Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams per ACI 318 | Reinforced Concrete | Concrete

Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams per ACI 318-05

Reinforced concrete is made of two materials, concrete and reinforcing steel.
Concrete is made of five parts:
Air
Water
Cement, five main types per ASTM
Sand, fine aggregate
Gravel, course aggregate
The compressive strength (fc’) of concrete is the 28-day strength. This could be
from 2,500 psi to 20,000 psi. Most concrete used is between 3,000 psi to 6,000 psi.
Concrete is very good in compression but its tensile strength is only about 8 to 15%
of the compressive strength. This is the reason why we need reinforcing steel.
When we load a beam, the bottom is in tension.
Reinforcement could be fiber-reinforcement or reinforcing steel. In this course, we
will only look at reinforcing steel. Reinforcing steel comes in the following sizes,
areas, weights and diameters:

ASTM Standard Reinforcing Bars
Bar Size

Area

Weight Diameter

#3
#4
#5
#6
#7
#8
#9
# 10
# 11
# 14
# 18

(in2)
0.11
0.20
0.31
0.44
0.60
0.79
1.00
1.27
1.56
2.25
4.00

(lbs/ft)
0.376
0.668
1.043
1.502
2.044
2.670
3.400
4.303
5.313
7.650
13.600
1

(in)
0.375
0.500
0.625
0.750
0.875
1.000
1.128
1.270
1.410
1.693
2.257

Reinforcement steel comes in the following designations, types, grades, strengths
and available sizes.

ASTM Standard Reinforcing Steel

ASTM

Type

A 615

Billet

A 706

Low-alloy

A 996

Rail

A 996

Axle

Grade
40
60
75
60
50
60
40
60

Strength
(fy ) ksi
Sizes
40
3-6
60
3-11, 14, 18
75
6-11, 14, 18
60
3-11, 14, 18
50
3-8
60
3-8
40
3-8
60
3-8

It appears from the above table, A615, grade 60 and A706, grade 60 cover all
sizes.
The stress distribution may be rectangular, parabolic, trapezoidal, etc. Here are two
stress distributions, parabolic (b) and rectangular (c):

We use figure c, rectangular. The ACI code says for concretes with fc’>4,000 psi, β1
can be determined with the following formula:

1

0.85

f c ' 4000
0.05
1000
2

0.65

65 The ACI code says design value must be greater than or equal to the required value.7.85 5000 .70 8000 .2. Mn Mu Vn Vu Pn Pu 3 .75 7000 .3): fc’ ß1 2500-4000 .80 6000 .This is a table for the above formula (ACI 10.65 9000 .

εt>0.002<εt<0. 4 . εt <0.005 We use a strength reduction factor to account for many uncertainties in the design.90.005 Tension control.002 Transition. Beams are considered to be under three types of control: Compression control. 0. we use a strength reduction factor (φ) of 0. As / bd. ρ is the steel ratio.In the formula. For tension-controlled beams.

0285 0.0239 0. ACI (10.0275 0.0486 0. εc=0.0040 0.min 3 fc ' bw d fy nor less than 200 bw d fy Note: When the code specifies a minimum and they give two or more formulas. then the minimum would be 18 in2. ρ for tensilely reinforced rectangular section 40000 50000 60000 75000 3000 4000 5000 6000 fc' in psi 0.75 0.0035 0. under ordinary conditions.0582 0.0046 0.0040 0.0053 0.0432 0.5.0027 0.85 0.0371 0.0145 0.0271 0.0042 0. Also.0191 ß1 ρ balanced ρ min ρ max ρ balanced ρ min ρ max ρ balanced ρ min ρ max ρ balanced ρ min ρ max fy in psi It is desirable.0255 0.0135 0.0033 0.0287 0.0243 0.0217 0.0163 0.0655 0.0214 0. bw is the width of the beam.0058 0. 5 .003. we use the formula that yields the maximum.0367 0.0050 0.0155 0.0335 0.0170 0.1) specifies the minimum about of reinforcement by the following two formulas: As .0359 0.3) states that the maximum usable strain at extreme concrete compression fiber shall be assumed equal to 0.ACI (10.0495 0.0203 0.003. if one formula gives 16 in2 and the other formula gives 18 in2.0377 0.0213 0.2. For example.0033 0.85 0. to design beams with a steel ration (ρ) between ρ min and ρ max.0050 0.0031 0.0028 0.0039 0.0207 0.0319 0.0181 0.0108 0.80 0.0027 0.0274 0. In other words.

