DBL Group

Industrial Attachment Report
Submitted To A.K.M Sajedul Arefin Khan Asst. Manager-Planning

Zaheed Bin Rahman Student no. 0608018 Department of Industrial Production and Engineering BUET 2/24/2011

Yarn spinning
Matin Spinning Mills Limited has been visited for inspecting yarn production.

Technical Overview
Machined Used:
a) Blow Room: 1. Uni Flock A-11 2. Uni Clean B-11 3. Uni Mix B-70 4. Uni Flex B-60 5. Vision Shield (Jossi) 6. Condenser A-21 b) Carding: 1. Rieter C-60 c) Breaker Drawing: 1. Rieter SBD-15 d) Lap Former: 1. Rieter E-32 e) Comber: 1. Rieter E-65 f) Simplex: 1. Toyota FL-100 g) Ring Frame: 1. Toyota RX-240 h) Winding: 1. Murata 21C i) Heat Setting: 1. Xorala

Process Layout of Blow Room
Raw Cotton (Bale) Removing compressed mass of raw fiber from the bale and detecting metals in UNI FLOCK machine

Removing trash and preparing the fiber for spinning into yarn in UNI CLEAN machine

Mixing of fibers of different staple length in Uni Mix machine

Fine betting done in Uni Flex machine

Removing colored trash in Vision Shield

Condensing raw cotton

Card Mat

Card Mat

Carding

Card Sliver

Card Process Layout Input Process Output Sliver Breaker Drawing Sliver Sliver Finisher Drawing Sliver Sliver Simplex Roving Roving Ring Frame Yarn (Ring Cops) Yarn (Ring Cops) Winding Yarn (Cone) Yarn (Cone) Heat Setting Yarn (Cone) Yarn (Cone) Packing Yarn (Bag) .

Flow Chart of Comb Process Input Process Output Sliver Breaker Drawing Sliver Sliver Comber Lap Lap Former Comber Comber Lap Comb sliver Comb Sliver Finisher Drawing Comb Sliver Comb Sliver Simplex Roving Roving Ring Frame Yarn (Ring Cops) Yarn (Ring Cops) Winding Yarn (Cone) Yarn (Cone) Heat Setting Yarn (Cone) Yarn (Cone) Packing Yarn (Bag) .

Uni Clean: y Removes trash such as trash dirt. Uni Flex: y Waste products are separated.Functions of Different Machines Blow Room: There are six machines for blending. Condenser: It condenses the raw cotton into Card Mat. leaves. Uni Mix: y Fibers of different staple length are mixed here. y Fine particles of metal are detected in the metal detector. burr and any remaining seeds. opening and cleaning. Uni Flock: y The compressed mass of raw fiber is removed from the bail. . y Prepare the fiber for spinning into Yarn. Vision Shield: It is used to separate colored trash.

y As the cylinder rotates the cotton is pulled by the cylinder through the small gap under the brushes. y Slivers passed through several pairs of rollers. y A moving belt of wire brushes slowly moves concentrically above this cylinder. y This action pulls the staple lengthwise over each other.Description of different Processes Carding: y Initial process of arranging the fiber in a parallel fashion is known as carding and is done on carding machine. . disentangles the fibers and arranges them in a relatively parallel manner in the form of a thin web. thereby produces longer and thinner slivers. each advanced set of rollers. y The teasing action removes the remaining trash. Breaker Drawing: y Combines several slivers. revolve at progressively faster speed. This web is drawn through a funnel-shaped device that molds it into a rope like mass called card sliver. y Eliminate irregularities that would cause too much variation if slivers were put through single. y The lap is passed through a beater section and drawn on a rapidly revolving cylinder covered with very fine hooks or wire brushes.

