NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKETING, JAIPUR

Current Scenario of Biopesticides
An Assignment of Agri Input Marketing

Submitted to: Dr. P. Venugopal XLRI, Jamshedpur

Submitted by: Amit Bishnoi(107) Kamlesh Yadav(127) Nirupama Lakra(136) Rahul Kumar(148) Shalini Mishra(155) Varun Chaudhary(164)

Control of white fly on cotton by neem products. viruses.in/taxproj. and tomato by Bacillus thuringiensis. Most of the biopesticides find use in public health.Biopesticides Biopesticides are naturally occurring substances that control pests (biochemical pesticides). i) transgenic plants and ii) beneficial organisms called bio-agents: are used for pest management in India.org. pigeon-pea. Some success stories about successful utilization of biopesticides and bio-control agents in Indian agriculture include (Kalra & Khanuja. 2007): · · · · · · · Control of diamondback moths by Bacillus thuringiensis. and pesticidal substances produced by plants containing added genetic material (plant-incorporated protectants) also know as PIPs Biopesticides.V. 1968 (www.P. Neem based pesticides. Control of sugarcane borers by Trichogramma. Besides. Control of mango hoppers and mealy bugs and coffee pod borer by Beauveria. Whereas more than 190 synthetics are registered for use as chemical pesticides.htm). Bacillus thuringensis.mse. Consumption of biopesticides has increased from 219 metric tons in 1996-97 to 683 metric tons in 2000-01.89% (as on 2005) of the overall pesticide market in India and is expected to exhibit an annual growth rate of about 2.ac.asp). 2006). except a few that are used in agriculture. Control of Helicoverpa on gram by N. so far only 12 types of biopesticides have been registered under the Insecticide Act. have virtually all the health safety and environmental properties that one would desire in a pesticide Microbial insecticides are come from naturally-occurring bacteria. Control of rots and wilts in various crops by Trichoderma-based products.114 MT to 43. fungi.584 MT during the same period. In India. Consumption of chemical pesticides has significantly fallen from 56. NPV and Trichoderma are the major biopesticides produced and used in India (http://coe. CCS NIAM.3% in the coming years (Thakore. particularly microbial Biopesticides. Biopesticide in India Biopesticides represent only 2.nicm. Control of Helicoverpa on cotton.in/biopesticides/registered. microorganisms that control pests (microbial pesticides). and about 85% of the biopesticides used are neem based products. Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 2 .

000 L 250.000 L 50.000 kg 500. Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 3 . 2 million 1 million Meager 500 T Source: Kalra & Khanuja 2007 Benefits Usually inherently less toxic than conventional pesticides Environmental and worker welfare Produce little if any residue Food safety Generally have a narrow spectrum of activity Low direct impact on non targets.000 nos.Table 1: Annual availability of biopesticides in India Biopesticides/Bioagents Neem 300 PPM Neem 1500 PPM Bt NPV (liquid) Beauveria Pheromone traps Lures Trichogramma Chrysoperla & other biocontrol insects Trichoderma Quantity/annum (approx) 1.000 Le Meager 500.000. including humans and wildlife Use often compatible with other control agents May aid chemical pesticide performance when used together Enhanced control Help prevent/delay chemical pesticide resistance Mode of action not specific Reduced risk of developing resistance Used as a component of ICM may decrease use of chemical pesticides Crop quality and yields remain high Flexible approach to pest management Natural enemies can reproduce in the pest population and respond to changes Help meet market demands/expecations for Environmentally friendly agriculture Reduced chemical pesticide residues CCS NIAM.

