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Metals and Non-metals Introduction
One can easily differentiate between metals and non-metals based on their placement on the Periodic Table of the Elements. The metals are elements (with the exception of hydrogen) that are found to the left of a group of elements referred to as the metalloids. The metalloids are a group of elements which have properties similar to both the metals and non-metals. These metalloids are: Boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium and astatine.
The non-metals are elements found to the right of these metalloids, including the element, hydrogen.
Differences between Metals and Non-metals
Differences in physical properties Metals Malleable and ductile. Good conductors of heat and elecu.ity. except tungsten which is not a good conductor of electricity) Lustrous and can be polished Solids at room temperature(except mercury and gallium which are liquids) Strong and tough and high tensile strength. (exceptions are zinc, mercury and gallium) Hard and have high density. (exceptions are sodium and potassium have specific gravity less than 1. Calcium and Mg have also low densities.) High Melting point and boiling point. Non-metals Brittle. Neither malleable nor ductile. Bad conductors of heat and electncity. (except graphite which is a good conductor of electricity.) Non-lustrous and cannot be polished,(except graphite and iodine which are lustrous nonmetals) May be solids, liquids or gases at room temperature. Not strong. low tensile strength. (Diamonds carbon fibre is an exception) Generally soft and have low density. (Except diamond which is the hardest substance) Low melting point with the exception of carbon and silicon. Low boiling point with the exception of carbon and boron
Differences in chemical properties
Differences in chemical properties Metals have 1. Because of financial constraint and lack of technical and skilled manpower.2H2O) Cuprite (Cu2O) Carbonates Marble or Lime stone (CaCO3) Calamine (ZnCO3) Siderite (FeCO3) Magnesite (MgCO3) Halides Flurospar (CaF2) Cryolite (Na3AlF6) Horn Silver (AgCI) Rock salt (NaCl) Sulphides Zinc blende (ZnS) Galena (PbS) Iron pyrites (FeS2) Cinnabar (HgS) Sulphates Anglesite (Pb504) Baryle (BaSO4) Gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O) Epsom Salt (MgSO4. mica. copper are found in different parts of Nepal. Mineral deposits such as gold. Ores are minerals from which metals are extracted at low cost with minimum effort. Ores contains metal compounds with a percentage of impurities.xH2O) Magnitite (Fe304) Bauxite (Al203. 2 or 3 electrons in the outermost shell Loses valence electrons and forms cations Electropositive Metals lose electrons present in the valence shell and are oxidized and hence are good reducing agents On electrolysis of metal compounds metals are discharged at the cathode Non-metals have 4 to 8 electrons in the outermost shell Gain or share valence electrons and form anions Electronegative Non-metals gain electrons from other elements and are reduced and hence are good oxidizing agents On electrolysis of compounds non-metals are discharged at the anode Minerals and Ores Metals and their compounds are found in earth as natural elements known as minerals. progress in the field of mining is negligible. iron ore. The gangue is mainly composed of silica (Si02). Metals and their Ores Oxides Zincite( ZnO) Haematite (Fe203. limestone. but all the minerals are not ores. If we utilize the 2 . All the ores are minerals. it is always found to be mixed with sand and rocky material. The impurity of sand and rocky material present in an ore is known as gangue. When an ore is mined from the earth. Copper is one of the metals which occur in free as well as combined state Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust The second most abundant metal in the earth is iron and the third one is calcium Important minerals deposit in Nepal Nepal is quite rich in mineral resources.7H2O) Occurrence of Metals y y y y Metals like gold and platinum occur in the free metallic form not acted upon by air or water The rest of the metals occur in the combined form as compounds.
