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Volume 28
Issue 7
July 2007
Pages 417420
International Scientific Journal
published monthly as the organ of
the Committee of Materials Science
of the Polish Academy of Sciences
Archives
of Materials Science
and Engineering
© Copyright by International OCSCO World Press. All rights reserved. 2007
Modelling of transport phenomena
in gas tungsten arc welding
A. Farzadi*, S. Serajzadeh, A.H. Kokabi
Materials Science and Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology,
Azadi Ave., Tehran, Iran
* Corresponding author: Email address: farzadi@mehr.sharif.edu
Received 20.04.2007; published in revised form 01.07.2007
ABSTRACT
Purpose: Since numerical heat transfer and fluid flow models have provided significant insight into welding
process and welded materials that could not been achieved otherwise, there has been an important interest in
the quantitative representation of transport phenomena in the weld pool. On the other hand, the temperature
and velocity distributions of the molten metal as well as the cooling rate after welding operation affect the weld
geometry, the microstructure, and the mechanical properties of weld zone. This work demonstrates that the
application of numerical transport phenomena can significantly add to the quantitative knowledge in welding and
help the welding community in solving practical problems.
Design/methodology/approach: The temperature and velocity fields are simulated using the solution of the
equations of conversation of mass, energy and momentum in threedimension and under steadystate heat transfer
and fluid flow conditions.
Findings: The weld pool geometry and various solidification parameters were calculated. The calculated
weld pool geometries were in good agreement with the ones obtained using the experiments. The solidification
parameters of G and G/R are determined. It is found that as the welding speed increases, the value of G/R at the
weld pool centerline decreases.
Research limitations/implications: Welding process used is this study is gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding
and base metal is commercial pure aluminum. This model can be investigated to simulate other materials and
welding processes. Also the results of this study such as the temperature field can be used in the simulation of
microstructure, mechanical properties, etc of welding zone.
Originality/value: In this research the solidification parameters of G, R and G/R can be used for prediction of
the solidification morphology and the scale of the solidification structure.
Keywords: Computational mechanics; GTA welding; Transport phenomena; Commercial pure
aluminium
METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH, ANALYSIS AND MODELLING
1. Introduction
In first attempts, significant progress has been made in the
solution of the equations of conservation of mass, momentum and
energy in fusion welding with a stationary heat source [1].
However, in practice, the heat source moves with a certain
velocity. Thus, several investigations of fluid flow and heat
transfer in welding with moving heat source have been reported
[2, 3]. The three dimensional (3D) comprehensive numerical heat
transfer and fluid flow model used in the calculations has been
extensively validated for the welding of steels [47], aluminum
alloys (5182 and AlCu) [8, 9], and titanium alloys [10].
However, most of these studies were concerned with iron and its
alloys while the heat transfer and fluid flow in the commercial
pure aluminum have not received much attention in the literature.
1. Introduction
418
418
A. Farzadi, S. Serajzadeh, A.H. Kokabi
Archives of Materials Science and Engineering
Numerical calculations of heat transfer and fluid flow in welding
have enabled accurate quantitative calculations of thermal cycles and
fusion zone geometry [2, 11]. Capabilities to quantitatively
understand geometry, composition and structure of welds in simple
systems have provided hope that one day welding engineers may be
able to use numerical models to tailor weldment characteristics
according to specifications. In reality, the numerical heat transfer and
fluid flow codes for fusion welding have so far been used mostly as a
research tool [4, 5] rather than as a tool for design and manufacturing
in the industry but application of commercial code such as FLUENT
can aid to reach this goal.
In this study, the heat transfer and fluid flow GTA welds of
commercial pure aluminum were simulated using a welltested,
threedimensional, steady state, numerical heat transfer and fluid
flow model. The model was applied to understand the temperature
field and the weld dimensions for various GTA welding
conditions. For the accuracy of the calculation, a very fine grid
system was used. Verification of the model was performed
through comparing the calculated results with metallographic
weld cross sections. Several important solidification parameters,
including solidification rate (R) and temperature gradient (G) at
the weld centerline, were calculated. These parameters may be
used for determination of the solidification morphology and the
scale of the solidification substructure.