Some examples of these are given below: 1. use of synthetic chemical pesticides had been the widely used approach for reducing the estimated 45% gross crop loss due to pests and diseases. sustainable and environment friendly agents of pest control. The sugarcane scale insect has been controlled with the help of predatory coccinellid beetles in UP. Bracon. So far. Growth of lantana weed was controlled by using the bug Telonemia scrupulosa 2. amounting to around Rs. Also. 5. West Bengal. the pest induced loss is on the rise despite increasing usage of pesticides. Trichogramma has also been used against rice stem borer and leaf folder. Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 4 . Rajasthan. The popularity of biopesticides has increased in recent years. Potential of Biopesticide in India The importance of biopesticides in Indian agriculture as a component of the Integrated Pest Management System. as extensive and systematic research has greatly enhanced their effectiveness. the CCS NIAM. pesticide resistance etc. Bihar and Haryana. percentage share of the total pesticide market and also in research publications. UP. Chelonus and Chrysopa spp. Similarly Trichogramma. have forced many to shift focus on to more reliable. 4. 290 billion per annum. Trichogramma. are being used for the control of cotton bollworms.There are a number of instances where bio control agents have been successfully employed in India. More and more quantities of chemicals are used for agricultural intensification to feed an ever growing population. 3. In fact. The driving forces behind this progress are identified as huge research infrastructure (universities and bio-control labs) and favorable public support system/policies. techniques for the mass production. Gujarat and Karnataka. has been used against the borers in the states of Tamil Nadu. It is observed that India occupies a comparatively better position in the arena of biopesticides. in terms of growth of usage. Fortunately. which feeds on the eggs of sugarcane borers. Sugarcane pyrilla has been successfully controlled in a number of States by the introduction of its natural enemy Epiricania melanoleuca and Tetrastictus pyrillae. pesticide residue. But there are certain limitations like irregular availability of biopesticides in the market and the gradual disappearance of mixed/multiple cropping affecting the growth of biopesticides. realization of the negative effects of these chemicals on nature and natural resources like pollution. storage. transport and application of biopesticides have been improved in recent years.

In terms of production and commercialization also biopesticides have an edge over chemical pesticides like low research expenditure. technological and institutional constraints. Further. Some analyst believe that Biopesticides will account for 15 % of the total insecticide market by 2010 . In view of this demand and the government s efforts to mitigate climate change. while achieving almost the same level of crop yield.biopesticides. In spite of the claimed efficacy. biopesticides are going to play an important role in future pest management programmes. Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 5 . The present price estimates is around 600 billion That s why in 2005 . their use. The current consumption of organically produced fruits and vegetables at the global level is valued at Rs 27 billion . Future business prospects Biopesticides In India . The APEDA ( Agricultural Produces Export Development Agency ) of the Union Commerce Ministry had proposed to export organic food at a value of Rs 1500 billion annually during eleventh five year plan This would require enormous efforts to produce and use Biopesticides in CCS NIAM. However.diseases and weeds in various crops in the field and stored grains was Rs. There is a growing demand for organically cultivated fresh and process fruits and vegetables . Nonetheless. has remained very low due to a number of socio-economic. Scope of Biopesticides The striking feature of biopesticides is environment friendliness and easy biodegradability. use of biopesticides as a component of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs can greatly decrease the use of conventional (chemical) pesticides. effective use of biopesticides demands understanding of a great deal about managing pests especially by the end users. the annual estimate damage ( 20%-30%) caused by pests . thereby resulting in lower pesticide residues and largely avoiding pollution problems associated with chemical pesticides. however.pesticides worth Rs 27 billion were used in India Biopesticides are likely have a greater impact on the insecticide sector . 60-70 billion in 1983 . rise in income levels due to a growing economy coupled with increasing awareness of health related effects of chemical pesticides has increased the demand of organic food. faster rate of product development as well as flexible registration process.

the context of Integrated Pest Management . The growth rate of Biopesticides for the next ten years has been forecast at 10% to 15 % in contrast to 2. some of the factors which have restricted the growth of biopesticides are: · · · · · · · · Low reliability because of low stability in effect Target specificity which distracts farmers Slow in action compared to synthetics Shorter shelf life Erratic availability of biopesticides in the market Already established and strong market of chemical pesticides Regulatory system favorable to chemical pesticides. and The gradual disappearance of multiple or mixed cropping. Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 6 . Usage of Biopesticides CCS NIAM. which is known to keep away the magic bullet-chemical pesticide.5 % for chemical pesticides. Factors affecting growth of biopesticides However.

global biopesticide consumption is thus estimated at about 24 million kg. Health effects Safety issues Environmental impacts Waste Reduction Lower hazardous substances sustainable processes CCS NIAM. With the global organic farming area comprising about 24 million hectares. Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 7 .The global weighted average consumption level of biopesticides is approximately 1 kg/ha.