4.. Dhankuta. Such mining is termed as open-pit mining. etc. Ag. gangue. are involved in all metallurgical processes. The extraction of a metal from its ore involves the following steps: 1. Mining of ore Most ores generally occur deep inside the Earth. it can be directly dug out. Taplejung. we can earn foreign currencies and people will get job opportunities also. Labdhi Khola. Grinding and pulverization of the crushed ore The crushed ore is then finally pulverized to fine powder state in a stamp mill or a pulveriser. The actual process of extraction of a metal from its ore depends upon the nature of the ore and the metal. Concentration of the ore (ore dressing) The removal of the undesired foreign impurities i. etc. 3. In order to concentrate the ore in bulk. Lamjung. 3 . The lumps are crushed to smaller pieces by hammering in a hammer mill or by help of a jaw-crusher.Metals and Metallurgical Principles (Class 11) Manoj Khanal mineral resources of Nepal properly. Bhutkhola. etc. Arghauli (Chisapani). and are of large size. Pyuthan. a slanting vibrating wooden table with wooden strips called riffles is introduced in the process. then the mining is termed deep-mining. Copper: Buddha Khola (Bandipur). these may be removed by hand picking. Some may occur only a few metres under the earth's surface. Phulchoki. from the ore is called concentration (or beneficiation) of the ore. Udayapur. When an ore occurs near the surface of the Earth. Crushing of the ore Extracted ore often occurs in big lumps. Chainpur. Gyari (Gorkha). Either of the following methods is used for concentrating the ores: i. Hand picking If the impurities present are quite distinct from the ore. This method is slow and is generally adopted in the initial stages of concentration. Ilam. It is essential to break it into smaller pieces. etc. The areas where minerals are found are as follows: 1. 3. ii. 2. Limestone: Chovar (Kathmandu). Sindhuligadhi. the ore is fed into a running stream of water and impurities are washed away. There is no universally operational method for the extraction of metals. Nuwakot. When an ore is taken out from greater depths. Bhainse. Kulekhani. This separation is by way of gravity or levigation method and is commonly used for oxide ores such as hematite and native ore of Au. Iron: Ramechhap. Metallurgical Processes of Metal Extraction The process of extracting a metal from its ore and refining it. Baise (Makawanpur). 2. Ghatkhola. Baitadi. Mica: Bhojpur.e. The ore is continuously washed with a fine spray of water and the rocking motion sieves the heavier portions. Gravity or levigation method When the ore particles are heavier than the gangue particles. Such tables are termed Wilfley tables. while allowing the impurities to filter away. 'Mining' is the process of taking out the ores from the mines. is called metallurgical process or simply as metallurgy. 4. Certain common steps however.
Ore is agitated by a powerful current of water pushing upwards through the bottom of a conical reservoir. The heavier ore particles settle down and are continuously removed from another opening near the bottom. while the lighter particles are washed away by water.Wilfley table for washing of the ore Sometimes in the gravity method.Hydraulic classifier iii.Fig: . Magnetic separation Magnetic separation is done especially in the case of haematite ore. which moves over two rollers one of these rollers. it sticks to the belt due to the force of attraction and falls nearer due to the force of attraction of the magnetized roller. 4 . is magnetic. a hydraulic classifier based on the gravity method is used. whereby the powdered ore is dropped on to leather or brass conveyer belt. When the ore passes over the magnetic roller. Fig: .
further away. The froth. The concentrated ore form is then recovered from the solution by a suitable chemical method. The gangue is left behind.Magnetic separation iv.Metals and Metallurgical Principles (Class 11) Manoj Khanal The gangue falls over readily. A typical example of ore concentration by leaching process is the purification of bauxite using NaOH solution as a leachant. Powdered ore is mixed with water and a little pine oil and the mixture is vigorously stirred by passing compressed air.The froth flotation process v. The ore and the magnetic impurity are collected as two separate heaps. The Bauxite is digested with concentrated solution of caustic soda at 150°C in an autoclave. Fig: . Fig: . The solution of NaAlO2 (sodium meta-alumiinate) is then treated with freshly prepared Al(OH)3 when the entire aluminium in the solution gets precipitated as Al(OH)3 5 . Leaching process In this method. as such ores are preferentially wetted by oil while the gangue particles are wetted by water. which is produced rises to the surface and carries the ore particles along with it. Froth flotation process This process is used for concentrating sulphide ores. the ore is treated chemically with a suitable reagent that preferentially dissolves the active component of the ore. The Aluminium oxide dissolves in NaOH leaving behind the insoluble impurities. which are removed by filtration.
and moisture from the ore.The precipitate of Al(OH)3 is removed.. Silver is extracted from its ores (argentite. y It removes CO2 from carbonate ores e.g. Na2SO4 and thus allow the reaction to go in the forward direction. The solution of Na[Ag(CN)2) is then treated with zinc scrap to recover silver. AgCl) by cyanide process. The usages of these methods depend on the nature of the ores and the type of impurities present. Leaching of silver ore Leaching process is also employed in the recovery of some precious metals. Na2S so formed gets oxidized (by air) to Na2SO3. heating it strongly in the absence of air or roasting (heating it strongly in presence of air).. 6 . With horn silver (AgCl). Leaching of gold ore Gold-containing ore gets dissolved in KCN solution in the presence of air to give a solution containing K[Au(CN)2].e. The finely powdered concentrated ore is treated with a dilute aqueous solution of NaCN (sodium cyanide) and a current of air is passed through the solution. For example. in calcination y It removes moisture from bauxite. Electrostatic concentration and liquation are other methods of concentrating of ores. Calcination and Roasting The concentrated ore is converted into oxide by calcination i. Gold can then be recovered from this solution by either precipitation or electrolytic method. Silver present in the ore gets dissolved due to the formation of soluble sodium argento-cyanide complex. horn silver. organic matter. Ag2S. Na[Ag(CN)2] viz.. This helps in removing volatile impurities like CO2. the reaction with NaCN can be written as. washed and dried to get Al2O3. 5. Calcination is mainly carried if the ore is oxide or carbonate. SO2.
