Simulation and Design of an Integrated Fly Back Converter for Uninterruptible Power Supply

Rakesh Maurya1, Punnaiah Gunturu & Shaikh Mo
Department of Electrical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhbhailine 2: name of organization, acronyms acceptable National Institute of Technology, Surat-07, INDIA rmaurya@eed.svnit.ac.in
Abstract—Due to increasingly demand of power in each area, power cut is regular phenomena. Even an interruption for few cycles of power supply, results in losses of data storage, mal functioning of various sensitive equipments. Various methods have been reported in literatures to provide continuous power supply such as uninterrupted power supply, battery system and others non conventional source of energy (Solar and Wind system). In this paper a model is developed to maintain regular power to consumers even interruption in power supply occurs for few cycles. Mathematical model is developed under different modes of operation such as normal, back-up and charging. Three winding high frequency transformer is designed to interface utility and battery back-up system with load. A 50 Watts integrated fly back converter for DC uninterruptible power supply is designed and tested. Index Terms—Switched Mode Power Supply, Uninterruptible Power Supply.

I. INTRODUCTION Nowa days, it can hardly imagine the lifestyle without the provision and processing activities which use electrical energy, and its supply. In recent years, a lot of research has been carried out on the design of uninterruptible power supply systems to provide clean and uninterruptible power to equipment in critical applications such as personal computers, medical equipment, telecommunication systems, industrial and commercial controls, etc under normal or abnormal utility power conditions. In order to supply continued power to the load in the absence of utility power, energy storage systems such as batteries or flywheels are incorporated in the UPS for this purpose. The power conversion is mainly accomplished using power electronics switches due to the advanced development of fast-switching and high current capabilities. However, the UPS is often large and bulky due to the use of mains-frequency inverter. Besides, the system conversion efficiency, from ac input of UPS to dc output of computer power supply, will be low due to multiple voltage conversions and inversions [1]. Therefore, it would be desirable to integrate the external UPS into the computer switching power supply to form a dc uninterruptible power supply [2]. The dc UPS so designed will have high efficiency due to single voltage conversion. The system cost will also be reduced substantially due to removal of the redundant inverter and rectifier. The dc UPS will have small size, which is slightly larger than a conventional switching power supply but much smaller than a UPS, plus a switching power supply due to the
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removal of redundant inverter and use of, high switching frequency. So for only a few designs of such high frequency dc UPS had been reported in [3, 4]. All these designs have a common feature that a single power transistor is used for current switching in both normal and backup operations, while another transistor is used for battery charging. While this feature enables full utilization of the power transistor, the conversion efficiency in backup operation will be unacceptably low when the voltage of backup battery is much lower than the voltage of the main input, because the high voltage MOSFET will have on-resistance too large for low-voltage, high-current switching. In this paper, a integrated fly back converter for dc UPS application is proposed to solve this problem. The proposed converter accepts a high voltage main input and a low voltage backup battery input. With separated converter circuits for the main and battery inputs, the ratings of each switching device can be optimally selected, thus enabling the converter to achieve high conversion efficiency in normal, backup, and charging operations. The circuit is simple, with two switching transistors and a single magnetic structure only. The converter can also be extended to provide multiple outputs with isolation.

II. PROPOSED INTEGRATED FLY BACK CONVERTER
A. Operation in different mode:

Figure 1. The proposed integrated fly-back converter

The circuit of the proposed integrated fly back converter is shown in Fig.1. The switch SW1 is used to select the mode of

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Authorized licensed use limited to: Rajalakshmi Engineering College. Downloaded on July 02,2010 at 05:26:17 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