2. Mathematical formulation
An incompressible laminar and Newtonian liquid flow is
assumed in the weld pool. The density variation in the calculation
domain is ignored except for the calculation of the buoyancy force
following Bossinesq's approximation. Electromagnetic, surface
tension, and buoyancy driving forces were considered for the
calculation of weld pool convection. The weld pool boundary was
traced using an enthalpyporosity technique in a fixed Cartesian
coordinate system.
2.1. Governing equations
Using the assumptions stated above, the circulation of liquid
metal in the weld pool can be represented by the following linear
momentum conservation equation for the jth direction:
j j j
L
L
i
i
j
j
j i
j
i j i
j i
Se Sb u
B f
f
C
x
u
U
x
u
x x
u
x x
P
x
u u
+ +


¹

\

+
÷
÷
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
c
c
3
2
) 1 (
) ( ) (
) (
p
u u p
(1)
where ȡ is density, x
i
is the distance along the i=1, 2, and 3 directions,
u
j
is the velocity component along the j direction, µ is the viscosity, p
is the pressure, f
L
is the liquid fraction, B is a constant introduced to
avoid division by zero, C is a constant that considers mushy zone
morphology, U is the welding speed along the positive x direction,
and Sb
j
and Se
j
present the electromagnetic and buoyancy source
terms, respectively. In Eq. (1), the first term on the righthand side is
the pressure gradient. The second term is the viscosity arising from
casting the momentum equation into a general form. The fifth term
describes the frictional dissipation in the mushy zone according to the
CarmanKozeny equation for flow through a porous media. The
calculation of the electromagnetic and buoyancy source terms is
expressed in the literatures [2, 12].
The pressure field was obtained by solving following continuity
equation simultaneously with the momentum equation:
0
) (
=
c
c
i
i
x
u p
(2)
The total enthalpy H is represented by a sum of sensible heat h
and latent heat content ǻH, i.e., H = h + ǻH, where h = C
P
dT, C
P
is
the specific heat, T is the temperature, ǻH = f
L
L, L is the latent heat
of fusion, and the liquid fraction f
L
is assumed to vary linearly with
temperature in the mushy zone:
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
<
s s
÷
÷
>
=
S
L S
S L
S
L
L
T T
T T T
T T
T T
T T
f
, 0
,
, 1
(3)
where T
L
and T
S
are the liquidus and the solidus temperatures,
respectively. The thermal energy transport in the weld workpiece can
be expressed by the following modified energy equation:
i i
i
i
i p i i
i
x
h
U
x
H
U
x
H u
x
h
C
k
x x
h u
c
c
+
c
A c
+
c
A c
÷


¹

\

c
c
c
c
=
c
c
p p
p p
) ( ) (
(4)
where k is the thermal conductivity.
2.2. Solution procedure
A 3D Cartesian coordinate system is used in the calculation,
while only half of the workpiece is considered since the weld is
symmetrical about the weld center line. These boundary conditions
are further discussed as follows.
The top surface is assumed to be flat and subject to shear stress
due to Marangoni force. Also u
z
is defined to be zero at the surface.
The heat flux on the top surface is given as
) (
) (
exp 
2
2 2
2
3
a
b b
top
T T h
r
y x f
r
fQ
x
T
k ÷ ÷


¹

\
 +
÷ =
c
c n
(5)
where r
b
is the heat distribution parameter, f is the power distribution
factor, Q is the total arc power, Ș is the power efficiency, h is the heat
transfer coefficient, and T
a
is the ambient temperature.
At the symmetric surface, u
y
and the normal gradients of u
x
and u
z
are taken as zero. In addition, the gradient of enthalpy, dh/dy , is zero.
At all other surfaces, the heat losses by convection and the
velocities are set to be zero.
The detailed method of discretizing the governing equations is
available in the literature [2, 15]. The governing equations are
discretized using the control volume method [13], where the
computational domain is divided into small rectangular control
volumes. A staggered grid is used to store the velocity
2. Mathematical formulation
2.1. Governing equations
2.2. Solution procedure
419
Modelling of transport phenomena in gas tungsten arc welding
Volume 28 Issue 7 July 2007
components. To numerically solve the governing equations with
the associated source terms, a general computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) computer program, FLUENT code was used.