. y Operations eliminate as much as 25% of the original card sliver.Lap: After carding the sliver is turned into lap form in Uni-Lap machine. y Short fibers called noils are combed out and completely separated from longer fibers. It contribute to. Finisher Drawing: The purpose of this process is to measure the sliver thickness variations and then to continuously alter the draft accordingly so that more draft is applied to thick places with the result that the sliver delivery is less irregular than it otherwise would have been. y Produces consumer goods with better quality. y y y y Better productive efficiency Fewer end-breakage in subsequent processes Less waste and Constant process conditions. Combing: y Combed sliver produces a smoother and more even yarn.Uni.

y Gain some tensile strength. Ring Frame: Roving is fed in ring frame and the output is yarn. Heat Setting: y To make the twist permanent. y Slight twist is given. . y Only the good quality products pass. Roving Draft Yarn Winding: y The yarns are further winded on cone from the ring frame. steam is passed through the yarn. Packing: Finally the yarn is ready to export or weaving.Simplex: y After several drawing operations the fiber passes through simplex process and the output is roving. y Moisture is absorbed through yarn. y The diameter is reduced.

Full feeder Lycra rib 4) Interlock .Fabric knitting In fabric knitting department following units have been inspected. 1) Jinnat apparels limited 2) Jinnat knitting limited 3) Jinnat fashion limited 4) Matin knitting limited Products of knitting section: 1) Single Jercy 2) Fleece -2 thread fleece -3 thread fleece 3) Rib -1/1 rib -2/1 rib -4/2 rib .Half feeder Lycra rib .

There are three types of cams which are used in the knitting machine. Cylinder: Cylinder is placed on the centre of the machine and it rotates.Half feeder interlock .Knit cam .Drop needle interlock . .Tuck cam . Cam box: Cams are fixed with the cam box.Plane interlock .Miss cam Gauge: It refers to the number of needles per inch. Feeder: Delivers constant rate of yarn to the needles. . It regulates the needles movement.Full feeder interlock 5) Single lacost 6) Double lacost 7) Single pique 8) Double pique Some important terms regarding knitting machine: Sinker: Keep the fabric from lifting up..

Results from wrong fiber yarn placed on wrap. GSM: GSM means Gram per Square meter. 4) Oil stains spot: Dirty oily looking spot on the yarn. 3) Miss yarn: Occurs in warp knit. Number of Wales determines the width of the fabric. Production process flow chart: Warehousing Bulk Production Yarn Book Quality Check Machine Select Machine Setting Warehousing Knitting defects: 1) Holes: Caused by broken needle. Every feeder knits each course. Wales: Vertical column of needle loops are known as Wales.Course: It refers to the rows of loops across the width of the fabric. . Stitch length: Length of yarn in a loop or stitch. 2) Needle line: Caused by bent needle forming distorted stitches.

grade and if it is above 30 points then it is rejected. Quality checking of fabric: 4.5) Lycra missing: 6) Fly yarn: Caused by yarn of another fabric. . 10) Drop stitches: Results from malfunctioning needle or jack. 8) Hairiness: Hairy surface of the fabric. If 0 < Size of the defect < 3 inch 3< Size of the defect <6 inch 6< Size of the defect <9 inch 9 inch < Size of the defect 1 point penalty 2 point penalty 3 point penalty 4 point penalty If the fabric is marked between 0 .Point system is used in checking the quality of fabric.30 points then it is considered B.100% inspection is done. It involves considering size of the defect. 7) Black spot: Unusual black spot on the fabric surface.grade and if it is marked between 20 . It will appear as holes or missing stitches.20 points then it is considered A. 9) Knots: Caused by tying spools of yarn together.

Process Flow Chart of Dyeing & Finishing Receiving Gray fabrics from knitting section (For Special Fabrics) Batching Grey Heat setting Dyeing a) b) c) d) Scouring Dyeing Washing Softening (Stentering) Slitting Back sewing Tubular Finish Open Finish Dewatering & Detwisting Slitting Drying Stentering with weft straightener Compacting Special Finish Normal Finish Suedding Brushing Stentering with weft straightener Open Compacting Quality Inspection Packing Ready for Delivery to Garments .