stirrups and spirals. Lr=roof live loads. F=weight and pressure of fluids. it specifies the amount of cover for the reinforcement. How good can you estimate the loads on the floor where you are right now? Sections 9. T=temperature.1 of the code. Cover is the distance from the edge of the reinforcing bar to the face of the concrete beam. h Simply One end Both ends Supported continous continous Cantilever Member Members not supporting or attached to patitions or other construction likely to be damaged by large deflections Solid one-way slabs l/20 l/24 l/28 l/10 Beams or ribbed one-way slabs l/16 l/18. Section 9 gives the following table for minimum depth of beams: Minimum thickness of nonprestressed beams or one-way slabs unless diflections are computed Minimum thickness. R=rain loads. S=snow loads. L=live loads.Load factors are numbers.5 l/21 l/8 In Section 7. For beams with primary reinforcement.2 gives the required strength based on load factors and combinations of loads: D=dead loads. it is 1 ½ inches when the concrete is not exposed to weather or in contact with the ground. ties. The loads are increased to account for the uncertainties involved in estimating the magnitude of the loads. 6 . creep.7. water in soil or other materials. used to increase the estimated loads applied on a structure. H=weight and pressure of soil. shrinkage and differential settlement. W=wind loads and E=earthquake loads.

01 18 3.20 18.28 7.45 3.49 18.71 6.00 11.91 5.01 19 3.65 3.84 2.73 19.51 24.27 56.55 3.21 12.00 2.02 9 1. Remember.99 10.57 2.99 15.01 7 1.35 13.42 11.61 4.41 3.05 20. when the code specifies the minimum and gives you two or more items.60 9.39 0.54 21.60 4.50 7. you use the larger of the values.01 7.82 10.23 45.93 15.93 5.00 5.53 4.99 14.01 Area of of number of bars (in²) Number of bars 14 15 16 17 2.01 48.00 6.26 36.02 38.26 52.50 8.80 28.00 8.64 10.42 24.33 7.99 17.57 13.37 4.84 12.47 20.07 4.01 60.77 2. For longer beams the ratio of depth to width may be as high as 3-4.95 10.30 4.14 17.53 5.92 18.41 7.99 11.74 7.07 7. Beam dimensions are selected in whole inches.21 3.74 27.99 25.42 9.26 20.42 6.19 6.36 3.98 5.80 2.93 6.14 8.36 3.01 7 8 1.15 3.99 15.85 9.00 11 2.77 36.18 1.37 13.51 8. whichever is larger.00 13 2.52 33.01 5 0.96 3.88 1.01 3 0.00 12 2.12 4. Rarely will you use # 14 or # 18 bars.92 1. Design aid Area of of number of bars (in²) Bar #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 # 10 # 11 # 14 # 18 Bar #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 # 10 # 11 # 14 # 18 2 0.39 11.61 22.57 2.16 3.27 21.77 2. The width is usually a multiple of 2 or 3.01 68.30 7.11 40.75 12.In section 7.83 8.53 2. Beams should probably not be less than 12” wide to get the steel and your hands in the form.22 9.81 6.86 23.01 20 3.76 28.68 5.34 31.01 3.93 17.99 5.5 to 2. beams 20-25 feet long have a ratio of d to b of 1.62 10. As a rule of thumb.53 3.22 11.99 12.79 1.30 29.02 80.00 16.14 3.78 12.25 9.87 10.07 6.03 15.76 44.73 5.23 1.63 7.40 14.37 2.99 24.02 10 1.07 8.99 16.01 4 0.54 31.02 9.00 7.00 20.18 24.61 0.98 1.68 6.21 5.75 2.52 7.95 3.20 1.67 15.99 16.71 19.34 4.01 32.61 8.22 6. For the usual situation.76 3.67 42.99 22.6 of the code.07 29.82 14.99 13.51 40.80 4.81 11.43 14.14 4.00 Number of bars 6 1.86 6.13 12. it specifies the minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in a layer to be db or 1”.52 72.02 .59 0.09 4.01 64.77 76.98 26.33 1. use bars of size # 11 and smaller if possible.00 3.