2 (b). The equivalent circuit of the converter in the charging mode is another flyback converter as shown in Fig. When the main power input VAC is functioning properly. The equivalent circuit of the converter in normal mode is shown in Fig. MOSFET Q1 will be switched off and switch SW1 will be closed to operate the converter in backup mode.operation. the switch current iQ2 in backup will be much higher than the switch current iQ1 in mode normal mode. D2 and n2) idle. The voltage stress shown in the table –A on Q2 during turn off in different operating modes can be related by VDS2(Norma1) = VDS2(Backup) > VDS2(Charging). • The converter operates in the continuous conduction.the expressions for the steady-state waveforms of the converter in different modes of operation can be written as shown in table-A. The battery voltage VB should be chosen to be higher than Vc1n2/n1 to prevent diode D2 from conducting when Q1 is turned on. thus disappearing from the equivalent circuit during normal-mode operation.e. The converter thus cannot provide battery charging when there is no load. SW1 can be opened to operate the converter in the charging mode. the switch SW1 will be closed and MOSFET Q2 turned off to operate the converter in normal mode. • Power losses and stray capacitances and inductances are ignored. Downloaded on July 02. • D1 and D2 have slow reverse recoveries. • Capacitor voltages are constant within a switching cycle. Such choice will make the backup converter (VB. B.2010 at 05:26:17 UTC from IEEE Xplore. the duty cycles in different mode of operations are related by D2(Backup) < Dl(Norma1) < Dl(Charging) In order to keep the output voltage V0 constant. (a) Normal Mode Figure 2. A disadvantage of the proposed converter is that the charging current is load-dependent and cannot be controlled independently. Battery charging is instead controlled by charging time. The number of turn’s n2 in the primary of backup converter should be chosen to be much smaller than n1 in the main converter and with much higher current winding used. The equivalent circuit of the converter in backup mode is shown in Fig. The voltage stress on D3 during turn off in different operating modes can be related by VD3(Backup) > VD3(Normal) > VD3(Charging). As the battery VB is in series with the main input VCl. 2(a). When input power failure is detected. As a design requirement. Steady-State Analysis The steady-state analysis of the converter is performed with the following assumptions. the duration the converter operates in charging mode. low-RDs(on) MOSFET should be chosen for Q2. Restrictions apply. (c) Charging mode (b) Back-up mode As the battery voltage VB is much lower than main input voltage VCl.2(c). IQ1 from VCl.2. 525 Volume 3 Authorized licensed use limited to: Rajalakshmi Engineering College. the battery charging current -IB will be equal to the averaged input current Referring to the equivalent circuits in Fig. Therefore a low-voltage. Q2. i. When the main power input VAC is functioning properly. .

. 4 and Fig 5 shows the result of output current and output voltage under Normal and back up mode of simulink model shown in Fig 3. For demonstrating practical aspect we used circuit breaker to cut off the main supply for few cycle interruptions. Restrictions apply. (a) 526 Volume 3 Authorized licensed use limited to: Rajalakshmi Engineering College. C. (a) Load current (b) load voltage versus time in Back-Up Mode Fig 3 shows simulink model of integrated flyback converter for high frequency dc UPS operation. (a) Load current (b) load voltage versus time in Normal Mode (a) (b) Figure 3. Downloaded on July 02.MMFPK= n3iD3PK together with the maximum value of the expressions is used to determine the air gap length of the transformer core of T1. Simulink Model of Proposed Integrated Fly Back Converter (b) Figure 4. D.2010 at 05:26:17 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Integrated operation of Normal and Backup with control circuitry for automatic on-off operation of two MOSFET’s with three phase circuit breaker Figure 5.(a) The voltage rating of D3 should thus be chosen according to iD3PK The peak MMF in transformer TI is given by. Simulation Results and Discussion Fig.

