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1.1INTRODUCTION

Human resource management is a management function involving


procurement of suitable human resources, training and developing their competencies,
motivating, rewarding them effectively and creating in them an urge to be part of the
management team whose aim should be rendered, dedicated and committed service
for the success and growth of the organisation.

Human Resource Management is the way of getting things done through


people and is an essential part of every manager's responsibility. People are the most
valuable assets of an organisation. Human Resource Management (HRM) is a
relatively modern concept which involves a range of ideas and practices in managing
people. Of all the resources, human resources are the only resource which does not
depreciate with the passage of time. Therefore Human resource management is a
philosophy of people management based on the belief that human resources are
extremely important for sustained business success.

The task of formulating or defining a research problem is a step of greatest


importance in the entire research process. Essentially two steps are involved in
formulating the research problem. Understanding the problem thoroughly and
rephrasing the same in to meaningful terms from the analytical point of view. Quality
of work means incorporating socio-psychological needs of employees into the
requirements of particular technology and structures or processes of an organization.
It also involves economic rewards and benefits for the employees. Quality of work
ensures the satisfaction of workers towards their job, which in turn ensures higher
productivity and greater job satisfaction of the employees.

I have chosen NGIL, a multi-product and multi-location company in the joint


sector promoted by the KERALA STATE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
CORPORATION LIMITED,TRIVANDRUM, in collaboration both technical and
financial, with M/s. NITTA GELATIN Inc., JAPAN and MITSUBUSHI
CORPORATION, JAPAN.
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1.2 NEED OF THE STUDY

Quality of work life is a partnership between a company and its employees where
everyone works together to achieve the business objective of the company and the
personal aspiration of the employees. It is therefore largely the organization’s
responsibility to create an environment and culture conducive to this partnership.
Quality of work life is a barometer that determines the association of a person with
the organization. Now the managers believe that improving the quality of work life
will increase the productivity. Therefore, quality of work life needs to be measured at
regular intervals in order to track the employee’s contribution to the success of the
organization.
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1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The present study aims at finding out the Quality of Work Life in NGIL. The study
was limited to the lower level workers working at the Gelatin Division of NGIL and
the Registered Office.
• The study attempts to assess the employees’ attitude in five different Core
Competencies, which are considered to be essential for maintaining good Quality of
Work Life.
• By assessing these Core Competencies, the management can know which are
the areas lagging behind and which all problems of the employees need to be
addressed to improve the Quality of Work Life.

• The study also aims at giving some suggestions to improve the Quality of Work
Life.
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1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

Primary objective:

To find out the Quality of Work Life among the workers of Nitta Gelatin India Ltd.

Secondary Objectives:

1. To know whether they are able to balance their work life and family life

2. To find out the benefit and compensation packages of the organization

3. To know whether the organization has a safe working environment

4. To understand the promotion policies of NGIL

5. To see whether the organization provides sufficient training programs to the


employees

6. To know whether there is team work in the company


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1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Several constraints were encountered during the study. They are:


• The findings of study are based on the assumption that respondents have given true
opinion
• Lack of time
• The study is restricted only to a few managers, staffs and workers in the organization.
Those need not be the opinions of the other majority
• Lack of experience of the researcher
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INDUSRY PROFILE

Introduction
Efficient utilization of meat by-products is important for the profitability
of the meat industry. It has been estimated that 11.4 percent of the gross income from
beef, and 7.5 percent of the income from pork, come from the by-products. In the
past, by-products were a favorite food in Asia, but health concerns have led to an
increased focus on non-food uses, such as pet foods and pharmaceuticals. In response
to these problems, meat processors have directed their marketing and research efforts
towards non-food uses, such as pet food, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and animal feed.
By-products (including organs, fat or lard, skin, feet, abdominal and intestinal
contents, bone and blood) of cattle, pigs and lambs represent 66.0, 52.0 and 68.0
percent of the live weight, respectively. More than half the animal by-products are
not suitable for normal consumption, because of their unusual physical and chemical
characteristics. As a result, a valuable source of potential revenue is lost, and the cost
of disposing of these products is increasing.

Production and Utilization


A total of 5.65 million mt of pork edible by-products were produced in
1996, most of it from Asia (50.4%). Europe is the second largest producer, with 37.1
percent of the world total. Asia and Europe are also the two major consumers of meat
by-products, including beef and lamb. Usage of meat by-products often requires
treatments such as collection, washing, trimming, chilling, packaging and cooling.
Whether these products are widely accepted by consumers depends on various
factors.

These include the nutrient content, the price, and whether there
are comparable competing products. Traditions, culture and religion are often
important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory
requirements are also important, because many countries restrict the use of meat by-
products for reasons of food safety and quality. An example is the USFDA
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requirement that mechanically separated meat and variety meats must be specifically
identified as an ingredient on labels.

GELATIN

Gelatin is a protein produced by partial hydrolysis of collagen extracted from


connective tissues of animals such as the domesticated bovines, porcines and equines.

Production

The worldwide production amount of gelatin is about 300,000 tons per year.
On a commercial scale, gelatin is made from by-products of the meat and leather
industry, mainly pork skins, pork and cattle bones, or split cattle hides.

Uses of Gelatin in the Food and Pharmaceutical Industries

Gelatin is added to a wide range of foods, as well as forming a major


ingredient in jellies and aspic. Its main use is the production of jellied desserts,
because of its "melt in the mouth" properties, but is also added to a range of meat
products, in particular to meat pies.

Functional Food with Gelatin:

New and innovative functional food products can be created with gelatin.
Foods with gelatin, whether sweet or savory, are an ideal source of protein.

Gelatin in Stem Cell Therapy:

Gelatin can also be used as an important aid in the development of stem cell
therapy. It is especially well suited to it because it is excellently compatible and
completely degradable in the body.

Fighting Oil Disasters:v

In the near future, gelatin could be of great help in a tanker accident where
thousands of litres of oil pollute the sea.
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COMPANY PROFILE

Brief History of the Company:

NITTA GELATIN INDIA LIMITED is a Multi Product Multi


Location Company in the Joint Sector promoted by the KERALA STATE
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION LIMITED, TRIVANDRUM, in
collaboration, both technical and financial, with M/s. NITTA GELATIN Inc.,
JAPAN & MITSUBISHI CORPORATION, JAPAN.