The material properties employed in the calculation of fluid flow
and heat transfer are summarized in Table 1 [4]. The velocity
pressure coupling in the discretized momentum equations is
handled using SIMPLE algorithm at the each iteration [15, 16].
Accurate calculation of weld temperature and velocity fields,
and the temperature gradients requires the use of a very fine grid
system. A typical grid system used in the present study contained
143x73x50 grid points, and the corresponding computational
domain had dimensions of 100 mm in length, 45 mm in width,
and 5 mm in depth. Spatially non uniform grids were used for
maximum resolution of variables. A finer grid spacing was used
near the heat source. The minimum grid spacings along the x and
z directions were about 50 and 20µm, respectively.
In the present study, the convergence was reached when R10
4
for the energy equation and R10
3
for the momentum equations.
Table 1.
Physical properties of commercial pure aluminum used in the
calculations [14]
Physical Property Value
Liquid temperature, T
L
(K) 930
Solid temperature, T
S
(K) 916
Density of liquid metal, ȡ(kg/m3) 2700
Viscosity of liquid, µ(kg/m s) 0.0014
Thermal conductivity of solid, k
S
(J/m s K) 222
Thermal conductivity of liquid, k
L
(J/m s K) 108
Specific heat of solid, C
PS
(J/kg K) 904
Specific heat of liquid, C
PL
(J/kg K) 904
Latent heat of melting, ǻH (J/kg) 3.95x10
5
Temperature coefficient of surface tension,
dT d / J (N/m K)
0.152x10
3
Coefficient of thermal expansion, ȕ (K
1
) 2.55x10
5
Magnetic permeability, µ
m
(N/A
2
) 1.26x10
6
2.3. Experimental Procedure
Commercial pure aluminum plate with the thickness of 5 mm was
used in this investigation. The composition of the asreceived bar
was (by wt%): 0.08 Si, 0.29 Fe, 0.005 Cu, 0.002 Mn, 0.002 Mg,
0.06 Zn, 0.003 Ti, 0.001 Cr, and 0.002 Ni. The welding electrode
was made of W2%Th measuring 2.4 mm in diameter. High Purity
(99.99%) argon was used as welding gas. In welding experiments,
the arc current, the arc voltage and welding speed were 110 A, 15
V and 2.7 mm/s, respectively.
3. Results and discussion
3.1. Temperature and velocity fields
The experimentally determined weld pool cross sections are
compared with the corresponding calculated geometries in Figure 1. It
is observed that the computed weld pool geometry and dimensions
agree well with the experimental results. In these figures, the mushy
zone, i.e. the solid and liquid two phase region is presented with the
distinct color. In the present study, the mushy zone is determined as
the region having temperature between the solidus (916 K) and
liquidus (930 K) isotherms.
Figure 2 shows the computed 3D temperature and velocity fields
for a weld pool made by welding conditions presented in section 2.3.
For clarify; only a half of weld is shown. The liquid metal motion in
the weld pool is driven mainly by the surface tension and
electromagnetic forces, and to a much lesser extent, by the buoyancy
force. The relative importance of these driving forces is quantitatively
examined in a subsequent section. Because the temperature
coefficient of surface tension dT d / J has a negative value, the
surface tension force drives the liquid metal from the center to the
periphery at the top surface of the weld pool. The peak temperature
and maximum velocity are 1746 K and 1.445 m/s, respectively.
Fig. 1. Experimental and calculated weld pool cross sections for
GTA welds. Welding condition was expressed in Sec. 2.3
3.2. Solidification
The average temperature gradient,
a
G , of the weld pool along a
given plane is defined as
d
T T
G
S P
a
(6)
where T
P
is the peak temperature, T
S
is the solidus temperature, and d
is the distance between the location of peak temperature and
boundary at the weld pool centerline.
The temperature gradient and the solidification rate are
important in the combined forms G/R as they influence the
solidification morphology and the scale of the solidification
substructure, respectively. When the value of G/R increases, the
interface morphology changes from equiaxeddendritic, to
cellulardendritic, to cellular grains [17]. Figure 3 shows the
temperature gradient G and G/R at the weld centerline for
different welding speed. It is shown that with the increase in
welding speed the temperature gradient decreases and the value of
G/R decreases at the weld pool centerline. Thus the solidification
structure of fusion zone would be affected by welding speed.
