 History  Introduction
 Definition:

 LED Mechanism  Types of LEDs  Available colors in LEDs
 Manufacturing the White LEDs

 LED Fabrication process  Lowering the operating temperature  Reduction of heat emission  Advantages  Limiting Factors  Applications  Conclusion
 Bibliography

often with extra optics added to the chip that shapes its radiation pattern. organic light-emitting diodes (OLED). and just as flat panel displays are now replacing CRT monitors and televisions. Today these LEDs are designed to generate 10-100 lm per LED with efficiencies that surpass incandescent and halogen bulbs. The term "solid state" refers commonly to light emitted by solid-state electroluminescence. the solid state equivalent of Thomas Edison’s 20-W incandescent light bulb approximately one century later. or polymer light-emitting 2 SSL . this could be reduced by 75 % if all existing lighting were replaced by solid state lighting. as opposed to incandescent bulbs (which use thermal radiation) or fluorescent tubes. and can be infrared. We demonstrate record performance and reliability for high power colored LEDs and show results from the worlds first 100-plus lumen white LED lamp. SSL has been identified not only to fill the efficiency gap but also to replace environmentally unfriendly compact fluorescence lamps and the associated problem of Mercury disposal. High power Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have begun to differentiate themselves from their more common cousins the indicator LED. solid state lighting will likely take the place of incandescent and fluorescent lamps used for applications in general illumination. visible or near ultraviolet. the same principle used in conventional fluorescent tubes. It depends on the composition and condition of the semi conducting of material used. Lighting uses 19 % of worldwide electrical energy. The specific wavelength or color emitted by the LED depends on the materials used to make the diode. Solid-state lighting (SSL) refers to a type of lighting that uses semiconductor lightemitting diodes (LEDs). SSL creates visible light with reduced heat generation or parasitic energy dissipation. The LED is a basically a small area source. Most common "white" LEDs convert blue light from a solid-state device to an (approximate) white light spectrum using photoluminescence.Abstract: Just as transistors replaced vacuum tubes 50 years ago. Compared to incandescent lighting.

plasma (used in arc lamps such as fluorescent lamps). Oleg Vladimirovich Losev published "Luminous carborundum [silicon carbide] detector and detection with crystals" in the Russian journal Telegrafiya Telefoniya bez Provodov (Wireless Telegraphy and Telephony). However. and in seven-segment displays. other colors became widely available and also appeared in appliances and equipment. Independently. and LEDs became bright enough to be used for illumination. These red LEDs were bright enough only for use as indicators.diodes (PLED) as sources of illumination rather than electrical filaments. 3 SSL . The first practical LED was invented by Nick Holonyak. first in expensive equipment such as laboratory and electronics test equipment. telephones. and even watches. and were red. As the LED materials technology became more advanced. in 1962 while he was at General Electric Company. Round. J.. radios. then later in such appliances as TVs. the light output was increased. no practical use was made of the discovery for several decades. History: Oil lamp Incandescent bulbs Fluorescence &HighIntensity discharge The first known report of a light-emitting solid-state diode was made in 1907 by the British experimenter H. Losev's work languished for decades. calculators. Jr. Later. as the light output was not enough to illuminate an area. The first LEDs became commercially available in late 1960s. or gas. They were commonly used as replacements for incandescent indicators.

and the encapsulation epoxy which surrounds and protects the die 4 SSL . Philips Lumileds). the phone is off the hook or the oven is hot. but with higher power. Recent advances in AlInGaP (Aluminium. automotive interior and exterior signaling applications including traffic signals. Introduction: LIGHT EMITTING DIODES (LEDs) have gained broad recognition as the ubiquitous little lights that tell us our monitors are on. Indium. for example. Packages for state-of-the-art high power LEDs bear little resemblance to early LEDs (see. Gallium. Nitride) Blue and Green semiconductor growth technology have enabled applications wherein several single to several millions of these indicator style LEDs can be packaged together to be used in full color signs.Most LEDs were made in the very common 5 mm T1-3/4 and 3 mm T1 packages. it has become increasingly necessary to get rid of the heat. so the packages have become more complex and adapted for heat dissipation. Definition: Light Emitting Diode (LED) is essentially a PN junction semiconductor diode that emits a monochromatic (single color) light when operated in a forward biased direction. Gallium. Indium. a lead frame where the die is actually placed. The basic structure of an LED consists of the die or light emitting semiconductor material. Phosphate) Red and AlInGaN (Aluminium.

LED Mechanism: • • • n-type & p-type semiconductors are combined in one device. free electrons from the n-type side go to the p-type side through the junction. With the application of a voltage between the p-side and the n-side. it recombines and thus releases its energy by emitting a photon. 5 SSL . When an electron meets a hole.

Available colors in LEDs: 1. Red 3. and are covered with a translucent material. Infrared 2. green and red. Ultraviolet 6 SSL . Orange 4. Yellow 5. Purple 9. Violet 8.Types of LEDs: Organic LED & Polymer LED These are LEDs whose emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of an organic compound or polymer that will luminescence blue. Blue 7. Green 6.