The company was incorporated on 30 th April 1975 and began the


commercial production (Ossein) on 1st October 1979 with full-fledged plant at
Koratty, Trichur Dt., Kerala. The company acquired its own building (Corporate
Office) for administrative purposes in the year 1988 at Panampillynagar, Kochi.
NGIL covered an important milestone, when it commenced the production of Gelatin.
Gelatin Division at Kakkanad, Ernakulam Dt., Kerala started its commercial
production on 8th March 1999. With a wider vision of expansion and development,
NGIL has undertaken an Ossein plant (Bamni Plant) in Maharashtra.

NGIL is managed by a professional team. Through its collaborators,


NGIL has access to state-of-the-art technology and process inputs that help the
company achieve its global vision. The company in its present reality is the dedicated
hard work of various persons. To name a few persons who played key role at the
infant stage of NGIL are Mr.G. Suseelan, Mr. Sankaranarayanan, Mr. T.P Philip, Mr.
T.A Joykutty and Mr. A Madhavan. The credit of being the first Managing Director
goes to Mr. M Rama Chandra Warrier, followed by Xavier Sebastian held the office
of M.D from 1978 to 1992. From 1992 to 1998, Mr. Shankaranarayanan was the M.D
and the current M.D of NGIL is Mr.G. Suseelan. The usual tenure of the M.D is five
years and this tenure is renewable for another five more years.
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Manufacturing Locations:

• Ossein Division, at Kathikudam, near Koratty in Trichur district, Pin- 680308

• Gelatin Division, at KINFRA Export Promotion Industrial Parks Ltd,


Kusumagiri P.O., Kakkanad, Ernakulam district, Pin- 682 036

• Subsidiary:

Bamni Proteins Ltd., Dudholi, Near Chandrapur, Maharashtra, Pin- 442 701

Company’s Vision

• To become a premier industry in India with a global perspective, world-class


standards of efficiency and professionalism and core institutional values.

• Reach the position as the leader in Gelatin manufacture in India

• Maximize shareholder value through high-sustained earnings per share.

• Continue as an institution with a culture of mutual care and commitment, a satisfying work
environment and continuous learning opportunities.

Quality Policy

"We, in NGIL are committed to enhance customer confidence through continual


improvement of product quality, safety and service"

The Initial Promoters:


The chief promoters of NGIL are:

• NITTA GELATIN INC. (NITTA)

• MITSUBISHI CORPORATION (MC)


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• THE KERALA STATE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION LTD.(KSIDC)

Installed Capacity:

1. Ossein Division

a)Ossein 7000MT per annum

b)LimedOssein(wet) 5000 MT per annum

c)DicalciumPhosphat 15000 MT per annum


e

2. Gelatin Division 4000 MT per annum

a) Gelatin 300 MT per annum

b) Compound Glue

3. Bamni Proteins Ltd. 2400 MT per annum

a)Ossein 5000 MT per annum

b) Dicalcium Phosphate

Major Competitors:
The major competitors of NGIL are:

Global Indian

D & F, Germany Sterling

Gelice, Japan Pioneer

P.B, UK IGCL

Rousselot Narmada Gelatin

Nippi, Japan Raymon

K & K, Japan CJ
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CONSOLIDATED ORGANISATION CHART

Abbreviations
ED (HR&G Admn) :Executive Director ( Human Resource & General

Administration)

GM (OD) : General Manager (Ossein Division)

GM (GD) : General Manager (Gelatin Division)

DGM (R & D.) : Deputy General Manager (Research and Development)

GM(Mktg&B-D) : General Manager(Marketing & Business Development)

DGM (IA)-CS : Deputy (Internal Audit)-Company Secretary

Manpower Strength:
The manpower of Nitta Gelatin India Ltd. is as given below.

Ossein Gelatin Registered Bamni Plant Total


Division Division Office

Mgt. staff 20 40 25 10 95

Workmen 95 100 13 90 298

Total 115 140 38 100 393

PRODUCT PROFILE
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Product Mix:

 Ossein(intermediary product)

 Gelatin (edible, pharmaceutical & photographic Grade)

 Dicalcium Phosphate

 Compound Glue

 Chitosan

Ossein
The bones are received, crushed - broken into small pieces no larger than one-half
inch. Crushed bone is loaded into wooden tanks, each of which holds greater than 10
tons. The bone is demineralized by soaking it in Hydrochloric Acid. Demineralized
bone is called Ossein, or collagen. NGIL manufactures Ossein under the technical
guidance of NITTA. Besides using Ossein for the manufacture of Gelatin, NGIL
exports its Ossein to NITTA on a buy-back arrangement. With demand for Gelatin
going up, NGIL has stepped up production capacity of Ossein to 7000 MT per annum
and set up facilities to produce 5000 MT per annum of Limed Ossein.

Gelatin
Gelatins are of three grades – (Edible, Pharmaceutical,and Photographic.)

Gelatin in Food Industry:

There are many versatile uses for gelatin in modern food production. The main reason
for this is its unique ability to react under heat. Gelatin melts at 37 degrees Celsius
and becomes firm again when it cools down. Its pleasant eating properties make it
irreplaceable for the food sector. Some of the uses are:

• Sweets

• Baked Goods

• Milk Meat, Fish and Sausages

• Drinks
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Pharmaceutical Gelatin:

Gelatin is used in myriad ways in the pharmaceutical industry. It is used for


the manufacture of capsules, tablets, and prevents drugs being damaged by air and
light.

• Capsules and Tablets:

• Vitamin Preparations

• Gelatin Sponges

• Plasma Expanders

Photographic applications:

Silver salt photographic materials consist of up to 15 layers containing gelatin that are
coated onto film or paper. Gelatin’s properties are needed to produce photographic
materials such as amateur films, color paper, graphic films and X-ray films, in
industrial volumes. Gelatin is also indispensable for digital photography.