recording a CAGR of almost 38 percent in the share of overall pesticide use during the period.Consumption of biopesticides:Correspondingly. during 1994-95 biopesticide accounted for only 0. and almost 85 percent of the biopesticides used are neem based products. Recent statistics indicate that the consumption of biopesticide in India has increased to 1920 MT during 2005-06 (1717 MT need based and 203 MT Bt-based). grade) in 1994-95 to 683 metric tons in 2000-01. consumption of biopesticides has increased from 123 metric tons (tech. In 2005-06. The growth of total world production of biopesticides is rising and therefore demand and use is also increasing. biopesticide consumption has shown its increased use over the time (Figure 1). consumption of biopesticides in India stands at 1920 MT Source: Kalra & Khanuja 2007 CCS NIAM. Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 8 . It is worth mentioning here that.2 percent of the overall pesticide use in the country which has increased to about 5 percent by 2005-06. In India.

CCS NIAM. Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 9 .

biopesticides accounted for about 2.5% of the total pesticide market. In 2005. Region wise.2% by 2010 while the market value is estimated to reach more than US$ 1 billion (Source: BCC research). However. orchards claim the largest share (55%) of the total biopesticides used. CCS NIAM. the overall growth rate of biopesticides is estimated to be about 10% per annum for the next 5 years.Industry Overview The Biopesticide market is growing very rapidly. Figure 1: Trend of global pesticide vis-à-vis biopesticide market Source: Business Communication Company Inc.2% during 2000. In terms of use. Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 10 . which was merely 0. This share is expected to grow to about 4. North America consumes the largest share (40%) of the global biopesticide production followed by Europe and Oceanic countries accounting for 20% each.

Total Indian publication on biopesticide stands at 443 papers which accounts for 13.55% of the global holdings. Indian condition appears to be very poor whereas in the case of global patents it is showing a slight increase over the years. This status is based on the information available in the Scopus database which was searched with the keyword biopesticide for the time period up to 2007.23% of the 3. CCS NIAM. Fig 2: Trend of bio-pesticide research outputs Source: Scopus.348 global papers in the field. as well as the world.R &D status of biopesticides The biopesticide R&D status presented here is based on two parameters. The share of India in biopesticide related patents is only 3. In terms of patenting. keyword-biopesticide Research publications in biopesticides from India. India has so far secured only 19 patents in biopesticides.4%. Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 11 . are increasing but the degree of increase is very high in case of global publications. publications and patents. The average annual growth rate of global publications during the specified period is 51.1% while that of India is 37.

regulations.000 L 250.000 nos. it oversees the setting up and running of State Bio-control Labs (SBCLs). The Department of Biotechnology (DBT) spearheads the promotion of biopesticides.000 L 50. The National Agriculture Technology Project (NATP) led IPM project during 1998 to 2005 also enhanced the use of biopesticides. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has 31 bio-control production facilities while DBT supports another 22. through various rules. registration and adoption of biopesticides with open hands. Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 12 . which are engaged in production and distribution of natural predators and parasites to farmers. The National Centre for Integrated Pest Management (NCIPM) looks after plant protection needs in various agro-climatic zones of the country. The Insecticide Act of 1968 has been amended accordingly to simplify the process of registration to allow speedier development and production of biopesticides.000. policies and schemes. 2 million 1 million Meager 500 T Public support system The Indian government is promoting research. CCS NIAM. There are around 38 such SBCLs across the country. Besides.000 Le Meager 500. States like Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh already have 200 laboratories producing biopesticides. production. especially research funding and production.Table: Annual availability of biopesticides in India Biopesticides/Bioagents Neem 300 PPM Neem 1500 PPM Bt NPV (liquid) Beauveria Pheromone traps Lures Trichogramma Chrysoperla & other biocontrol insects Trichoderma Quantity/annum (approx) 1.000 kg 500.

It also includes the clause that biopesticides would be treated at par with chemical pesticides in terms of support and promotion. Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 13 . sustaining the health of farmers and environment. CCS NIAM.The National Farmer Policy 2007 has strongly recommended the promotion of biopesticides for increasing agricultural production.