B. 3 Integrated operation of Normal and Backup with control circuitry for automatic on and off operation of two MOSFET’s with three phase circuit breaker.g. The converter can also be extended to give multiple outputs by including additional secondary windings and output rectifiers. The switch SW1 is used to select the mode of operation. Restrictions apply. . Downloaded on July 02. The main power input VAC is the ac mains. Lay Out of Integrated Fly back Converter: The circuit of the proposed integrated fly back converter is shown in fig 1.2010 at 05:26:17 UTC from IEEE Xplore.s (b) Reference voltage (c) Gate pulse for MOSFET 1 & 2 (d) Primary Voltage of Transformer winding1 527 Volume 3 Authorized licensed use limited to: Rajalakshmi Engineering College. It is seen that even between 0. Therefore proposed model ensures reliable power supply to consumer final stage. The converter has two power inputs VAC and VB. VNcc = 110V ± 10% (Normal Mode) (a) Input Voltage Waveform:20V r. III.m. Normal Mode of Operation: (b) Figure 6.. HARD WARE DESIGN A. (a) Supply voltage versus time (b) Load voltage. The backup source VB is a low-voltage battery (e. load current with intergrated converter Fig 6 shows the output of Fig. Three winding High frequency Transformer Design : A three winding transformer is designed on a single magnetic core with 2 primary windings and a common secondary winding.7 to 1 sec supply is cut off by circuit breaker but battery is providing power to load with same voltage of 5 V and 10 amp . Design Specifications: Output voltage VO = 5V Output ripple 1% of VO Output current. or preferably by full-wave bridge rectifier.4 and 0. IO= 10A Switching frequency fs = 100KHZ Supply voltage. which produces a high input voltage VC1 across input capacitor C1 when rectified by Din.IV. During normal mode power is transferred from first primary to common secondary with turns ratio equal to 40:4 and During backup mode power is transferred from second primary to common secondary with turns ratio equal to 7:4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A.2 to 0. 18 V).

no. “Battery backed switcher provides UPS capability. Hunter. Back.PP. The converter is powered by a high. (c) Load Voltage V. pp. Lee. . design and analysis of an integrated flyback converter for high frequency dc UPS application are mentioned in detailed. pt. 335-337. S. P.Figure 8. Downloaded on July 02. (g) Load Voltage [2] [3] J.-W.” Electron. small size. pp.-s. “Uninterruptible d c 4 c converter: Topology.” Ph.R Bhat New Age International (p) Limited. pp. Intertec Int.-W.2010 at 05:26:17 UTC from IEEE Xplore. 2. London: Butterworths. Clarke. Three windings high frequency transformer is designed to interface utility and battery back-up system with load. T.voltage main power input and a low-voltage backup battery. 1988. 2nd ed. 6. Koyashiki and T.. W. 1989. Industry Applicat. July/Aug. dissertation.” in Proc. “UPS System : A Review.Umanand. Snelling. (f) Secondary Voltage of Transformer B. “A multiinput type converter for an unintemptible DC power supply. This converter should find applications in personal computers and workstations.. Ma. design and analysis. PCZ. pp.” IEEE Trans. Japan. 151-154 P.D. Perkinson.815. K. pp. 28. Communicat. no. E. . 56-59.. 63-70.” in Proc. “A novel unintenuptible dc-dc converter for UPS applications. The converter features a simple circuit.Publishers. Ogata. A 50 Watts integrated fly back converter for DC uninterruptible power supply is designed and tested REFERENCES [1] Figure 7. 1984. Hong Kong Polytechnic University. 34-51.” Powerconversion and Intelligent Motion. 1994. and low cost compared with the conventional cascade of a UPS and switching power supply. 4. Restrictions apply. K.New Delhi. vol. C.Up Mode of Operation: [4] [5] [6] [7] (a)Input Voltage 12 V DC [8] (b)Transformer Secondary winding Voltage 528 Volume 3 Authorized licensed use limited to: Rajalakshmi Engineering College. 69. Oct. 808. high efficiency. Exposition 1988. “Reserve battery back-up (RBB) systems employing current-mode feedback for wide bandwidth and large dynamic response.CONCLUSION The operation. Sofi Ferrites: Properties and Applications. 1986. Third IEEE application Power Electronic Con. “Design of Magnetic components for Switched Mode Power Converters” Wiley Eastern. Apr. Ma and Y. 1991. Inc. Department of Electronic Engineering. vol.

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