Di Calcium Phosphate (DCP)


NGIL plant has the capacity to manufacture 15000 MT per annum of Di Calcium
Phosphate (DCP).. Di Calcium Phosphate (DCP) from NGIL is already used
worldwide in diverse products especially in Poultry feeds.

Compound Glue
NGIL plant has the capacity to manufacture 300 MT per annum of Compound Glue.
Compound Glue, a Gelatin based adhesive is mainly used in case making machines
for hard cover books, box labeling, album labeling and hard board box files.

Chitosan
Chitosan is a natural biopolymer originating from the shells(exo-skeletons) of
crustaceans like shrimp, lobster , squilla , crabs and other shellfish. Chitosan is a
cationic polymer (+ve charge) and finds multifarious applications in pharmaceutical,
medical, cosmetic, food and agriculture, textile water treatment etc.
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CHAPTER 2

MAIN THEME OF THE PROJECT

2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE


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HR PROFILE

Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach


to the management of an organization's most valued assets - the people working there
who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of
the business. The terms "Human Resource Management" and "Human Resources"
(HR) have largely replaced the term "Personnel Management" as a description of the
processes involved in managing people in organizations. In simple sense, HRM
means employing people, developing their capacities, utilizing, maintaining and
compensating their services in tune with the job and organizational requirement.

Definitions of HRM

According to Edwin Flippo, ‘HRM is the planning, organizing, directing and


controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance
and reproduction of human resources to the end of that individual, organizational and
societal objectives are accomplished’

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE:

Previous generations toiled; the current generation chooses a career path.


Admittedly this is a generalization; however, it does serve to illustrate differences in
the quality of work life from past to present. That the quality of work life is even
discussed also illustrates the difference. To be more specific, consider the plight of
earlier generations as compared to the situation today

For the vast majority of people in the past, work began at or before dawn and
continued until dusk. Most lived in a subsistence-level economy. In other words, you
worked in order to strive, or you died. There was little distinction between work and
non work time. Work consumed most of your day, so there was little non work time.
The work being done, as just mentioned, was essentially toiled. Toil, continuous labor
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or strenuous work, best describes the quality of work life for workers of the past.
Before the Industrial Revolution, most people were farmers or crafts workers using
muscle power to shape wood, stone, iron, or dirt. People generally relied on
themselves for providing for their needs, or they bartered what they produced for
what they needed. Often, little or nothing was left after providing for basic needs.
There was little hope that conditions would change.

Immediately after the Industrial Revolution, however, work conditions


changed dramatically, but the quality of work life changed little. After the Industrial
Revolution, people came together in large numbers to work for others for a wage. A
greater distinction between work and non work time was made. Although the work
day was often long, there was now a time when people were off work or not working.
Within the work day, however, conditions had not changed much. The work was
physically difficult and not mentally challenging. For all intents and purposes, people,
like machines, were perceived simply as a means of production-to be discarded when
broken, to be replaced when used up. As the work world became more sophisticated
and as managers and workers became more educated, the quality of the work life
improved. Today, workers expect work to be meaningful. Many of the best and
brightest people expect work to be challenging and growth to be limited only by a
person’s own abilities. Today, both managers and workers are challenged to provide
and to find a high level of quality of work life.

Quality of work life refers to the favorableness or unfavorableness of the


job environment of an organization for its employees. It is generic term, which covers
a persons feeling about every dimensions of his work. The term quality of work life
has different annotations to different persons. For example, to a worker in an
assembly line, it may just mean a fair day’s pay, safe working conditions, and a
supervisor who treat him/her with dignity. To a young entrant, it may mean
opportunities for advancement, creative tasks and a successful career. To academics,
it means the degree to witch the members of work organization are able to satisfy
important personal needs through their experience in the organization.

The factors that influence and decide Quality of Work Life are
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1 Attitude: The person who is entrusted with a particular job needs to have
sufficient knowledge, required skill and expertise, enough experience, enthusiasm,
energy level, willingness to learn new things, dynamism, sense of belongingness in
the organization, involvement in the job, inter personnel relations, adaptability to
changes in the situation, openness for innovative ideas, competitiveness, zeal, ability
to work under pressure, leadership qualities and team spirit .

2 Environment: The job may involve dealing customers who have varying
tolerance level, preferences, behavioral pattern, level of understanding or it may
involve working with dangerous machines like drilling pipes, cranes, lathe machines,
welding and soldering machines, or even with animals where maximum safety
precautions have to be observed which needs lot of concentration, alertness, presence
of mind, quick with involuntary actions , synchronization of eyes, hands and body,
sometimes high level of patience, tactfulness, empathy and compassion and control
over emotions.

3 Opportunities: Some jobs offer opportunities for learning , research,


discovery, self-development, enhancement of skills, room for innovation, public
recognition, exploration, celebrity status and loads and loads of fame. Others are
monotonous, repetitive, dull, routine, no room for improvement and in every sense
boring. Naturally, the former ones are interested and very much rewarding also.

4 Nature of Job: For example, a driller in the oil drilling unit, a diver, a fire-
fighter, traffic policeman, train engine driver, construction laborers , welder, miner,
lathe mechanic have to do dangerous jobs and have to be have to be more alert in
order to avoid any loss of limb, or loss of life which is irreparable ; whereas a pilot,
doctor, judge, journalist have to be more prudent and tactful in handling the situation;
a CEO, a professor, a teacher have more responsibility and accountability but have
safe working environment; a cashier , a security guard cannot afford to be careless in
his job as it involves loss of money, property and wealth; a politician or a public
figure cannot afford to be careless for his reputation and goodwill is at stake

5 People: Almost everyone has to deal with three set of people in the work place.
Those are mainly boss, co-workers in the same level and subordinates. Apart from
this, some profession needs interaction with people like patients, media persons and
public,customers, thieves, robbers, physically disabled people, mentally challenged,
children, foreign delegates, gangsters, politicians, public figures and celebrities.
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These situations demand high level of prudence, cool temper, tactfulness, humor,
kindness, diplomacy and sensitiveness.