4. Conclusions
The temperature and velocity fields, weld pool size, and several
solidification parameters during GTA welding of commercial pure
aluminum were simulated using a comprehensive threedimensional
3. Results and discussion
4. Conclusions
2.3. Experimental procedure
3.2. Solidification
3.1. Temperature and velocity fields
420
420
READING DIRECT: www.archivesmse.org
heat transfer and fluid flow model. The major conclusions can be
made from investigation are as follows:
(1) The geometry of fusion zone predicted from the three
dimensional steady state heat transfer and fluid flow model
using FLUENT code are in a good agreement with the
corresponding experimental results.
(2) The value of G/R at the weld pool centerline is shown to
decrease with the increase in welding speed.
Fig. 2. Calculated temperature and velocity fields in three
dimensions. Welding condition was presented in Sec. 2.3
250000
260000
270000
280000
290000
300000
310000
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Welding Speed (mm/s)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
G
r
a
d
i
e
n
t
(
K
/
m
m
)
(a)
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Welding Speed (mm/s)
G
/
R
(
K
s
/
m
m
2
)
(b)
Fig. 3. Calculated values of (a) G, (b) GR and (c) G/R at the weld
pool centerline at different welding speed
References
[1] S. Kou, D.K. Sun, Fluid flow and weld penetration in
stationary arc welds, Metallurgical Transaction A 16A
(1985) 203213.
[2] K. Mundra, T. DebRoy, K.M. Kelkar, Numerical prediction
of fluid flow and heat transfer in welding with a moving
heat source, Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A 29 (1996)
115129.
[3] S. Kou, Y.H. Wang, Computer simulation of convection in
moving arc weld pools, Metallurgical Transaction A 17A
(1986) 22712277.
[4] W. Zhang, G.G. Roy, J.W. Elmer, T. DebRoy, Modeling of
heat transfer and fluid flow during gas tungsten arc spot
welding of low carbon steel, Journal of Applied Physics 93
(2003) 30223033.
[5] X. He, P.W. Fuerschbach, T. DebRoy, Heat transfer and fluid
flow during laser welding of 304 stainless steel, Journal of
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[6] A. De, T. DebRoy, Probing unknown welding parameters
from convective heat transfer calculation and multivariable
optimization, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 37
(2004) 140150.
[7] X. He, J.W. Elmer, T. DebRoy, Heat transfer and fluid flow in
Laser microwelding, Journal of Applied Physics 97 (2005) 19.
[8] H. Zhao, T. DebRoy, Weld metal composition change
during conduction mode laser welding of aluminum alloy
5182, Metallurgical Transaction B 32B (2001) 163172.
[9] S. Mishra, S. Chakraborty, T. DebRoy, Probing liquation
cracking and solidification trough modeling of momentum,
heat, and solute transport during welding of aluminum
alloys, Journal of Applied Physics 97 (2005) (19).
[10] Z. Yang, S. Sista, J.W. Elmer, T. DebRoy, Three dimensional
Monte Carlo simulation of grain growth during GTA welding
of titanium, Acta Materialia 48 (2000) 48134825.
[11] J.W. Elmer, T.A. Zhang, B. Wood, T. DebRoy, Kinetic
modeling of phase transformations in the occurring in the
HAZ of CMn steel welds based on direct observations,
Acta Materialia 51 (2003) 33333349.
[12] A. Kumar, T. DebRoy, Calculation of threedimensional
electromagnetic force field during arc welding, Journal of
Applied Physics 94 (2003) 12671277.
[13] S.V. Patankar, Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow.
Hemispher, WashingtonNew YorkLondon, 1980.
[14] J.E. Hatch, Aluminum: Properties and Physical Metallurgy.
Metals Park, Ohio: American Society for Metals, 1984.
[15] C.P. Hong, Computer Modeling of Heat and Fluid Flow in
Materials Processing. Institute of Physics Publishing,
Bristol and Philadelphia, 2004.
[16] FLUENT Inc., FLUENT User's Guide. 2001.
[17] S. Kou, Welding Metallurgy. Second Edition, Wiley
Interscience, New Jersey, 2003.