· Due to its rich biodiversity India offers plenty of scope in terms of sources for natural biological control organisms as well as natural plant based pesticides. Further. · The rich traditional knowledge base available with the highly diverse indigenous communities in India may provide valuable clues for developing newer and effective biopesticide. there are lakhs of hectare of forest area being certified as organic. ISO.Opportunities · As reported. · The supply chain management needs to be strengthened in order to increase the usage of biopesticides. the area under organic crop cultivation is going to increase substantially because of the growing demand of organic food. a result of increasing health consciousness among the people. Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 14 . exploration and utilization of nanosilica as a potential agent of biopesticide. This indicates that there is huge scope for growth of the biopesticide sector in India. some states like Uttaranchal and Sikkim have declared their states as organic.000 ton. The area under organic cultivation (crops) in India is estimated to be around 1. an efficient delivery system from the place of production (factory) to place of utilization (farm) of biopesticides is quite essential. CODEX Replacement of FQPA or deregulated products CCS NIAM. · There exist opportunities for identification of novel sources of biopesticides. for instance. · Analysts believe that due to rising cost of developing new effective molecules and the non-capability of most Indian companies associated with the pesticide industry to invest such huge amount. there would be a greater development in the biopesticides sector (Desai. Moreover.00. · · · · · · Contribution to less synthetic chemistry Resistance management Improved worker safety Low environmental impact Exportation advantages. In this regard.000 hectare. Besides. 1997).00. India s total pesticide consumption stands at 1.

However despite programmes that are in progress to popularize these biopesticides. Though.Growth of Biopesticides +20% Compounded Annual Growth 1.Beauveria and about 45 baculovirus-based formulations of Helicoverpa and spodoptera are available Microbial biopesticide are likely to replace at least 20 % of chemical pesticides Source DBT . Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 15 . Availability of Biopesticides About 680 products of different microbials are currently available worldwide In India about 16 commercial preparations of Bt ( Bacillus thuringiensis) . which is preventing the promotion of biopesticides to protect their CCS NIAM. (v) More research is needed on lab to field transfers . (iii) Government needs to give low interest loans for biopesticides at least in the initial phase. because some biopesticides do well in the laboratory. (ii) It is necessary to develop an industry to develop awareness among the farmers.Delhi Rising Use The use of biopesticide is increasing while the use of its chemical counterpart is decreasing. biopesticides and IPM have yet to become popular with the farmers. their widespread use has not been witnessed. This is really an encouraging piece of information everyone would like to be associated with. also need to be strengthened and this need to be funded by the government. so that the farmers do not shy away due to prohibitive cost and they use them to recognize the long term benefits. (iv)Research and development in the area of biopesticides other than Bt and neem based biopesticides. chemical pesticides still dominate the overall pesticide usage in India. a simple trend line based projection indicates that by 2020 biopesticide will account for about 37 percent of the pesticide consumption in India Future needs for making biopesticides and IPM popular A number of microbial and botanical biopesticides are available in Indian market and there are certainly others available elsewhere. and as indicated earlier. about the benefits of biopesticides. 38 fungal formulations based on Trichoderma. but not in the field. (vi) There is a need for a check on negative role of strong chemical pesticide industry. Following are some of the solution to make them popular : (i) The quality of the available biopesticides need to be improved and small companies should invest in quality production.Metarhizium.

Delhi 2.org.nic. (http:// dacnet.html).com 3. (vii) Registration of biopesticides formulations is itself quite cumbersome and expensive.in/june_2010/24-28. www. http://www. http://www.in/industrial-microbial-biotechnology/biopesticides-integrated-pestmanagement/present-status-and-future-needs-for-making-biopesticides-and-ipm-popular.wikipedia.own interest. http://www.EDocFind. Source DBT . Source DBT .asp. 5. Agricoop 6.Delhi 9. Reference:1. it needs to be made simpler and cost effective.html 11.org CCS NIAM. 4. Jaipur Agri Input Marketing Page 16 .com 7. www.nistads.pdf 10. Business Communication Company Inc.EDocFind. Even the government machinery sometimes plays in the hands of pesticide industry.studentsguide.nic. www.afcindia.res.htm 8.in/indiasnt2008/t6rural/t6rur17.in/ppin ipmpest_ main. dbtindia.in/index.

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