6 Stress Level: All these above mentioned factors are inter-related and inter-
dependant. Stress level need not be directly proportional to the compensation. Stress
is of different types- mental stress, physical stress and psychological stress. A
Managing Director of the company will have a mental stress, a laborer will have
physical stress, a psychiatrist will have a psychological or emotional stress. Mental
stress and emotional stress cause more damage than physical stress.

7 Career Prospects: Every job should offer career development. That is an


important factor which decides Quality of Work Life. Status improvement, more
recognition from the management, appreciation is the motivating factors for anyone
to take keen interest in his job. The work atmosphere should be conducive to achieve
organizational goal as well as individual development

8 Challenges: The job should offer some challenges at least to make it


interesting. That enables an employee to upgrade his knowledge and skill and
capability; whereas monotony of job makes a person dull, non-enthusiastic,
dissatisfied, frustrating etc. Challenge is the fire that keeps the innovation and thrill
alive. A well accomplished and challenging job yields greater satisfaction than a
monetary perk; it boosts the self-confidence also.

Definitions of Quality of Work Life

Quality of Work Life is defined as any activity which takes place at every
level of an organization which seeks greater organizational effectiveness through the
enhancement of human dignity and growth….a process through which the
stakeholders in the organization- management, unions and employees- learn how to
work together better….. to determine for themselves what actions, charges and
improvements are desirable and workable in order to achieve the twin and
simultaneous goals of an improved quality of life at work for all members of the
organization and greater effectiveness for both the company and unions.

Key elements of the definitions are highlighted as being (1) promote human dignity
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and growth, (2) work together collaboratively, (3) participatively determine work
changes, and (4) assume compatibility of people and organizational goals

According to the American Society of Training and Development “QWL


is a process of work organization which enables its members at all levels to
participate actively and effectively in shaping the organization’s environment, method
and outcomes. It is a value based process which is aimed towards meeting the twin
goals of enhanced effectiveness of the organization and improved quality of life at
work for the employees”.

Scope of Quality of Work Life


Quality of work plays a vital role in the life of the workers. It meets the
requirements of the workers and enables them to develop their personalities, as also
their commitment to their work, fellow workers, organization and society at large.
The requirements of the workers are:
Fair and reasonable pay: QWL is based on the concept of equal pay. This
means that the employees should be paid in a proper way and within the specified
time. The compensation that is given to employees has two main objectives. The first
one is that it creates a favourable working environment and the organization gets
adequate human resources for its production process. The second one is that it helps
employees to support his family.
Favourable and Safer environment: QWL provides good working conditions
that help employees to achieve organizational goals in the estimated time. In India,
for example, the Factories Act, 1948 specifies rules and regulations that ensure the
protection of employees from health hazards .
Benefits for employees: Earlier, an employer had the benefit of bargaining
with the employee. Nowadays, employees expect more benefits, such as share in the
company’s profit, medical insurance and housing and welfare facilities.
Job Security: The main requirement of employees is a stable job. The
employers should offer them job security in order to get good results in return.
Job satisfaction: Employees work with full enthusiasm and come up with good
results if their talent is properly utilized and appreciated. The management should
therefore improve and redesign jobs in such a manner that the employees are satisfied
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with their job.


Scope for better career opportunities: Nowadays, employees are not only
concerned with their pay scale but want to improve their technical and academic
skills. The management should therefore provide facilities to improve the talents of
the employees. The management, for example, can provide training on latest
technologies or can send the employees on site for training.

Improving Quality of Work Life:


Managers and the workers have an interest in improving the quality of work
life. Many managers believe that improving the quality of work life will increase the
productivity. Even if the productivity remains the same, if the quality of work life can
be improved with no detrimental effect to the firm, why not do it? Productivity might
not change, but turnover might decrease, or the firm may be able to attract better
workers more easily, or morale may improve.. If people are miserable 8 hours a day
at work, they will be miserable the other 16 hours at home. Improving the QWL can
improve the person’s entire life.

An ideal quality of work life program will encompass practices in some major areas
as discussed below:

1. Adequate and fair compensation: This is functional to QWL. Human beings


work for livelihood. Therefore, success of rest of the initiatives depends upon
fulfillment of this. However, important here is tat compensation offered must be
adequate implying it must be appropriate to labour, and there should be internal
consistency among salaries of employees.

2. Safe and healthy working conditions: Unsafe and hazardous working


conditions cause problems to both employers and employees. There may be little
benefit to the employers in short term but in medium and long terms, it adversely
affects the productively. Therefore, adequate investment must be made to ensure safe
and healthy working conditions.Regular rest breaks have been known for some time
to have beneficial effects on productivity.

3.Social integration in the work organization: Relationships between and among


the employees is and indicator of healthy working organization. Therefore,
opportunities must be provided for formal and informal interactions. All kind of
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classes' religions, races, crafts, and designations must be treated equally on a social
platform. In other words, it created egalitarian environment.

4. Job Enrichment: Job enrichment frequently involves greater use of factors that are
intended to motivate the worker rather than only to maintain a satisfied feeling
towards the job. Basically, job enrichment is a form of challenging or improving a job
so that a worker is likely to be more motivated. It provides the employee with the
opportunity of greater recognition, achievement, growth, and responsibility, the lack
of which can cause worker alienation.

5.Job rotation: Job rotation involves workers switching tasks at regular intervals.
Many managers believe that providing employees with a variety of work experiences
can help reduce boredom. This also helps to make the employees more motivated.

6.Cross training: Some firms maintain planned programs of cross-training (or


multiskilling) production workers so that they can easily rotate from one position to
another. Cross-trained workers sometimes receive increased pay as compensation for
adding to their skills set. Crosse-trained employees have been found to have an
improved understanding of their entire production process, which can increase the
quality and decrease the defect rate.

7 Well pay and floating holidays: Excessive employee absenteeism can be a serious
problem for many managers. As a means of discouraging absenteeism and tardiness,
some organizations provide an extra reward through a program of well pay for those
who do show up for work as expected. Under this proposal, workers who put in a
given number of days without being absent or late are given an extra day off.