Then fabrics are sent for compacting where compaction and further GSM change occurs. Enzyme is also applied to the fabrics to destroy the surface fiber or to convert tubular fiber into open fiber. When a lot is released from store it is sent to turning machine. Then water is removed from the fabric using compaction. Scouring is a process of further dust removing from fabrics. Before entering into the dewatering machine fabrics are entwisted to regain its normal shape and to perform further operations smoothly. In the dryer machine change of GSM and shrinkage of fabric takes place and 35% water is removed. Dyeing: In the dyeing machine the first step is scouring. . According to the planning batching section releases a batch card to send order for dyeing. Then the next step is drying. In the dewatering process fabrics are washed using only water and then sent to the chemical bath for softening. Then bleaching is done which is a process of pretreatment of fabrics using oil & wax.Explanation of Process Flow Chart: At first Grey fabrics are received from knitting section to the storage facility of Dyeing department. a) Tubular Finish b) Open Finish Tubular Finish: First step is dewatering & detwisting. In the batching section production manager creates a dyeing plan. After compaction inspection of the fabrics is carried out. To remove roughness softening is done using various chemical softeners in the chemical bath. Turning machine is used to remove dust from the fabric using a blast of air. Grey fabrics are stored in the storage according to buyer. After turning fabrics are sent to the dyeing machine. Almost 60% water is removed in this process. order. dia (width of fabric) and color. Then color and dyeing auxiliary items are applied. Finishing: There are two types of finishing process. All storage information is kept in stock card. During compaction 7% water remains in the fabric to keep strength. At last cooling and washing of the fabrics is done. Generally after dyeing process surface of the fabric becomes rough.

Brushing is a process of raising the loop of the fabric fiber. After packing dyed fabrics become ready for delivery to garments. After brushing is done. At first slitting is done which is a process of cutting fabrics through the needle line. Above processes are for normal fabrics. Capacity: Production capacity: Total production capacity is 35 tons per day. But in case of special fabrics some additional steps are carried out along with regular processes. It can be done only on fleece fabric. shearing can also be done according to buyer requirements. Suedding is a process of converting the fabric fiber into pile form. Then quality inspections are carried out and dyed fabrics are sent for packing. Storage capacity: Total storage capacity is 650 ton. . Grey heat setting gives the fabric dimensional stability and stentering adjusts dia (width of fabric). Special Finish: First step is suedding and brushing. Then normal finishing or special finishing is applied according to buyer requirements. Then stentering is done to dry the fabric and then sent for open compacting. Open compacting is a calendaring process where lengthwise strain obtained in the previous process is recovered. But actual capacity is 30 tons per day. Then Grey heat setting and stentering is done.Open Finish: At first slitting is done where fabrics are cut through the needle line to convert tubular fabric into open fabric. Importance of steam: Steam is important during finishing because it makes the fabric suitable for various processes. Shearing is a process of cutting raised loop fiber according to required size of the loop. Then stentering is done which is a process of drying wet fabric. It can be done on any type of fabric.

Process Flow layout of sample section File Pattern making Sample cutting Sample making Checking by QC Sent to buyer Sample is tagged & Send back Improved sample sent to buyer Sample ok (approval) Production starts .

Buyer checks the sample and tags it for necessary adjustment. This hard paper or pattern is then used for sample cutting. Then sample is sent to the buyer. In this process this pattern is placed on the fabric and the fabric is cut by scissors. Sample is made again according to the necessary adjustments. Pattern making: It is a process of creating a base size sample based on file. Grading: It is a process of creating another pattern of different sizes considering the base size sample. Then the file is sent to the garments sample production department to make sample. Then the production starts. . size of the product to the marketing department. Some Terminology regarding sample making: Spec sheet: It is a measurement sheet consists of all sizes of the product.Explanation of Process Flow Chart: At first buyer send a file consists of detailed design. If the sample is ok then buyer approves it for production. Finished sample is checked in the quality control section where sample is compared to the given size and design of the product. After cutting sample is then made in sewing machine. Styling: Design of the product. Finished sample is also ironed and sent for packaging. Sample production department make a pattern based on the file using hard paper. Marketing department calculate total price of the product and the calculation is based on the file.

1) Sample is checked with file.Types of sewing machines used: 1. Capacity of sample production department: Average capacity of the sample production department is 150 pieces per day. Plane machine 2. M. Piping cutter 10. Hole stitch 8. But the actual production per person is 3 pieces per day. Button stitch 7. Number of sewing person in the department is 43 and the target sample production per person is 5 pieces per day. Feed of the arm 5. Flat lock machine 4. 2) Sewing of the sample is checked. Pico ting machine 6. 3) Styling or design of the sample is checked. machine Quality Checking: This process consists of the following steps. P. . Over lock machine 3. Snap button machine 9.

marker & confirm (cutting supervisor & QC supervisor) Bulk cutting .Process Flow Layout of Cutting Room Receive marker along with block pattern/Copy of block pattern Cross check. marker & block pattern by concern cutting & QC supervisor Not OK Need rectify Check OK Go for cutting Proceed sample (sample make by line chief/supervisor) Finish sample Hand over to QC along with report (Report make by sample maker. with his findings during making sample) QC will check details Prepare risk analysis report along with report Sample review meeting for correction Make report Check pattern. cutting.