7 . Roasting In this process the ore (usually sulphide) is heated strongly. y Removal of the Earthly impurities. y Reduction of the ore to the metal. The result is y It removes moisture. The slag is lighter and insoluble in the molten metal. an easily fusible mass is obtained which is called slag. magnesium oxide (MgO) are used to remove acidic gangue such as SiO2. in the presence of excess of air but below its melting temperature. There are two types of fluxes.. Extraction of Metals Once the ore is calcined or roasted. The Earthly impurities are removed by adding suitable substance called flux which when heated. is called flux. SO2 and organic matter. y The sulphide ore is converted partly into its oxide or sulphate i. CO2. the process of reduction obtains the metal. Slag When a flux combines with the earthly impurities.e. Similarly. 6. Roasting is done in a reverberatory furnace or in a blast furnace. So it can be easily removed from the surface of the molten metal. combines with the earthly impurities to form easily fusible mass known as slag. Basic flux Basic fluxes like lime (CaO). Acidic flux Acidic flux like silica (SiO2) is used to remove basic earthly impurities (gangue) such as lime (CaO) or MgO. Molten mixture of calcium and magnesium silicates forms slag.. The extraction of metal from the calcined or roasted ore consists of two steps viz.Metals and Metallurgical Principles (Class 11) Manoj Khanal Fig: .A reverberatory furnace Calcination is done on the hearth of a reverberatory furnace.
This process has been widely used to reduce TiO2.g. Hydrogen reduction method Hydrogen can reduce certain oxides to metals e. copper. Smelting (Carbon reduction method) This method is used for the extraction of lead. manganese and tin. The choice of the method depends upon various factors. and is heated to a very high temperature in a suitable furnace. coal or coke) and a flux. the choice of reducing agent depends upon the chemical reactivity of the metal. In this method. the metals are obtained from the calcined or roasted ore by the process of reduction. For example. Chemical Reduction Methods In chemical reduction process. 8 . Such metallic oxides can be reduced by aluminium powder.. Magnesium reduction method Oxides of certain metals are reduced by Mg e.g. the roasted oxide ore is mixed with carbon (charcoal. zinc. Cr2O3 and Mn3O4 to get the corresponding metal.After removing the Earthy impurities.. Carbon reduces the oxide to metal. This can be either chemical reduction or electrolytic reduction processes. iron. Aluminium reduction method (Alumino Thermic Process) Certain metal oxides cannot be reduced by carbon. 7. Carbon monoxide reduction method In certain cases CO gas produced in the furnace itself can be used as a reducing agent.
Ag and Au are also recovered from the solutions of their complex cyanide salts by zinc scrap. This method is also called as the hydrometallurgy method of reduction. Copper is recovered from copper sulphate solution by adding some iron scrap to its solution. which liberates large amount of heat to produce the metal in its molten state. The native gold in its complex form is first precipitated with potassium cyanide solution. What is Goldschmidt thermite process? Solution The process of reduction of a metal oxide to the metal with the help of aluminium powder. 8. is called Goldschmidt thermite process.. It is then recovered from the solution by adding scrap zinc. How is gold recovered? Solution Gold being a noble metal occurs in its native form. a part of the ore gets oxidized to oxide or sulphate. Q. Cu. For example. which then reacts with the remaining sulphide ore to give the metal and SO2. Electrolytic Reduction Method 9 . when a heap of copper glance (Cu2S) is exposed to air and water.Metals and Metallurgical Principles (Class 11) Manoj Khanal Self-reduction method When the sulphide ores of less electropositive metals like Hg. it gets converted to copper sulphate. This process is also known as self-reduction method. are heated in air. Pb. Reduction by more electropositive metals (precipitation or hydrometallurgy) This method is employed when leaching method had been used to concentrate the ore. Problems Q. Sb etc. The metals are obtained by reducing their ions in the solution as precipitates by a more electropositive metal. It is further purified by the process of leaching or precipitiation called hydrometallurgy.