By juxtaposing at a certain distance blue. which absorb the blue light and emit a warm white light. and green LEDs. white light was obtained. 7 SSL . which is converted to yellow light by the phosphor Other techniques of creating white LEDs: • • • • Coat near ultra-violet (NUV) with europium-based red and blue emitting phosphors Transfer NUV radiation to visible light via the photoluminescence process in phosphor materials Method less efficient then with the blue LED because of photodegradation of the epoxy resin used in LED packaging. 2nd technique: found in 1996 by Nichia Corp. red. and Fraunhofer Institute Start with LED with an active layer made of InGaN Cover this structure is covered with a yellow phosphor crystal coating (Ce3+:YAG). when the first blue LED was produced. White Manufacturing the White LEDs: • • • • • 1st technique: Found in 1993. Coat blue LEDs with quantum dots.10. The LED chip emits blue light.

The area of the contact to the p-layer has to be maximized to promote current spreading Maximizes light emission and minimizes turn-on voltage and series resistance Because most of the light generated at the junction escapes the device through the top surface The large-area p-contact has to be made as transparent as possible outside the area where electrical bond wires are attached. 8 SSL .LED Fabrication process: • • • • • Electrical contacts to the p.and n-layers are both on the top surface of the device because of the insulating sapphire substrate.

Lowering the operating temperature: Normal LED: • • Big thermal resistance in thermal conduction path Large amount of heat transferred from active layer through front face of LED and the encapsulating material and then dissipated into the air Flip Chip LED: 9 SSL .

Room temperature stays cooler. resulting in no cold filament current variation.Designed with a thermal conductive sub mount and metal interconnections to conduct most of the heat through sub mount. Reduction of heat emission: • • Some LED lamps are designed with series resistors to limit the operating current. so we don’t need further air conditioning 10 SSL .

Environment friendly: Less CO2 emission 11 SSL .Advantages: 1. LEDs can last up to 50. Heat: Almost 80% of the energy consumed by LEDs is converted in to light and only some of it is dissipated as heat 7. Lifetime: AS a solid state light source LEDs have a long life time and are generally very robust due to no mechanical or moving parts. Typically. even when cold and this is particular advantage for certain applications such as Vehicle brake lights.3x0. 2. Low power consumption: The low power consumption of LEDs leads to large energy savings. LEDs are highly efficient. The directional nature of light produced by LEDs allow the design of luminaries with higher over all efficiency. Brightness: Light outputs of LEDs are constantly being increased and there are several products that have higher lumen output than traditional lighting 6. 5. 10. These light up very quickly and achieve full brightness within a few microseconds. high brightness LEDs chips measure 0. whole high power devices can be 1x1 mm2 or larger. Small form factor: LEDs are very small. 8.000 hours – more than 5 years of continuous use. saturated colors. particularly in maintenance. Instantaneous switch on: LEDs switch on rapidly. labor and recycling. Low maintenance: The long life time of LEDs reduces the need to replace failed lamps and this can lead to significant financial and environmental savings. 9. Color: LEDs are available in a broad range of brilliant. 3. White devices are also available. Efficiency: As a semiconductor device.3 mm2. 4.

This leads to sharp shadows. High quality variation • Inexpensive LEDs have inconsistent color temperature and light output Poor Quantum efficiency • LEDs are currently limited by poor internal quantum and light-extraction efficiency. 12 SSL . LED prices are 10 times higher than of incandescent light bulbs Narrow angle of emission • To use LEDs in ambient lighting. but photonic crystals offer a potential solution to both problems. Limiting Factors: Cost Competitiveness • Now.- Less light pollution Positive impact on Global warming. multiple LEDs are asembled in a single fixture.

night time animal watching and military field use. 10.. Brake lights: Because of their long life and fast switching times. LEDs are ultimate form of light from all point of view.g. submarine and ship bridges. e. Battery level Indicator: Red or yellow LEDs are used in indicator and alphanumeric displays in environments where night vision must be retained: aircraft cockpits. Buildings: LEDs can be used as decorative lights on buildings 3. Backlighting for LCD televisions and displays: The availability of LEDs in specific colors (RGB) enables a full-spectrum light source which expands the color gamut by as much as 45%. Street Lights: Instead of toxic mercury’s as street light. 9.Applications: 1. and in the field. 13 SSL . Residential: For home lighting 5. Digital clock: LEDs are used to indicate the alphanumeric displays in digital clock 4. Traffic Signals: Railroad crossing signals 2. Runway in Airports: Lighting on the runway by LEDs 7. Information Boards: LEDs are used to indicate the information by alphanumeric displays 6. astronomy observatories. LEDs have been used for automotive high-mounted brake lights and truck and bus brake lights 8.

we assure these are definitely going to replace the lamps that we use today in future. in principle and practice and its development are realized indeed can & will continue until all powers & colors are realized. White LEDs for home lighting offer great benefits for the far flung tribal villages of India. LED lights are the answer to all the worries. Already being used.Conclusion: We conclude that LED is an ultimate form of lamp. Whether it be a climate change caused by global warming or huge electricity bills of your house. 14 SSL .

org Books:   Introduction to Solid state lighting by www.Gaska 15 SSL .com http://www.sandia.R. http://www.R.doe.Gaska LEDs progress in Solid state lighting by A.nichia. M. M.lumileds.netl.S.Shur. Zukauskas.Bibliography Websites :        http://lighting.enn.S.Shur.

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