References
µ is the viscosity. 15]. Capabilities to quantitatively understand geometry.A. T ! TL ° ° T TS . Q is the total arc power. For the accuracy of the calculation.e. is the power efficiency. i. U is the welding speed along the positive x direction. Electromagnetic. TS d T d TL ® °TL TS °0. T is the temperature. The calculation of the electromagnetic and buoyancy source terms is expressed in the literatures [2. In addition. and buoyancy driving forces were considered for the calculation of weld pool convection. The density variation in the calculation domain is ignored except for the calculation of the buoyancy force following Bossinesq's approximation. respectively. The model was applied to understand the temperature field and the weld dimensions for various GTA welding conditions. 12]. The weld pool boundary was traced using an enthalpyporosity technique in a fixed Cartesian coordinate system. U § k wh · ¸ U w (ui 'H ) ¨ ¨ C wx ¸ wxi © p i¹ wh w'H UU UU wxi wxi w (ui h) wxi w wxi (4) where k is the thermal conductivity. threedimensional. steady state. 5] rather than as a tool for design and manufacturing in the industry but application of commercial code such as FLUENT can aid to reach this goal. Serajzadeh. A staggered grid is used to store the velocity 418 418 Archives of Materials Science and Engineering . p is the pressure. and the liquid fraction fL is assumed to vary linearly with temperature in the mushy zone: fL 1. f is the power distribution factor. L is the latent heat of fusion. In this study. and 3 directions. 2. In Eq. including solidification rate (R) and temperature gradient (G) at the weld centerline. where h = CP dT. surface tension. A. while only half of the workpiece is considered since the weld is symmetrical about the weld center line. The heat flux on the top surface is given as 2. Verification of the model was performed through comparing the calculated results with metallographic weld cross sections. In reality. uj is the velocity component along the j direction. The top surface is assumed to be flat and subject to shear stress due to Marangoni force. CP is the specific heat. CarmanKozeny equation for flow through a porous media. Kokabi Numerical calculations of heat transfer and fluid flow in welding have enabled accurate quantitative calculations of thermal cycles and fusion zone geometry [2. The second term is the viscosity arising from casting the momentum equation into a general form. S. uy and the normal gradients of ux and uz are taken as zero. xi is the distance along the i=1. Farzadi. Governing equations 2. Governing equations Using the assumptions stated above.1. (1). Also uz is defined to be zero at the surface. is zero.H. the first term on the righthand side is the pressure gradient. the heat transfer and fluid flow GTA welds of commercial pure aluminum were simulated using a welltested. numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model. H = h + H. Mathematical formulation Mathematical formulation An incompressible laminar and Newtonian liquid flow is assumed in the weld pool. respectively. were calculated. the circulation of liquid metal in the weld pool can be represented by the following linear momentum conservation equation for the jth direction: U w (ui u j ) wxi wu j wu j w w wP (P ) (P ) wx j wx j wxi wx j wxi (1) UU § (1 f ) 2 · wui C ¨ 3 L ¸u j Sb j Se j ¨ f B ¸ wxi © L ¹ k wT top wx3 § f (x2 y2 ) · fQK ¸ h(T Ta ) (5) exp¨ ¸ ¨ rb2 rb2 ¹ © where is density. At the symmetric surface. a very fine grid system was used. T TS ¯ (3) where TL and TS are the liquidus and the solidus temperatures. the gradient of enthalpy. 11]. These boundary conditions are further discussed as follows. Solution procedure 2. composition and structure of welds in simple systems have provided hope that one day welding engineers may be able to use numerical models to tailor weldment characteristics according to specifications. C is a constant that considers mushy zone morphology. the heat losses by convection and the velocities are set to be zero. The pressure field was obtained by solving following continuity equation simultaneously with the momentum equation: w( Uui ) wxi 0 (2) The total enthalpy H is represented by a sum of sensible heat h and latent heat content H. h is the heat transfer coefficient. B is a constant introduced to avoid division by zero. the numerical heat transfer and fluid flow codes for fusion welding have so far been used mostly as a research tool [4. At all other surfaces. Solution procedure A 3D Cartesian coordinate system is used in the calculation. H = fLL. The thermal energy transport in the weld workpiece can be expressed by the following modified energy equation: 2. The governing equations are discretized using the control volume method [13]. dh/dy . The detailed method of discretizing the governing equations is available in the literature [2. Several important solidification parameters.1. 2.2. fL is the liquid fraction. and Ta is the ambient temperature. where the computational domain is divided into small rectangular control volumes..2. These parameters may be used for determination of the solidification morphology and the scale of the solidification substructure. and Sbj and Sej present the electromagnetic and buoyancy source terms. The fifth term describes the frictional dissipation in the mushy zone according to the where rb is the heat distribution parameter.