8.Empowerment: Empowerment relates directly to the free-reign approach to


leadership. It provides the employees with the higher degrees of involvement and
greater authority to make decisions on their own. Delegation can aid employees in
their growth and development, improve their QWL, and, especially important, free
the managers for other important tasks.

9.Child and elder care: Off-the-job concerns can certainly affect an employee’s on-
the-job morale, and small children are a major concern of today’s employees. A large
proportion of the workforce requires some sort of child-care facilities for their small
children. An increasing number of organizations have begun to recognize that
establishing on-site childcare centres has improved employee morale, reduced
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absenteeism and lateness, and reduced turnover. Elder care is caring for older people,
typically relatives.

Principles of QWL

• The principle of Security

Quality of work cannot be improved until employees are relied of the anxiety, fear
and loss of future employment. The working conditions must be safe and fear of
economic want should be eliminated.

• The principle of Equity

There should direct and positive relations between effort and rewards. All types of
discriminations between people doing similar work and with same level of
performance must eliminate. Equity also requires sharing and profits of the
organization.

• The principle of Individualism

Employees differ in terms of their attitudes, skills, potentials etc. Therefore, every
individual should be provided the opportunities for development of his potential and
personality. Humanization of work requires that employees are able to decide their
own pace of activities and design of work operations.

• The principle of Democracy

This means greater authority and responsibility to employees. Meaningful


participation in decision-making process improves the quality of work life.

Impact of Quality of Work in Organizational Climate :

The quality of work helps in achieving integration between the technological,


human, organizational and society demands
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Since, quality of work is concerned with work environment and the impact of work
on the employees , therefore, the participation of employees in problem solving and
decision- making is concerned to be necessary. Participation of employees leads to
human-technological-organizational interface, which creates improved quality of life
in society and workplace.

Requirements of Quality of Work :

1 Management should be open to the employees in all decisions and activities of the
organization. The employees should be given freedom to express their views
regarding the working condition or other official problems
2 Employees must be given the opportunity to participate in the decision-making
process
3 Supervisors must be trained to do their job effectively and to get the jobs done in an
efficient manner
4 The barrier between management and employees must be broken and there should be
provision for face-to-face talks. A trustful environment should be established in the
organization
5 Employees should be given feedback for their performance so as to boost them or to
help them improve the quality of work
6 Employees should be promoted for their excellent work

2.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One


can also define research as a scientific investigation. There are different objectives,
motives and types of research. The task of data collection begins after a research
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problem has been identified and research design or plan chalked out. Data collection
can be done through primary data collection and secondary data collection method as
the data are collected using interviews, questionnaire method, records, articles etc.

Research Design:
“A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and
analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the purpose with
economy in procedure.” In fact, the research design is the conceptual structure within
which research is conducted; it constitutes the blueprint for the collection,
measurement and analysis of data.
A descriptive research was undertaken in order to achieve the objectives.

Data Collection Method:


PRIMARY DATA:
Survey method was adopted to collect the data.It is insufficient to discover
a new data through the collection of primary data or original research that has already
been done and reported to a level sufficient for management to make a decision.
SECONDARY DATA:
The first step in an exploratory study is search for the secondary literature.
Studies made by others for their own purposes represent ‘Secondary data.’
Reports of prior research studies often reveal an extensive amount of historical data or
decision making pattern. The second source of secondary data is published document
prepared by authors outside the sponsor organizations. There are tons of periodicals,
thousands of books on all respects of business.Special catalogues, special guides etc.
will help in this search

Area of study:
The research is confined to the Registered office and Gelatin Division of NGIL.

Sampling Design:
It is not possible to conduct the study of a population by considering all items of the
population. Therefore, we select a sample from the population and makes studies
25

about the population by studying these samples. If proper procedure is followed to


select the sample, definitely the sample will give all dependable information.

. Some methods of selecting samples are random sampling, stratified random


sampling, systematic random sampling, cluster sampling etc.

Sample size:

The sample size used for the study was 60.

Research Instrument:
The research instrument used for the study was structured questionnaire

Statistical Tools:

Chi-square test:
Tabulates a variable into categories and computes a chi-square statistic based on the
differences between observed and expected frequencies.
The chi-square test procedure tabulates a variable into categories and
computes a chi-square statistic. This goodness-of-fit test compares the observed and
expected frequencies in each category to test that all categories contain the same
proportion of values or test that each category contains a user-specified proportion of
values.
FORMULA
(O-E)2
Chi-square = E
O = observed frequency E = expected frequency

2.3 ANALYSIS & INTREPRETATION OF THE STATEMENTS

Table 2.3.1
SATISFACTION LEVEL OF RESPONDENTS IN THEIR JOB
26

RESPONSES NO. OF PERCENTAGE


RESPONSE

1 Strongly Agree 14 23.33%


2 Agree 44 73.33%
3 No opinion 2 3.34%
4 Disagree 0 0%
5 Strongly Disagree 0 0%
TOTAL 60 100%

SATISFACTION LEVEL OF RESPONDENTS IN THEIR JOB


Chart 2.3.1

45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Strongly Agree No opinion Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

INFERENCE
From the above table, it is clear that 23.33% of the employees strongly agreed and
73.33% agreed with this statement. 3.34% of them had no opinion. None of them
disagreed or strongly disagreed with this statement.
Table 2.3.3
Opinon whether able to balance work life and family life.
S RESPONSES NO. OF PERCE
L RESPON NTAGE
. SE
N
27

1 Strongly Agree 5 8.33%


2 Agree 41 68.33%
3 No opinion 11 18.34%
4 Disagree 3 5%
5 Strongly Disagree 0 0%
TOTAL 60 100%

Chart 2.3.2
Opinon whether able to balance work life and family life.

45
40
35
30
No. of 25
response 20
15
10
5
0
Strongly Agree No Disagree Strongly
Agree opinion Disagree
Responses

INFERENCE
From the above table, it is clear that 8.33% of the employees strongly agreed and
68.33% agreed with this statement. 18.34% of them do not have opinion and 5%
disagreed with the above statement.
Table 2.3.3
Opinon whether able to balance work life and family life.