After check line chief or supervisor proceed for making sample. If the marker is ok then they go for cutting. Auto spreading: Before cutting fabrics need to be spread over the table. cutting and marker and confirm and go for bulk cutting. Fabric relaxation: After finishing fabric are kept in normal condition for 8 to 10 hours to regain its normal elasticity. A report is made based on sample review meeting. If the marker is not ok then it need to be rectified and checked. It can be done on many fabrics to avoid shrinkage problem. Bulk cutting: This kind of cutting is used to cut large amount of fabric. When sample is finished line chief handover it to the quality control along with report. Scissor cutting: This kind of cutting is used to cut small amount of fabric. Bundling: After cutting fabric pieces of a single style or design is bundled together for sewing. A review meeting is arranged if there is any need for correction. Cutting capacity: Total capacity of the cutting room is 60000 pieces per day. In the cutting room Gerber machine is used to spread the fabrics. Quality control check details of the sample and prepares risk analysis report along with previous report. This is done to prevent size deformation. Production is carried out for 1 shift. Then cutting supervisor and quality control supervisor check pattern. After receiving marker & block pattern quality control or cutting supervisor check it (in CAD room). .Explanation of Process Flow Layout: At first cutting room management receives marker along with block pattern from marketing department. It can be done manually or by automatic machine. During making sample a report is made concerning the sample.

Process Flow Layout of Printing & Packaging: Artwork/Technical sheet received from buyer Marketing department Printing & Packaging department Design development by Photoshop & Illustrator Printing on Tracing Paper Mesh Fabric Binding Applying photo emulsion Coating on Mesh Fabric Screen Exposure to Light Screen Washing by Water Jet Print .

Printing Types: 1. Glossy print 17. Metallic print 18. Pigment print 2.Explanation of Process Layout: At first artwork or technical sheet consisting of the design to be printed is received from buyer in the marketing department. Puff print 12. Rubber print 3. Crack print 7. General print 9. Stud print . After exposure to light water jet is used for washing the screen. Foil print 6. Photo print 16. Sueted print 14. Exposure to light makes the photo emulsion coating weak in areas where design is printed. Burn out print 10. High density print 15. Glow in the dark print 13. Plastisol print 8. Discharge print 4. Then the tracing paper is attached on a frame using glue which is known as mesh fabric binding. Then a special kind of photo emulsion coating is applied on the mesh fabric and exposed to light for 10 minutes. After the design is developed it is printed on tracing paper. Then the artwork is sent to the printing & packaging department where further development of the design is carried out in design software like Photoshop & Illustrator. Flock print 5. Glitter print 11. At this time weaken photo emulsion coating is broken and the tracing paper is ready to be used for print.

. 2. 5.Printing Problems: 1. 3. 3. 4. 4. 2. Print size mistake Print position mistake Print color mistake Print registration problem Color stain problem Color shading problem Types of Quality Testing: 1. Color fastness to washing Color fastness to water Color fastness to rubbing Color fastness to perspiration Color fastness to saliva Capacity of Printing & Packaging department: Total capacity is 100000 to 125000 pieces per day. 5. 6.

Process Flow Layout of Finishing & Packing Receive sewing output Remove thread Bundling Ironing QC check Get up check Size measurement Price hangtag Get up iron QC check QC check Spot clean Get up iron Folding Poly Packing Metal detector QC check .