Modelling of transport phenomena in gas tungsten arc welding components. In the present study. the surface tension force drives the liquid metal from the center to the periphery at the top surface of the weld pool. In welding experiments. given plane is defined as Ga . The welding electrode was made of W2%Th measuring 2. The minimum grid spacings along the x and z directions were about 50 and 20µm. 2. High Purity (99. Figure 3 shows the temperature gradient G and G/R at the weld centerline for different welding speed. Fig. and the corresponding computational domain had dimensions of 100 mm in length. 3. It is shown that with the increase in welding speed the temperature gradient decreases and the value of G/R decreases at the weld pool centerline. A typical grid system used in the present study contained 143x73x50 grid points. Table 1.002 Mg.2. The composition of the asreceived bar was (by wt%): 0. 0. TS is the solidus temperature. 0. Temperatureand velocity fields Temperature and velocity fields The experimentally determined weld pool cross sections are compared with the corresponding calculated geometries in Figure 1. Experimental and calculated weld pool cross sections for GTA welds.26x106 agree well with the experimental results.3. Conclusions Conclusions The temperature and velocity fields. and 0. The velocitypressure coupling in the discretized momentum equations is handled using SIMPLE algorithm at the each iteration [15.445 m/s. 0. 0. 45 mm in width. µ(kg/m s) 0. (kg/m3) 2700 Viscosity of liquid.7 mm/s.06 Zn. and 5 mm in depth. It is observed that the computed weld pool geometry and dimensions where TP is the peak temperature. Experimentalprocedure 2. 0. respectively. and to a much lesser extent. Spatially non uniform grids were used for maximum resolution of variables. H (J/kg) 3.0014 Thermal conductivity of solid. (K1) Magnetic permeability.1. weld pool size. the convergence was reached when R104 for the energy equation and R103 for the momentum equations. kL (J/m s K) 108 904 Specific heat of solid. The relative importance of these driving forces is quantitatively examined in a subsequent section. The peak temperature and maximum velocity are 1746 K and 1. by the buoyancy force. A finer grid spacing was used near the heat source.003 Ti. 0. 0. The liquid metal motion in the weld pool is driven mainly by the surface tension and electromagnetic forces. FLUENT code was used. 15 V and 2.001 Cr. The temperature gradient and the solidification rate are important in the combined forms G/R as they influence the solidification morphology and the scale of the solidification substructure. Accurate calculation of weld temperature and velocity fields. and d is the distance between the location of peak temperature and boundary at the weld pool centerline. When the value of G/R increases. i. kS (J/m s K) 222 Thermal conductivity of liquid. Thus the solidification structure of fusion zone would be affected by welding speed. CPS (J/kg K) Specific heat of liquid. To numerically solve the governing equations with the associated source terms.99%) argon was used as welding gas. CPL (J/kg K) 904 Latent heat of melting. For clarify. to cellulardendritic. In these figures. TL (K) 930 Solid temperature. µm (N/A2) 2. the solid and liquid two phase region is presented with the distinct color. the interface morphology changes from equiaxeddendritic. and the temperature gradients requires the use of a very fine grid system.3.152x103 dJ / dT (N/m K) Coefficient of thermal expansion.002 Mn. respectively. to cellular grains [17]. Solidification 3. the arc voltage and welding speed were 110 A. 1.005 Cu. In the present study.3. 4. respectively. the mushy zone.2.95x105 Temperature coefficient of surface tension. the arc current.08 Si. only a half of weld is shown. 0. TS (K) 916 Density of liquid metal. The material properties employed in the calculation of fluid flow and heat transfer are summarized in Table 1 [4].4 mm in diameter.3 3.29 Fe.002 Ni. Figure 2 shows the computed 3D temperature and velocity fields for a weld pool made by welding conditions presented in section 2. Solidification The average temperature gradient. respectively. Because the temperature coefficient of surface tension dJ / dT has a negative value. and several solidification parameters during GTA welding of commercial pure aluminum were simulated using a comprehensive threedimensional Volume 28 Issue 7 July 2007 419 . 16]. a general computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer program. Welding condition was expressed in Sec. Physical properties of commercial pure aluminum used in the calculations [14] Physical Property Value Liquid temperature. Experimental Procedure Commercial pure aluminum plate with the thickness of 5 mm was used in this investigation.55x105 1. of the weld pool along a (6) Ga TP TS d 2. the mushy zone is determined as the region having temperature between the solidus (916 K) and liquidus (930 K) isotherms.e. Results and discussion Results and discussion 3.