RESPONSES NO. OF PERCENTAGE


RESPONSE
28

Strongly Agree 9 15%


Agree 35 58.33%
No opinion 10 16.67%
Disagree 5 8.33%
Strongly Disagree 1 1.67%
TOTAL 60 100%

Chart 2.3.3
Opinon whether able to balance work life and family life.

S trongly A gree
A gree
No opinion
Dis agree
S trongly Disagree

INFERENCE
Out of 60 employees, 15% strongly agreed and 58.33% agreed with the above
statement.16.67% of them do not have opinion. 8.33% disagreed and 1.67% of the
employees strongly disagreed with the above statement.

Table 2.3.4
Opinion regarding on more time to spend with family
29

RESPONSES NO. OF RESPONSE PERCENTAGE

Strongly Agree 11 18.33%


Agree 39 65%
No opinion 9 15%
Disagree 1 1.67%
Strongly Disagree 0 0%
TOTAL 60 100%

Chart 2.3.4
Opinion regarding on more time to spend with family

40
35
30
25
No. of
20
response
15
10
5
0
Strongly Agree No Disagree Strongly
Agree opinion Disagree
Responses

INFERENCE
From the analysis of data, it is clear that 18.33% of the employees strongly agreed
and 65% agreed with the statement. 15% of the employees do not have any opinion
and 1.67% disagreed with the statement. None of them strongly disagreed
Table 2.3.5
Compensation packages are good.
30

RESPONSES NO. OF RESPONSE PERCENTAGE

Strongly Agree 5 8.33%


Agree 36 60%
No opinion 13 21.67%
Disagree 5 8.33%
Strongly Disagree 1 1.67%
TOTAL 60 100%

Chart 2.3.5
Compensation packages are good

Strongly Agree
Agree
No opinion
Disagree
Strongly Disagree

INFERENCE
From the above table, it is clear that 8.33% of the employees strongly agreed and 60%
agreed with this statement. 21.67% of them do not have opinion and 8.33% disagreed
and 1.67% strongly disagreed with the statement.
Table 2.3.6
Opinion regarding the wage/salary in accordance with performance.
31

RESPONSES NO. OF RESPONSE PERCENTAGE


Strongly Agree 4 6.67%
Agree 38 63.33%
No opinion 10 16.67%
Disagree 7 11.66%
Strongly Disagree 1 1.67%
TOTAL 60 100%

Table 2.3.6
Opinion regarding the wage/salary in accordance with performance.

INFERENCE
From the analysis of the above statement, it is very clear that 6.67% of the employees
strongly agreed and 63.33% agreed with the above statement. 16.67% of the
respondents do not have any opinion.11.66% disagreed and 1.67% strongly disagreed
with the above statement.
Table 2.3.7
Opinion regarding safe working environment
32

RESPONSES NO. OF RESPONSE PERCENTAGE

Strongly Agree 8 13.33%


Agree 39 65%
No opinion 8 13.33%
Disagree 5 8.34%
Strongly Disagree 0 0%
TOTAL 60 100%

Chart 2.3.7
Opinion regarding safe working environment

40
35
30 Strongly Agree
25 Agree
No opinion
20
Disagree
15
Strongly Disagree
10
5
0

INFERENCE
The above analysis shows that 13.33%strongly agreed and 65% agreed with the above
statement. 13.33% of them have no opinion. 8.34% of the employees disagreed with
the statement while none of them strongly disagreed with the same.
Table 2.3.8
Necessary safety measures
33

RESPONSES NO. OF RESPONSE PERCENTAGE


Strongly Agree 8 13.33%
Agree 38 63.33%
No opinion 7 11.67%
Disagree 7 11.67%
Strongly Disagree 0 0%
TOTAL 60 100%

Chart 2.3.8
Necessary safety measures

40

35

30

25

20 PERCENTAGE

15 NO. OF
RESPONSE
10

0
Strongly Agree No opinion Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

INFERENCE
From the above table, it is clear that 13.33% of the employees strongly agreed and
63.33% agreed with this statement. 11.67% of them do not have any opinion. 11.67%
disagreed with the statement and none of them strongly disagreed.
Table 2.3.9
Promotion policy of NGIL is fair.
34

RESPONSES NO. OF RESPONSE PERCENTAGE

Strongly Agree 4 6.67%


Agree 30 50%
No opinion 16 26.67%
Disagree 5 8.33%
Strongly Disagree 5 8.33%
TOTAL 60 100%

Chart 2.3.9
Promotion policy of NGIL is fair.

Strongly Agree
Agree
No opinion
Disagree
Strongly Disagree

INFERENCE
Out of 60 employees, 6.67% strongly agreed and 50% agreed with the above
statement.26.67% of them do not have any opinion. 8.33% disagreed and 8.33%
strongly disagreed with the above statement.

Table 2.3.10
Promotions are given to persons who deserve a better position.
35

RESPONSES NO. OF RESPONSE PERCENTAGE

Strongly Agree 3 5%
Agree 25 41.67%
No opinion 23 38.33%
Disagree 3 5%
Strongly Disagree 6 10%
TOTAL 60 100%

Chart 2.3.10
Promotions are given to persons who deserve a better position.

Strongly Agree
Agree
No opinion
Disagree
Strongly Disagree

INFERENCE
Total number of respondents is 60. Among them 5% strongly agreed and 41.67%
agreed with the statement. 38.33% of the respondents do not have any opinion. 5%
disagreed and 10% strongly disagreed with the above statement.
Table 2.3.11
Opinion regarding facilities to upgrade knowledge and skill.
36

RESPONSES NO. OF RESPONSE PERCENTAGE

Strongly Agree 9 15%


Agree 39 65%
No opinion 10 16.67%
Disagree 2 3.33%
Strongly Disagree 0 0%
TOTAL 60 100%

Table 2.3.11
Opinion regarding facilities to upgrade knowledge and skill.