Metal detector test is also carried out but it depends on buyer. Flat folding 3.Explanation of Process Flow Layout: At first output of the sewing process is received from sewing output table according to color & size. Then price hang-tag is attached to sewing output and goes for Get up iron. Assorted packing: 1. Boat folding . If spot is created it is cleaned by soap. Then QC check and get up iron is also done. Solid color-Solid size 2. jet powder & acetone. Sometimes due to handling by hand creates spot in the white fabric. Then size measurement is taken to check whether it meets buyer requirements. Get up check is also done for extra checking. Solid color-Assorted size Folding types: 1. Then thread is removed from the sewing output in thread machine and bundled together according to size & color. Assorted color-Sold size 3. Again quality check is done and folding of sewing output is completed. Then sewing output is ironed and sent to quality control check. Half folding 2. Then sewing output is inserted into polythene bag and ready for packing in carton.

Size sticker 8. Price sticker 3. carton height20 cm then cbm = 40×40×20×1000=32. Gum tape CBM calculation: If 1000 carton is used and carton length-40 cm. . Tag pin 5.000=32 cbm Capacity: Total capacity is 12000 to 15000 pieces per day. Shipping mark 11. Band roll 6.000. carton width-40. Lock pin 4.Accessories: 1. Price hangtag 2. Country sticker 10. Barcode sticker 9. Bio cotton 7.

S.Work study: Work-study is the systematic examination of the methods of carrying activities so as to improve the effective use of resources and to set up standards of performance for the activities being carried out. Work-study Method study Work measurement Work place engineering Motion economy Time study G.D Sew easy Capacity study Historical data Minimum work place Maximum work place Analytical estimating Bottleneck: Which are holding up production operations. . A bottleneck is the operation in any team that has the lowest capacity of production. or a lengthy operation. that consumes a great amount of time.

Reasons of bottleneck: A bottleneck may be raised in the line for the following reasons. If there happens quality fault in the operation. If there is any problem in machinery purpose. Time) * Total Manpower Capacity Achievable = Capacity per Hour * Balance % Performance = (SMV / Capacity Total time) * 100 Balance = Basic Pitch Time / Bottleneck Time Improvement % = 1. If two or various types (color) of thread are used in the same machine.(Production per Hour / Capacity per Hour) BPT = Capacity Total Avg. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) If the said operators has more work content than other operators. If the operator is unskilled or semi skilled in respect to the operation. Formula of Operation Capacity graph: Capacity/Hr = (60/Capacity Total Avg. Time / Total Use Worker UCL = BPT * 120 % LCL = BPT * 80 % Work Study Formula: Target / Hr = Total Worker * (60 / SMV) * 73 % Efficiency = (Earn Hour / Available Hour) * 100 Earn Hour = (Total Production * SMV) / 60 Available Hour = Total Worker * Total Working Hour Performance = Earn Hour / (Available Hour Total off Hour) * 100 .

7 = 2+ (.22 × .20 / .29 Capacity = 60 / Total Time = 60 / .07 = .22 + . Recovery allowance.29 = 206.Target Achieve Efficiency = (Total Production / Total Target) * 100 Basic Time = (Observed Time * Rating) / Standard Rating Observed Time = Time recorded by qualified work study officer by observing a regular worker while he/she is doing a task. 10 Cycle Time × 1. Technical allowance.22 30 % Allowance = .896 = 207 pieces/hr Performance = (SMV / Total Time)*100 % = (.066 = .07 Total Time = . For this operation. Standard Rating = The pace at which a qualified worker perform a task. Bundle handling allowance) Standard Minute Value (SMV) = Basic Time + Allowance Time Sample Calculation: Here the first operation is Front Rise & Back Rise Match.7) = 2.3 = . SMV Target = 300 pieces/hour After study.12 min.12×1. 10 Cycle Time = 2. Standard Rating=100 Allowance Time = 30% of basic time (Personal allowance.29)*100 % = 69 % . SMV = .20 / 10 = .20 Average = 2.20 min.

Working Flow Chart (WS) Received Order List from Merchandiser Merchandising Department Received Sample Factory Do Process Breakdown Calculate SMV Provide SMV to Marketing & Planning Making Paper Layout Along With Floor In-Charge Arrange PP Meeting Along With Concern Department Double Confirm & Prove Work Process Along With Factory/In-charge Follow-up M/C Layout during Issue Within 2 Days from Issue Do Time Study & Line Graph Prepare Machine & Work Flow Chart Help Re-Balance the Line & Finalize SMV on Line by Time Study Send Report to All Concern Do efficiency & Others Report .

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