Heat transfer and fluid flow in Laser microwelding. WashingtonNew YorkLondon. Elmer. S. 2. Welding Metallurgy.M. W. Kou.W. DebRoy. Modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow during gas tungsten arc spot welding of low carbon steel. 1984. X. S. Calculation of threedimensional electromagnetic force field during arc welding. J. (b) GR and (c) G/R at the weld pool centerline at different welding speed [16] [17] 420 420 READING DIRECT: www. Journal of Applied Physics 93 (2003) 30223033. S. H. He. Metals Park. DebRoy. DebRoy. Metallurgical Transaction A 16A (1985) 203213. DebRoy. Y.P. Kou. Hong. Wiley Interscience. Zhao. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] Fig. Three dimensional Monte Carlo simulation of grain growth during GTA welding of titanium.W. C. The major conclusions can be made from investigation are as follows: (1) The geometry of fusion zone predicted from the threedimensional steady state heat transfer and fluid flow model using FLUENT code are in a good agreement with the corresponding experimental results. New Jersey.heat transfer and fluid flow model. Acta Materialia 48 (2000) 48134825.G. Patankar.W. Elmer. 2003. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 37 (2004) 140150. Zhang.3 [8] 310000 Temperature Gradient (K/mm) 300000 290000 280000 270000 260000 250000 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Welding Speed (m m /s) (a) [9] [10] [11] 120000 (b) 100000 G/R (K s/mm2) 80000 60000 [12] [13] [14] 40000 20000 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Welding Speed (m m /s) [15] Fig. 2. Probing unknown welding parameters from convective heat transfer calculation and multivariable optimization. Journal of Applied Physics 94 (2003) 12671277. A.org . T.H. heat.W. Calculated temperature and velocity fields in three dimensions. S. De. He. DebRoy. T. DebRoy. 1980. Hatch.V. Journal of Applied Physics 97 (2005) (19). Numerical Heat Transfer.W. DebRoy. Computer simulation of convection in moving arc weld pools. K. (2) The value of G/R at the weld pool centerline is shown to decrease with the increase in welding speed. Fuerschbach. Welding condition was presented in Sec. P. K. Institute of Physics Publishing. Journal of Applied Physics 97 (2005) 19. T. J. Elmer. 2004. Zhang. Bristol and Philadelphia. References [1] S. J. Heat transfer and fluid flow during laser welding of 304 stainless steel. Kumar.E. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics 36 (3002) 13881398. Probing liquation cracking and solidification trough modeling of momentum. Mundra. Z. S.archivesmse. Sista.. Wang. FLUENT Inc. Chakraborty. Aluminum: Properties and Physical Metallurgy. Yang. Second Edition. T. G. Calculated values of (a) G. Computer Modeling of Heat and Fluid Flow in Materials Processing. X. T. Weld metal composition change during conduction mode laser welding of aluminum alloy 5182. T. 2001. Metallurgical Transaction B 32B (2001) 163172. FLUENT User's Guide. T. J. DebRoy.A. Part A 29 (1996) 115129. Kinetic modeling of phase transformations in the occurring in the HAZ of CMn steel welds based on direct observations. Fluid flow and weld penetration in stationary arc welds. Kelkar. T. B. Kou. Mishra. Ohio: American Society for Metals. DebRoy. A. T. Numerical prediction of fluid flow and heat transfer in welding with a moving heat source. D. Hemispher. Sun. Roy. S. DebRoy. J. Elmer.K. Metallurgical Transaction A 17A (1986) 22712277. Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow. 3. T. Wood. and solute transport during welding of aluminum alloys. T. Acta Materialia 51 (2003) 33333349.
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