7 368.0110 0.9 894.2 215.0195 0.0105 0.9 530.7 603.0 490.6 351.0160 0.3 334.5 912.0155 0.0130 0.5 579.8 506.0095 0.0 340.0080 0.0145 0.5 514.0271 194.0055 0.9 799.1 911.0 340.0135 0.5 398.2 497.0230 0.8 659.0060 0.0085 0.0160 0.0120 0.0100 0.2 674.5 394.0181 192.7 574.5 526.0175 0.0 354.0135 0.5 845.0070 0.0045 0.0180 0.0125 0.3 376.0095 0.2 203.0055 0.2 852.0105 0.9 867.0155 0.0185 0.0065 0.1 824.0065 0.0095 0.2 480.0090 0.9 367.8 498.0165 0.0145 0.5 675.1 736.2 484.0033 0.4 780.7 264.0155 0.0085 0.0 627.0205 0.9 724.0180 0.0110 0.2 210.0115 0.1 268.8 459.0145 0.0060 0.2 446.0120 0.0115 0.0170 0.4 420.6 587.0136 190.7 667.2 766.0040 0.6 360.1 411.0200 0.2 547.0130 0.9 621.0033 0.1 212.0110 0.0215 0.3 286.7 260.0100 0.0 529.8 667.0135 0.0270 0.0 482.3 835.0060 0.0125 0.0150 0.0070 0.4 402.0225 0.0085 0.0 627.0 887.0150 0.9 802.0 467.2 758.0055 0.0175 0.5 705.0095 0.9 867.2 282.5 838.0065 0.6 2 .3 201.2 529.4 228.0115 0.0 880.0170 0.0080 0.0163 192.0215 0.1 563.0035 0.0100 0.7 255.3 686.4 410.5 434.9 721.0050 0.0175 0.2 385.0190 0.8 762.6 618.0050 0.0140 0.1 522.8 908.6 389.Design aid based on fy in psi 40000 fc' in psi 3000 ρ Mu/φbd 0.5 682.0185 0.0 418.7 660.0245 0.5 428.8 852.4 548.4 299.8 314.0055 0.0070 0.0140 0.0085 0.0090 0.0045 0.0100 0.1 690.0195 0.0165 0.0210 0.0080 0.0045 0.6 334.0 643.0150 0.0130 0.9 231.4 308.2 751.6 596.0 347.7 681.0190 0.7 282.0155 0.0115 0.9 358.1 513.0155 0.0060 0.9 60000 3000 2 ρ Mu/φbd 0.0070 0.0165 0.1 237.0250 0.5 736.0100 0.7 40000 50000 4000 2 ρ Mu/φbd 0.0217 194.0080 0.0140 0.8 263.0240 0.5 684.9 743.9 323.8 304.0105 0.0070 0.6 385.0260 0.8 309.2 50000 3000 2 ρ Mu/φbd 0.0220 0.0265 0.0060 0.0205 0.0075 0.0110 0.6 282.3 430.0065 0.1 471.6 240.0150 0.0075 0.0105 0.7 780.0095 0.0 482.8 60000 4000 2 8 ρ Mu/φbd 0.6 394.0190 0.0120 0.1 463.7 657.0050 0.0070 0.4 567.5 505.0090 0.0040 0.5 259.0040 0.0125 0.0105 0.0110 0.8 497.1 567.0255 0.0235 0.6 589.8 376.0170 0.0135 0.9 795.0135 0.0125 0.9 317.5 911.0105 0.7 660.0050 0.9 608.4 544.0090 0.0080 0.5 547.9 286.3 434.4 685.0170 0.0140 0.4 4000 2 ρ Mu/φbd 0.0120 0.9 612.0125 0.0090 0.5 250.2 574.0100 0.0075 0.0135 0.0160 0.8 451.5 332.0175 0.4 639.3 603.0115 0.0075 0.0125 0.3 326.0090 0.8 595.0160 0.5 286.6 559.2 585.0165 0.0203 192.8 451.4 552.9 618.0145 0.5 228.0120 0.3 690.1 571.0035 0.5 887.6 646.0075 0.1 780.0130 0.9 870.9 905.6 595.0145 0.5 810.0130 0.0085 0.0045 0.0130 0.0050 0.0200 0.4 304.0060 0.7 705.0065 0.5 713.7 510.9 908.9 620.0075 0.0095 0.4 547.1 217.0110 0.9 643.0200 0.0180 0.0040 0.0140 0.8 463.0055 0.7 246.0065 0.0160 0.0195 0.4 632.0185 0.8 824.1 420.0180 0.4 368.0085 0.9 446.3 529.2 817.0 471.9 639.0050 0.9 647.0150 0.0120 0.7 674.6 410.0115 0.0080 0.5 231.0055 0.2 441.0210 0.

