingling when blood flow resumes and conduction begins again. results. O2. Neurotransmitter effect is VERY BRIEF . ATP and thus disrupt Action Potential.Muscle or gland responds Somatic Reflex -Patellar or Knee-jerk reflex (2 neuron arc) Flexor reflex .regulate smooth muscles.P. the faster the reflex. If enough neurotransmitter is released. No Action Potential) COLD and continuous pressure disrupt blood flow. sweating Pathway of Reflex Arc 1) Sensory receptor reacts to stimulus 2) Afferent or sensory nerve pathway 3) Efferent or motor nerve pathway 4) Effector . ELECTROCHEMICAL EVENT Electro .Synapse Impulse travels along nerve to axon terminals that release NEUROTRANSMITTERS that diffuses across the Synaptic cleft to bind with receptor sites of next neuron or effector.

3) brain stem & 4) cerebellum I.are localized and interpreted in Somatic Sensory areas . distorted or absent. Cerebral Hemispheres -Largest most superior part of brain that covers and encloses much of brain stem like mushroom cap over top of stalk Surface Gyri (elevated ridges) & Fissures (deep grooves) -Speech. memory.2 fistfuls of pinkish gray tissue.Bundles of nerve fibers which carry impulses to or from cortex .Usually just spinal cord nerves involved but pupillary reflex involves the brain b/c many types of info. problem in NS that may be detected before other parts of NS involved. If reflex exaggerated. Recognize cold. light touch. consciousness. Special Sensory & Motor Areas Somatic Sensory Area Impulses traveling from body’s sensory receptors-Except Special Senses. interpretation of sensation and voluntary response. texture of cold oatmeal. little over 3 lbs. Divided into 1) cerebrum.cell bodies of neurons of cerebrum on outside & called Cerebral Cortex -Highly ridged and convoluted . logical and emotional response. Generally located in upside down manner esp. 2) diencephalon. pain. Gray matter . lips and mouth Motor Area -allows us to consciously move our skeletal muscles Anterior to Central Fissure in Frontal lobe. Central Nervous System Brain . wrinkled (like walnut). Cerbral White Matter .room for more neurons.

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