40

30

20

10

0
Strongly Agree No opinion Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

INFERENCE
The above analysis shows that 15% strongly agreed and 65% agreed with the above
statement. 16.67% of them have no opinion. 3.33% of the employees disagreed with
the statement while none of them strongly disagreed with it.
Table 2.3.12
Opinion regarding opportunities to skill on work.
37

RESPONSES NO. OF RESPONSE PERCENTAGE

Strongly Agree 8 13.33%


Agree 41 68.34%
No opinion 9 15%
Disagree 2 3.33%
Strongly Disagree 0 0%
TOTAL 60 100%

Chart 2.3.12
Opinion regarding opportunities to skill on work

45
No. of response

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Strongly Agree No opinion Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
Responses

INFERENCE
Out of 60 employees, 13.33% strongly agreed and 68.34% agreed with the above
statement.15% of them do not have any opinion. 3.33% disagreed and none of them
disagreed.
Table 2.3.13
Opinion regarding teamwork in the organization.
38

RESPONSES NO. OF RESPONSE PERCENTAGE


Agree 37 61.67%
No opinion 9 15%
Disagree 9 15%
Strongly Disagree 0 0%
TOTAL 60 100%

Table 2.3.13
Opinion regarding teamwork in the organization

40

35

30

25

20
PERCENTAGE
15
NO. OF
10
RESPONSE
5

0
Strongly Agree No opinion Disagree
Agree

INFERENCE
From the above table, it is clear that 8.33% of the employees strongly agreed and
61.67% agreed with this statement. 15% of them do not have any opinion. 15%
disagreed with the statement and none of them strongly disagreed

Table 2.3.14
NGIL is very much concerned about the welfare of the employees.
39

RESPONSES NO. OF RESPONSE PERCENTAGE


Strongly Agree 6 10%
Agree 31 51.67%
No opinion 14 23.33%
Disagree 9 15%
Strongly Disagree 0 3.33%
TOTAL 60 100%

Chart 2.3.14
NGIL is very much concerned about the welfare of the employees.

70

60

50

40

30 6

20

10

0
Agree No opinion Disagree Strongly TOTAL
Disagree

INFERENCE
From the above table, it is clear that 10% of the employees strongly agreed and
51.67% agreed with this statement. 23.33% of them do not have any opinion. 15%
disagreed and 3.33% strongly disagreed with the statement.

Table 2.3.15
Opinion regarding whether the company values employees
contribution
RESPONSES NO. OF RESPONSE PERCENTAGE
40

Strongly Agree 5 8.33%


Agree 40 66.67%
No opinion 11 18.33%
Disagree 4 6.67%
Strongly Disagree 0 3.33%
TOTAL 60 100%

Chart2.3.15
Opinion regarding whether the company values employees
contribution.

40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Strongly Agree No opinion Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

INFERENCE
Out of 60 employees, 8.33% strongly agreed and 66.67% agreed with the above
statement.18.33% of them do not have any opinion. 6.67% disagreed and 3.33% of
the employees strongly disagreed with the above statement.

Table 2.3.16
Equal opportunities are given to all employees.

RESPONSES NO. OF RESPONSE PERCENTAGE


41

Strongly Agree 3 5%
Agree 30 50%
No opinion 20 33.33%
Disagree 6 10%
Strongly Disagree 1 1.67%
TOTAL 60 100%

Chart 2.3.16
Equal opportunities are given to all employees.

Strongly Agree
Agree
No opinion
Disagree
Strongly Disagree

INFERENCE
The above analysis shows that 5% strongly agreed and 50% agreed with the above
statement. 33.33% of them have no opinion. 10% of the employees disagreed with the
statement and 1.67% have strong disappointment with the statement.

Table 2.3.17
Respondents of proud to be an employee of NGIL.

RESPONSES NO. OF PERCENTAGE


42

RESPONSE
Strongly Agree 11 18.33%
Agree 45 75%
No opinion 4 6.67%
Disagree 0 0%
Strongly Disagree 0 0%
TOTAL 60 100%

Chart 2.3.17
Respondents of proud to be an employee of NGIL.

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Strongly Agree No opinion Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree

INFERENCE
From the above table, it is clear that 18.33% of the employees strongly agreed and
75% agreed with this statement. 6.67% of them do not have any opinion. None of
them disagreed and strongly disagreed with the above statement.

Table 2.3.18
Opinion whether one feel valued by my company.

RESPONSES NO. OF PERCENTAGE


43

RESPONSE
Strongly Agree 10 16.67%
Agree 41 68.33%
No opinion 9 15%
Disagree 0 0%
Strongly Disagree 0 0%
TOTAL 60 100%

Chart 2.3.18
Opinion whether one feel valued by my company.

45
40
35
No.of response

30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Strongly Agree No opinion Disagree Strongly
Agree Disagree
Responses

INFERENCE
The above analysis shows that 16.67% strongly agreed and 68.33% agreed with the
above statement. 15% of them have no opinion. None of them disagreed and
strongly disagreed with the above statement.

CHI-SQUARE TEST
44

Null Hypothesis (H0)


There is significant relationship between employees job satisfaction and their wage /
salary of employees in NGIL.

Observed Table

Opinion Employee job Wage of Row total


satisfaction employeee

Strongly agree 14 4 18

Agree 44 38 82

No opinion 2 10 12

Disagree 0 7 7

Total disagree 0 1 1

Column total 60 60 120

Expected Frequency = Row total*Column total


Grand total

Calculation of Chi- square

O E (O-E) (O-E)2 (O-E)2/E


45

14 9 5 25 2.7
4 9 -5 25 2.7
44 41 3 9 0.21
38 41 -3 9 0.21
2 6 -4 16 2.66
10 6 4 16 2.66
0 3.5 -3.5 12.25 3.5
7 3.5 3.5 12.25 3.5
0 0.5 -0.5 0.25 0.5
1 0.5 0.5 0.25 0.5
∑(Oij-
Eij)2/Eij
= 19.298
Degree of freedom = (r-1)*(c-1)
= (2-1)*(5-1)
=4
The table value of χ2 for 4 degree of freedom at 5% level of significance is 9.488

Calculated Value (CV) = 19.298


Table Value (TV) =9.488
CV >TV
Since the table value is less than the calculated value, null hypothesis is Rejected
Therefore, it can be concluded that there is no significant relationship between
employees job satisfaction and their wage / salary of employees in NGIL.