0033 and ρmax = 0.2 k / ft) = 5.1 k / ft (not including the weight of the beam) and the live load is 2.3375 k / ft) + 1. This was not much help. Use concrete with fc’ = 4.3375 k / ft Compute wu and Mu wu = 1.5 in = 24” + ½” + 3/8” + 1. say 27” Weight = 12” (27”) (150 # / ft3) (ft2 / 144 in2) = 337.0181 so this is between both values 9 .6 ( 2.375”.245 k / ft Compute steel ratio (ρ) Assume φ = 0.90 Refer to table on page 5 Ρmin = 0.5 # / ft = 0. If b = 12 inches Then d = 2b = 24” h is about d + db/2 + ds + 1.000 psi and reinforcement steel with fy = 60.2D + 1.000 psi. Estimate the beam dimensions and weight Refer to the table on page 6 from section 9 of the ACI code.6L = 1.2 (1. The dead load is 1. The minimum width of a beam should be 12 inches in order to get the steel and your hands in the form.Example 1 Design a rectangular beam that is simply supported with a span of 22 feet.1 k / ft + 0.5” = 26.2 k / ft.

25 – ndb) / (n-1) Remember.321 OK>db OK>db NG<1" NG<1" NG<1" Note: 8 .#10 bars. let us choose 3 . Check solution 10 .600 0.#7 8 .125 – db/2 Spacing = (b – (2 x cover) – 2ds – ndb) / (n-1) = (8. 3 .01134 (12 in) (24 in) = 3. Since 3 .53 24.49 inches.Select the reinforcement steel As = ρbd = 0.#10 area (in²) 3.#10 bars have the smallest area.22 4 .49 spacing (in) 2.80 d (in) 24.625 24.80 in2 and d = 24.56 24.26 in2 Refer to the table on page 1.#9 5 .#6 4.93 3.00 3.688 24.#6 bars gives the smallest area which would be the lightest and smallest cost.75 1.246 0.#8 6 . Only two meet this requirement.813 0. The area of steel (As) is 3. the ACI code says the minimum spacing is the larger of the bar diameter or 1 inch.61 3. d = h – db/2 – ds – cover = 25.

0 0.Once we determined Rn we could have used the design aid table on page 8 to determine the steel ratio (ρ).9 612.12 ρ 0. Rn 595. We got the same steel ratio (ρ) using the table. We would do a straight line interpolation between the values in the table.01134 620. Are beam looks something like this with #3 stirrups.0115 I think it is much easier using the table. 11 .0110 0.