Certain metals can be obtained by affecting the reduction of the corresponding cations electrolytically. But at high temperatures these metals react with carbon to form carbides. Zn etc.. a solution of Al2O3 in cryolite (Na3AlF6) is electrolyzed as follows: AlF3 Al3+ + 3FAt cathode: At anode: 9. Refining of Metals The metals so extracted are further refined by suitable methods. The electrolytic method is the most suitable method for refining the non-ferrous metals. are purified by this method. For example. hence would need very high temperature for carbon reduction. The oxides of these metals. Sn. the impurities are left behind. For example. The sloping floor of a reverberatory furnace is used to melt crude metal. these metals cannot be obtained by carbon-reduction process. In actual practice. At cathode: At anode: The oxides of alkali metals. The metals produced by any method given above are not very pure. Thus. Hg etc. This can be done by any of the following methods: Liquation method This method is used when the melting temperature of the metal is lower than that of the impurity and the impurities are not miscible with the metal. however can be reduced electrolytically. when the pure metal flows down. alkaline earth metals like Al. Pb. sodium metal is obtained by electrolyzing molten sodium chloride. the reduction of Al2O3 to aluminium by electrolysis method. 10 . These need further refining. Metals like Bi.. are very stable.
The hydrocarbon organic matter in the poles acts as a reducing agent and reduces the oxide impurities. copper. In an electrolytic cell the impure metal is made anode and a thin strip of pure metal is made cathode. Their vapours. For example. Molten pig iron is also purified by this technique in a Bessemer converter. A solution of a suitable salt of the concerned metal is used to fill the electrolytic cell.The Liquation method Distillation When metals have low boiling points e. Shining silver is left behind.Metals and Metallurgical Principles (Class 11) Manoj Khanal Fig: . Poles of green wood are used to stir the molten crude metal sample. On passing electricity. mercury. nickel etc. Poling Oxide impurity of impure metals can be purified by this method. Electrolytic method A large number of metals e.. the anode undergoes dissolution while the pure metal gets deposited at cathode. are refined by this method. Insoluble impurities fall below the anode in the form of anode mud. 11 . zinc.g.. on condensation in a suitable condenser give the pure metal. most of the impurities can be separated by distillation. cadmium etc. silver. This method is used for refining copper. the impurity of lead from silver is removed when lead is oxidized and led away by a current of air. The impurities in the form of volatile oxides. escape out.g.. gold. Oxidation or cupellation Impurities that can be oxidised to volatile products can be removed by oxidation.
The principle-employed states that the impurities. How do you purify ores.Electrolytic purification of a metal Zone refining method When metals are required in a ultra pure state. the zone refining method is used.Fig: . In actual practice. pure titanium can be obtained from impure titanium by converting it into tetraiodide. and then decomposing this tetraiodide to pure Ti. Fig: . Heating the unstable compound of the metal at higher temperatures. For example. a cylinder of impure metal is kept in a tubular furnace and the heater is made to move in one direction at a very slow speed. The process is repeated a number of times till the desired level of purity is obtained. decomposes it to give pure metal. The solid material crystallizes as the heater moves along the tube. which have easily oxidizable impurities? Solution 12 . which lower the melting point of a metal remain preferentially dissolved in the liquid phase and purer metal will emerge in the solid phase.The Zone refining method Van Arkel method In the Van Arkel method impure metal is first converted into one of its unstable compounds. Q. and the advancing zone contains liquid with higher impurity content.
Q. Silver is refined by this method. which is then skimmed off. As2O3 etc.. The impurity like lead is easily oxidized to lead monoxide and is carried away by the blast. The cupels are heated in a suitable furnace by a blast of air blown over them. The metal ore is initially melted in a shallow reverberatory furnace and the molten copper is stirred with logs of green wood. How is blistered copper purified? Solution Removing the reducible cuprous oxides of copper by the method of poling purifies blistered copper. the impurities get removed either in the form of gases such as SO2.Metals and Metallurgical Principles (Class 11) Manoj Khanal The method used to purify impurities that are easily oxidizable is cupellation. 13 . The blistered copper with cuprous oxide gets reduced to its metallic state by the gases given off by green wood. while pure silver is left behind. leaving behind the pure metal. or they form scum over the molten metal. The impure metal is fused in small boat shaped dishes made of bone ash called as cupels.
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