CHAPTER 3
46

FINDINGS, SUGGESTIONS &


CONCLUSIONS

FINDINGS

1. The level of job satisfaction of the employees seems to be high. Most of them think
that they are contributing to the efficient functioning of the organization. They think that
they are physically as well as mentally fit for doing their job. Most of them believe that they
47

are not overburdened with their jobs; even some people have no opinion and disagreement.
2. Most of the employees are able to balance their work life and family life. Almost all
of them wish to get some more time to spend with their family.
3. From the opinion of the employees, it is clear that the compensation package of
NGIL is fair. But, most of the employees do not think that they can support their family
needs with their salary
4. About 78% of the employees think that the working environment in NGIL is safe.
From this, it is clear that necessary safety measures are taken by the company.
5. Most of the employees have a negative attitude towards the promotion policy of
NGIL and hence they think that promotions are given to persons who undeserve a better
position. From the opinion of the employees, it can be inferred that the promotion policy of
NGIL is not fair
6. Majority of the employees believe that the management provides facilities to upgrade
their knowledge and skill. Their opinion indicates that they are given opportunity to apply
their skills on work. It can be concluded that effective training policies are imparted to the
employees.
7. From the opinion of the respondents it can be inferred that there is teamwork in the
organization. They think they get support from their team members. They also think that
their superior supports them well
8. Majority of the employees believe that the company values their contribution. But
most of them do not think that equal opportunities are given to all employees
9. About 83% of the employees are proud to be an employee of NGIL. Most of them
find future for themselves in the company and feel valued by NGIL.
10. There is no significant relationship between employees job satisfaction and their wage /
salary of employees in NGIL

SUGGESTIONS

Based on the findings evolved out of the analysis of the data, following suggestions
are made by the researcher, which will help the organization to improve the Quality
of work life and thereby achieve organizational goals.
48

1. The chance for promotion in the organization is less. It will be better if the
workers are given promotion based on performance along with the experience. This
will increase the performance of the organization as a whole.

2. Since most of the employees wish to get some more time to spend with their
family, it would be better if the management implement ‘Flexi-time work schedule’
in the organization.

3. Equal opportunities should be given to all employees, especially in the case of


promotion. Otherwise it would affect the efficiency of their work as well as the
organization. Performance-cum-seniority shall be made the basis for promotion.

4. Vast majority of the employees are satisfied with their jobs. The management
should try to retain their satisfaction for sustaining the efficient performance. The
management shall follow schemes like job rotation, job enrichment etc.

1 Job Rotation helps employees to avoid boredom of doing same job repeatedly. It
also gives opportunity to broaden the knowledge of employees by doing different
jobs. They learn about different enterprise functions by rotating into different
positions.

2 Job Enlargement is an effort which makes a job more satisfying or rewarding


by adding more significant tasks to the job list of an employee. Enriched jobs
motivate employees through achievement, growth, recognition, responsibility, and
performance of the complete job as against only parts of a job

The researcher wishes to place on record her deep sense of gratitude to all the
personnel who were good enough to extend their wholehearted support and
cooperation during the survey process. Without their valuable guidance, this survey
would not have been successful.

The researcher dedicates this project report to all those well-wishers who were kind
enough to extend a helping hand in her untiring efforts to complete this project report
in time.

CONCLUSION

This study aimed at finding the Quality of Work Life in Nitta Gelatin
49

India Limited. Researcher conducted Quality of Work Life survey among the workers
of the organization. The data was collected by means of interview schedule using a
closed-ended questionnaire hence it has all limitations of the interview method.
Employees independently answered the questions and data such collected was
tabulated, analyzed and interpreted to give certain suggestions.

Based on the findings, it can be concluded that, the Quality of Work Life
in NGIL is good. In the survey, nine core areas, relating to the organization from the
workers’ point of view were assessed. These areas need to be maintained in order to
make the Quality of Work Life good. The core areas include their job satisfaction,
work life balance, compensation packages, safety, promotion policies, training, team
work, management’s concern and big picture about the organization.

It is clear that productivity depends on Quality of Work Life. In order


to maintain high Quality of Work Life, management should take utmost care in these
core areas.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS
50

1 Human Resource Management / Biswajeeth Pattanayak/3rd edition / 2005


2 The Human Side of Organisations / Michael W. Drafke and Stain Kossen / 8th edition /
2002
3 Human Resource and Personnel Management / K. Ashwathappa/4th edition / 2004
4 Research Methodology / C.R. Kothari /2nd edition / 2004
5 Anuual Reports of NGIL

WEBSITES

1 www.kcpl.com
2 www.gelatin.org

QUESTIONNAIRE

Name: (Optional): Designation:

Length of Service:
51

STATEMENTS A
G NO DISAGREE SRONGLY
STRONG AGREE OPINIO DISAGREE
LY N
AGREE

JOB
I am satisfied with my job
1
2 I am not overburdened with
my job

WORKLIFE BALANCE
I am able to balance my work
3 life and family life
I wish I could get some more
4 time to spend with my family
COMPENSATION
The compensation packages
5 are good
5
I am getting wage/salary in
accordance with my
6 performance
SAFETY
Safe working environment
7 exist in the organisation
Necessary safety measures
8 are taken by the company
PROMOTION POLICY
The promotion policy of
9 NGIL is fair
Promotions are given to
persons who deserve a better
10 position

TRAINING
The management provides
facilities to upgrade my
11 knowledge and skill
I am given opportunity to
12 apply my skill on work
TEAM WORK
There is team work in the
13 organization
MANAGEMENT’S
CONCERN
52

NGIL is very much


concerned about the welfare
14 of employees
The company values my
contribution
15
Equal opportunities are given
16 to all employees
BIG PICTURE
I am proud to be an
17 employee of NGIL

18 I feel valued by my company


THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR CO-OPERATION