0105 0.0110 d 33.63” 12 . Determine b.000 psi.0107.9 0. Let us assume a steel ratio (ρ) of 0. Now.0033 and ρmax = 0. d and h Refer to the design aid table on page 8 and do a straight line interpolation.86 31.5” – 0.0107 595.Example 2 Design a beam where Mu = 600 ft – k. The reinforcement steel has an fy = 60.33 d/b 2. Assume this includes the weight of the beam. d = h – db/2 – ds – cover = 32” – 0. Refer to the table on page 5 and note that ρmin = 0.29 29.5” = 31.375” – 1.82 2.7” We will round this up to 32”.6 581. Rn b 12 14 15 16 571.33” + 0.0 h is about equal to d + db/2 + ds + cover = 29.5 < d/b <2.35 30.02 1.0181.32 ρ 0.5” + 0.000 psi and the concrete has an i fc’ = 4.24 2.375 + 1.83 Now we have b = 16 inches: 1.5” = 29.

0107 (16”) (29.63 29.39 6 .50 spacing (in) 2. 13 .07 d (in) 29. Shear reinforcement (stirrups) We also need to design the shear reinforcement (stirrups) to prevent shear cracking.00 5.63”) = 5. it says the design shear strength must be greater than or equal to the required shear strength.50 5.57 29.#8 bars. In section 11.07 in2 Refer to the table on page 7.55 OK>db NG<db NG<1" NG<1" Notice: 7 .#10 area (in²) 5. 4 .Select the reinforcement steel As = ρbd = 0.10 0.69 1.1 of the ACI code.88 0.#7 6. Check solution You might want to increase h to 33 inches and compute again. the d is the same as what we used but the spacing is no good.41 29.#8 9 .#9 7 .

1. shear reinforcement (stirrups) must be provided when: In ACI 11. Always round the spacing down to the nearest whole inch.5. it says Vc shall be computed by: In ACI 11.3.5. Comments: Normally I place the first stirrup at s/2 or 2-3 inches from the support. Stirrups are usually spaced at multiples of 3-4 inches.6. In ACI 11.6.1.7.It also states that the nominal shear strength (Vn) is equal to the nominal shear strength provided by the concrete (Vc) and the nominal shear strength provided by the reinforcement (Vs).9. we rewrite equation (11-15) to solve for the spacing.5. the maximum spacing is d/2 or 24 inches when: In ACI 11.5.3.5. 3-4 inches is the minimum spacing for stirrups so the aggregate can get through and your hands can get in and out of the form.1. In section 11. Then you go at d/2 until you get to (R).5. the required distance that we need stirrups. the maximum spacing is d/4 or 12 inches when: In ACI 11.5. Then you space them at s until it equals d/2. Normally. 14 .

0181 Use ρ=0. The concrete has an fc’ = 4 ksi and the reinforcement has an fs = 60 ksi. The dead load is 4 k / ft (not including the weight of the beam) and a live load of 6 k / ft.4 k / ft.0105 0.88 k/ft Refer to the table on page 5.9 0.32 ρ 0.0033 Ρmax=0.3. Rn 571.6 581.0107 Refer to the design aid table on page 8 and do a straight line interpolation. Compute wu and Mu Assume the weight of the beam is 400 # / ft or 0.0107 595.In ACI 11.2 (4 k/ft + 0.4 k/ft)) + (1. wu=(1.6 x 6 k/ft) = 14.5.0110 15 .6. Ρmin=0. the minimum area of shear reinforcement is the larger of: Example 3 Design a rectangular beam that is simply supported with a span of 14 feet.

#10 area (in²) 3.75 1.#9 4.688 23.#7 9 .25 #/ft.#8 7 .5” = 23. 3 .125 – db/2 s = (11.375” – 1.5” + 0.625 23.44 23.490 spacing (in) 3.21 3.625” Check the beam weight Beam weight = (15 in)(26 in)(150 #/ft3)(ft2/144 in2) = 406.25 – ndb) / (n-1) Check solution 16 NG<1" NG<1" .61” + 0.5 < d/b <2.#6 3.93 4.56 OK>db d = h – db/2 –ds – cover = 24.561 2.00 23. close enough Select the reinforcement steel As=ρbd = 0.85 0.20 1.25 OK>db 5 .750 1.5” – 0.b 12 14 15 16 d 26.72 OK>db 4 .79 in2 Refer to the table on page 7.56 0.61 22.43 Now we have b = 15 inches: 1.98 23.57 1.40 24.5” = 25.375 + 1.0107(15 in)(23.625 in) = 3. Now.0 h is about equal to d + db/2 + ds + cover = 23.98” We will round this up to h = 26”. d = h – db/2 – ds – cover = 26” – 0.80 d (in) 23.86 d/b 2.

an h = 26 in and 4 . we need them up to 0.#9 bars. l=84 inches).56/2=11.78 in 17 . use 4 .56 inches. the required distance we need stirrups Note: Since the beam is symmetrically loaded.5φVc = 16. Now our beam has a b = 15 in. The other half will be a mirror image of this half.763 # Determine the area of steel (As) for d/2=23. Calculate Vu Stirrups are needed if: Vu at d and R.#9 with an area of 4. Note: Since stirrups are required.Use more steel. we will look at one half of the beam (length.00 in2 and d = 23.

Calculate Vs at d and s. the spacing The first stirrup goes 2” from the support. Calculate Vu @33”.Since the largest is 0. The area of 2 . We go five times at a 5” spacing. a cross-section would cut through 2 bars. Vs @27” and s Now we are at 33 inches along the beam. We go at a spacing of s until we get to d.22 in2.#3 stirrups is 0. Since this is U-shaped stirrup.147 in2. Vs @33” and s 18 . That gets us to 27” which is beyond d. we would need #3 stirrups. Calculate Vu @27”.

3@11” = 73 in Shear and moment diagram 19 . 1@7”. We go another d/2 or 11 inches to 62 inches along the beam. 5@5”. We go another 11 inches to 73 inches which is beyond R of 70.49 inches.Now we are at 40 inches along the beam. 1@6”. Vs @40” and s Now we are at 51 inches along the beam. Calculate Vu @40”. Summary It goes like this on the drawing: 1@2”.

56 in 84 in V u= 104.272 39.763 # V u @d= R= V s @d= d/2= A s= 74. 1@7.587 28.147 in² 5 2 Vu @ need stirrups Vs @ s 70.660 54.983 # 70 in 55.081 1@2.5φV c= 16. 1@6. 5@5.715 49. 3@11 = 73 in 20 89404 # #3 @ 0.I always like to check my answers. I did this in Excel and it looked like this: 2 5 5 5 5 5 6 7 11 11 11 2 7 12 17 22 27 33 40 51 62 73 fy= 60000 psi fc'= b= d= l= 4000 psi 15 in 23.212 # φV c= 33.22 6 7 11 =d/2 in² .130 in² A s= s= s/2= 0.275 # 11 in 0.585 63.526 # 0.

Conclusion We have designed rectangular singularly reinforced concrete beams that only had tension steel and stirrups. Another type of beam is a T-beam. By determining the development length. A T-beam is a beam that is part of a slab. Beams could have axial loads in addition to the flexural loads. assume b. which is based on the above equations I prefer to use the design aid table and I prefer to use Excel. These are beyond the scope of this course.#10 bars in the center of the beam but not at each end. The T–beam is usually singularly reinforced.#10 bars on each end. compression steel in the top and shear reinforcement (usually stirrups). Beams could be subjected to torsion and shear forces. These beams have tension steel in the bottom. You can design singularly reinforced concrete beams by: Trial and error. The slab is on top and the beam projects below the slab. In example 2. We would only need 2 . with tension steel in the bottom and shear reinforcement though it could be doubly reinforced. we could determine the length of the center two bars. d and solve for a Equations o o Design aid table on page 8. There are other types of beams. The beam was subjected to shear and flexure only. The development length is the embedment length required to develop the design strength of the reinforcement at a critical section. We should consider development length. 21 . That is structural concrete in which internal stresses have been introduced to reduce potential tensile stresses in concrete resulting from the loads. Some rectangular beams are doubly reinforced. This would save on the cost of the steel. we needed 4 . We could have pre-stressed concrete beams. We have doubly reinforced beams when the load is so great that the concrete cannot carry the compressive forces so we have to add steel to help with the compressive forces. We could have deep beams where the clear span is equal to or less than four times the overall member depth.

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